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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360913

RESUMO

Deficiency of the placental hormone chorionic somatomammotropin (CSH) can lead to the development of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). To gain insight into the physiological consequences of CSH RNA interference (RNAi), the trophectoderm of hatched blastocysts (nine days of gestational age; dGA) was infected with a lentivirus expressing either a scrambled control or CSH-specific shRNA, prior to transfer into synchronized recipient sheep. At 90 dGA, umbilical hemodynamics and fetal measurements were assessed by Doppler ultrasonography. At 120 dGA, pregnancies were fitted with vascular catheters to undergo steady-state metabolic studies with the 3H2O transplacental diffusion technique at 130 dGA. Nutrient uptake rates were determined and tissues were subsequently harvested at necropsy. CSH RNAi reduced (p ≤ 0.05) both fetal and uterine weights as well as umbilical blood flow (mL/min). This ultimately resulted in reduced (p ≤ 0.01) umbilical IGF1 concentrations, as well as reduced umbilical nutrient uptakes (p ≤ 0.05) in CSH RNAi pregnancies. CSH RNAi also reduced (p ≤ 0.05) uterine nutrient uptakes as well as uteroplacental glucose utilization. These data suggest that CSH is necessary to facilitate adequate blood flow for the uptake of oxygen, oxidative substrates, and hormones essential to support fetal and uterine growth.


Assuntos
Sangue Fetal/metabolismo , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/genética , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/metabolismo , Hemodinâmica/genética , Nutrientes/metabolismo , Lactogênio Placentário/deficiência , Lactogênio Placentário/genética , Interferência de RNA , Ovinos/genética , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Animais , Blastocisto/metabolismo , Feminino , Sangue Fetal/diagnóstico por imagem , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/diagnóstico por imagem , Feto/metabolismo , Idade Gestacional , Glucose/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/metabolismo , Masculino , Placenta/metabolismo , Gravidez , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética , Ultrassonografia Doppler/métodos , Útero/metabolismo
2.
Viruses ; 13(7)2021 07 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34372567

RESUMO

Glioblastoma is the most malignant and most common form of brain tumor, still today associated with a poor 14-months median survival from diagnosis. Protein kinase A, particularly its regulatory subunit R2Alpha, presents a typical intracellular distribution in glioblastoma cells compared to the healthy brain parenchyma and this peculiarity might be exploited in a therapeutic setting. In the present study, a third-generation lentiviral system for delivery of shRNA targeting the regulatory subunit R2Alpha of protein kinase A was developed. Generated lentiviral vectors are able to induce an efficient and stable downregulation of R2Alpha in different cellular models, including non-stem and stem-like glioblastoma cells. In addition, our data suggest a potential correlation between silencing of the regulatory subunit of protein kinase A and reduced viability of tumor cells, apparently due to a reduction in replication rate. Thus, our findings support the role of protein kinase A as a promising target for novel anti-glioma therapies.


Assuntos
Subunidade RIIalfa da Proteína Quinase Dependente de AMP Cíclico/genética , Subunidade RIIalfa da Proteína Quinase Dependente de AMP Cíclico/metabolismo , Glioblastoma/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Subunidade RIIalfa da Proteína Quinase Dependente de AMP Cíclico/fisiologia , Proteínas Quinases Dependentes de AMP Cíclico/genética , Proteínas Quinases Dependentes de AMP Cíclico/metabolismo , Expressão Gênica/genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/genética , Técnicas de Transferência de Genes , Vetores Genéticos/genética , Glioblastoma/genética , Glioblastoma/fisiopatologia , Glioma/genética , Glioma/metabolismo , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Lentivirus/genética , Interferência de RNA , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética , RNA Interferente Pequeno/farmacologia , Transdução Genética/métodos
3.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 178: 104909, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34446185

RESUMO

RNA interference has been proved as an efficient technology for pest control through the silencing of essential genes of targeted insects. We had previously shown that the expression of double-stranded RNAs (dsRNAs) in plastids of plants offers a great potential for efficiently controlling Colorado potato beetle (CPB, Leptinotarsa decemlineata) (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae). However, whether these transplastomic plants have an impact on other non-target pests was not investigated. In this study, we evaluated the potential effects of transplastomic plants expression dsRNAs target CPB ß-Actin (referred to as ACT plants) on three other potato pests: Myzus persicae (Hemiptera, Aphididae), Henosepilachna vigintioctopunctata (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae), and Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae). Although no effects on M. persicae or S. litura were observed by feeding ACT plants, we found that feeding H. vigintioctopunctata with ACT plants can result in its growth retardation and suppressing the gene expression of HvACT, which has 91.7% identity to CPB ß-Actin and shared 66 potential 21-mer matches. Taking together, these results indicated that ACT plants had cross-resistance to H. vigintioctopunctata, another coleopteran insect with the highly conserved nucleotide sequence of ß-Actin gene. It also provided an opportunity to simultaneously control L. decemlineata and H. vigintioctopunctata by RNAi induced by intermediate dsRNAs with optimized sequences.


Assuntos
Besouros , Solanum tuberosum , Actinas/genética , Animais , Besouros/genética , Interferência de RNA , RNA de Cadeia Dupla/genética , Solanum tuberosum/genética
4.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4898, 2021 08 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34385431

RESUMO

Hedgehog (Hh) signaling is essential during development and in organ physiology. In the canonical pathway, Hh binding to Patched (PTCH) relieves the inhibition of Smoothened (SMO). Yet, PTCH may also perform SMO-independent functions. While the PTCH homolog PTC-3 is essential in C. elegans, worms lack SMO, providing an excellent model to probe non-canonical PTCH function. Here, we show that PTC-3 is a cholesterol transporter. ptc-3(RNAi) leads to accumulation of intracellular cholesterol and defects in ER structure and lipid droplet formation. These phenotypes were accompanied by a reduction in acyl chain (FA) length and desaturation. ptc-3(RNAi)-induced lethality, fat content and ER morphology defects were rescued by reducing dietary cholesterol. We provide evidence that cholesterol accumulation modulates the function of nuclear hormone receptors such as of the PPARα homolog NHR-49 and NHR-181, and affects FA composition. Our data uncover a role for PTCH in organelle structure maintenance and fat metabolism.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans/genética , Caenorhabditis elegans/genética , Colesterol/metabolismo , Homeostase/genética , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/genética , Receptor Patched-1/genética , Animais , Western Blotting , Caenorhabditis elegans/metabolismo , Caenorhabditis elegans/ultraestrutura , Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Receptor Patched-1/metabolismo , Interferência de RNA , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa
5.
Planta ; 254(3): 60, 2021 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34448043

RESUMO

MAIN CONCLUSION: 22 nt siRNAs applied to leaves induce production of transitive sRNAs for targeted genes and can enhance local silencing. Systemic silencing was only observed for a GFP transgene. RNA interference (RNAi) is a gene silencing mechanism important in regulating gene expression during plant development, response to the environment and defense. Better understanding of the molecular mechanisms of this pathway may lead to future strategies to improve crop traits of value. An abrasion method to deliver siRNAs into leaf cells of intact plants was used to investigate the activities of 21 and 22 nt siRNAs in silencing genes in Nicotiana benthamiana and Amaranthus cruentus. We confirmed that both 21 and 22 nt siRNAs were able to silence a green fluorescent protein (GFP) transgene in treated leaves of N. benthamiana, but systemic silencing of GFP occurred only when the guide strand contained 22 nt. Silencing in the treated leaves of N. benthamiana was demonstrated for three endogenous genes: magnesium cheletase subunit I (CHL-I), magnesium cheletase subunit H (CHL-H), and GENOMES UNCOUPLED4 (GUN4). However, systemic silencing of these endogenous genes was not observed. Very high levels of transitive siRNAs were produced for GFP in response to treatment with 22 nt siRNAs but only low levels were produced in response to a 21 nt siRNA. The endogenous genes tested also produced transitive siRNAs in response to 22 nt siRNAs. 22 nt siRNAs produced greater local silencing phenotypes than 21 nt siRNAs for three of the genes. These special properties of 22 nt siRNAs were also observed for the CHL-H gene in A. cruentus. These experiments suggest a functional role for transitive siRNAs in amplifying the RNAi response.


Assuntos
Inativação Gênica , RNA de Cadeia Dupla , Interferência de RNA , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética , Tabaco/genética
6.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4934, 2021 08 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34400638

RESUMO

Rhodopsin (RHO) gene mutations are a common cause of autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa (ADRP). The need to suppress toxic protein expression together with mutational heterogeneity pose challenges for treatment development. Mirtrons are atypical RNA interference effectors that are spliced from transcripts as short introns. Here, we develop a novel mirtron-based knockdown/replacement gene therapy for the mutation-independent treatment of RHO-related ADRP, and demonstrate efficacy in a relevant mammalian model. Splicing and potency of rhodopsin-targeting candidate mirtrons are initially determined, and a mirtron-resistant codon-modified version of the rhodopsin coding sequence is validated in vitro. These elements are then combined within a single adeno-associated virus (AAV) and delivered subretinally in a RhoP23H knock-in mouse model of ADRP. This results in significant mouse-to-human rhodopsin RNA replacement and is associated with a slowing of retinal degeneration. This provides proof of principle that synthetic mirtrons delivered by AAV are capable of reducing disease severity in vivo.


Assuntos
Terapia Genética , RNA/genética , Retinite Pigmentosa/genética , Retinite Pigmentosa/terapia , Animais , Dependovirus/genética , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Vetores Genéticos , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Camundongos , MicroRNAs/genética , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , RNA/metabolismo , Interferência de RNA , Splicing de RNA , Retina , Degeneração Retiniana , Rodopsina/genética , Rodopsina/metabolismo
7.
J Insect Sci ; 21(4)2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34333649

RESUMO

Chitin deacetylases (CDAs) are chitin-degrading enzymes that play a key role in insect molting. In this study, we identified and characterized four full-length cDNAs of CDAs from Sogatella furcifera (Horváth). Developmental expression showed that SfCDA1 and SfCDA2 were expressed at all nymph developmental stages, SfCDA3 and SfCDA4 were mainly expressed in the third-instar to fifth-instar nymph stages, whereas tissue-specific analyses indicated that four CDA genes were mainly high expressed in the integument and head during the fifth-instar nymph. RNA interference (RNAi) results revealed that SfCDA1, SfCDA2, and SfCDA4 are associated with molting defect and high mortality with nymph-adult molting. Furthermore, transcripts of chitin synthase 1 variants (SfCHS1, SfCHS1a, and SfCHS1b) were significantly downregulated and causing significant changes in the expression levels of trehalases (TRE1 and TRE2) in the SfCDA1, SfCDA2, and SfCDA4 dsRNA treatment groups. By contrast, no significant phenotypic characteristics were observed after dsSfCDA3 injection. Taken together, our results suggest that SfCDA1, SfCDA2, and SfCDA4 play a vital role in nymph-adult transition, and these genes could regulate chitin biosynthesis expression levels.


Assuntos
Amidoidrolases/genética , Hemípteros , Animais , Quitina/biossíntese , Quitina/genética , DNA Complementar , Genes de Insetos , Hemípteros/genética , Proteínas de Insetos/genética , Muda/genética , Ninfa/genética , Filogenia , Interferência de RNA , Asas de Animais/crescimento & desenvolvimento
8.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4662, 2021 08 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34341345

RESUMO

Impaired cellular cholesterol efflux is a key factor in the progression of renal, cardiovascular, and autoimmune diseases. Here we describe a class of 5-arylnicotinamide compounds, identified through phenotypic drug discovery, that upregulate ABCA1-dependent cholesterol efflux by targeting Oxysterol Binding Protein Like 7 (OSBPL7). OSBPL7 was identified as the molecular target of these compounds through a chemical biology approach, employing a photoactivatable 5-arylnicotinamide derivative in a cellular cross-linking/immunoprecipitation assay. Further evaluation of two compounds (Cpd A and Cpd G) showed that they induced ABCA1 and cholesterol efflux from podocytes in vitro and normalized proteinuria and prevented renal function decline in mouse models of proteinuric kidney disease: Adriamycin-induced nephropathy and Alport Syndrome. In conclusion, we show that small molecule drugs targeting OSBPL7 reveal an alternative mechanism to upregulate ABCA1, and may represent a promising new therapeutic strategy for the treatment of renal diseases and other disorders of cellular cholesterol homeostasis.


Assuntos
Transportador 1 de Cassete de Ligação de ATP/metabolismo , Colesterol/metabolismo , Nefropatias Diabéticas/metabolismo , Compostos Orgânicos/farmacologia , Podócitos/metabolismo , Proteinúria/metabolismo , Receptores de Esteroides/antagonistas & inibidores , Transportador 1 de Cassete de Ligação de ATP/genética , Animais , Transporte Biológico/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Rim/metabolismo , Rim/patologia , Camundongos da Linhagem 129 , Camundongos Knockout , Estrutura Molecular , Niacinamida/química , Niacinamida/farmacologia , Compostos Orgânicos/síntese química , Compostos Orgânicos/química , Podócitos/citologia , Interferência de RNA , Receptores de Esteroides/genética , Receptores de Esteroides/metabolismo , Células THP-1
9.
Zoolog Sci ; 38(4): 332-342, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34342954

RESUMO

Animals survive nutrient deficiency by controlling their physiology, such as sugar metabolism and energy-consuming developmental events. Although research on the insect neural mechanisms of the starvation-induced modulation has progressed, the mechanisms have not been fully understood due to their complexity. Myoinhibitory peptides are known to be neuropeptides involved in various physiological activities, development, and behavior. Here, we analyzed the responsiveness of Plautia stali myoinhibitory peptides (Plast-MIPs) to starvation and their physiological role in the brown-winged green bug, P. stali. First, we performed immunohistochemical analyses to investigate the response of Plast-MIP neurons in the cephalic ganglion to fasting under long day conditions. Fasting significantly enhanced the immunoreactivity to Plast-MIPs in the pars intercerebralis (PI), which is known to be a brain region related to various endocrine regulations. Next, to analyze the physiological role of Plast-MIPs, we performed RNA interference-mediated knockdown of Plast-Mip and injection of synthetic Plast-MIP in normally fed and fasted females. The knockdown of Plast-Mip did not have significant effects on the body weight or proportions of ovarian development in each feeding condition. On the other hand, the knockdown of Plast-Mip increased the gonadosomatic index of normally fed females whereas it did not have a significant effect on food intake. Notably, the knockdown of Plast-Mip diminished the fasting-induced reduction of hemolymph reducing sugar levels. Additionally, injection of synthetic Plast-MIP acutely decreased the hemolymph reducing sugar level. Our results suggested responsiveness of Plast-MIPs in the PI to fasting and their functional role in reduction of the hemolymph reducing sugar level.


Assuntos
Carboidratos/química , Hemolinfa/química , Heterópteros/fisiologia , Proteínas de Insetos/metabolismo , Animais , Metabolismo dos Carboidratos , Feminino , Hemolinfa/metabolismo , Proteínas de Insetos/genética , Interferência de RNA
10.
Phytochemistry ; 190: 112885, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34339979

RESUMO

The growth and survival of terrestrial plants require control of their interactions with the environment, e.g., to defend against desiccation and microbial invasion. For major food crops, the protection conferred by the outer skins (periderm in potato) is essential to cultivation, storage, and marketing of the edible tubers and fruits. Potatoes are particularly vulnerable to bacterial infections due to their high content of water and susceptibility to mechanical wounding. Recently, both specific and conserved gene silencing (StNAC103-RNAi and StNAC103-RNAi-c, respectively) were found to increase the load of wax and aliphatic suberin depolymerization products in tuber periderm, implicating this NAC gene as a repressor of the wax and suberin biosynthetic pathways. However, an important gap in our understanding of StNAC103 silencing concerns the metabolites produced in periderm cells as antimicrobial defense agents and potential building blocks of the deposited suberin biopolymer. In the current work, we have expanded prior studies on StNAC103 silenced lines by conducting comprehensive parallel analyses to profile changes in chemical constituents and antibacterial activity. Compositional analysis of the intact suberized cell walls using solid-state 13C NMR (ssNMR) showed that NAC silencing produced an increase in the long-chain aliphatic groups deposited within the periderm cell walls. LC-MS of polar extracts revealed up-regulation of glycoalkaloids in both StNAC103-RNAi and StNAC103-RNAi-c native periderms but down-regulation of a phenolic amine in StNAC103-RNAi-c and a phenolic acid in StNAC103-RNAi native periderms. The nonpolar soluble metabolites identified using GC-MS included notably abundant long-chain alkane metabolites in both silenced samples. By coordinating the differentially accumulated soluble metabolites and the suberin depolymerization products with the ssNMR-based profiles for the periderm polymers, it was possible to obtain a holistic view of the chemical changes that result from StNAC103 gene silencing. Correspondingly, the chemical composition trends served as a backdrop to interpret trends in the chemical barrier defense function of native tuber periderms, which was found to be more robust for the nonpolar extracts.


Assuntos
Solanum tuberosum , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Parede Celular , Tubérculos/genética , Interferência de RNA , Solanum tuberosum/genética
11.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4928, 2021 08 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34389720

RESUMO

Diabetes results from a decline in functional pancreatic ß-cells, but the molecular mechanisms underlying the pathological ß-cell failure are poorly understood. Here we report that large-tumor suppressor 2 (LATS2), a core component of the Hippo signaling pathway, is activated under diabetic conditions and induces ß-cell apoptosis and impaired function. LATS2 deficiency in ß-cells and primary isolated human islets as well as ß-cell specific LATS2 ablation in mice improves ß-cell viability, insulin secretion and ß-cell mass and ameliorates diabetes development. LATS2 activates mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1), a physiological suppressor of autophagy, in ß-cells and genetic and pharmacological inhibition of mTORC1 counteracts the pro-apoptotic action of activated LATS2. We further show a direct interplay between Hippo and autophagy, in which LATS2 is an autophagy substrate. On the other hand, LATS2 regulates ß-cell apoptosis triggered by impaired autophagy suggesting an existence of a stress-sensitive multicomponent cellular loop coordinating ß-cell compensation and survival. Our data reveal an important role for LATS2 in pancreatic ß-cell turnover and suggest LATS2 as a potential therapeutic target to improve pancreatic ß-cell survival and function in diabetes.


Assuntos
Autofagia , Diabetes Mellitus/metabolismo , Células Secretoras de Insulina/metabolismo , Alvo Mecanístico do Complexo 1 de Rapamicina/metabolismo , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/metabolismo , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/metabolismo , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/genética , Células Cultivadas , Diabetes Mellitus/genética , Diabetes Mellitus/patologia , Humanos , Células Secretoras de Insulina/citologia , Alvo Mecanístico do Complexo 1 de Rapamicina/genética , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/genética , Interferência de RNA , Ratos , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/genética
12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445782

RESUMO

Spodoptera exigua is a worldwide pest afflicting edible vegetables and has developed varying levels of resistance to insecticides. Methoxyfenozide (MET), an ecdysteroid agonist, is effective against lepidopteran pests such as S. exigua. However, the mechanism of MET to S. exigua remains unclear. In this study, we analyzed the expression patterns of genes related to the ecdysone signaling pathway in transcriptome data treated with sublethal doses of MET and analyzed how expression levels of key genes affect the toxicity of MET on S. exigua. Our results demonstrated that 2639 genes were up-regulated and 2512 genes were down-regulated in S. exigua treated with LC30 of MET. Of these, 15 genes were involved in the ecdysone signaling pathway. qPCR results demonstrated that ecdysone receptor A (EcRA) expression levels significantly increased in S. exigua when treated with different doses of MET, and that the RNAi-mediated silencing of EcRA significantly increased mortality to 55.43% at 72 h when L3 S. exigua larvae were exposed to MET at the LC30 dose. Additionally, knocking down EcRA suppressed the most genes expressed in the ecdysone signaling pathway. The combination of MET and dsEcRA affected the expression of E74 and enhanced the expression of TREA. These results demonstrate that the adverse effects of sublethal MET disturb the ecdysone signaling pathway in S. exigua, and EcRA is closely related to MET toxic effect. This study increases our collective understanding of the mechanisms of MET in insect pests.


Assuntos
Ecdisona/genética , Hidrazinas/farmacologia , Hormônios Juvenis/farmacologia , Interferência de RNA/fisiologia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Spodoptera/efeitos dos fármacos , Transcriptoma/genética , Animais , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Larva/genética , Receptores de Esteroides/genética , Spodoptera/genética
13.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 185(4): 539-552, 2021 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34342596

RESUMO

Objective: Sex steroid hormones like estrogens have a key role in the regulation of energy homeostasis and metabolism. In transwomen, gender-affirming hormone therapy like estradiol (in combination with antiandrogenic compounds) could affect metabolism as well. Given that the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms are not fully understood, this study assessed circulating estradiol-driven microRNAs (miRs) in transwomen and their regulation of genes involved in metabolism in mice. Methods: Following plasma miR-sequencing (seq) in a transwomen discovery (n = 20) and validation cohort (n = 30), we identified miR-224 and miR-452. Subsequent systemic silencing of these miRs in male C57Bl/6 J mice (n = 10) was followed by RNA-seq-based gene expression analysis of brown and white adipose tissue in conjunction with mechanistic studies in cultured adipocytes. Results: Estradiol in transwomen lowered plasma miR-224 and -452 carried in extracellular vesicles (EVs) while their systemic silencing in mice and cultured adipocytes increased lipogenesis (white adipose) but reduced glucose uptake and mitochondrial respiration (brown adipose). In white and brown adipose tissue, differentially expressed (miR target) genes are associated with lipogenesis (white adipose) and mitochondrial respiration and glucose uptake (brown adipose). Conclusion: This study identified an estradiol-drive post-transcriptional network that could potentially offer a mechanistic understanding of metabolism following gender-affirming estradiol therapy.


Assuntos
Micropartículas Derivadas de Células/genética , Estradiol/fisiologia , MicroRNAs/genética , Transexualidade , Adipócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Adipócitos/fisiologia , Adipogenia/efeitos dos fármacos , Adipogenia/genética , Adulto , Animais , Micropartículas Derivadas de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Micropartículas Derivadas de Células/metabolismo , Estudos de Coortes , Regulação para Baixo/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação para Baixo/genética , Metabolismo Energético/efeitos dos fármacos , Metabolismo Energético/genética , Estradiol/sangue , Estradiol/farmacologia , Vesículas Extracelulares/genética , Vesículas Extracelulares/metabolismo , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Homeostase/efeitos dos fármacos , Terapia de Reposição Hormonal , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Interferência de RNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Pessoas Transgênero , Transexualidade/genética , Transexualidade/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445336

RESUMO

Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Pae) is an opportunistic pathogen showing a high intrinsic resistance to a wide variety of antibiotics. It causes nosocomial infections that are particularly detrimental to immunocompromised individuals and to patients suffering from cystic fibrosis. We provide a snapshot on regulatory RNAs of Pae that impact on metabolism, pathogenicity and antibiotic susceptibility. Different experimental approaches such as in silico predictions, co-purification with the RNA chaperone Hfq as well as high-throughput RNA sequencing identified several hundreds of regulatory RNA candidates in Pae. Notwithstanding, using in vitro and in vivo assays, the function of only a few has been revealed. Here, we focus on well-characterized small base-pairing RNAs, regulating specific target genes as well as on larger protein-binding RNAs that sequester and thereby modulate the activity of translational repressors. As the latter impact large gene networks governing metabolism, acute or chronic infections, these protein-binding RNAs in conjunction with their cognate proteins are regarded as global post-transcriptional regulators.


Assuntos
Pseudomonas aeruginosa/genética , RNA Bacteriano/genética , RNA Bacteriano/metabolismo , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Infecções por Pseudomonas/genética , Infecções por Pseudomonas/microbiologia , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/metabolismo , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/patogenicidade , Interferência de RNA/fisiologia , Processamento Pós-Transcricional do RNA , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/metabolismo
15.
ACS Biomater Sci Eng ; 7(9): 4420-4429, 2021 09 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34427082

RESUMO

Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a noninvasive and effective local treatment for cancers that produces selective damage to target tissues and cells. However, PDT alone is unlikely to completely inhibit tumor metastasis and/or local tumor recurrence. RNA interference (RNAi) is a phenomenon of gene silencing mediated by exogenous or endogenous double-stranded RNA (dsRNA). RNAi has entered a golden period of development, with the approval of four treatments employing RNAi. PDT in combination with RNAi therapy to inhibit related targets has been a research hotspot, with better clinical outcomes than monotherapy. In this review, the progress of PDT and small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting different genes is discussed, while the achievements of the combined immunotherapy are reviewed.


Assuntos
Neoplasias , Fotoquimioterapia , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Interferência de RNA , RNA de Cadeia Dupla , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética , Terapêutica com RNAi
16.
Yi Chuan ; 43(8): 792-801, 2021 Aug 20.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34413018

RESUMO

Autophagy-related gene 6 (Atg6) plays an essential role in autophagy, and loss of its function impairs neurogenesis. Planarian is a good model for the study of the central nervous system (CNS) regeneration. It can regenerate a new head de novo in 1 week following decapitation. Therefore, functional analysis of Atg6 in planarian CNS regeneration is very important for understanding of autophagy in the regulation of neurogenesis. In this work, we reported the molecular characteristics of Atg6 in Dugesia japonica (DjAtg6) for the first time and examined its function by RNAi. The full-length cDNA of DjAtg6 is 1366 bp encoding 423 amino acids. The deduced amino sequence of DjAtg6 contains the coil-coil domain and ß-α-repeated autophagy-specific domain shared by ATG6/Beclin 1 family. Following amputation before and after the pharynx, DjAtg6 transcripts increased and were mainly distributed in the newly regenerated brain structure. RNAi-DjAtg6 delayed planarian head regeneration with a small size of brain, and decreased the expression levels of neural-related genes. In addition, our results revealed that RNAi-DjAtg6 did not affect the stem cell proliferation, but down-regulated the cell migration-related genes mmp1 and mmp2. Furthermore, RNAi-mmp1 and RNAi-mmp2 delayed planarian head regeneration. Therefore, our results suggest that DjAtg6 is important for planarian CNS regeneration. The abnormal CNS regeneration caused by RNAi-DjAtg6 may be related to cell migration, but the detailed mechanism needs to be further investigated.


Assuntos
Planárias , Animais , Autofagia , Encéfalo , Sistema Nervoso Central , Planárias/genética , Interferência de RNA
17.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5073, 2021 08 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34417467

RESUMO

The contents of numerous membrane lipids change upon ageing. However, it is unknown whether and how any of these changes are causally linked to lifespan regulation. Acyl chains contribute to the functional specificity of membrane lipids. In this study, working with C. elegans, we identified an acyl chain-specific sphingolipid, C22 glucosylceramide, as a longevity metabolite. Germline deficiency, a conserved lifespan-extending paradigm, induces somatic expression of the fatty acid elongase ELO-3, and behenic acid (22:0) generated by ELO-3 is incorporated into glucosylceramide for lifespan regulation. Mechanistically, C22 glucosylceramide is required for the membrane localization of clathrin, a protein that regulates membrane budding. The reduction in C22 glucosylceramide impairs the clathrin-dependent autophagic lysosome reformation, which subsequently leads to TOR activation and longevity suppression. These findings reveal a mechanistic link between membrane lipids and ageing and suggest a model of lifespan regulation by fatty acid-mediated membrane configuration.


Assuntos
Caenorhabditis elegans/fisiologia , Ácidos Graxos não Esterificados/metabolismo , Glicoesfingolipídeos/metabolismo , Homeostase , Longevidade/fisiologia , Lisossomos/metabolismo , Animais , Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans/metabolismo , Ceramidas/metabolismo , Colesterol/metabolismo , Clatrina/metabolismo , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa/genética , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde/metabolismo , Larva/metabolismo , Modelos Biológicos , Interferência de RNA , Estresse Fisiológico
18.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 105(16-17): 6301-6313, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34423406

RESUMO

Plant viruses are known for their devastating impact on global agriculture. These intracellular biotrophic pathogens can infect a wide variety of plant hosts all over the world. The synergistic association of plant viruses makes the situation more alarming. It usually promotes the replication, movement, and transmission of either or both the coexisting synergistic viral partners. Although plants elicit a robust antiviral immune reaction, including gene silencing, to limit these infamous invaders, viruses counter it by encoding viral suppressors of RNA silencing (VSRs). Growing evidence also suggests that VSRs play a driving role in mediating the plant viral synergism. This review briefly discusses the evil impacts of mixed infections, especially synergism, and then comprehensively describes the emerging roles of VSRs in mediating the synergistic association of plant viruses. KEY POINTS: • Synergistic associations of plant viruses have devastating impacts on global agriculture. • Viral suppressors of RNA silencing (VSRs) play key roles in driving plant viral synergism.


Assuntos
Vírus de Plantas , Antivirais , Inativação Gênica , Vírus de Plantas/genética , Plantas , Interferência de RNA
19.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 178: 104934, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34446203

RESUMO

Chitin synthase (CHS) plays a critical role in chitin synthesis and excretion. In most insects, CHSs have been segregated into 1 and 2 classes. CHS1 is responsible for chitin production in the ectodermally-derived epidermal cells. CHS2 is dedicated to chitin biosynthesis in the midgut peritrophic matrix (PM). Henosepilachna vigintioctopunctata is a serious pest of Solanaceae and Cucurbitaceae plants. In this study, we identified HvCHS1 and HvCHS2. We found that HvCHS1 was abundantly transcribed in the larval tracheae and epidermis, whereas HvCHS2 was mainly expressed in the guts. Escherichia coli HT115 expressed double stranded RNAs targeting HvCHS1 and HvCHS2 (dsCHS1 and dsCHS2) were used to immerse potato foliage and the treated leaves were provided to the newly-molted fourth- and third-instar larvae. Ingestion of dsCHS1 by the fourth-instar larvae significantly diminished the target mRNA level and had slight influence on the expression of HvCHS2. In contrast, consumption of dsCHS2 significantly lowered the target mRNA level but triggered the transcription of HvCHS1. Knockdown of HvCHS1, rather than HvCHS2, arrested larval development and impaired larva-pupa-adult transition. A large proportion of HvCHS1 hypomorphs became stunting prepupae, deformed pupae or misshapen adults. Moreover, knockdown of HvCHS1 damaged gut integrity, decreased cuticle thickness, and delayed the formation of newly-generated cuticle layer during ecdysis. Furthermore, depletion of HvCHS1 inhibited the development of trachea system and thinned tracheal taenidia. Ingestion of dsCHS1 at the third-instar stage caused similar but severe negative effects. Our results demonstrated that HvCHS1 is responsible for chitin biosynthesis during ecdysis. Moreover, HvCHS1 is a potential amenable target gene and young larvae are more susceptible to dsRNA.


Assuntos
Quitina Sintase , Besouros , Animais , Quitina/metabolismo , Quitina Sintase/genética , Quitina Sintase/metabolismo , Besouros/metabolismo , Proteínas de Insetos/genética , Proteínas de Insetos/metabolismo , Larva/genética , Larva/metabolismo , Muda/genética , Pupa/metabolismo , Interferência de RNA
20.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 178: 104945, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34446211

RESUMO

The small GTPase Ran is a member of the Ras superfamily of small GTP-binding proteins, which plays a key role in the translocation of RNA and proteins through the nuclear pore complex. In this study, the full-length cDNA sequence of LmRan gene was obtained, which consists of 648-nucleotides open reading frame (ORF) and encodes 215 amino acids. RT-qPCR results revealed that LmRan was expressed in all developmental days and tissues investigated. Injection of dsLmRan into 4th and 5th instar nymphs, resulted in a significant down-regulation of LmRan transcripts, respectively. All dsLmRan-injected nymphs died before molting. Further hematoxylin and eosin staining of the integument showed that there was no apolysis occurred after silencing LmRan. In addition, the weight of dsLmRan-injected nymphs was significantly lower than that of the control group, and the gastric caecum and midgut was severely smaller. Especiallly, the mRNA level of LmCYP302a1, LmCYP315a1 and LmCYP314a1 responsible for 20E synthesis, LmE75 and LmE74 genes involved in the 20E signaling pathway, LmGfat, LmUAP1 and LmCHT10 genes involved in chitin metabolism pathway were dramatically decreased in the dsLmRan-injected nymphs. Together, the results indicated that LmRan participate in the 20E signaling pathway, which is essential for the growth and development of locusts.


Assuntos
Locusta migratoria , Animais , Proteínas de Insetos/genética , Proteínas de Insetos/metabolismo , Locusta migratoria/genética , Locusta migratoria/metabolismo , Muda/genética , Filogenia , Interferência de RNA , Transdução de Sinais , Proteína ran de Ligação ao GTP
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