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1.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 15117, 2021 07 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34302032

RESUMO

Our acoustic environment contains a plethora of complex sounds that are often in motion. To gauge approaching danger and communicate effectively, listeners need to localize and identify sounds, which includes determining sound motion. This study addresses which acoustic cues impact listeners' ability to determine sound motion. Signal envelope (ENV) cues are implicated in both sound motion tracking and stimulus intelligibility, suggesting that these processes could be competing for sound processing resources. We created auditory chimaera from speech and noise stimuli and varied the number of frequency bands, effectively manipulating speech intelligibility. Normal-hearing adults were presented with stationary or moving chimaeras and reported perceived sound motion and content. Results show that sensitivity to sound motion is not affected by speech intelligibility, but shows a clear difference for original noise and speech stimuli. Further, acoustic chimaera with speech-like ENVs which had intelligible content induced a strong bias in listeners to report sounds as stationary. Increasing stimulus intelligibility systematically increased that bias and removing intelligible content reduced it, suggesting that sound content may be prioritized over sound motion. These findings suggest that sound motion processing in the auditory system can be biased by acoustic parameters related to speech intelligibility.


Assuntos
Percepção Auditiva/fisiologia , Percepção de Movimento/fisiologia , Inteligibilidade da Fala/fisiologia , Estimulação Acústica/métodos , Adulto , Limiar Auditivo/fisiologia , Sinais (Psicologia) , Feminino , Audição/fisiologia , Testes Auditivos/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Movimento (Física) , Ruído , Mascaramento Perceptivo/fisiologia , Som , Acústica da Fala , Percepção da Fala/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
2.
Neuroimage ; 240: 118385, 2021 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34256138

RESUMO

In this study we used functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) to investigate neural responses in normal-hearing adults as a function of speech recognition accuracy, intelligibility of the speech stimulus, and the manner in which speech is distorted. Participants listened to sentences and reported aloud what they heard. Speech quality was distorted artificially by vocoding (simulated cochlear implant speech) or naturally by adding background noise. Each type of distortion included high and low-intelligibility conditions. Sentences in quiet were used as baseline comparison. fNIRS data were analyzed using a newly developed image reconstruction approach. First, elevated cortical responses in the middle temporal gyrus (MTG) and middle frontal gyrus (MFG) were associated with speech recognition during the low-intelligibility conditions. Second, activation in the MTG was associated with recognition of vocoded speech with low intelligibility, whereas MFG activity was largely driven by recognition of speech in background noise, suggesting that the cortical response varies as a function of distortion type. Lastly, an accuracy effect in the MFG demonstrated significantly higher activation during correct perception relative to incorrect perception of speech. These results suggest that normal-hearing adults (i.e., untrained listeners of vocoded stimuli) do not exploit the same attentional mechanisms of the frontal cortex used to resolve naturally degraded speech and may instead rely on segmental and phonetic analyses in the temporal lobe to discriminate vocoded speech.


Assuntos
Estimulação Acústica/métodos , Implantes Cocleares , Lobo Frontal/fisiologia , Inteligibilidade da Fala/fisiologia , Percepção da Fala/fisiologia , Lobo Temporal/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Lobo Frontal/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Masculino , Ruído/efeitos adversos , Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho/métodos , Lobo Temporal/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto Jovem
3.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(23): e26280, 2021 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34115027

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Despite lacking aphasia seen with left hemisphere (LH) infarcts involving the middle cerebral artery territory, right hemisphere (RH) strokes can result in significant difficulties in affective prosody. These impairments may be more difficult to identify but lead to significant communication problems.We determine if evaluation of singing can accurately identify stroke patients with cortical RH infarcts at risk for prosodic impairment who may benefit from rehabilitation.A prospective cohort of 36 patients evaluated with acute ischemic stroke was recruited. Participants underwent an experimental battery evaluating their singing, prosody comprehension, and prosody production. Singing samples were rated by 2 independent reviewers as subjectively "normal" or "abnormal," and analyzed for properties of the fundamental frequency. Relationships between infarct location, singing, and prosody performance were evaluated using t tests and chi-squared analysis.Eighty percent of participants with LH cortical strokes were unable to successfully complete any of the tasks due to severe aphasia. For the remainder, singing ratings corresponded to stroke location for 68% of patients. RH cortical strokes demonstrated a lower mean fundamental frequency while singing than those with subcortical infarcts (176.8 vs 130.4, P = 0.02). They also made more errors on tasks of prosody comprehension (28.6 vs 16.0, P < 0.001) and production (40.4 vs 18.4, P < 0.001).Patients with RH cortical infarcts are more likely to exhibit impaired prosody comprehension and production and demonstrate the poor variation of tone when singing compared to patients with subcortical infarcts. A simple singing screen is able to successfully identify patients with cortical lesions and potential prosodic deficits.


Assuntos
Córtex Cerebral , Infarto Cerebral , Canto/fisiologia , Inteligibilidade da Fala/fisiologia , Medida da Produção da Fala/métodos , Sintomas Afetivos/diagnóstico , Sintomas Afetivos/etiologia , Idoso , Córtex Cerebral/irrigação sanguínea , Córtex Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Córtex Cerebral/patologia , Infarto Cerebral/diagnóstico , Infarto Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Infarto Cerebral/psicologia , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Imagem de Difusão por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Infarto da Artéria Cerebral Média/diagnóstico por imagem , AVC Isquêmico/diagnóstico , Masculino
4.
Psychol Aging ; 36(4): 520-530, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34124922

RESUMO

Multisensory input can improve perception of ambiguous unisensory information. For example, speech heard in noise can be more accurately identified when listeners see a speaker's articulating face. Importantly, these multisensory effects can be superadditive to listeners' ability to process unisensory speech, such that audiovisual speech identification is better than the sum of auditory-only and visual-only speech identification. Age-related declines in auditory and visual speech perception have been hypothesized to be concomitant with stronger cross-sensory influences on audiovisual speech identification, but little evidence exists to support this. Currently, studies do not account for the multisensory superadditive benefit of auditory-visual input in their metrics of the auditory or visual influence on audiovisual speech perception. Here we treat multisensory superadditivity as independent from unisensory auditory and visual processing. In the current investigation, older and younger adults identified auditory, visual, and audiovisual speech in noisy listening conditions. Performance across these conditions was used to compute conventional metrics of the auditory and visual influence on audiovisual speech identification and a metric of auditory-visual superadditivity. Consistent with past work, auditory and visual speech identification declined with age, audiovisual speech identification was preserved, and no age-related differences in the auditory or visual influence on audiovisual speech identification were observed. However, we found that auditory-visual superadditivity improved with age. The novel findings suggest that multisensory superadditivity is independent of unisensory processing. As auditory and visual speech identification decline with age, compensatory changes in multisensory superadditivity may preserve audiovisual speech identification in older adults. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Percepção Auditiva/fisiologia , Inteligibilidade da Fala/fisiologia , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Envelhecimento , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Percepção da Fala , Adulto Jovem
5.
Neuroimage ; 237: 118107, 2021 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33933598

RESUMO

When speech is masked by competing sound, people are better at understanding what is said if the talker is familiar compared to unfamiliar. The benefit is robust, but how does processing of familiar voices facilitate intelligibility? We combined high-resolution fMRI with representational similarity analysis to quantify the difference in distributed activity between clear and masked speech. We demonstrate that brain representations of spoken sentences are less affected by a competing sentence when they are spoken by a friend or partner than by someone unfamiliar-effectively, showing a cortical signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) enhancement for familiar voices. This effect correlated with the familiar-voice intelligibility benefit. We functionally parcellated auditory cortex, and found that the most prominent familiar-voice advantage was manifest along the posterior superior and middle temporal gyri. Overall, our results demonstrate that experience-driven improvements in intelligibility are associated with enhanced multivariate pattern activity in posterior temporal cortex.


Assuntos
Neuroimagem Funcional , Reconhecimento Psicológico/fisiologia , Percepção Social , Inteligibilidade da Fala/fisiologia , Percepção da Fala/fisiologia , Lobo Temporal/fisiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Voz , Adulto Jovem
6.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0249654, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33826663

RESUMO

Differences in fundamental frequency (F0) or pitch between competing voices facilitate our ability to segregate a target voice from interferers, thereby enhancing speech intelligibility. Although lower-numbered harmonics elicit a stronger and more accurate pitch sensation than higher-numbered harmonics, it is unclear whether the stronger pitch leads to an increased benefit of pitch differences when segregating competing talkers. To answer this question, sentence recognition was tested in young normal-hearing listeners in the presence of a single competing talker. The stimuli were presented in a broadband condition or were highpass or lowpass filtered to manipulate the pitch accuracy of the voicing, while maintaining roughly equal speech intelligibility in the highpass and lowpass regions. Performance was measured with average F0 differences (ΔF0) between the target and single-talker masker of 0, 2, and 4 semitones. Pitch discrimination abilities were also measured to confirm that the lowpass-filtered stimuli elicited greater pitch accuracy than the highpass-filtered stimuli. No interaction was found between filter type and ΔF0 in the sentence recognition task, suggesting little or no effect of harmonic rank or pitch accuracy on the ability to use F0 to segregate natural voices, even when the average ΔF0 is relatively small. The results suggest that listeners are able to obtain some benefit of pitch differences between competing voices, even when pitch salience and accuracy is low.


Assuntos
Inteligibilidade da Fala/fisiologia , Percepção da Fala/fisiologia , Adulto , Percepção Auditiva/fisiologia , Implantes Cocleares , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Ruído , Mascaramento Perceptivo/fisiologia , Discriminação da Altura Tonal/fisiologia , Reconhecimento Psicológico/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
7.
Dev Med Child Neurol ; 63(4): 450-456, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33521952

RESUMO

AIM: To investigate the characteristics and severity of dysarthria in children and adults with ataxia telangiectasia. METHOD: All children and adults with ataxia telangiectasia who visited our multidisciplinary outpatient clinic for ataxia telangiectasia were asked to participate in this study, which took place in March 2019. To evaluate dysarthria, we used the Radboud Dysarthria Assessment in adults (older than 18y) and the paediatric Radboud Dysarthria Assessment in children (5-18y), including the observational tasks 'conversation' and 'reading', and the speech-related maximum performance tasks 'repetition rate', 'phonation time', 'fundamental frequency range', and 'phonation volume'. Speech intelligibility was measured using the Intelligibility in Context Scale. RESULTS: Twenty-two individuals (15 children [5-17y], seven adults [19-47y]; 14 males and eight females; mean age 19y, SD 15y 2mo) participated. Dysarthria was present in all participants and characterized by ataxic components in adults and similar uncontrolled movements in children. In most participants, speech was mildly to mildly/severely affected. Almost all participants had an abnormal score for at least one maximum performance task. INTERPRETATION: Dysarthria in ataxia telangiectasia is characterized by uncontrolled, ataxic, and involuntary movements, resulting in monotonous, unstable, slow, hypernasal, and chanted speech. WHAT THIS PAPER ADDS: Dysarthria in ataxia telangiectasia is characterized by uncontrolled, ataxic, and involuntary movements. Dysarthria in ataxia telangiectasia results in monotonous, unstable, slow, hypernasal, and chanted speech. Dysarthria in ataxia telangiectasia can be assessed using the Radboud Dysarthria Assessment and the paediatric Radboud Dysarthria Assessment.


Assuntos
Ataxia Telangiectasia/complicações , Disartria/etiologia , Movimento/fisiologia , Fala/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inteligibilidade da Fala/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
8.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 17(2): e1008155, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33617548

RESUMO

Significant scientific and translational questions remain in auditory neuroscience surrounding the neural correlates of perception. Relating perceptual and neural data collected from humans can be useful; however, human-based neural data are typically limited to evoked far-field responses, which lack anatomical and physiological specificity. Laboratory-controlled preclinical animal models offer the advantage of comparing single-unit and evoked responses from the same animals. This ability provides opportunities to develop invaluable insight into proper interpretations of evoked responses, which benefits both basic-science studies of neural mechanisms and translational applications, e.g., diagnostic development. However, these comparisons have been limited by a disconnect between the types of spectrotemporal analyses used with single-unit spike trains and evoked responses, which results because these response types are fundamentally different (point-process versus continuous-valued signals) even though the responses themselves are related. Here, we describe a unifying framework to study temporal coding of complex sounds that allows spike-train and evoked-response data to be analyzed and compared using the same advanced signal-processing techniques. The framework uses a set of peristimulus-time histograms computed from single-unit spike trains in response to polarity-alternating stimuli to allow advanced spectral analyses of both slow (envelope) and rapid (temporal fine structure) response components. Demonstrated benefits include: (1) novel spectrally specific temporal-coding measures that are less confounded by distortions due to hair-cell transduction, synaptic rectification, and neural stochasticity compared to previous metrics, e.g., the correlogram peak-height, (2) spectrally specific analyses of spike-train modulation coding (magnitude and phase), which can be directly compared to modern perceptually based models of speech intelligibility (e.g., that depend on modulation filter banks), and (3) superior spectral resolution in analyzing the neural representation of nonstationary sounds, such as speech and music. This unifying framework significantly expands the potential of preclinical animal models to advance our understanding of the physiological correlates of perceptual deficits in real-world listening following sensorineural hearing loss.


Assuntos
Percepção Auditiva/fisiologia , Potenciais Evocados Auditivos/fisiologia , Modelos Neurológicos , Estimulação Acústica , Animais , Chinchila/fisiologia , Nervo Coclear/fisiologia , Biologia Computacional , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Perda Auditiva Neurossensorial/fisiopatologia , Perda Auditiva Neurossensorial/psicologia , Humanos , Modelos Animais , Dinâmica não Linear , Psicoacústica , Som , Análise Espaço-Temporal , Inteligibilidade da Fala/fisiologia , Percepção da Fala/fisiologia , Pesquisa Médica Translacional
9.
Laryngoscope ; 131(5): E1616-E1623, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33264438

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: To evaluate the voice and speech outcomes after tubed supraglottic laryngeal closure (TSLC) surgery to treat chronic aspiration after radiotherapy for head and neck cancer. STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective case-control study. METHODS: The data of patients who underwent radiotherapy for head and neck cancer and who later required total laryngectomy or TSLC for chronic aspiration between 2004 and 2017 were retrieved from a dysphagia clinic. Preoperative and postoperative voice and speech were assessed by the GRBAS and INFVo rating scales. Control subjects who underwent radiotherapy alone or total laryngectomy with a tracheoesophageal prosthesis for other indications were recruited for comparison. RESULTS: Of 15 patients who underwent a TSLC with a mean age of 57.3 years (45-75 years), 13 were male and 2 female. All patients had a history of nasopharyngeal carcinoma. The success rate of speech production using their own larynx following an intact TSLC was 64%. There was no statistically significant difference in voice and speech ratings between preoperative and TSLC subjects on the GRBAS (P = .32) and INFVo scales (P = .57), although the quality of voice appeared to deteriorate after TSLC. However, the INFVo scale for impression, intelligibility and unsteadiness of the voice after TSLC was statistically significantly better than for laryngectomy with tracheoesophageal speech. CONCLUSIONS: A tubed supraglottic laryngeal closure controls chronic aspiration while preserving the larynx for phonation, and results in a better voice and speech quality than a laryngectomy with a voice prosthesis. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 4 Laryngoscope, 131:E1616-E1623, 2021.


Assuntos
Laringoplastia/métodos , Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo/terapia , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/terapia , Lesões por Radiação/cirurgia , Aspiração Respiratória/cirurgia , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Laringectomia/efeitos adversos , Laringoplastia/efeitos adversos , Laringe/fisiopatologia , Laringe/efeitos da radiação , Laringe/cirurgia , Laringe Artificial/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fonação/fisiologia , Período Pós-Operatório , Lesões por Radiação/etiologia , Aspiração Respiratória/etiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Inteligibilidade da Fala/fisiologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Qualidade da Voz/fisiologia , Reconhecimento de Voz
10.
Psychon Bull Rev ; 28(2): 632-640, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33051825

RESUMO

Many conversations in our day-to-day lives are held in noisy environments - impeding comprehension, and in groups - taxing auditory attention-switching processes. These situations are particularly challenging for older adults in cognitive and sensory decline. In noisy environments, a variety of extra-linguistic strategies are available to speakers and listeners to facilitate communication, but while models of language account for the impact of context on word choice, there has been little consideration of the impact of context on extra-linguistic behaviour. To address this issue, we investigate how the complexity of the acoustic environment and interaction situation impacts extra-linguistic conversation behaviour of older adults during face-to-face conversations. Specifically, we test whether the use of intelligibility-optimising strategies increases with complexity of the background noise (from quiet to loud, and in speech-shaped vs. babble noise), and with complexity of the conversing group (dyad vs. triad). While some communication strategies are enhanced in more complex background noise, with listeners orienting to talkers more optimally and moving closer to their partner in babble than speech-shaped noise, this is not the case with all strategies, as we find greater vocal level increases in the less complex speech-shaped noise condition. Other behaviours are enhanced in the more complex interaction situation, with listeners using more optimal head orientations, and taking longer turns when gaining the floor in triads compared to dyads. This study elucidates how different features of the conversation context impact individuals' communication strategies, which is necessary to both develop a comprehensive cognitive model of multimodal conversation behaviour, and effectively support individuals that struggle conversing.


Assuntos
Comunicação , Processos Grupais , Orientação Espacial/fisiologia , Inteligibilidade da Fala/fisiologia , Percepção da Fala/fisiologia , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
11.
Saudi Med J ; 41(10): 1139-1143, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33026057

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To validate and assess the reliability of the new version of an Arabic speech intelligibility rating among di erent raters. METHODS: This cross-sectional analysis was carried out between December 2018 and January 2019. Thirty cochlear-implant (CI) children (study group) and 30 subjects (control group) were enrolled. Study candidates' speech skills were evaluated using the translated Arabic SIR by parents and original SIR by professions such as speech-language pathologists (SLPs). Inter-rater agreement, test-retest reliability, pre- and post-intervention score (responsiveness test), patient versus control score comparison (discriminant validity), and cross-validation of Arabic SIR have all been assessed. RESULTS: There was a good sense of agreement between the post-operative SIR parents' assessments and the professional SLPs' assessments (r=0.920, p less than 0.001). The mean of study subjects pre- and post-implantation score of Arabic SIR showed a statistically significant difference (p less than 0.001). CONCLUSION: The Arabic SIR demonstrated excellent reliability with strong consistency. It showed its clinical ability in distinguishing healthy subjects from patients along with follow up of speech development skills over time. The Arabic SIR can be used by parents to evaluate post-CI progress of their children.


Assuntos
Implantes Cocleares/psicologia , Testes de Inteligência , Distúrbios da Fala/reabilitação , Inteligibilidade da Fala/fisiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Idioma , Masculino , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Arábia Saudita , Distúrbios da Fala/etiologia , Distúrbios da Fala/psicologia
12.
J Int Adv Otol ; 16(2): 147-152, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32784150

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: A cochleovestibular nerve deficiency (CVND) could compromise stimulation of nerve by electrical pulses delivered from a cochlear implant, thereby hindering activity along auditory pathway. The evaluation of children with congenital hearing loss with a high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging is presently the investigative modality of choice to diagnose CVND. The aim of this study was to determine the outcomes in pediatric cochlear implant recipients with a diagnosis of CVND. The objectives included (1) to study the prevalence of CVND among children with prelingual congenital severe to profound hearing loss; (2) to assess post cochlear implantation (CI) outcomes in children with CVND using categories of auditory performance (CAP), speech intelligibility rating (SIR), and cortical auditory evoked potentials (CAEPs); and (3) to propose a management protocol for these children. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All CI procedures performed during the study period in children 5 years or younger were included in study. All patients who were older than 5 years or had syndromic associations, multiple disabilities, second side or revision CI were excluded from the study. Children with unilateral cochleovestibular nerve aplasia and all other cases of CVND (type IIa and IIb) were advised to undergo CI on side with more radiologically robust nerve and/or cochlea anatomy. Children with bilateral CVND were included in group A, and age-matched cochlear implant candidates with normal cochleovestibular nerve anatomy were included in group B for statistical comparison of outcomes. RESULTS: In group A, post CI CAP and SIR, CAEP amplitude and latency at 12 months showed statistically significant difference (p<0.05) compared with preoperative values. However, mean score of CAEP latency and amplitude and SIR score was worse for group A compared with group B at 12 months, which was statistically significant (p<0.05). CONCLUSION: This study supports the fact that CI is a viable option to be offered in children with CVND (type IIa and IIb) for the development of auditory perception and speech.


Assuntos
Implante Coclear/métodos , Implantes Cocleares , Surdez/cirurgia , Doenças do Nervo Vestibulococlear/cirurgia , Nervo Vestibulococlear/anormalidades , Percepção Auditiva/fisiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Linguagem Infantil , Pré-Escolar , Surdez/congênito , Surdez/epidemiologia , Potenciais Evocados Auditivos/fisiologia , Feminino , Audição/fisiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Período Pós-Operatório , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Inteligibilidade da Fala/fisiologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Nervo Vestibulococlear/cirurgia , Doenças do Nervo Vestibulococlear/congênito , Doenças do Nervo Vestibulococlear/epidemiologia
13.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236469, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32756594

RESUMO

Speech perception in noise is challenging and is improved by binaural hearing. Since signal processing of assistive hearing devices often modifies or masks the peripheral binaural head-shadow or better-ear effects, central binaural processing should be measured separately. In a prospective study, 10 listeners with normal hearing were tested with the German matrix sentence test in a set-up with two loudspeakers located at opposite angles in the horizontal plane with respect to S0N0. The speech reception threshold (SRT) was investigated depending on the separation angle between speech and noise. The lowest (best) SRT was obtained for a separation of target and interfering source from S0N0 at an angle of about S±60°N∓60°. The derived normative curve was comparable to SRTs predicted by the binaural-speech-intelligibility-model. The systematic separation of signal and noise showed a significant improvement in speech intelligibility for normal-hearing people even for small separation angles. This experimental setting was verified. This study aimed to assess the effect of small sound source separation on binaural hearing and speech perception.


Assuntos
Auxiliares de Audição , Audição/fisiologia , Equipamentos de Autoajuda , Percepção da Fala/fisiologia , Adulto , Percepção Auditiva/fisiologia , Limiar Auditivo/fisiologia , Implantes Cocleares , Orelha/fisiologia , Feminino , Testes Auditivos/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Ruído , Estudos Prospectivos , Equipamentos de Autoajuda/normas , Fala/fisiologia , Inteligibilidade da Fala/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
14.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0235083, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32579618

RESUMO

Cognitive flexibility is the ability to switch between different concepts or to adapt goal-directed behavior in a changing environment. Although, cognitive research on this ability has long been focused on the individual mind, it is becoming increasingly clear that cognitive flexibility plays a central role in our social life. This is particularly evident in turn-taking in verbal conversation, where cognitive flexibility of the individual becomes part of social flexibility in the dyadic interaction. In this work, we introduce a model that reveals different parameters that explain how people flexibly handle unexpected events in verbal conversation. In order to study hypotheses derived from the model, we use a novel experimental approach in which thirty pairs of participants engaged in a word-by-word interaction by taking turns in generating sentences word by word. Similar to well established individual cognitive tasks, participants needed to adapt their behavior in order to respond to their co-actor's last utterance. With our experimental approach we could manipulate the interaction between participants: Either both participants had to construct a sentence with a common target word (congruent condition) or with distinct target words (incongruent condition). We further studied the relation between the interactive Word-by-Word task measures and classical individual-centered, cognitive tasks, namely the Number-Letter task, the Stop-Signal task, and the GoNogo task. In the Word-by-Word task, we found that participants had faster response times in congruent compared to incongruent trials, which replicates the primary findings of standard cognitive tasks measuring cognitive flexibility. Further, we found a significant correlation between the performance in the Word-by-Word task and the Stop-Signal task indicating that participants with a high cognitive flexibility in the Word-by-Word task also showed high inhibition control.


Assuntos
Cognição/fisiologia , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Inteligibilidade da Fala/fisiologia , Adulto , Comunicação , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Percepção da Fala/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
15.
Neuromuscul Disord ; 30(5): 400-412, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32387282

RESUMO

Advances in the treatment of Pompe disease have improved life expectancy and quality of life, but speech and oromotor function remain significantly affected. The purpose of this study was to expand on existing data and present new findings of speech acoustic and physiologic outcomes in Pompe disease. A retrospective analysis was carried out on results of speech, language and oromotor tests carried out in 14 children diagnosed with Pompe disease. The assessment battery included standardized tests of language, picture naming, maximum performance tests, and oromotor resistance tasks. Speech production was scored with respect to intelligibility, hypernasality, and articulatory accuracy. Language delays ranged from mild to severe in 1/3 of the children. Reduced speech intelligibility, disordered articulation, and hypernasality were present in at least 2/3 of the children. Maximum performance tests all fell at least 1 SD below normative means. Significant correlations were identified between maximum phonation time and articulation and between the S/Z ratio and intelligibility. Positive correlations were also found between tongue strength and articulation. Results confirm previous reports of speech and language function in Pompe disease. Clinical acoustic measures provide important insights into the speech deficits in this group of children and suggest possible treatment strategies.


Assuntos
Doença de Depósito de Glicogênio Tipo II/complicações , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/fisiopatologia , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Distúrbios da Fala/fisiopatologia , Inteligibilidade da Fala/fisiologia , Língua/fisiopatologia , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/etiologia , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Distúrbios da Fala/etiologia , Taiwan
16.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0232024, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32324825

RESUMO

High-speed trains are operated in increasingly complex railway networks and continual improvement of driver assistance systems is necessary to maintain safety. Speech offers the opportunity to provide information to the driver without disrupting visual attention. However, it is not known whether the transient pressure changes inside trains passing through tunnels interfere with speech intelligibility. Our primary goal was to test whether the most severe pressure variations occurring in high-speed trains (25 hPa in 2 s) affect speech intelligibility in individuals with normal hearing ability and secondly whether a potential effect would depend on the direction of the pressure change. A cross-over design was used to compare speech intelligibility, measured with the monosyllable word test by Wallenberg and Kollmeier, in steady ambient pressure versus subsequent to pressure events, both realised in a pressure chamber. Since data for a power calculation did not exist, we conducted a pilot study with 20 participants to estimate variance of intra-individual differences. The upper 80% confidence limit guided sample size of the main campaign, which was performed with 72 participants to identify a 10% difference while limiting alpha (5%) and beta error (10%). On average, a participant understood 0.7 fewer words following a pressure change event compared to listening in steady ambient pressure. However, this intra-individual differences varied strongly between participants, standard deviation (SD) ± 4.5 words, resulting in a negligible effect size of 0.1 and the Wilcoxon signed rank test (Z = -1.26; p = 0.21) did not distinguish it from chance. When comparing decreasing and increasing pressure events an average of 0.2 fewer words were understood (± 3.9 SD). The most severe pressure changes expected to occur in high-speed trains passing through tunnels do not interfere with speech intelligibility and are in itself not a risk factor for loss of verbal information transmission.


Assuntos
Orelha Média/fisiologia , Inteligibilidade da Fala/fisiologia , Percepção da Fala/fisiologia , Adulto , Pressão Atmosférica , Estudos Cross-Over , Feminino , Testes Auditivos , Humanos , Masculino , Ruído , Projetos Piloto , Estudos Prospectivos , Ferrovias , Tamanho da Amostra , Adulto Jovem
17.
J Exp Psychol Learn Mem Cogn ; 46(8): 1465-1476, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32105143

RESUMO

Understanding speech in adverse conditions is affected by experience-a familiar voice is substantially more intelligible than an unfamiliar voice when competing speech is present, even if the content of the speech (the words) are controlled. This familiar-voice benefit is observed consistently, but its underpinnings are unclear: Do familiar voices simply attract more attention, are they inherently more intelligible because they have predictable acoustic characteristics, or are they more intelligible in a mixture because they are more resistant to interference from other sounds? We recruited pairs of native English-speaking participants who were friends or romantic couples. Participants reported words from closed-set English sentences (i.e., Oldenburg Matrix Test; Zokoll et al., 2013) spoken by a familiar talker (the participant's partner) or an unfamiliar talker. We compared 3 masker conditions that are acoustically similar but differ in their demands: (1) English Oldenburg sentences; (2) Oldenburg sentences in a language incomprehensible to the listener (Russian or Spanish); and (3) unintelligible signal-correlated noise. We adaptively varied the target-to-masker ratio to obtain 50% speech reception thresholds. We observed a large (∼5 dB) familiar-voice benefit when the target and masker were both English sentences. This benefit was attenuated (to ∼2 dB) when the masker was in an incomprehensible language and disappeared when it was signal-correlated noise. These results suggest that familiar voices did not benefit intelligibility because they were more predictable or because they attracted greater attention, rather familiarity with a target voice reduced interference from maskers that are linguistically similar to the target. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Atenção/fisiologia , Reconhecimento Psicológico/fisiologia , Percepção Social , Percepção da Fala/fisiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Amigos , Humanos , Masculino , Mascaramento Perceptivo/fisiologia , Parceiros Sexuais , Inteligibilidade da Fala/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
18.
Int J Audiol ; 59(6): 434-442, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32003257

RESUMO

Objective: The present study was motivated by a need for a speech intelligibility test capable of indexing dynamic changes in the environment and adaptive processing in hearing aids. The Continuous Number Identification Test (CNIT) was developed to meet these aims.Design: From one location in the free field, speech was presented in noise (∼2 words/s) with a 100-ms inter-word interval. On average, every fourth word was a target digit and all other words were monosyllabic words. Non-numeric words had a fixed presentation level such that the dominant signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR) was held at +6 dB SNR relative to background maskers. To prevent ceiling effects, however, targets were presented at a user-specific SNR, determined by an initial adaptive-tracking procedure that estimated the 79.4% speech reception threshold.Study sample: Ten normal-hearing listeners participated.Results: The CNIT showed comparable psychometric qualities of other established speech tests for long time scales (Exp. 1). Target-location changes did not affect performance on the CNIT (Exp. 2), but the test did show high temporal resolution in assessing sudden changes to SNR (Exp. 3).Conclusions: The CNIT is highly customisable, and the initial experiments tested feasibility of its primary features which set it apart from currently available speech-in-noise tests.


Assuntos
Mascaramento Perceptivo/fisiologia , Testes de Discriminação da Fala/métodos , Inteligibilidade da Fala/fisiologia , Teste do Limiar de Recepção da Fala/métodos , Adulto , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Masculino , Ruído , Psicometria , Adulto Jovem
19.
J Speech Lang Hear Res ; 63(2): 456-471, 2020 02 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32091953

RESUMO

Purpose The aim of this study was to investigate how deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the caudal zona incerta (cZi) affects speech intelligibility in persons with essential tremor. Method Thirty-five participants were evaluated: off stimulation, on chronic stimulation optimized to alleviate tremor, and during unilateral stimulation at increasing amplitude levels. At each stimulation condition, the participants read 10 unique nonsense sentences from the Swedish Test of Intelligibility. Two listeners, blinded to stimulation condition, transcribed all recorded sentences orthographically in a randomized procedure. A mean speech intelligibility score for each patient and stimulation condition was computed, and comparisons were made between scores off and on stimulation. Results Chronic cZi-DBS had no significant effect on speech intelligibility, and there was no difference in outcome between bilateral and unilateral treatments. During unilateral stimulation at increasing amplitudes, nine participants demonstrated deteriorating speech intelligibility. These nine participants were on average older and had more superior contacts activated during the evaluation compared with the participants without deterioration. Conclusions Chronic cZi-DBS, optimized for tremor suppression, does not generally affect speech intelligibility in persons with essential tremor. Furthermore, speech intelligibility may be preserved in many individuals, even when stimulated at high amplitudes. Adverse effects of high-amplitude unilateral stimulation observed in this study were associated with stimulation originating from a more superior location, as well as with the participants' age. These results, highlighting age and stimulation location as contributing to speech intelligibility outcomes, were, however, based on a limited number of individuals experiencing adverse effects with high-amplitude stimulation and should, therefore, be interpreted with caution.


Assuntos
Estimulação Encefálica Profunda/métodos , Tremor Essencial/terapia , Inteligibilidade da Fala/fisiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Tremor Essencial/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Método Simples-Cego , Resultado do Tratamento , Zona Incerta/fisiopatologia
20.
J Speech Lang Hear Res ; 63(1): 32-48, 2020 01 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31910070

RESUMO

Purpose We examined whether there were differences among speech-language profile groups of children with cerebral palsy (CP) in age of crossing 25%, 50%, and 75% intelligibility thresholds; age of greatest intelligibility growth; rate of intelligibility growth; maximum attained intelligibility at 8 years; and how well intelligibility at 36 months predicts intelligibility at 96 months when group membership is accounted for. Profile groups were children with no speech motor impairment (NSMI), those with speech motor impairment and language comprehension that is typically developing (SMI-LCT), and those with speech motor impairment and language comprehension impairment (SMI-LCI). Method Sixty-eight children with CP were followed longitudinally between 24 and 96 months of age. A total of 564 time points were examined across children (M = 8.3 time points per child, SD = 2.6). We fitted a nonlinear random effects model for longitudinal observations, allowing for differences between profile groups. We used the fitted model trajectories to generate descriptive analyses of intelligibility growth by group and to generate simulations to analyze how well 36-month intelligibility data predicted 96-month data accounting for profile groups. Results Children with CP who have NSMI have different growth and better intelligibility outcomes than those with speech motor impairment. Children with SMI-LCT tend to have better outcomes but similar intelligibility growth as children with SMI-LCI. There may be a subset of children that cut across SMI-LCI and SMI-LCT groups who have severe speech motor involvement and show limited growth in intelligibility. Conclusions Intelligibility outcomes for children with CP are affected by profile group membership. Intelligibility growth tends to be delayed in children with speech motor impairment. Intelligibility at 3 years is highly predictive of later outcomes regardless of profile group. Intervention decision making should include consideration of early intelligibility, and treatment directions should include consideration of augmentative and alternative communication.


Assuntos
Paralisia Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Linguagem Infantil , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/fisiopatologia , Distúrbios da Fala/fisiopatologia , Inteligibilidade da Fala/fisiologia , Paralisia Cerebral/complicações , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/etiologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Distúrbios da Fala/etiologia , Medida da Produção da Fala
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