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1.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 273: 97-103, 2020 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33087597

RESUMO

Technological advancements in smart assistive technology enable navigating and manipulating various types of computer-aided devices in the operating room through a contactless gesture interface. Understanding surgeon actions is crucial to natural human-robot interaction in operating room since it means a sort of prediction a human behavior so that the robot can foresee the surgeon's intention, early choose appropriate action and reduce waiting time. In this paper, we present a new deep network based on Convolution Long Short-Term Memory (ConvLSTM) for gesture prediction configured to provide natural interaction between the surgeon and assistive robot and improve operating-room efficiency. The experimental results prove the capability of reliably recognizing unfinished gestures on videos. We quantitatively demonstrate the latter ability and the fact that GestureConvLSTM improves the baseline system performance on LSA64 dataset.


Assuntos
Gestos , Equipamentos de Autoajuda , Computadores , Humanos , Salas Cirúrgicas , Interface Usuário-Computador
2.
Molecules ; 25(19)2020 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33036293

RESUMO

A novel series of some hydrazones bearing thiazole moiety were generated via solvent-drop grinding of thiazole carbohydrazide 2 with various carbonyl compounds. Also, dehydrative-cyclocondensation of 2 with active methylene compounds or anhydrides gave the respective pyarzole or pyrazine derivatives. The structures of the newly synthesized compounds were established based on spectroscopic evidences and their alternative syntheses. Additionally, the anti-viral activity of all the products was tested against SARS-CoV-2 main protease (Mpro) using molecular docking combined with molecular dynamics simulation (MDS). The average binding affinities of the compounds 3a, 3b, and 3c (-8.1 ± 0.33 kcal/mol, -8.0 ± 0.35 kcal/mol, and -8.2 ± 0.21 kcal/mol, respectively) are better than that of the positive control Nelfinavir (-6.9 ± 0.51 kcal/mol). This shows the possibility of these three compounds to effectively bind to SARS-CoV-2 Mpro and hence, contradict the virus lifecycle.


Assuntos
Antivirais/síntese química , Betacoronavirus/enzimologia , Hidrazonas/síntese química , Inibidores de Proteases/síntese química , Pirazinas/síntese química , Pirazóis/síntese química , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/antagonistas & inibidores , Antivirais/farmacologia , Betacoronavirus/química , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Sítios de Ligação , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Cisteína Endopeptidases/química , Cisteína Endopeptidases/metabolismo , Descoberta de Drogas , Humanos , Hidrazonas/farmacologia , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Proteases/farmacologia , Ligação Proteica , Conformação Proteica em alfa-Hélice , Conformação Proteica em Folha beta , Domínios e Motivos de Interação entre Proteínas , Pirazinas/farmacologia , Pirazóis/farmacologia , Termodinâmica , Interface Usuário-Computador , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/química , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/metabolismo
3.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 4567-4570, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33019010

RESUMO

People with body disabilities as a result of neurological diseases or physical accidents, face daily troubles in some situations that require arm or finger motions. Access to expensive assistive technologies can be difficult, and job opportunities can be low for patients with limited mobility. Triboelectric nanogenerators (TENGs) bring a new concept enabling the design of special sensors that can be used in Human-Computer-Interfaces (HCIs) to support people with disabilities. In this manuscript, it is proposed a novel eye motion sensor based on TENG integrated into an HCI leading to hands-free typing on the computer. We demonstrate that by controlling the cursor, the user can pick up the characters from a virtual keyboard and write an algorithm in the Integrated-Development-Environment (IDE) of Python language. The novel eye sensor recognizes the eyelash motion detected from the triboelectric interaction between human hair and silicone. It is shown that a user is able to write a simple python program to display a message on the computer without the use of hands. Finally, we hope this development can support disabled patients to improve their programming skills and provide improved job opportunities in areas such as information technology or computer science.


Assuntos
Pessoas com Deficiência , Equipamentos de Autoajuda , Mãos , Humanos , Movimento (Física) , Interface Usuário-Computador
4.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 4903-4908, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33019088

RESUMO

Haptic feedback can render real-time force interactions with computer simulated objects. In several telerobotic applications, it is desired that a haptic simulation reflects a physical task space or interaction accurately. This is particularly true when excessive applied force can result in disastrous consequences, as with the case of robot-assisted minimally invasive surgery (RMIS) and tissue damage. Since force cannot be directly measured in RMIS, non-contact methods are desired. A promising direction of non-contact force estimation involves the primary use of vision sensors to estimate deformation. However, the required fidelity of non-contact force rendering of deformable interaction to maintain surgical operator performance is not well established. This work attempts to empirically evaluate the degree to which haptic feedback may deviate from ground truth yet result in acceptable teleoperated performance in a simulated RMIS-based palpation task. A preliminary user-study is conducted to verify the utility of the simulation platform, and the results of this work have implications in haptic feedback for RMIS and inform guidelines for vision-based tool-tissue force estimation. An adaptive thresholding method is used to collect the minimum and maximum tolerable errors in force orientation and magnitude of presented haptic feedback to maintain sufficient performance.


Assuntos
Robótica , Interface Usuário-Computador , Retroalimentação , Retroalimentação Sensorial , Palpação
5.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 2429-2433, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33018497

RESUMO

Manual assessment from experts in neonatal endotracheal intubation (ETI) training is a time-consuming and tedious process. Such subjective, highly variable, and resource-intensive assessment method may not only introduce inter-rater/intra-rater variability, but also represent a serious limitation in many large-scale training programs. Moreover, poor visualization during the procedure prevents instructors from observing the events occurring within the manikin or the patient, which introduces an additional source of error into the assessment. In this paper, we propose a physics-based virtual reality (VR) ETI simulation system that captures the entire motions of the laryngoscope and the endotracheal tube (ETT) in relation to the internal anatomy of the virtual patient. Our system provides a complete visualization of the procedure, offering instructors with comprehensive information for accurate assessment. More importantly, an interpretable machine learning algorithm was developed to automatically assess the ETI performance by training on the performance parameters extracted from the motions and the scores rated by experts. Our results show that the leave-one-out-cross-validation (LOOCV) classification accuracy of the automated assessment algorithm is 80%, which indicates that our system can reliably conduct a consistent and standardized assessment for ETI training.


Assuntos
Laringoscópios , Realidade Virtual , Competência Clínica , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Intubação Intratraqueal , Interface Usuário-Computador
6.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 2925-2928, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33018619

RESUMO

An emerging corpus of research seeks to use virtual realities (VRs) to understand the neural mechanisms underlying spatial navigation and decision making in rodents. These studies have primarily used visual stimuli to represent the virtual world. However, auditory cues play an important role in navigation for animals, especially when the visual system cannot detect objects or predators. We have developed a virtual reality environment defined exclusively by free-field acoustic landmarks for head-fixed mice. We trained animals to run in a virtual environment with 3 acoustic landmarks. We present evidence that they can learn to navigate in our context: we observed anticipatory licking and modest anticipatory slowing preceding the reward region. Furthermore, we found that animals were highly aware of changes in landmark cues: licking behavior changed dramatically when the familiar virtual environment was switched to a novel one, and then rapidly reverted to normal when the familiar virtual environment was re-introduced, all within the same session. Finally, while animals executed the task, we performed in-vivo calcium imaging in the CA1 region of the hippocampus using a modified Miniscope.org system. Our experiments point to a future in which auditory virtual reality can be used to expand our understanding of the neural bases of audition in locomoting animals and the variety of sensory cues which anchor spatial representations in a new virtual environment.


Assuntos
Navegação Espacial , Realidade Virtual , Animais , Sinais (Psicologia) , Camundongos , Percepção Espacial , Interface Usuário-Computador
7.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 3035-3039, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33018645

RESUMO

The concept of 'presence' in the context of virtual reality (VR) refers to the experience of being in the virtual environment, even when one is physically situated in the real world. Therefore, it is a key parameter of assessing a VR system, based on which, improvements can be made to it. To overcome the limitations of existing methods that are based on standard questionnaires and behavioral analysis, this study proposes to investigate the suitability of biosignals of the user to derive an objective measure of presence. The proposed approach includes experiments conducted on 20 users, recording EEG, ECG and electrodermal activity (EDA) signals while experiencing custom designed VR scenarios with factors contributing to presence suppressed and unsuppressed. Mutual Information based feature selection and subsequent paired t-tests used to identify significant variations in biosignal features when each factor of presence is suppressed revealed significant (p < 0.05) differences in the mean values of EEG signal power and coherence within alpha, beta and gamma bands distributed in specific regions of the brain. Statistical features showed a significant variation with the suppression of realism factor. The variations of activity in the temporal region lead to the assumption of insula activation which may be related to the sense of presence. Therefore, the use of biosignals for an objective measurement of presence in VR systems indicates promise.


Assuntos
Realidade Virtual , Encéfalo , Mapeamento Encefálico , Córtex Cerebral , Interface Usuário-Computador
8.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 3192-3195, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33018683

RESUMO

Spatial attention is an important feature for filtering everyday inputs. The direction of the attention can be guided by the use of visual, auditory or tactile stimuli. The literature regarding the effect of cueing spatial attention in visual search tasks consistently shows an improvement in accuracy and reaction time. So far, most studies have used two-dimensional setups, for which ecological validity may be questioned. In this study with healthy participants, we investigated the feasibility of a virtual reality-based setup. We examined the feasibility and compared the performance in a visual search task as auditory, tactile or combined cues were given. The results revealed high usability and a significantly higher detection rate for combined audio-tactile cues compared to auditory cues alone.


Assuntos
Sinais (Psicologia) , Realidade Virtual , Atenção , Humanos , Tato , Interface Usuário-Computador
9.
Health Aff (Millwood) ; 39(10): 1792-1798, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33017232

RESUMO

Motor vehicle crashes remain the leading cause of adolescent mortality and injury in the United States. For young drivers, crash risk peaks immediately after licensure and declines during the next two years, making the point of licensure an important safety intervention opportunity. Legislation in Ohio established a unique health-transportation partnership among the State of Ohio, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, and Diagnostic Driving, Inc., to identify underprepared driver license applicants through a virtual driving assessment system. The system, a computer-based virtual driving test, exposes drivers to common serious crash scenarios to identify critical skill deficits and is delivered in testing centers immediately before the on-road examination. A pilot study of license applicants who completed it showed that the virtual driving assessment system accurately predicted which drivers would fail the on-road examination and provided automated feedback that informed drivers on their skill deficits. At this time, the partnership's work is informing policy changes around integrating the virtual driving assessment system into licensing and driver training with the aim of reducing crashes in the first months of independent driving. The system can be developed to identify deficits in safety-critical skills that lead to crashes in new drivers and to address challenges that the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic has introduced to driver testing and training.


Assuntos
Condução de Veículo/legislação & jurisprudência , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Licenciamento/legislação & jurisprudência , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Gestão da Segurança/organização & administração , Interface Usuário-Computador , Adolescente , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Veículos Automotores/estatística & dados numéricos , Ohio , Pandemias/estatística & dados numéricos , Philadelphia , Projetos Piloto , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Transportes/métodos , Adulto Jovem
10.
BMC Bioinformatics ; 21(1): 378, 2020 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32883210

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The improvements in genomics methods coupled with readily accessible high-throughput sequencing have contributed to our understanding of microbial species, metagenomes, infectious diseases and more. To maximize the impact of these genomics studies, it is important that data from biological samples will become publicly available with standardized metadata. The availability of data at public archives provides the hope that greater insights could be obtained through integration with multi-omics data, reproducibility of published studies, or meta-analyses of large diverse datasets. These datasets should include a description of the host, organism, environmental source of the specimen, spatial-temporal information and other relevant metadata, but unfortunately these attributes are often missing and when present, they show inconsistencies in the use of metadata standards and ontologies. RESULTS: METAGENOTE ( https://metagenote.niaid.nih.gov ) is a web portal that greatly facilitates the annotation of samples from genomic studies and streamlines the submission process of sequencing files and metadata to the Sequence Read Archive (SRA) (Leinonen R, et al, Nucleic Acids Res, 39:D19-21, 2011) for public access. This platform offers a wide selection of packages for different types of biological and experimental studies with a special emphasis on the standardization of metadata reporting. These packages follow the guidelines from the MIxS standards developed by the Genomics Standard Consortium (GSC) and adopted by the three partners of the International Nucleotides Sequencing Database Collaboration (INSDC) (Cochrane G, et al, Nucleic Acids Res, 44:D48-50, 2016) - National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), European Bioinformatics Institute (EBI) and the DNA Data Bank of Japan (DDBJ). METAGENOTE then compiles, validates and manages the submission through an easy-to-use web interface minimizing submission errors and eliminating the need for submitting sequencing files via a separate file transfer mechanism. CONCLUSIONS: METAGENOTE is a public resource that focuses on simplifying the annotation and submission process of data with its corresponding metadata. Users of METAGENOTE will benefit from the easy to use annotation interface but most importantly will be encouraged to publish metadata following standards and ontologies that make the public data available for reuse.


Assuntos
Genômica/métodos , Interface Usuário-Computador , Animais , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Humanos
12.
J Med Internet Res ; 22(10): e21211, 2020 10 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32997642

RESUMO

The physical and social distancing measures that have been adopted worldwide because of COVID-19 will probably remain in place for a long time, especially for senior adults, people with chronic conditions, and other at-risk populations. Teleconsultations can be useful in ensuring that patients continue to receive clinical care while reducing physical crowding and avoiding unnecessary exposure of health care staff. Implementation processes that typically take months of planning, budgeting, pilot testing, and education were compressed into days. However, in the urgency to deal with the present crisis, we may be forgetting that the introduction of digital health is not exclusively a technological issue, but part of a complex organizational change problem. This viewpoint offers insight regarding issues that rapidly adopted teleconsultation systems may face in a post-COVID-19 world.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Consulta Remota/tendências , Telemedicina/tendências , Centros Médicos Acadêmicos , Betacoronavirus , Humanos , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Desenvolvimento de Programas , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Consulta Remota/organização & administração , Software , Telemedicina/organização & administração , Interface Usuário-Computador
13.
Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys ; 108(2): 444-451, 2020 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32890529

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We evaluated the impact of a virtual radiation oncology clerkship. METHODS AND MATERIALS: We developed a 2-week virtual radiation oncology clerkship that launched on April 27, 2020. Clerkship components included a virtual clinic with radiation oncology faculty and residents, didactic lectures, student talks, and supplemental sessions such as tumor boards and chart rounds. Medical students completed pre- and post-clerkship self-assessments. Faculty and resident participants also completed surveys on their experience with virtual lectures and clinics. Pre- and post-clerkship results were compared using a 2-sided paired t test. An analysis of variance model was used to analyze the clerkship components. RESULTS: Twenty-six medical students, including 4 visiting students, enrolled over 2 clerkship periods (4 weeks). All students completed the pre- and post-clerkship self-assessments and agreed that the clerkship improved their understanding of radiation oncology. Compared with 3 (11.5%) students who agreed that they understood the daily responsibilities of a radiation oncologist before the clerkship, 22 (84.6%) students agreed and 3 (11.5%) strongly agreed that they understood the daily responsibilities of a radiation oncologist after the clerkship (P < .0001). Although 15 students (57.7%) reported an increased interest in radiation oncology because of the clerkship, the mean level of interest in radiation oncology as a career remained the same, with pre- and post-clerkship scores of 3.0 (±0.9) and 3.0 (±1.1) on a 5-point scale, respectively (P = .7). Students found virtual clinic and didactic lectures to be the most valuable components of the clerkship. Most respondents agreed (30.8%) or strongly agreed (65.4%) to recommend the clerkship to their classmates. CONCLUSIONS: Our virtual clerkship was effective in increasing medical student interest in and knowledge about radiation oncology. These data will help optimize a new paradigm of virtual radiation oncology education for medical students during COVID-19 and beyond.


Assuntos
Estágio Clínico/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Radioterapia (Especialidade)/educação , Adulto , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Interface Usuário-Computador , Adulto Jovem
14.
Top Antivir Med ; 28(2): 439-454, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32886464

RESUMO

At the 2020 Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections, held virtually as a result of the emerging COVID-19 pandemic, trends in the HIV epidemic were highlighted, with decreasing HIV incidence reported across several countries, although key regions remain heavily impacted, including the US South. Adolescent girls and young women, men who have sex with men (MSM), transgender persons, and people who inject drugs continue to experience a high burden of new infections. Sexually transmitted infections during pregnancy can lead to a number of adverse outcomes in infants; novel strategies to detect and treat these infections are needed. Innovative HIV testing strategies, including self-testing and assisted partner services, are expanding the reach of testing; however, linkage to care can be improved. Novel preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) delivery strategies are increasing uptake of PrEP in different groups, although adherence and persistence remain a challenge. Use of on-demand PrEP is increasing among MSM in the US. Strategies are needed to address barriers to PrEP uptake and persistence among cis- and transgender women. Several novel regimens for postexposure prophylaxis show promise.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Profilaxia Pré-Exposição/organização & administração , Saúde Pública , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Congressos como Assunto , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Feminino , Saúde Global , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Masculino , Infecções Oportunistas/diagnóstico , Infecções Oportunistas/epidemiologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Prevenção Primária/organização & administração , Projetos de Pesquisa , Infecções por Retroviridae/diagnóstico , Infecções por Retroviridae/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/estatística & dados numéricos , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/prevenção & controle , Estados Unidos , Interface Usuário-Computador
15.
Top Antivir Med ; 28(2): 455-458, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32886465

RESUMO

Due to COVID-19, this year marked the first virtual Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections (CROI) in the conference's 27-year history. There were important studies presented that provided new insights into the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of tuberculosis (TB) and other HIV coinfections. Highlights related to TB and HIV coinfections from this year's meeting are reviewed below.


Assuntos
Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções Oportunistas/epidemiologia , Saúde Pública , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , Adulto , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Antituberculosos/uso terapêutico , Coinfecção/diagnóstico , Coinfecção/tratamento farmacológico , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/organização & administração , Congressos como Assunto , Criptococose/diagnóstico , Criptococose/tratamento farmacológico , Criptococose/epidemiologia , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Micoses/diagnóstico , Micoses/tratamento farmacológico , Micoses/epidemiologia , Infecções Oportunistas/diagnóstico , Infecções Oportunistas/tratamento farmacológico , Gravidez , Prevalência , Prevenção Primária/métodos , Medição de Risco , Análise de Sobrevida , Tuberculose/diagnóstico , Tuberculose/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/diagnóstico , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/epidemiologia , Interface Usuário-Computador , Adulto Jovem
19.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238041, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32886717

RESUMO

Although many visual stimulus databases exist, to our knowledge, none includes 3D virtual objects, that can directly be used in virtual reality (VR). We present 121 objects that have been developed for scientific purposes. The objects were built in Maya, and their textures were created in Substance Painter. Then, the objects were exported to an FBX and OBJ format and rendered online using the Unreal Engine 4 application. Our goal was to develop the first set of high-quality virtual objects with standardized names, familiarity, and visual complexity. The objects were normed based on the input of 83 participants. This set of stimuli was created for use in VR settings and will facilitate research using VR methodology, which is increasingly employed in psychological research.


Assuntos
Gerenciamento de Dados , Bases de Dados Factuais , Testes Psicológicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Projetos de Pesquisa , Realidade Virtual , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Interface Usuário-Computador
20.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238290, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32946464

RESUMO

A well-defined protocol for a clinical trial guarantees a successful outcome report. When designing the protocol, most researchers refer to electronic databases and extract protocol elements using a keyword search. However, state-of-the-art database systems only offer text-based searches for user-entered keywords. In this study, we present a database system with a context-dependent and protocol-element-selection function for successfully designing a clinical trial protocol. To do this, we first introduce a database for a protocol retrieval system constructed from individual protocol data extracted from 184,634 clinical trials and 13,210 frame structures of clinical trial protocols. The database contains a variety of semantic information that allows the filtering of protocols during the search operation. Based on the database, we developed a web application called the clinical trial protocol database system (CLIPS; available at https://corus.kaist.edu/clips). This system enables an interactive search by utilizing protocol elements. To enable an interactive search for combinations of protocol elements, CLIPS provides optional next element selection according to the previous element in the form of a connected tree. The validation results show that our method achieves better performance than that of existing databases in predicting phenotypic features.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Ensaio Clínico como Assunto , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto/normas , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Bases de Dados Factuais , Armazenamento e Recuperação da Informação , Software , Humanos , Interface Usuário-Computador
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