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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32998292

RESUMO

This study applied a qualitative approach to investigate the underlying influences on consumers' green food consumption from the intention generation phase to intention execution phase in the perspectives of purchase intention and the intention-behaviour gap (IBG). Additionally, the impact of the "Coronavirus Disease 2019" (COVID-19) pandemic on consumers' green food purchases was explored. Research data were derived from semi-structured in-depth interviews with 28 consumers and analyzed using grounded theory. The findings identified factors that influenced intentions and the IBG in the process of consumers' green food purchases. Specifically, these findings reported that health consciousness, perceived attributes, environmental consciousness, social influence, family structure, and enjoyable shopping experiences were identified as major drivers for generating consumers' green food purchase intentions. High prices of green food, unavailability issues, mistrust issues, and limited knowledge were factors triggering the gap between green food purchase intentions and behaviours. In addition, the results revealed that the COVID-19 crisis increased consumers' green food purchase intentions, whereas the IBG widens as a result of issues of unavailability, price, and panic. These findings will help stakeholders build future policy and suitable strategies to better promote green food consumption in the Chinese context.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Consumidor , Infecções por Coronavirus , Intenção , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Verduras/economia , Betacoronavirus , China , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários
2.
3.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1527, 2020 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33032559

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Spontaneous reporting (SR) of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) from patients can be considered as a valuable activity providing both objective and subjective data. However, improving the rate of under-reporting has been a major challenge to ensure successful operation of the SR system. This study aimed to assess knowledge, attitude, and intent to report ADRs and explore the factors contributing to consumers' reporting intent in South Korea. METHODS: Self-administered questionnaire was collected from a sex-, age-, and regionally stratified nationwide convenience sample of consumers using a commercial panel in December 2018. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to explore the factors contributing to the intent to report ADRs by consumers. RESULTS: A total of 1000 respondents were enrolled in the survey; 50.9% were males and the mean age was 44.4 (standard deviation, 13.3) years. While less than 15% of the respondents were aware of the SR system and even fewer (3.4%) had actual experience of SR, however, 59.2% expressed their intent to report ADRs. The positive attitude (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 3.972, p < 0.001), awareness of the SR system (aOR 2.102, p < 0.01), self-efficacy for SR (aOR 1.956, p < 0.001), and experiences related to ADR counselling with healthcare professionals (OR 2.318, p < 0.001) are the significant factors contributing to reporting intent. CONCLUSIONS: Findings of this study highlight the need for increasing the awareness of the SR system among consumers and empowering them to report ADRs by themselves, which would ultimately improve the drug-safety environment.


Assuntos
Sistemas de Notificação de Reações Adversas a Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Intenção , Pacientes/psicologia , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pacientes/estatística & dados numéricos , República da Coreia , Inquéritos e Questionários
4.
Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 45(6): 649-656, 2020 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês, Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32879121

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To understand medical students' mental health, professional pride, and intention to work in the front-line during coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, and provide a reference for psychological intervention. METHODS: We used the depression-anxiety-stress scale and self-designed questionnaire on professional pride, intention to work in the front-line and the extent of family support. Medical students from 4 medical schools in Fujian and Hunan were investigated. Their mental health status, professional pride and first-line work willingness with different characteristics were compared, and the influential factors for professional pride and first-line work willingness were analyzed. RESULTS: A total of 266 valid questionnaires were collected. During the pandemic, there were significant differences in the proportion of depressed students among different college and universities, majors and stages (P<0.05), and the professional pride was significantly different (P<0.001). Medical students with different mental health status showed significant differences in professional pride (P<0.01). Marriage, pressure and extent of family support were the influential factors for their professional pride (P<0.05). The latter two were also influential factors for their intention to work in the front-line (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: During the pandemic, students from college and nursing have relatively better mental health and higher professional pride. The professional pride is low in medical students who married, with abnormal stress or low family support. The intention to work in front-line is decreased in students with abnormal stress or low family support.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Saúde Mental , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Estudantes de Medicina/psicologia , Betacoronavirus , China , Família , Humanos , Intenção , Pandemias , Profissionalismo , Apoio Social , Estresse Psicológico , Inquéritos e Questionários
5.
Transl Behav Med ; 10(4): 843-849, 2020 10 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32893867

RESUMO

Despite early warnings and calls for action, COVID-19 infection rates continue to climb in many areas of the United States. The current study examined participants' reported likelihood of engaging in eight behaviors designated by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention as critical for the prevention of COVID-19 at the outset of the epidemic. Self-efficacy, perceived threat, and internal and external health locus of control were explored as potential predictors of those behaviors. In addition, demographic and contextual factors, such as age, gender, political identity, and whether or not participants were currently living under a quarantine advisory, were recorded for analysis. Overall, participants reported high engagement with the prevention behaviors. Higher levels of self-efficacy, perceived severity of the illness, and external locus of control in regard to medical professionals were all positively associated with plans to take the recommended precautions. Based on the results, it appears that messaging regarding COVID-19 prevention may be particularly effective when it focuses on the high risk of the illness, the ease with which the prevention behaviors can be taken, and a reassurance that the medical establishment has individuals' best health in mind when it makes its specific recommendations. While numerous countries have succeeded in reducing the spread of COVID-19, the number of new cases in the United States remains high, even relative to other populations also heavily impacted by the disease [1]. Although it would be difficult to pinpoint a single cause or explanation for the epidemic's course in the USA, at the heart of its spread, like the spread of all infectious diseases, is noncompliance with preventative measures. The current research served as a preliminary exploration of the prevalence and predictors of eight COVID-19 prevention behaviors. A brief survey was sent out at the end of March 2020 to 350 U.S. residents in order to assess the likelihood of their engaging in various prevention behaviors recommended at that time and several related psychosocial factors. The psychological factors assessed included health locus of control (HLOC) beliefs, self-efficacy, and perceived threat. In addition, a handful of demographic and contextual factors, such as age, gender, political identity, and whether or not they were working outside the home or were currently living under a quarantine advisory, were recorded for examination.


Assuntos
Comportamento Cooperativo , Infecções por Coronavirus , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Autoeficácia , Isolamento Social/psicologia , Percepção Social , Adulto , Atitude Frente a Saúde , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Intenção , Masculino , Máscaras , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Prevalência , Psicologia , Controle Social Formal/métodos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Precauções Universais/métodos , Precauções Universais/estatística & dados numéricos
6.
Transl Behav Med ; 10(4): 850-856, 2020 10 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32910819

RESUMO

Conspiracy theories have been proliferating during the COVID-19 pandemic. Evidence suggests that belief in conspiracy theories undermines engagement in pro-health behaviors and support for public health policies. Moreover, previous work suggests that inoculating messages from opinion leaders that expose conspiracy theories as false before people are exposed to them can help to prevent belief in new conspiracies. Goals of this study were to: (a) explore associations between COVID-19 conspiracy beliefs with SARS-CoV-2 vaccine intentions, cooperation with public health recommendations, and support for public health policies among U.S. adults and (b) investigate trusted sources of COVID-19 information to inform strategies to address conspiracy beliefs. A cross-sectional, online survey was conducted with 845 U.S. adults in April 2020. Data were analyzed using analyses of variance and multivariable regressions. One-third (33%) of participants believed one or more conspiracies about COVID-19. Participants who believed conspiracies reported that their intentions to vaccinate were 3.9 times lower and indicated less support for COVID-19 public health policies than participants who disbelieved conspiracies. There were no differences in cooperation with public health recommendations by conspiracy belief endorsement in the multivariable regression analysis. Although there were some key differences in trusted sources of COVID-19 information, doctor(s) were the most trusted source of information about COVID-19 overall with 90% of participants trusting doctor(s). Doctor(s) may play a role in addressing COVID-19 conspiracy theories before people are exposed to them to promote COVID-19 prevention efforts.


Assuntos
Comportamento Cooperativo , Infecções por Coronavirus , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Política Pública/tendências , Confiança/psicologia , Vacinação/psicologia , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Cultura , Feminino , Humanos , Intenção , Masculino , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Papel do Médico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Psicologia , Prática de Saúde Pública , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
7.
J Frailty Aging ; 9(4): 238-243, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32996561

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Frailty prevention is one of social prescriptions for an aging society. That requires community level intervention. OBJECTIVES: This study examined frailty checkup supporters' (FCSs') intentions to engage in human-resource development and training activities (i.e., leadership activities) and related factors. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Three municipalities in suburban area, Eastern Japan. PARTICIPANTS: Forty-five of 59 FCSs completed anonymous self-administered questionnaires. MEASUREMENTS: Questionnaire sought information regarding their sociodemographic data, their perceptions and experiences of FCS activities, and their intentions to participate in human-resource development and training activities. Participants were divided into a high intention (HI) and low intention group (LI). The two groups were compared using quantitative and qualitative data. RESULTS: Eleven FCSs reported intending to engage in leader-related activities. Factors associated with FCSs' intentions were finding FCS activities rewarding and the willingness to continue performing FCS activities. The participants who changed their daily activities (p = .041) and perceptions regarding contributing to the community (p = .018) showed significantly higher intention than LI participants. Free description about the changes in perceptions and lifestyles as a consequence of participating in FCS activities were analyzed qualitatively. FCSs who changed their daily activities and perspectives about contributing to the community described positive changes in both the groups. Meanwhile, FCSs who did not change their daily activities and perspectives about contributing to the community described their reason only in the LI group. CONCLUSIONS: The results might encourage FCSs to participate in training and guidance activities, as they have positive experiences and receive recognition obtained through participation in such activities.


Assuntos
Participação da Comunidade/psicologia , Fragilidade/prevenção & controle , Intenção , Cidades , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Japão , Inquéritos e Questionários
8.
Health Lit Res Pract ; 4(3): e161-e165, 2020 08 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32926171

RESUMO

Stay-at-home orders have been an essential component of coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) management in the United States. As states start lifting these mandates to reopen the economy, voluntary public compliance with public health recommendations may significantly influence the extent of resurgence in COVID-19 infection rates. Population-level risk from reopening may therefore be predicted from public intent to comply with public health recommendations. We are conducting a global, convergent design mixed-methods survey on public knowledge, perceptions, preferred health information sources, and understanding of and intent to comply with public health recommendations. With over 9,000 completed surveys from every US state and over 70 countries worldwide, to our knowledge this is the largest pandemic messaging study to date. Although the study is still ongoing, we have conducted an analysis of 5,005 US surveys completed from April 9-15, 2020 on public intent to comply with public health recommendations and offer insights on the COVID-19 pandemic-related risk of reopening. We found marked regional differences in intent to follow key public health recommendations. Regional efforts are urgently needed to influence public behavior changes to decrease the risk of reopening, particularly in higher-risk areas with low public intent to comply with preventive health recommendations. [HLRP: Health Literacy Research and Practice. 2020;4(3):e160-e165.].


Assuntos
Atitude Frente a Saúde , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Intenção , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Saúde Pública , Comportamento Social , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , Comunicação , Coronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Feminino , Guias como Assunto , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Isolamento Social , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos
9.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 54(9): 1010-1016, 2020 Sep 06.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32907294

RESUMO

Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is one of the main pathogens of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) and the main pathogen of severe HFMD. In 2015, three EV71 vaccines were successively marketed in China as powerful prevention and control tools for HFMD caused by EV71. To understand the efficacy, immunogenicity, safety and quality stability of the domestic EV71 vaccine after entering into the market and analyze potential problems in its application, this article incorporates research regarding the immune effect, population effect, safety, quality testing and evaluation results, vaccination willingness and vaccination behavior survey to explore the vaccination strategies for the donll stic EV71 vaccine. EV71 vaccine has good immunogenicity, safety, protective efficacy, and good quality stability after entering into the market, however, only a few study focused on its safety when inoculating with other immunization planning vaccines simultaneously. Strengthen safety monitoring and discuss the safety of the EV71 vaccine especially when simultaneously inoculate with other immunization program vaccines are still necessary. Enterovirus evolution and recombination, whilst the probable impact of the EV71 vaccine can be the reason for future changes of HFMD epidemic strains, hence continuous monitoring of antigenic mutations and genetic evolution of enterovirus should be responded to. Encouraging the R&D of polyvalent vaccines against HFMD is also necessary. Parents' lack of HFMD and EV71 vaccine knowledge was common, therefore HFMD knowledge should be strengthened at the same time when introducing the EV71 vaccine to the public. Also, it should be emphasized that the EV71 vaccine can only prevent HFMD caused by EV71.


Assuntos
Enterovirus Humano A/imunologia , Enterovirus/imunologia , Doença de Mão, Pé e Boca , Vacinas Virais , China , Humanos , Imunização , Intenção , Marketing , Vacinação
10.
Ann Behav Med ; 54(10): 713-727, 2020 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32914831

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Social distancing is a key behavior to minimize COVID-19 infections. Identification of potentially modifiable determinants of social distancing behavior may provide essential evidence to inform social distancing behavioral interventions. PURPOSE: The current study applied an integrated social cognition model to identify the determinants of social distancing behavior, and the processes involved, in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: In a prospective correlational survey study, samples of Australian (N = 365) and U.S. (N = 440) residents completed online self-report measures of social cognition constructs (attitude, subjective norm, moral norm, anticipated regret, and perceived behavioral control [PBC]), intention, action planning, habit, and past behavior with respect to social distancing behavior at an initial occasion. Follow-up measures of habit and social distancing behavior were taken 1 week later. RESULTS: Structural equation models indicated that subjective norm, moral norm, and PBC were consistent predictors of intention in both samples. Intention, action planning, and habit at follow-up were consistent predictors of social distancing behavior in both samples. Action planning did not have consistent effects mediating or moderating the intention-behavior relationship. Inclusion of past behavior in the model attenuated effects among constructs, although the effects of the determinants of intention and behavior remained. CONCLUSIONS: Current findings highlight the importance of subjective norm, moral obligation, and PBC as determinants of social distancing intention and intention and habit as behavioral determinants. Future research on long-range predictors of social distancing behavior and reciprocal effects in the integrated model is warranted.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Intenção , Modelos Psicológicos , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Isolamento Social/psicologia , Betacoronavirus , Humanos , Pandemias
11.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1228, 2020 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32787807

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Vasectomy is one of the highly effective and non-reversible types of long-term family planning methods for men. Ethiopia has a limited number of studies on the use of vasectomy, and they are focused on men rather than married men. The current study was aimed to identify the intention to use vasectomy as a method of contraception among married men in the study setting. METHODS: A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted from February 1 - April 30, 2018. A sample of 422 married men was recruited using a systematic random sampling method. We conducted face to face interviews with a structured questionnaire (i.e. closed-ended questions). Data were entered into Epi data version 3.1 and SPSS version 23 used for data analysis. The statistical association between the outcome variable (Intention to use vasectomy) and the explanatory variables were first tested with binary logistic regression. Multivariable logistic regression was used to control for confounding effect of each predictor. RESULTS: The study findings showed that the intention to use vasectomy as a method of family planning was reported as high (24%). About 34.8% of the respondents had good knowledge and nearly a quarter (23.2%) of them had a positive attitude toward the acceptance of vasectomy use. In multivariate analysis, age range between 30 and 39 years [AOR = 2.4, 95% CI = (1.16-4.82)], having good knowledge about vasectomy use [AOR = 6.22, 95% CI = (3.17-12.21)], and having a positive attitude toward vasectomy use [AOR = 7.81, 95% CI = (4.25-14.38)] were factors significantly associated to use vasectomy as compared to their counterparts. CONCLUSION: The level of acceptance of vasectomy (24%) was high compared to the level of its use in developing countries (i.e. if acceptability translates to use). The study revealed that age, good knowledge, and a positive attitude towards the use of vasectomy were important predictors of the intention to accept vasectomy. To further promote the use of vasectomy effective communication strategies in family planning programs are needed.


Assuntos
Intenção , Estado Civil/estatística & dados numéricos , Vasectomia/psicologia , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia , Serviços de Planejamento Familiar/métodos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários
12.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 41(7): 1058-1062, 2020 Jul 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32741170

RESUMO

Objective: To understand the awareness of smoking hazards and intention of smoking concession in residents aged 18-65 years in Beijing, and provide scientific evidence for the development and improvement of tobacco control policies and measures. Methods: Data were collected from the 2017 Beijing Non-communicable and Chronic Disease surveillance. A multi-stage stratified cluster sampling method was used to take samples from 165 communities in 16 districts of Beijing. Logistic regression was used to analyze the influencing factors. Results: Among 11 594 participants, 49.93% had no intention of smoking concession. The percentage of refusing smoking concession was higher in men (50.39%) than in women (43.01%), the difference was significant ( χ(2)=14.211, P=0.002), and higher in suburban residents (56.78%) than in urban residents (45.30%), the difference was significant ( χ(2)=51.977, P<0.001). For the smoking cessation motivation, "illness" was the reason for more former smokers (29.88%) compared with current smokers (11.50%), the difference was significant ( χ(2)=85.865, P<0.001). The awareness rates of smoking hazards was higher in women (34.97%) than in men (32.63%), the difference was significant (Z=5.612, P<0.001), higher in suburban residents (35.44%) than in urban residents (33.03%), the difference was significant (Z=-3.734, P<0.001), and higher in never smokers (35.15%) than in smokers (30.06%), the difference was significant ( χ(2)=62.277, P=0.005). Multiple logistic regression analysis results showed people with general awareness (OR=0.61, 95%CI: 0.39-0.94) and poor awareness (OR=0.67, 95%CI: 0.50-0.90) of smoking hazards were less likely to quit smoking and people with general awareness (OR=0.64, 95%CI: 0.53-0.76) and poor awareness (OR=0.87, 95%CI: 0.78-0.98) of smoking hazards were more likely to smoke. Conclusions: Smokers aged 18-65 in Beijing had low willingness for smoking cessation. Health problem was main consideration for smoking cessation. Never-smokers had better awareness of smoking hazards than smokers, and the awareness of smoking hazards was an influencing factor of smoking status.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Intenção , Fumantes/psicologia , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/psicologia , Fumar/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Pequim/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medição de Risco , Fumantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Fumar/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32751368

RESUMO

The present paper intends to address the impact of COVID-19 crisis upon the consumer buying behavior of fresh vegetables directly from local producers as observed 30 days later, after enforcing the state of emergency in Romania within a well-defined area, namely, the quarantined area of Suceava. The study relies on the interpretation of answers received from the quarantined area (N = 257) to a questionnaire applied online nationwide. The starting point of this paper is the analysis of the sociodemographic factors on the purchasing decision of fresh vegetables directly from local producers before declaring the state of emergency in Romania (16 March 2020). Further research has been conducted by interpreting the changes triggered by the COVID-19 crisis on the purchasing intention of such products before and after the end of the respective crisis. The aim of this scientific investigation relies on identifying the methods by which these behavioral changes can influence the digital transformation of short food supply chains.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Comportamento do Consumidor , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Quarentena , Verduras , Adulto , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Feminino , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Humanos , Intenção , Masculino , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Romênia/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
14.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1290, 2020 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32847501

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Self-care behaviors and positive changes in lifestyle are essential for successful hypertension control. We used a behavioral model based on the theory of planned behavior to assess which factors influence self-care behaviors for controlling hypertension. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, five hundred patients with at leastaone-year history of diagnosed hypertension participated in this study. The data collection tool was designed based on the theory of planned behavior. Structural equation modeling was used to estimate the main parameters. RESULTS: For self-care behaviors, ninety-six (19.2%) and forty-five (9.1%) participants had good knowledge and acceptable behavior(≥8 out of 10 points). Having perceived behavioral control regarding quitting smoking and alcohol intake was associated with the patient's intention and behavior [b:1.283 ± .095 and b:1.59 ± .014 (p < .001)]. Having perceived behavioral control over the other self-care behaviors had a positive effect on the intention in female patients [b: .885 ± .442 (p = .045)]. Subjective norms had a positive effect on behavioral intention in younger patients [b:4.52 ± 2.24 (P = .04)]. CONCLUSIONS: Group-specific behavioral barriers are important when improving self-care behaviors in patients with hypertension. Perceived control over self-care behaviors is more important in vulnerable patients, such as the elderly and women.


Assuntos
Hipertensão/terapia , Teoria Psicológica , Autocuidado/psicologia , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Intenção , Análise de Classes Latentes , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
15.
JMIR Mhealth Uhealth ; 8(8): e19857, 2020 08 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32759102

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic is the greatest public health crisis of the last 100 years. Countries have responded with various levels of lockdown to save lives and stop health systems from being overwhelmed. At the same time, lockdowns entail large socioeconomic costs. One exit strategy under consideration is a mobile phone app that traces the close contacts of those infected with COVID-19. Recent research has demonstrated the theoretical effectiveness of this solution in different disease settings. However, concerns have been raised about such apps because of the potential privacy implications. This could limit the acceptability of app-based contact tracing in the general population. As the effectiveness of this approach increases strongly with app uptake, it is crucial to understand public support for this intervention. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to investigate the user acceptability of a contact-tracing app in five countries hit by the pandemic. METHODS: We conducted a largescale, multicountry study (N=5995) to measure public support for the digital contact tracing of COVID-19 infections. We ran anonymous online surveys in France, Germany, Italy, the United Kingdom, and the United States. We measured intentions to use a contact-tracing app across different installation regimes (voluntary installation vs automatic installation by mobile phone providers) and studied how these intentions vary across individuals and countries. RESULTS: We found strong support for the app under both regimes, in all countries, across all subgroups of the population, and irrespective of regional-level COVID-19 mortality rates. We investigated the main factors that may hinder or facilitate uptake and found that concerns about cybersecurity and privacy, together with a lack of trust in the government, are the main barriers to adoption. CONCLUSIONS: Epidemiological evidence shows that app-based contact tracing can suppress the spread of COVID-19 if a high enough proportion of the population uses the app and that it can still reduce the number of infections if uptake is moderate. Our findings show that the willingness to install the app is very high. The available evidence suggests that app-based contact tracing may be a viable approach to control the diffusion of COVID-19.


Assuntos
Busca de Comunicante/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Intenção , Aplicativos Móveis , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Comparação Transcultural , Feminino , França/epidemiologia , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Reino Unido/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
16.
Can J Public Health ; 111(4): 466-468, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32757121

RESUMO

In Canada, and elsewhere, the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) crisis has resulted in a social, economic, and alcohol policy environment that is likely to contribute to a rise in intentional injuries, whether interpersonal or self-directed violence. Heavy drinking has been identified as an important risk factor for intentional injuries, and with the erosion of alcohol control policies on alcohol availability, heavy drinking is likely to increase. During a time of social isolation, economic loss, psychological distress, and reduced access to health services and support networks, all of which are catalytic factors for both intentional injuries and heavy alcohol use, what is needed is individualized and population-based preventive interventions aimed at reducing alcohol consumption, rather than decisions to increase certain forms of alcohol availability.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Política Pública , Ferimentos e Lesões/epidemiologia , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Canadá/epidemiologia , Humanos , Intenção , Pandemias , Ferimentos e Lesões/psicologia
17.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 35(8): 781-783, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32761440

RESUMO

The debate around vaccines has been in the spotlight over the last few years in Europe, both within the scientific community and the general public debate. In this regard, the case of the Italian vaccination debate is particularly worrying given that Italy has been one of the European countries with the highest number of measles cases in the recent past. According to this scenario, we conducted a cross-sectional study on a convenience sample of Italian university students aimed at: (1) exploring their attitudes towards a future vaccine to prevent COVID-19 and; (2) evaluating the impact of the university curricula (healthcare vs. non-healthcare curricula) on the intention to vaccinate. Descriptive analysis on the 735 students that answered to the question on the intention to vaccinate showed that 633 (86.1%) students reported that they would choose to have a vaccination for the COVID-19 coronavirus; on the other side, 102 (13.9%) students reported that they would not or be not sure to vaccine (low intention to vaccinate). This means that in our sample more than one student out of 10 shows low intention to vaccinate (vaccine hesitancy). Furthermore, when running analysis comparing healthcare students versus non-healthcare students we found no significant differences in responses' percentage distribution (p = .097). Understanding the student's perspective about the future COVID-19 vaccine and supporting their health engagement and consciousness may be useful in planning adequate response and multidisciplinary educational strategies-including the psychological perspective on vaccine hesitancy underlying factors - in the post-pandemic period.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Estudantes/psicologia , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Europa (Continente) , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Intenção , Itália/epidemiologia , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Universidades , Vacinação/psicologia , Vacinas Virais/administração & dosagem , Vacinas Virais/efeitos adversos
18.
Waste Manag ; 117: 1-8, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32799056

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The increase in non-separated solid waste is a threat to environmental health. People may be motivated to reduce the destructive effects of waste accumulation in the environment by receiving educational messages and learning the proper methods of waste separation. This study aimed to determine the effect of educational messages on waste separation in dormitory students based on Extended Parallel Process Model (EPPM). METHODS: This randomized controlled trial was performed on 320 students categorized into four groups from October to December 2019. After installing waste separation tags on separate containers, three types of messages were presented to encourage and educate waste separation in the following four groups: threat messages; efficacy messages; threat/efficacy messages; and control group. Data were collected prior to and one week after training by a self-reported valid and reliable questionnaire. They were analyzed in SPSS21. RESULTS: In the efficacy group and threat/efficacy group, not only the mean scores of "perceived threat associated with non-segregation and waste accumulation", "attitude" and "intention" but also the mean score of "efficacy" and "waste separation behavior" were improved (P < 0.05). In both groups, the mean score of "perceived barriers" for waste separation was lower than the other two groups (P < 0.001). DISCUSSION: Use of efficacy-based massages alone or in combination with the threat component was proposed to promote waste separation. No specific study has documented the effectiveness of messages based on EPPM on solid waste separation behaviors. The current study highlighted the effectiveness of using EPPM to promote waste-separation behavior in practice, not in theory.


Assuntos
Comunicação , Resíduos Sólidos , Estudantes , Atitude , Feminino , Humanos , Intenção , Inquéritos e Questionários
19.
Waste Manag ; 117: 170-178, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32861079

RESUMO

Consumer food waste during the consumption stage is usually generated in different settings (at home or out-of-home). Consumer food waste behavior has been the focus of substantial investigation in the search for the mitigation of food waste in households. However, researchers have not treated consumer food waste behavior in restaurants in much detail. This study aims to test an extended Theory of Planned Behavior by including price consciousness and food taste to understand the antecedents of food waste behavior in restaurants. An online survey provided quantitative data from 329 participants. The results showed that (1) the extended TPB model is useful in predicting consumer food waste behavior in restaurants with an improved variance in food waste behavior from 13% to 15%; (2) intention to reduce food waste and perceived behavioral control had a significant negative effect on food waste behavior; (3) food taste exerted a significant positive effect on food waste behavior; (4) attitudes towards food waste, perceived behavioral control and price consciousness positively affected intention to reduce food waste. The current study represents a further step towards understanding consumer food waste behavior in restaurants.


Assuntos
Eliminação de Resíduos , Restaurantes , Comportamento do Consumidor , Alimentos , Intenção
20.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0235688, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32780747

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Improvement of women's knowledge and attitude toward vaginal birth is recognized as an important strategy to control caesarean sections (CS) on maternal request. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a mass-media campaign in improving knowledge, attitude and intention of women for vaginal birth. METHODS: This was a population-based study carried out in Tehran, Iran. A national 'No to unnecessary caesarean sections' campaign was launched in April 2016 and was televised for ten days. A random sample of pregnant women from all defined geographical areas of Tehran were recruited and assessed for knowledge about the benefits of vaginal birth and the risk of CS, attitude and intention toward mode of delivery at two points in time: before and after the campaign. A comparison was made to evaluate outcome measures among those who had seen the campaign and those who had not. RESULTS: In all, 37 public and private maternity care centers were selected randomly and 702 eligible pregnant women attending these centers were entered in the study. Pre- and post-intervention data for 466 women were available for analysis. Of these, 194 women indicated that they had seen the campaign and the remaining 272 women said that they had not. A comparison of the outcome measures between the two study groups showed that there were significant differences between those who had seen the campaign and those who had not. Those who had seen the campaign reported increased knowledge, had a more positive attitude and indicated increased behavioral intention toward vaginal birth. CONCLUSIONS: In general, the findings indicated that the mass-media campaign improved pregnant women's knowledge, attitude and intention towards vaginal birth. However, the long-term effects of such campaigns need further investigation.


Assuntos
Cesárea , Adolescente , Adulto , Atitude Frente a Saúde , Tomada de Decisões , Parto Obstétrico , Feminino , Humanos , Intenção , Irã (Geográfico) , Serviços de Saúde Materna , Gravidez , Gestantes , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
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