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1.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 31(4): 362-367, 2019 Sep 19.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31612669

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare the difference of fertility of Biomphalaria glabrata snails between self-fertilization and cross-fertilization and to observe the circadian rhythm of laying eggs, the effect of light on laying eggs and the tolerance of the snail to water and food deficiency, so as to provide the evidence for control and elimination of B. glabrata snails in the field. METHODS: Under laboratory conditions, a single B. glabrata egg for self-fertilization was separated and hatched individually, and young snails were raised in different plastic boxes individually. The eggs for cross-fertilization were hatched and the young snails were fed in the same plastic box. The ability of spawn, the development of the eggs, and the number of snails growing from young to adult snails were compared between the self-fertilization and cross-fertilization. The snails were in the water under four environments, all day illumination, all day without illumination, daytime lighting and night without illumination, and daytime without illumination but night lighting. The eggs were collected and counted daily. The circadian rhythm of spawn and the effect of illumination on spawn were observed. The adult snails were divided into 6 groups and exposed to the environments with relative humidity of 0, 65%, 87% and 100%, respectively. The survival rates of the adult snails exposed to the different environments after different time were observed. The adult snails were placed at 25 °C in the oven to remove water content from the soft body of snails. When the dehydration rates of the soft bodies achieved 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%, 52%, 55%, 57%, 60%, and 70% respectively, the survival rates of the adult snails exposed to the oven were observed. RESULTS: In the 25 °C water, the average laying egg number for 15 days per snail was (8.77 ± 16.92) eggs/snail in the self-fertilization snail. The average laying egg number for 15 days per snail was (149.71 ± 142.28) eggs/snail in the cross-fertilization snails. There was a significant difference between the self-fertilization snail and cross-fertilization snail (t = 0.999 999, P < 0.01). The hatching rate and reproductive maturation rate of the self-fertilization snails and cross-fertilization snails were 50.1% and 78.9%, and 19.3% and 3.8%, respectively, There was a significant difference (the hatching rate: χ2 = 18.18, P < 0.01, the reproductive maturation rate: χ2 = 11.83, P < 0.01) . In the natural environment of daytime with illumination and nighttime with darkness, the amount of laying 20 eggs of B. glabrata snail was (944.07 ± 392.53) eggs/day during a whole day, among them the amount of laying eggs during daytime account for 10.1% and the amount of laying eggs during nighttime account for 89.9%, and the laying egg was given priority to with the night. The above results suggested that the dark environment was conducive to B. glabrata snails to lay eggs. The above results suggested that light can promote the increase of spawning of B. glabrata. When B. glabrata was exposed to the environments with the relative humidity of 0, 65%, 87% and 100% at 25 °C, respectively, and the longest survival times of snails were 7, 70, 150 d and 100 d, respectively. In the 25 °C water, the snails could survive for 50 days without food. The adult snails were placed at 25 °C in the oven to remove water content from the soft body of snails. When the dehydration rates of the soft bodies achieved 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%, 52%, 55%, 57%, 60%, and 70% respectively, the survival rates of the adult snails exposed to the oven were 100%, 100%, 100%, 100%, 70%, 30%, 0, 0, 0 and 0, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: B. glabrata can achieve the reproductive process by cross-fertilization or self-fertilization. There is a significant difference in reproductive ability between the cross-fertilization snail and self-fertilization snail, cross-fertilization is stronger than self-fertilization, but the rate of reproduction in the self-fertilization is higher than that in the cross-fertilization. It is indicated that B. glabrata that survive after the dry season plays an important role in the maintenance of local snail populations and transmission of schistosomiasis mansoni.


Assuntos
Biomphalaria , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Schistosoma mansoni , Animais , Biomphalaria/parasitologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita/fisiologia , Estágios do Ciclo de Vida/fisiologia , Reprodução , Schistosoma mansoni/fisiologia , Esquistossomose mansoni/transmissão , Estações do Ano
2.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 31(4): 404-409, 2019 Sep 23.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31612676

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the expression of some genes in Pomacea canaliculata infected with Angiostrongylus cantonensis, so as to provide insight into the preliminary understanding of the interactions between Angiostrongylus cantonensis and its intermediate host Pomacea canaliculata. METHODS: P. canaliculata was fed with rat faces containing the first-stage larvae of A. cantonensis. Three to five P. canaliculata was sampled 1, 10 days and 20 days after feeding, and the hemolymph, hepatopancreas, kidney, intestinal tract, head-foot and gill tissues were collected, while uninfected P. canaliculata served as controls. Total RNA was extracted from various tissues of P. canaliculata at different time points post-infection, and transcribed reversely into cDNA. Based on previous transcriptome sequencing results, 10 genes associated with immune defense, signal transduction, cell growth and metabolism, stress response were selected, and the gene expression was determined in the hemolymph tissues of P. canaliculata 1, 10 days and 20 days post-infection with A. cantonensis using real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR assay, and the α-tubulin gene expression was quantified in the hepatopancreas, kidney, head-foot, intestinal tract and gill tissues of P. canaliculata infected with A. cantonensis. RESULTS: Higher CELA1 gene expression was detected in the infection group than in the control group 1 (t = 12.32, P < 0.05), 10 days (t = 23.51, P < 0.05) and 20 days post-infection (t = 34.92, P < 0.05), and the CELA1 expression increased with the time of infection. The GST gene expression was (7.26 ± 1.80) times higher in the infection group than in the control group 1 day post-infection, and was significantly lower in the infection group than in the control group 10 days (t = 23.89, P < 0.05) and 20 days post-infection (t = 19.83, P < 0.05). Higher ferritin gene expression was found in the infection group than in the control group 10 days post-infection (t = 32.76, P < 0.05), and higher CRT gene expression was seen in the infection group than in the control group 1 (t = 7.23, P < 0.05), 10 days (t = 5.78, P < 0.05) and 20 days post-infection (t = 6.32, P < 0.05). In addition, the greatest α-tubulin gene expression was observed in the the hepatopancreatic tissues of P. canaliculata (F = 17.58, P < 0.05), and the α-tubulin gene expression altered in various tissues of P. canaliculata post-infection with A. cantonensis, with the most remarkable reduction of α - tubulin gene expression seen in the hepatopancreatic tissues (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Following A. cantonensis infection in P. canaliculata, the expression of multiple genes is altered, and the expression of α-tubulin gene is inhibited in multiple tissues. The findings provide a basis for the further elucidation of the interactions between P. canaliculata and A. cantonensis.


Assuntos
Angiostrongylus cantonensis , Gastrópodes , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Infecções por Strongylida , Tubulina (Proteína) , Angiostrongylus cantonensis/fisiologia , Animais , Gastrópodes/genética , Gastrópodes/parasitologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita/genética , Larva , Ratos , Tubulina (Proteína)/genética
3.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 31(4): 446-449, 2019 Jul 23.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31612687

RESUMO

Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), a type of pleiotropic immunoregulatory cytokine with a specific structure, participates in the regulation of host cell growth and migration and immune responses. Following parasitic infections, hosts may produce MIF and then participate in the parasite-host interactions. In addition, parasites may secrete parasite-derived MIF, and they jointly participate in parasite-host interactions. This paper reviews the regulation of MIF gene expression following parasitic infections, the role of MIF in parasite-host immune system interactions, and important signaling pathways of MIF-mediated immune responses.


Assuntos
Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita/imunologia , Fatores Inibidores da Migração de Macrófagos , Parasitos , Animais , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Fatores Inibidores da Migração de Macrófagos/imunologia , Parasitos/imunologia , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia
4.
Dis Aquat Organ ; 136(1): 1-2, 2019 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31575831

RESUMO

Amphipods are a group of globally abundant Crustacea present throughout terrestrial, marine and freshwater ecosystems. These organisms host a highly diverse systematic assemblage of parasites and pathogens, which are closely linked to the host's evolution and ecological niche. Such symbioses have been found to affect the behaviour, physiology and overall health of amphipod hosts; including effects at both the individual and population scale, altering aquatic trophic structure and possibly representing far reaching consequences for fisheries species and predatory species. Amphipod diseases explored in this Special have been linked with biological invasions, systematics, behavioural ecology, ecotoxicology, epidemiology, host physiology and cannibalistic tendencies. These studies exemplify the importance of amphipod research and provide keystone studies for the use of these animals as model systems for understanding the effects of disease in crustacean assemblages.


Assuntos
Anfípodes/parasitologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Parasitos/patogenicidade , Animais , Ecossistema
5.
Dis Aquat Organ ; 136(1): 37-49, 2019 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31575833

RESUMO

Fluctuating asymmetry (FA), defined as random deviations from perfect bilateral symmetry, is assumed to reflect developmental instability. FA is predicted to increase in response to environmental stress, including parasite infection. In addition, based on theory we predict a higher FA in sexually selected traits, due to their greater sensitivity to stress. We investigated the relationships between FA, parasitism and reproductive fitness in 2 species of gammarid crustacean, incorporating both sexual and non-sexual traits. We tested the hypothesis that gammarids infected by vertically transmitted Microsporidia will display higher levels of FA than those infected by horizontally transmitted trematodes, because vertically transmitted Microsporidia can be present at the earliest stages of host development. We found little evidence for a relationship between FA and fecundity in Gammarus spp.; however, egg diameter for infected female Gammarus duebeni was significantly smaller than uninfected female G. duebeni. FA was not correlated with brood size in females or with sperm number in males. In contrast to our prediction, we report a lower relative FA in response to sexual traits than non-sexual traits. However, FA in sexual traits was found to be higher in males than females, supporting the theory that sexual selection leads to increased FA. Additionally, we report a negative correlation between FA and both trematode (Podocotyle atomon) and PCR-positive microsporidian (Nosema granulosis and Dictyocoela duebenum) infections and interpret these results in the context of the parasites' transmission strategies. FA in G. duebeni and G. zaddachi appears to associate with trematode and microsporidian presence, although reproductive fitness is less altered by infection.


Assuntos
Anfípodes/fisiologia , Anfípodes/parasitologia , Aptidão Genética , Animais , Feminino , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Masculino , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/fisiopatologia , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/transmissão , Reprodução
6.
Dis Aquat Organ ; 136(1): 51-62, 2019 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31575834

RESUMO

The Trematoda are a group of phylogenetically diverse metazoan parasites that exhibit complex life cycles that often pass through invertebrate and vertebrate hosts. Some trematodes influence their host's behaviour to benefit transmission. Their parasitic influence may impact host population size by inhibiting an individual's reproductive capacity. We assessed the impact of infection by Podocotyle atomon on the reproductive behaviour and fecundity of its amphipod intermediate host, Gammarus zaddachi, using laboratory and field studies. Parasite prevalence was high in the field, with males more likely to be infected (prevalence in males 64%, in females 39%). Males also suffered a higher parasite burden than females. Infected females were less active, but we found no evidence for a reduction in female reproductive success. Infected females also had comparable pairing success to uninfected females. In males, infection reduced survival and fecundity, with mortality being highest, and sperm numbers lowest, in heavily infected individuals. Trematode parasites are sometimes associated with altered host fecundity, but studies often lack the relevant experimental data to explore the evolution of the trait. We discuss this among information specific to the effect of P. atomon infection in G. zaddachi.


Assuntos
Anfípodes/fisiologia , Anfípodes/parasitologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Trematódeos/patogenicidade , Animais , Feminino , Fertilidade , Masculino , Reprodução
7.
Dis Aquat Organ ; 136(1): 63-78, 2019 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31575835

RESUMO

Dikerogammarus haemobaphes is a non-native amphipod in UK freshwaters. Studies have identified this species as a low-impact invader in the UK, relative to its cousin Dikerogammarus villosus. It has been suggested that regulation by symbionts (such as Microsporidia) could explain this difference in impact. The effect of parasitism on D. haemobaphes is largely unknown. This was explored herein using 2 behavioural assays measuring activity and aggregation. First, D. haemobaphes were screened histologically post-assay, identifying 2 novel viruses (D. haemobaphes bi-facies-like virus [DhbflV], D. haemobaphes bacilliform virus [DhBV]), Cucumispora ornata (Microsporidia), Apicomplexa, and Digenea, which could alter host behaviour. DhBV infection burden increased host activity, and C. ornata infection reduced host activity. Second, native invertebrates were collected from the invasion site at Carlton Brook, UK, and tested for the presence of C. ornata. PCR screening identified that Gammarus pulex and other native invertebrates were positive for C. ornata. The host range of this parasite, and its impact on host survival, was additionally explored using D. haemobaphes, D. villosus, and G. pulex in a laboratory trial. D. haemobaphes and G. pulex became infected by C. ornata, which also lowered survival rate. D. villosus did not become infected. A PCR protocol for DhbflV was also applied to D. haemobaphes after the survival trial, associating this virus with decreased host survival. In conclusion, D. haemobaphes has a complex relationship with parasites in the UK environment. C. ornata likely regulates populations by decreasing host survival and activity, but despite this benefit, the parasite threatens susceptible native wildlife.


Assuntos
Anfípodes/parasitologia , Anfípodes/virologia , Parasitos/patogenicidade , Animais , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Microsporídios , Trematódeos , Reino Unido
8.
Dis Aquat Organ ; 136(1): 79-86, 2019 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31575836

RESUMO

In Northern Ireland, the amphipods Gammarus duebeni celticus (native) and G. pulex (invasive) coexist in some places, whilst in others the native species has been replaced by the invader. We explored the role of parasites in mediating interactions between these amphipods, which demonstrate mutual intraguild predation (IGP: predation between animals that also compete for prey). IGP and cannibalism can be important factors in structuring populations and communities. We investigated the effects of parasitism on rates of IGP between G. d. celticus and G. pulex and on cannibalism within each species by comparing functional responses (FRs: relationships between the use of a prey resource and its availability). Infection with the microsporidian Pleistophora mulleri caused an increase in IGP and cannibalism by G. d. celticus, which showed increased attack rates and reduced prey handling times. In contrast, infection with the acanthocephalan parasite Echinorhynchus truttae did not alter IGP or cannibalism by G. pulex. A prey preference experiment revealed that both amphipods were more likely to feed on heterospecific rather than conspecific prey, and this was also corroborated by the fact that overall IGP FRs were higher than cannibalism FRs. This may be selectively advantageous, as feeding on heterospecific prey removes possible competitors without the risk of consuming juvenile kin or acquiring parasites from infected conspecifics. Infection of the native G. d. celticus with P. mulleri enhanced IGP on the invasive G. pulex, which is likely to facilitate the coexistence of the 2 species.


Assuntos
Anfípodes/fisiologia , Anfípodes/parasitologia , Canibalismo , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Pleistophora/patogenicidade , Animais , Espécies Introduzidas , Comportamento Predatório
9.
Dis Aquat Organ ; 136(1): 107-121, 2019 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31575838

RESUMO

Amphipods are model species in studies of pervasive biological patterns such as sexual selection, size assortative pairing and parasite infection patterns. Cryptic diversity (i.e. morphologically identical but genetically divergent lineages) has recently been detected in several species. Potential effects of such hidden diversity on biological patterns remain unclear, but potentially significant, and beg the question of whether we have missed part of the picture by involuntarily overlooking the occurrence and effects of cryptic diversity on biological patterns documented by previous studies. Here we tested for potential effects of cryptic diversity on parasite infection patterns in amphipod populations and discuss the implications of our results in the context of previously documented host-parasite infection patterns, especially amphipod-acanthocephalan associations. We assessed infection levels (prevalence and abundance) of 3 acanthocephalan species (Pomphorhynchus laevis, P. tereticollis and Polymorphus minutus) among cryptic lineages of the Gammarus pulex/G. fossarum species complex and G. roeseli from sampling sites where they occur in sympatry. We also evaluated potential differences in parasite-induced mortality among host molecular operational taxonomic units (MOTUs)-parasite species combinations. Acanthocephalan prevalence, abundance and parasite-induced mortality varied widely among cryptic MOTUs and parasite species; infection patterns were more variable among MOTUs than sampling sites. Overall, cryptic diversity in amphipods strongly influenced apparent infection levels and parasite-induced mortality. Future research on species with cryptic diversity should account for potential effects on documented biological patterns. Results from previous studies may also need to be reassessed in light of cryptic diversity and its pervasive effects.


Assuntos
Acantocéfalos/patogenicidade , Anfípodes/parasitologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Anfípodes/classificação , Animais
10.
Dis Aquat Organ ; 136(1): 123-134, 2019 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31575839

RESUMO

Amphipods are commonly used test organisms in ecotoxicological studies. Nevertheless, their naturally occurring parasites have mostly been neglected in these investigations, even though several groups of parasites can have a multitude of effects, e.g. on host survival, physiology, or behavior. In the present review, we summarize the knowledge on the effects of Microsporidia and Acanthocephala, 2 common and abundant groups of parasites in amphipods, on the outcome of ecotoxicological studies. Parasites can have significant effects on toxicological endpoints (e.g. mortality, biochemical markers) that are unexpected in some cases (e.g. down-regulation of heat shock protein 70 response in infected individuals). Therefore, parasites can bias the interpretation of results, for example if populations with different parasite profiles are compared, or if toxicological effects are masked by parasite effects. With the present review, we would like to encourage ecotoxicologists to consider parasites as an additional factor if field-collected test organisms are analyzed for biomarkers. Additionally, we suggest intensification of research activities on the effects of parasites in amphipods in connection with other stressors to disentangle parasite and pollution effects and to improve our understanding of parasite effects in this host taxon.


Assuntos
Anfípodes/parasitologia , Parasitos/patogenicidade , Acantocéfalos , Animais , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Microsporídios
11.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 91(3): e20180597, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31618410

RESUMO

Several parasitoids attacking the same host may lead to competition. Adult parasitoids' abilities to find, parasitize and defend hosts determine resource's retention potential. In soybean, two egg parasitoid species, Telenomus podisi and Trissolcus urichi (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae), compete on the egg masses of Piezodorus guildinii (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) one of the major pest of this crop. We evaluated parasitoid's abilities to exploit hosts' footprints; and parasitoid's behavior when competing for the same host. Both arena residence time and retention time were similar for T. podisi and T. urichi on male or female host footprints. In its turn, T. urichi reentered the area contaminated with P. guildinii more times and staid longer in it than T. podisi. Furthermore, when competing for the same egg mass, each parasitoid species won (was in possession of the host by the end of the experiment) half of the replicates, and the number of times each wasp species contacted host in the first place was similar, without affecting replicate outcome (who ultimately won). Both species started agonistic and non-agonistic encounters. This study provides information about the potential interspecific competition between these parasitoids, which contributes to evaluate the compatibility of multiple natural enemies' biological control programs for stink bugs.


Assuntos
Hemípteros/parasitologia , Controle Biológico de Vetores/métodos , Animais , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Feminino , Hemípteros/fisiologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Masculino , Oviposição , Óvulo/fisiologia , Soja , Vespas/parasitologia
12.
Vet Parasitol ; 273: 112-121, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31476666

RESUMO

Toxoplasma gondii is the parasite responsible for toxoplasmosis, a highly prevalent zoonosis that affects humans and warm-blooded animals. Faeces of infected cats can contain millions of T. gondii oocysts, which remain infectious in the environment for months. Sites repeatedly used by cats for defecation ('latrines') are recognised as hotspots of T. gondii soil contamination, but this contamination varies from one latrine to another. To understand this spatial heterogeneity, camera traps were deployed in 39 cat latrines on three dairy farms with high-density cat populations and programmed to record visits during sixteen 10-day sessions, rotating between three farms over a period of a year. Generalized Linear Mixed Models were used to test the effects of cat sexual maturity, latrine location and season on the number of cat faeces deposited and on the number of cats defecating per latrine, as determined from the analysis of 41,282 video recordings. Sexually immature cats defecated 6.60-fold (95% CI = [2.87-15.25]) more often in latrines located close to a feeding site than in other latrines. This pattern was also observed for mature males (odds ratio [OR] = 9.42, 95% CI = [3.29-26.91]), especially during winter, but not for mature females (OR = 1.77, 95% CI = [0.80-3.94]). The number of defecating cats was also 2.67-fold (95% CI = [1.66-4.30], P < 0.001) higher in latrines located close to a feeding point than in those located far from it, regardless of cat category and season. Visits by intermediate T. gondii hosts (micromammals, birds and others) were also recorded. Out of the 39 latrines, 30 (76.92%) were visited by at least one intermediate host during the study period, and some latrines were highly frequented (up to 8.74 visits/day on average). These results provide evidence that the location of food resources in dairy farms influences the latrine use pattern by cats. Highly frequented latrines can be of high risk of T. gondii infection for definitive and intermediate hosts.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Doenças do Gato/transmissão , Solo/parasitologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/transmissão , Animais , Gatos , Indústria de Laticínios , Feminino , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Modelos Lineares , Densidade Demográfica
13.
Oecologia ; 191(2): 285-294, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31494712

RESUMO

Parasitic infections elicit host defences that pose energetic trade-offs with other fitness-related traits. Bitterling fishes and unionid mussels are involved in a two-way parasitic interaction. Bitterling exploit mussels by ovipositing into their gills. In turn, mussel larvae (glochidia) develop on the epidermis and gills of fish. Hosts have evolved behavioural responses to reduce parasite load, suggesting that glochidia and bitterling parasitism are costly. We examined the energetic cost of parasitism on both sides of this relationship. We used intermittent flow-through respirometry to measure (1) standard metabolic rate (SMR) of individual duck mussels Anodonta anatina (a common bitterling host) before and during infection by embryos of the European bitterling Rhodeus amarus, and (2) SMR and maximum oxygen uptake (MO2max) of individual R. amarus before and during infection with glochidia of the Chinese pond mussel Sinanodonta woodiana (a mussel species that successfully infects bitterling). As predicted, we observed an increase in mussel SMR when infected by bitterling embryos and an increased SMR in glochidia-infected bitterling, though this was significantly mediated by the time post-infection. Contrary to our predictions, glochidia infection did not impair MO2max and the number of glochidia attached to gills positively (rather than negatively) correlated with MO2max. The results suggest that tolerance is the prevailing coping mechanism for both fish and mussels when infected, while resistance mechanisms appear to be confined to the behavioural level.


Assuntos
Cyprinidae , Parasitos , Animais , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Oxigênio , Consumo de Oxigênio
14.
Naturwissenschaften ; 106(9-10): 52, 2019 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31482235

RESUMO

Parasitoid researchers have generally thought that the body size of the mother parasitoid does not affect the fitness performance of the progeny during the immature stage, as long as the progeny develop in the same environment. We reveal for the first time that this is not true for the parasitoid Echthrodelphax fairchildii (Hymenoptera: Dryinidae), which is parasitic on planthoppers. Large females ensured an increased survival rate for their progeny during the immature stage and a large body size at adult emergence. Maternal body size differentially affected the body sizes and survival rates of male and female progeny. Small females did not produce female progeny, and the survival rate of the female progeny increased more steeply with increasing maternal body size than that of the male progeny. Meanwhile, the body size of male progeny increased more steeply with increasing maternal body size. The influence of maternal body size on progeny survival to adult emergence has never been reported in insects before. In addition, large females were more likely to lay female eggs, suggesting that females control the sex ratio of progeny in response to their own body size.


Assuntos
Tamanho Corporal/fisiologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita/fisiologia , Vespas/anatomia & histologia , Vespas/fisiologia , Animais , Feminino , Larva/anatomia & histologia , Larva/fisiologia , Masculino , Oviposição/fisiologia , Taxa de Sobrevida
15.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 91(3): e20171028, 2019 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31482992

RESUMO

Aplectana hylambatis is a nematode with a wide geographic distribution and low host specificity. In spite of numerous reports, until this moment, the morphological variations between different hosts and localities have not been studied. We studied 401 specimens collected from five host species from seven localities in Argentina, and examined the following morphological characters: mamelon-like cuticular protuberances anterior to the vulva, structure of the gubernaculum and the spicules, number and arrangement of caudal papillae, and the measurements of twelve characters in females and eleven characters in males. The results showed that mamelon-like protuberances and caudal papillae varied in number and arrangement between different hosts and localities. The metrical study revealed that five characters in males and six in females contributed to variability; nine characters showed significant differences between host species and localities. Specimens of A. hylambatis collected from R. arenarum formed a group clearly differentiated from the rest of the specimens. The results from this study highlight the importance of examining as many specimens as possible from different host samples and from several localities to cover the intraspecific variations.


Assuntos
Anuros/parasitologia , Nematoides/anatomia & histologia , Nematoides/classificação , Animais , Anuros/classificação , Argentina , Feminino , Geografia , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Masculino
16.
Vet Parasitol ; 273: 36-44, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31442891

RESUMO

Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus ticks cause major constraints to public and livestock health, and serious economic losses. It is well known that the immune response to infestations with cattle ticks is influenced by the host genetic background leading to distinct immunological profiles between bovine hosts genetically susceptible and resistant. The influence of Bos indicus (Bi) and Bos taurus (Bt) maternal lineage ancestry of mitochondrial DNA in the profile of the immune response of Zebu cattle to ticks remains unknown. The present work evaluated the hematological parameters and the immune response profile in the peripheral blood of a Guzerat dairy herd, further categorized into two maternal lineage ancestry subgroups (Bi-mtDNA and Bt-mtDNA) after experimental infestation with larvae of R. microplus. Our data demonstrated that although hematological and erythrogram analysis showed a similar profile throughout, some cell populations present a distinct profile between the groups. Especially MON, CD335+ and CD8+ T-cells are predominant in Bi-mtDNA. Moreover, an overall picture of R. microplus infestation demonstrated that Bi-mtDNA presented a more efficient and earlier innate immune response. Bi-mtDNA showed a greater number of connections with R. microplus counts and also with the CD25+ activation marker of the immune response. Bi-mtDNA showed greater number of connections, with an important participation of the innate immune while Bt-mtDNA showed a delay in the immune response. Elucidating the mechanisms by which resistant animals prevent heavy tick infestation is a crucial step in the development of predictive biomarkers for tick resistance for use in selective breeding programs, and is also potentially useful for the development of anti-tick vaccines.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/imunologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita/imunologia , Imunidade Inata/imunologia , Rhipicephalus/imunologia , Infestações por Carrapato/veterinária , Animais , Cruzamento , Bovinos , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Indústria de Laticínios , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Infestações por Carrapato/imunologia
17.
Vet Parasitol ; 273: 67-70, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31442896

RESUMO

Suckling calves are prone to Cryptosporidium infection. The variable degree of clinical disease is influenced by keeping conditions and immune status of the host, but diversity of isolate virulence may also contribute. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the cytopathogenic effects of 26 C. parvum field isolates by using a MTT assay in HCT-8 cell monolayers. Cell viability of monolayers inoculated with oocysts of the field isolates varied considerably with values of 17.7% (± 5.1%) to 99.5% (± 7.1%). A standard deviation of 18.6% was detected for cell viability of the in house reference strain, which were tested alongside in every assay. Field isolates were grouped in three categories of cytopathogenicity. Probably the length of storage has an effect on the level of the cell destruction category detected post infection in vitro. The applied tool may help to better understand the variable course of cryptosporidiosis in the field.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Criptosporidiose/parasitologia , Cryptosporidium parvum/patogenicidade , Animais , Bovinos , Linhagem Celular , Sobrevivência Celular , Células Epiteliais/citologia , Células Epiteliais/parasitologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita/imunologia , Humanos , Virulência/imunologia
18.
Microbiol Res ; 227: 126293, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31421715

RESUMO

T. gondii is a major opportunistic pathogen chronically infecting nearly one third of the world's population. Due to the high infection and mortality rates in immunocompromised patients and newborns, the extent or magnitude of T. gondii pathogenesis is determined mainly by host-pathogen interactions. T. gondii utilizes specialized secretory proteins to modify host cellular factors and facilitate invasion and replication. This review provides update on the recent progress in this field of research with particular emphasis on the T. gondii secretory proteins and their role in invasion and pathogenesis.


Assuntos
Transporte Proteico/fisiologia , Proteínas de Protozoários/metabolismo , Toxoplasma/fisiologia , Toxoplasma/patogenicidade , Animais , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Humanos , Estágios do Ciclo de Vida , Toxoplasmose/parasitologia
19.
Vet Parasitol ; 272: 1-12, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31395198

RESUMO

The identification of candidate protective antigens for the development of tick vaccines may be approached by selecting antigen candidates that play key biological functions. Tick midgut proteins that play essential functions in tick survival and disease transmission are upregulated in response to blood feeding and digestion. In this study, Ornithodoros erraticus midgut transcriptomic and proteomic data upon feeding were inspected to select functionally relevant antigens to be assessed as vaccine candidate antigens. For this, we primarily focused on proteins with relevant biological functions in key physiological processes for ticks and tick-host-pathogen interactions. Later, we used additional criteria based on overexpression after feeding, predicted antigenicity and cellular localisation, resulting in the selection of four theoretical candidates, two aquaporins (OeAQP, OeAQP1), one ABC transporter (OeABC) and one selenoprotein T (OeSEL). Rabbit vaccination with synthetic immunogenic peptides designed from the extracellular antigenic regions of the selected candidates induced humoral responses that reduced tick feeding and reproduction performance. Both AQPs and OeSEL demonstrated significant protection efficacy against the homologous species O. erraticus, but lower non-significant cross-species protection against Ornithodoros moubata. Conversely, OeABC showed no protection against the homologous species O. erraticus, but significant cross-species protection against O. moubata. These results are the first demonstration of the protective potential of argasid aquaporins, suggesting that they might be included in vaccines for the control of multiple tick species. Additionally, these results also unveiled two novel protective antigens from argasid ticks, OeABC and OeSEL, belonging to functional protein families that have never been explored as a source of vaccine candidates and are deserving of further studies. Finally, our data add value to the midgut as a protective candidate antigen source in argasids for the control of tick infestations.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Artrópodes/imunologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita/imunologia , Ornithodoros/imunologia , Infestações por Carrapato/prevenção & controle , Animais , Proteínas de Artrópodes/metabolismo , Ornithodoros/química , Proteoma , Coelhos , Transcriptoma
20.
J Chem Ecol ; 45(8): 715-724, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31385154

RESUMO

Plants emit a specific blend of volatiles in response to herbivory and these volatiles, which often attract predators and parasitoids function as an indirect plant defense. The impact of plant volatiles in shaping herbivore defenses is unclear. Here, we report that specific plant volatiles induce immune responses in the polyphagous herbivore, Spodoptera litura. We characterized the hemocyte profile and established their functional significance with respect to ontogeny and exposure to specific plant volatiles. Fifth instar larvae showed the highest number and hemocytes diversity. We characterized seven different types of hemocytes, of which granulocytes performed phagocytosis, oenocytoids showed melanization activity, and plasmatocytes along with granulocytes and oenocytoids were found to be involved in encapsulation. Among the six volatiles tested, exposure to (E)-ß-ocimene caused the highest increase in total hemocytes number (THC) followed by linalool and (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate exposure. Although THC did not differ between these three volatile treatments, circulating hemocytes diversity varied significantly. (E)-ß-ocimene exposure showed higher number of plasmatocytes and phenol oxidase activity. The interaction of the parasitic wasp Bracon brevicornis with (E)-ß-ocimene exposed larvae was poor in terms of delayed paralysis and lower egg deposition. In choice assays, the wasp showed clear preference towards control larvae indicating (E)-ß-ocimene treatment renders the host unattractive. Hemocyte profiles post-parasitoid exposure and (E)-ß-ocimene treatment were similar indicating cue-based priming. When challenged with Bacillus thuringiensis, linalool exposure resulted in the highest survival as compared to other volatiles. Our results show that specific HIPVs can modulate cellular immunity of S. litura, revealing a new role for HIPVs in tri-trophic interactions.


Assuntos
Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/farmacologia , Vespas/fisiologia , Alcenos/farmacologia , Animais , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Hemócitos/citologia , Hemócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Hemócitos/metabolismo , Herbivoria , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Sistema Imunitário/efeitos dos fármacos , Sistema Imunitário/metabolismo , Larva/fisiologia , Monofenol Mono-Oxigenase/metabolismo , Monoterpenos/farmacologia , Oviposição/efeitos dos fármacos , Fagocitose/efeitos dos fármacos , Plantas/química , Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas/parasitologia , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/química , Vespas/imunologia
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