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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(34): e21863, 2020 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32846838

RESUMO

Dermatomyositis is a common connective tissue disease. The occurrence and development of dermatomyositis is a result of multiple factors, but its exact pathogenesis has not been fully elucidated. Here, we used biological information method to explore and predict the major disease related genes of dermatomyositis and to find the underlying pathogenic molecular mechanism.The gene expression data of GDS1956, GDS2153, GDS2855, and GDS3417 including 94 specimens, 66 cases of dermatomyositis specimens and 28 cases of normal specimens, were obtained from the Gene Expression Omnibus database. The 4 microarray gene data groups were combined to get differentially expressed genes (DEGs). The gene ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichments of DEGs were operated by the database for annotation, visualization and integrated discovery and KEGG orthology based annotation system databases, separately. The protein-protein interaction networks of the DEGs were built from the STRING website. A total of 4097 DEGs were extracted from the 4 Gene Expression Omnibus datasets, of which 2213 genes were upregulated, and 1884 genes were downregulated. Gene ontology analysis indicated that the biological functions of DEGs focused primarily on response to virus, type I interferon signaling pathway and negative regulation of viral genome replication. The main cellular components include extracellular space, cytoplasm, and blood microparticle. The molecular functions include protein binding, double-stranded RNA binding and MHC class I protein binding. KEGG pathway analysis showed that these DEGs were mainly involved in the toll-like receptor signaling pathway, cytosolic DNA-sensing pathway, RIG-I-like receptor signaling pathway, complement and coagulation cascades, arginine and proline metabolism, phagosome signaling pathway. The following 13 closely related genes, XAF1, NT5E, UGCG, GBP2, TLR3, DDX58, STAT1, GBP1, PLSCR1, OAS3, SP100, IGK, and RSAD2, were key nodes from the protein-protein interaction network.This research suggests that exploring for DEGs and pathways in dermatomyositis using integrated bioinformatics methods could help us realize the molecular mechanism underlying the development of dermatomyositis, be of actual implication for the early detection and prophylaxis of dermatomyositis and afford reliable goals for the curing of dermatomyositis.


Assuntos
Biologia Computacional/instrumentação , Dermatomiosite/genética , Ontologia Genética/tendências , Interferon Tipo I/genética , Mapas de Interação de Proteínas/genética , Dermatomiosite/epidemiologia , Motivo de Ligação ao RNA de Cadeia Dupla/genética , Regulação para Baixo , Humanos , Incidência , Análise em Microsséries/métodos , Anotação de Sequência Molecular/métodos , Ligação Proteica , Transdução de Sinais , Regulação para Cima
2.
Nat Immunol ; 21(9): 1107-1118, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32788748

RESUMO

In coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, the relationship between disease severity and the host immune response is not fully understood. Here we performed single-cell RNA sequencing in peripheral blood samples of 5 healthy donors and 13 patients with COVID-19, including moderate, severe and convalescent cases. Through determining the transcriptional profiles of immune cells, coupled with assembled T cell receptor and B cell receptor sequences, we analyzed the functional properties of immune cells. Most cell types in patients with COVID-19 showed a strong interferon-α response and an overall acute inflammatory response. Moreover, intensive expansion of highly cytotoxic effector T cell subsets, such as CD4+ effector-GNLY (granulysin), CD8+ effector-GNLY and NKT CD160, was associated with convalescence in moderate patients. In severe patients, the immune landscape featured a deranged interferon response, profound immune exhaustion with skewed T cell receptor repertoire and broad T cell expansion. These findings illustrate the dynamic nature of immune responses during disease progression.


Assuntos
Antígenos CD/metabolismo , Antígenos de Diferenciação de Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Interferon Tipo I/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Receptores Imunológicos/metabolismo , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Antígenos CD/genética , Antígenos CD/imunologia , Antígenos de Diferenciação de Linfócitos T/genética , Antígenos de Diferenciação de Linfócitos T/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/metabolismo , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/metabolismo , Estudos de Coortes , Infecções por Coronavirus/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Feminino , Proteínas Ligadas por GPI/genética , Proteínas Ligadas por GPI/imunologia , Proteínas Ligadas por GPI/metabolismo , Humanos , Interferon Tipo I/genética , Interferon Tipo I/imunologia , Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Células Matadoras Naturais/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/sangue , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , RNA-Seq , Receptores Imunológicos/genética , Receptores Imunológicos/imunologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Análise de Célula Única
3.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(28): 16481-16491, 2020 07 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32601182

RESUMO

Differences between female and male immunity may contribute to variations in response to infections and predisposition to autoimmunity. We previously reported that neutrophils from reproductive-age males are more immature and less activated than their female counterparts. To further characterize the mechanisms that drive differential neutrophil phenotypes, we performed RNA sequencing on circulating neutrophils from healthy adult females and males. Female neutrophils displayed significant up-regulation of type I IFN (IFN)-stimulated genes (ISGs). Single-cell RNA-sequencing analysis indicated that these differences are neutrophil specific, driven by a distinct neutrophil subset and related to maturation status. Neutrophil hyperresponsiveness to type I IFNs promoted enhanced responses to Toll-like receptor agonists. Neutrophils from young adult males had significantly increased mitochondrial metabolism compared to those from females and this was modulated by estradiol. Assessment of ISGs and neutrophil maturation genes in Klinefelter syndrome (47, XXY) males and in prepubescent children supported that differences in neutrophil phenotype between adult male and female neutrophils are hormonally driven and not explained by X chromosome gene dosage. Our results indicate that there are distinct sex differences in neutrophil biology related to responses to type I IFNs, immunometabolism, and maturation status that may have prominent functional and pathogenic implications.


Assuntos
Interferon Tipo I/imunologia , Neutrófilos/imunologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Imunidade Inata , Interferon Tipo I/genética , Interferon Tipo I/metabolismo , Síndrome de Klinefelter/genética , Síndrome de Klinefelter/imunologia , Síndrome de Klinefelter/metabolismo , Masculino , Fatores Sexuais , Adulto Jovem
4.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(28): 16567-16578, 2020 07 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32606244

RESUMO

Malaria infection induces complex and diverse immune responses. To elucidate the mechanisms underlying host-parasite interaction, we performed a genetic screen during early (24 h) Plasmodium yoelii infection in mice and identified a large number of interacting host and parasite genes/loci after transspecies expression quantitative trait locus (Ts-eQTL) analysis. We next investigated a host E3 ubiquitin ligase gene (March1) that was clustered with interferon (IFN)-stimulated genes (ISGs) based on the similarity of the genome-wide pattern of logarithm of the odds (LOD) scores (GPLS). March1 inhibits MAVS/STING/TRIF-induced type I IFN (IFN-I) signaling in vitro and in vivo. However, in malaria-infected hosts, deficiency of March1 reduces IFN-I production by activating inhibitors such as SOCS1, USP18, and TRIM24 and by altering immune cell populations. March1 deficiency increases CD86+DC (dendritic cell) populations and levels of IFN-γ and interleukin 10 (IL-10) at day 4 post infection, leading to improved host survival. T cell depletion reduces IFN-γ level and reverse the protective effects of March1 deficiency, which can also be achieved by antibody neutralization of IFN-γ. This study reveals functions of MARCH1 (membrane-associated ring-CH-type finger 1) in innate immune responses and provides potential avenues for activating antimalaria immunity and enhancing vaccine efficacy.


Assuntos
Malária/imunologia , Plasmodium yoelii/fisiologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/imunologia , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Humanos , Imunidade Inata , Interferon Tipo I/genética , Interferon Tipo I/imunologia , Interferon gama/genética , Interferon gama/imunologia , Interleucina-10/genética , Interleucina-10/imunologia , Malária/enzimologia , Malária/genética , Malária/parasitologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Plasmodium yoelii/imunologia , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/genética
5.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 146(2): 315-324.e7, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32531372

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: More than 300 million people carry a diagnosis of asthma, with data to suggest that they are at a higher risk for infection or adverse outcomes from severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. Asthma is remarkably heterogeneous, and it is currently unclear how patient-intrinsic factors may relate to coronavirus disease 2019. OBJECTIVE: We sought to identify and characterize subsets of patients with asthma at increased risk for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection. METHODS: Participants from 2 large asthma cohorts were stratified using clinically relevant parameters to identify factors related to angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (ACE2) expression within bronchial epithelium. ACE-2-correlated gene signatures were used to interrogate publicly available databases to identify upstream signaling events and novel therapeutic targets. RESULTS: Stratifying by type 2 inflammatory biomarkers, we identified subjects who demonstrated low peripheral blood eosinophils accompanied by increased expression of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 receptor ACE2 in bronchial epithelium. Genes highly correlated with ACE2 overlapped with type 1 and 2 IFN signatures, normally induced by viral infections. T-cell recruitment and activation within bronchoalveolar lavage cells of ACE2-high subjects was reciprocally increased. These patients demonstrated characteristics corresponding to risk factors for severe coronavirus disease 2019, including male sex, history of hypertension, low peripheral blood, and elevated bronchoalveolar lavage lymphocytes. CONCLUSIONS: ACE2 expression is linked to upregulation of viral response genes in a subset of type 2-low patients with asthma with characteristics resembling known risk factors for severe coronavirus disease 2019. Therapies targeting the IFN family and T-cell-activating factors may therefore be of benefit in a subset of patients.


Assuntos
Asma/epidemiologia , Asma/genética , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/genética , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Receptores Virais/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Asma/classificação , Asma/imunologia , Betacoronavirus/genética , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Brônquios/imunologia , Brônquios/patologia , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/citologia , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/imunologia , Estudos de Coortes , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Eosinófilos/imunologia , Eosinófilos/patologia , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Interferon Tipo I/genética , Interferon Tipo I/imunologia , Interferon gama/genética , Interferon gama/imunologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Mapeamento de Interação de Proteínas , Receptores Virais/imunologia , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Linfócitos T/classificação , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Linfócitos T/patologia , Transcriptoma , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
6.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(27): 15923-15934, 2020 07 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32571920

RESUMO

Burkholderia pseudomallei is the causative agent of melioidosis, an infectious disease in the tropics and subtropics with high morbidity and mortality. The facultative intracellular bacterium induces host cell fusion through its type VI secretion system 5 (T6SS5) as an important part of its pathogenesis in mammalian hosts. This allows it to spread intercellularly without encountering extracellular host defenses. We report that bacterial T6SS5-dependent cell fusion triggers type I IFN gene expression in the host and leads to activation of the cGAMP synthase-stimulator of IFN genes (cGAS-STING) pathway, independent of bacterial ligands. Aberrant and abortive mitotic events result in the formation of micronuclei colocalizing with cGAS, which is activated by double-stranded DNA. Surprisingly, cGAS-STING activation leads to type I IFN transcription but not its production. Instead, the activation of cGAS and STING results in autophagic cell death. We also observed type I IFN gene expression, micronuclei formation, and death of chemically induced cell fusions. Therefore, we propose that the cGAS-STING pathway senses unnatural cell fusion through micronuclei formation as a danger signal, and consequently limits aberrant cell division and potential cellular transformation through autophagic death induction.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Nucleotidiltransferases/genética , Burkholderia pseudomallei/metabolismo , Fusão Celular , Dano ao DNA , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Instabilidade Genômica , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Imunidade Inata , Interferon Tipo I/genética , Interferon Tipo I/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Microscopia Confocal , Nucleotidiltransferases/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais
7.
Cell Host Microbe ; 27(6): 870-878, 2020 06 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-436439

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a global pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Without approved antiviral therapeutics or vaccines to this ongoing global threat, type I and type III interferons (IFNs) are currently being evaluated for their efficacy. Both the role of IFNs and the use of recombinant IFNs in two related, highly pathogenic coronaviruses, SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV, have been controversial in terms of their protective effects in the host. In this review, we describe the recent progress in our understanding of both type I and type III IFN-mediated innate antiviral responses against human coronaviruses and discuss the potential use of IFNs as a treatment strategy for COVID-19.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Interferon Tipo I/imunologia , Interferons/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Animais , Antivirais/farmacologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Humanos , Evasão da Resposta Imune , Interferon Tipo I/genética , Interferon Tipo I/farmacologia , Interferons/genética , Interferons/farmacologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Proteínas Recombinantes/farmacologia , Transdução de Sinais
8.
Cell Host Microbe ; 27(6): 870-878, 2020 06 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-594357

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a global pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Without approved antiviral therapeutics or vaccines to this ongoing global threat, type I and type III interferons (IFNs) are currently being evaluated for their efficacy. Both the role of IFNs and the use of recombinant IFNs in two related, highly pathogenic coronaviruses, SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV, have been controversial in terms of their protective effects in the host. In this review, we describe the recent progress in our understanding of both type I and type III IFN-mediated innate antiviral responses against human coronaviruses and discuss the potential use of IFNs as a treatment strategy for COVID-19.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Interferon Tipo I/imunologia , Interferons/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Animais , Antivirais/farmacologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Humanos , Evasão da Resposta Imune , Interferon Tipo I/genética , Interferon Tipo I/farmacologia , Interferons/genética , Interferons/farmacologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Proteínas Recombinantes/farmacologia , Transdução de Sinais
9.
Cell Host Microbe ; 27(6): 870-878, 2020 06 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-381944

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a global pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Without approved antiviral therapeutics or vaccines to this ongoing global threat, type I and type III interferons (IFNs) are currently being evaluated for their efficacy. Both the role of IFNs and the use of recombinant IFNs in two related, highly pathogenic coronaviruses, SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV, have been controversial in terms of their protective effects in the host. In this review, we describe the recent progress in our understanding of both type I and type III IFN-mediated innate antiviral responses against human coronaviruses and discuss the potential use of IFNs as a treatment strategy for COVID-19.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Interferon Tipo I/imunologia , Interferons/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Animais , Antivirais/farmacologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Humanos , Evasão da Resposta Imune , Interferon Tipo I/genética , Interferon Tipo I/farmacologia , Interferons/genética , Interferons/farmacologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Proteínas Recombinantes/farmacologia , Transdução de Sinais
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32464097

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a global pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Without approved antiviral therapeutics or vaccines to this ongoing global threat, type I and type III interferons (IFNs) are currently being evaluated for their efficacy. Both the role of IFNs and the use of recombinant IFNs in two related, highly pathogenic coronaviruses, SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV, have been controversial in terms of their protective effects in the host. In this review, we describe the recent progress in our understanding of both type I and type III IFN-mediated innate antiviral responses against human coronaviruses and discuss the potential use of IFNs as a treatment strategy for COVID-19.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Interferon Tipo I/imunologia , Interferons/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Animais , Antivirais/farmacologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Humanos , Evasão da Resposta Imune , Interferon Tipo I/genética , Interferon Tipo I/farmacologia , Interferons/genética , Interferons/farmacologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Proteínas Recombinantes/farmacologia , Transdução de Sinais
11.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2193, 2020 05 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32366851

RESUMO

Innate immunity to nucleic acids forms the backbone for anti-viral immunity and several inflammatory diseases. Upon sensing cytosolic viral RNA, retinoic acid-inducible gene-I-like receptors (RLRs) interact with the mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein (MAVS) and activate TANK-binding kinase 1 (TBK1) to induce type I interferon (IFN-I). TRAF3-interacting protein 3 (TRAF3IP3, T3JAM) is essential for T and B cell development. It is also well-expressed by myeloid cells, where its role is unknown. Here we report that TRAF3IP3 suppresses cytosolic poly(I:C), 5'ppp-dsRNA, and vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) triggers IFN-I expression in overexpression systems and Traf3ip3-/- primary myeloid cells. The mechanism of action is through the interaction of TRAF3IP3 with endogenous TRAF3 and TBK1. This leads to the degradative K48 ubiquitination of TBK1 via its K372 residue in a DTX4-dependent fashion. Mice with myeloid-specific gene deletion of Traf3ip3 have increased RNA virus-triggered IFN-I production and reduced susceptibility to virus. These results identify a function of TRAF3IP3 in the regulation of the host response to cytosolic viral RNA in myeloid cells.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Interferon Tipo I/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Células Mieloides/metabolismo , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/genética , RNA Viral/genética , Animais , Proteínas de Transporte/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Células Cultivadas , Chlorocebus aethiops , Citosol/metabolismo , Citosol/virologia , Células HEK293 , Células HeLa , Humanos , Interferon Tipo I/metabolismo , Células Jurkat , Lisina/genética , Lisina/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Camundongos Transgênicos , Células Mieloides/virologia , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/metabolismo , RNA Viral/metabolismo , Células THP-1 , Ubiquitinação , Células Vero , Vírus da Estomatite Vesicular Indiana/genética , Vírus da Estomatite Vesicular Indiana/fisiologia
12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(7)2020 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32276399

RESUMO

When interferons (IFNs) bind to their receptors, they upregulate numerous IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) with antiviral and immune regulatory activities. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a single-stranded, positive-sense RNA virus that affects over 71 million people in the global population. Hepatocytes infected with HCV produce types I and III IFNs. These endogenous IFNs upregulate a set of ISGs that negatively impact the outcome of pegylated IFN-α and ribavirin treatments, which were previously used to treat HCV. In addition, the IFNL4 genotype was the primary polymorphism responsible for a suboptimal treatment response to pegylated IFN-α and ribavirin. However, recently developed direct-acting antivirals have demonstrated a high rate of sustained virological response without pegylated IFN-α. Herein, we review recent studies on types I and III IFN responses to in HCV-infected hepatocytes. In particular, we focused on open issues related to IFN responses in the direct-acting antiviral era.


Assuntos
Antivirais/farmacologia , Hepatite C/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatócitos/metabolismo , Imunidade Inata , Interferons/genética , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Hepatite C/genética , Hepatite C/imunologia , Hepatócitos/imunologia , Humanos , Interferon Tipo I/genética
14.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(16): 9042-9053, 2020 04 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32241891

RESUMO

RNA has been proposed as an important scaffolding factor in the nucleus, aiding protein complex assembly in the dense intracellular milieu. Architectural contributions of RNA to cytosolic signaling pathways, however, remain largely unknown. Here, we devised a multidimensional gradient approach, which systematically locates RNA components within cellular protein networks. Among a subset of noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) cosedimenting with the ubiquitin-proteasome system, our approach unveiled ncRNA MaIL1 as a critical structural component of the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) immune signal transduction pathway. RNA affinity antisense purification-mass spectrometry (RAP-MS) revealed MaIL1 binding to optineurin (OPTN), a ubiquitin-adapter platforming TBK1 kinase. MaIL1 binding stabilized OPTN, and consequently, loss of MaIL1 blunted OPTN aggregation, TBK1-dependent IRF3 phosphorylation, and type I interferon (IFN) gene transcription downstream of TLR4. MaIL1 expression was elevated in patients with active pulmonary infection and was highly correlated with IFN levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Our study uncovers MaIL1 as an integral RNA component of the TLR4-TRIF pathway and predicts further RNAs to be required for assembly and progression of cytosolic signaling networks in mammalian cells.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/metabolismo , Interferon Tipo I/genética , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/metabolismo , RNA não Traduzido/metabolismo , Infecções Respiratórias/imunologia , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/metabolismo , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transporte Vesicular/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Buffy Coat/citologia , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/imunologia , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Humanos , Fator Regulador 3 de Interferon/metabolismo , Interferon Tipo I/sangue , Interferon Tipo I/imunologia , Macrófagos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fosforilação/genética , Cultura Primária de Células , Estabilidade Proteica , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/metabolismo , RNA não Traduzido/sangue , RNA não Traduzido/genética , RNA-Seq , Infecções Respiratórias/sangue , Infecções Respiratórias/microbiologia , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia , Adulto Jovem
15.
J Virol ; 94(13)2020 06 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32295922

RESUMO

Type I and type III interferons (IFNs) are the frontline of antiviral defense mechanisms that trigger hundreds of downstream antiviral genes. In this study, we observed that MERS-CoV nucleocapsid (N) protein suppresses type I and type III IFN gene expression. The N protein suppresses Sendai virus-induced IFN-ß and IFN-λ1 by reducing their promoter activity and mRNA levels, as well as downstream IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs). Retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) is known to recognize viral RNA and induce IFN expression through tripartite motif-containing protein 25 (TRIM25)-mediated ubiquitination of RIG-I caspase activation and recruitment domains (CARDs). We discovered that MERS-CoV N protein suppresses RIG-I-CARD-induced, but not MDA5-CARD-induced, IFN-ß and IFN-λ1 promoter activity. By interacting with TRIM25, N protein impedes RIG-I ubiquitination and activation and inhibits the phosphorylation of transcription factors IFN-regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) and NF-κB that are known to be important for IFN gene activation. By employing a recombinant Sindbis virus-EGFP replication system, we showed that viral N protein downregulated the production of not only IFN mRNA but also bioactive IFN proteins. Taken together, MERS-CoV N protein functions as an IFN antagonist. It suppresses RIG-I-induced type I and type III IFN production by interfering with TRIM25-mediated RIG-I ubiquitination. Our study sheds light on the pathogenic mechanism of how MERS-CoV causes disease.IMPORTANCE MERS-CoV causes death of about 35% of patients. Published studies showed that some coronaviruses are capable of suppressing interferon (IFN) expression in the early phase of infection and MERS-CoV proteins can modulate host immune response. In this study, we demonstrated that MERS-CoV nucleocapsid (N) protein suppresses the production of both type I and type III IFNs via sequestering TRIM25, an E3 ubiquitin ligase that is essential for activating the RIG-I signaling pathway. Ectopic expression of TRIM25 rescues the suppressive effect of the N protein. In addition, the C-terminal domain of the viral N protein plays a pivotal role in the suppression of IFN-ß promoter activity. Our findings reveal how MERS-CoV evades innate immunity and provide insights into the interplay between host immune response and viral pathogenicity.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/metabolismo , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Proteína DEAD-box 58/metabolismo , Interferon Tipo I/biossíntese , Interferons/biossíntese , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/fisiologia , Proteínas do Nucleocapsídeo/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Sinalização CARD/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Infecções por Coronavirus/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/genética , Humanos , Fator Regulador 3 de Interferon/metabolismo , Interferon Tipo I/genética , Interferons/genética , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Ligação Proteica , Fatores de Transcrição , Proteínas com Motivo Tripartido , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases
16.
Viruses ; 12(3)2020 03 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32204464

RESUMO

Cats are becoming more popular as household companions and pets, forming close relationships with humans. Although feline viral diseases can pose serious health hazards to pet cats, commercialized preventative vaccines are lacking. Interferons (IFNs), especially type I IFNs (IFN-α, IFN-ß, and interferon omega (IFN-ω)), have been explored as effective therapeutic drugs against viral diseases in cats. Nevertheless, there is limited knowledge regarding feline IFN-ω (feIFN-ω), compared to IFN-α and IFN-ß. In this study, we cloned the genes encoding feIFN-ωa and feIFN-ωb from cat spleen lymphocytes. Homology and phylogenetic tree analysis revealed that these two genes belonged to new subtypes of feIFN-ω. The recombinant feIFN-ωa and feIFN-ωb proteins were expressed in their soluble forms in Escherichia coli, followed by purification. Both proteins exhibited effective anti-vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) activity in Vero, F81 (feline kidney cell), Madin-Darby bovine kidney (MDBK), Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK), and porcine kidney (PK-15) cells, showing broader cross-species antiviral activity than the INTERCAT IFN antiviral drug. Furthermore, the recombinant feIFN-ωa and feIFN-ωb proteins demonstrated antiviral activity against VSV, feline coronavirus (FCoV), canine parvovirus (CPV), bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), and porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), indicating better broad-spectrum antiviral activity than the INTERCAT IFN. The two novel feIFN-ω proteins (feIFN-ωa and feIFN-ωb) described in this study show promising potential to serve as effective therapeutic agents for treating viral infections in pet cats.


Assuntos
Antivirais/farmacologia , Interferon Tipo I/genética , Interferon Tipo I/farmacologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Antivirais/isolamento & purificação , Sequência de Bases , Gatos , Bovinos , Linhagem Celular , Chlorocebus aethiops , Clonagem Molecular , Cães , Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Interferon Tipo I/química , Interferon Tipo I/metabolismo , Filogenia , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/química , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/metabolismo , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/farmacologia , Suínos , Células Vero , Vírus/classificação , Vírus/efeitos dos fármacos
17.
PLoS Pathog ; 16(3): e1008364, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32150572

RESUMO

Innate immunity responds to pathogens by producing alarm signals and activating pathways that make host cells inhospitable for pathogen replication. The intracellular bacterium Burkholderia thailandensis invades the cytosol, hijacks host actin, and induces cell fusion to spread to adjacent cells, forming multinucleated giant cells (MNGCs) which promote bacterial replication. We show that type I interferon (IFN) restricts macrophage MNGC formation during B. thailandensis infection. Guanylate-binding proteins (GBPs) expressed downstream of type I IFN were required to restrict MNGC formation through inhibition of bacterial Arp2/3-dependent actin motility during infection. GTPase activity and the CAAX prenylation domain were required for GBP2 recruitment to B. thailandensis, which restricted bacterial actin polymerization required for MNGC formation. Consistent with the effects in in vitro macrophages, Gbp2-/-, Gbp5-/-, GbpChr3-KO mice were more susceptible to intranasal infection with B. thailandensis than wildtype mice. Our findings reveal that IFN and GBPs play a critical role in restricting cell-cell fusion and bacteria-induced pathology during infection.


Assuntos
Infecções por Burkholderia/imunologia , Burkholderia/imunologia , Proteínas de Ligação ao GTP/imunologia , Células Gigantes/imunologia , Macrófagos/imunologia , Doenças Nasais/imunologia , Prenilação de Proteína/imunologia , Animais , Infecções por Burkholderia/genética , Infecções por Burkholderia/patologia , Fusão Celular , Proteínas de Ligação ao GTP/genética , Células Gigantes/microbiologia , Células Gigantes/patologia , Interferon Tipo I/genética , Interferon Tipo I/imunologia , Macrófagos/microbiologia , Macrófagos/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Doenças Nasais/genética , Doenças Nasais/microbiologia , Doenças Nasais/patologia
18.
PLoS Pathog ; 16(2): e1008293, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32027733

RESUMO

RIG-I plays important roles in pathogen sensing and activation of antiviral innate immune responses in response to RNA viruses. RIG-I-mediated signaling must be precisely controlled to maintain innate immune signaling homeostasis. Previous studies demonstrated that lysine 63 (K63)-linked polyubiquitination of RIG-I is vital for its activation, but the mechanisms through which RIG-I is deubiquitinated to control innate immune responses are not well understood. Here we identified USP27X as a negative regulator of antiviral signaling in response to RNA viruses through siRNA library screening. Further functional studies indicated that USP27X negatively modulated RIG-I-mediated antiviral signaling in a deubiquitinase-dependent manner. Mechanistically, we found that USP27X removed K63-linked polyubiquitin chains from RIG-I to negatively modulate type I interferon signaling. Collectively, these studies uncover a novel negative regulatory role of USP27X in targeting RIG-I to balance innate immune responses.


Assuntos
Proteína DEAD-box 58 , Imunidade Inata/genética , Transdução de Sinais , Proteases Específicas de Ubiquitina , Vírus/imunologia , Animais , Proteína DEAD-box 58/genética , Proteína DEAD-box 58/imunologia , Células HeLa , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Interferon Tipo I/genética , Interferon Tipo I/imunologia , Camundongos , Células RAW 264.7 , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia , Proteases Específicas de Ubiquitina/genética , Proteases Específicas de Ubiquitina/imunologia , Ubiquitinação/genética , Ubiquitinação/imunologia
19.
Mol Immunol ; 119: 132-143, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32014632

RESUMO

Investigations into the molecular immune response of dromedary camel, a key livestock species of the arid, have been limited due to the lack of species-specific reagents. Here we describe for the first time, the identification and characterization of type I IFNs of dromedary camel, which are the most important cytokines in the innate host immune response against viruses. We cloned camel IFN-α coding sequences and identified a total of eleven subtypes. The canonical IFN-α subtype designated as IFN-α1 contained a 555-bp Open Reading Frame encoding a protein of 184 amino acids. Recombinant IFN-α1 protein was produced in E. coli and purified from inclusion bodies. Recombinant camel IFN-α1 induced the mRNA expression of interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs) in camel kidney cells. The purified protein also showed potent in-vitro antiviral activity against Camelpox Virus in kidney cells. The identified camel IFN-α protein and the subtypes will facilitate a better understanding of the host immune response to viral infections in camel and the development of potential antiviral biologicals for zoonotic diseases for which camel act as a reservoir.


Assuntos
Camelus/imunologia , Interferon Tipo I/imunologia , Orthopoxvirus/imunologia , Animais , Antivirais , Camelus/genética , Clonagem Molecular , Escherichia coli , Interferon Tipo I/química , Interferon Tipo I/genética , Interferon Tipo I/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/imunologia , Análise de Sequência de DNA
20.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 72(7): 1170-1183, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32009304

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Muscle inflammation is a feature in myositis and Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Autoimmune mechanisms are thought to contribute to muscle weakness in patients with myositis. However, a lack of correlation between the extent of inflammatory cell infiltration and muscle weakness indicates that nonimmune pathologic mechanisms may play a role. The present study focused on 2 microRNA (miRNA) sets previously identified as being elevated in the muscle of patients with DMD-an "inflammatory" miRNA set that is dampened with glucocorticoids, and a "dystrophin-targeting" miRNA set that inhibits dystrophin translation-to test the hypothesis that these miRNAs are similarly dysregulated in the muscle of patients with myositis, and could contribute to muscle weakness and disease severity. METHODS: A major histocompatibility complex class I-transgenic mouse model of myositis was utilized to study gene and miRNA expression and histologic features in the muscle tissue, with the findings validated in human muscle biopsy tissue from 6 patients with myositis. Mice were classified as having mild or severe myositis based on transgene expression, body weight, histologic disease severity, and muscle strength/weakness. RESULTS: In mice with severe myositis, muscle tissue showed mononuclear cell infiltration along with elevated expression of type I interferon and NF-κB-regulated genes, including Tlr7 (3.8-fold increase, P < 0.05). Furthermore, mice with severe myositis showed elevated expression of inflammatory miRNAs (miR-146a, miR-142-3p, miR-142-5p, miR-455-3p, and miR-455-5p; ~3-40-fold increase, P < 0.05) and dystrophin-targeting miRNAs (miR-146a, miR-146b, miR-31, and miR-223; ~3-38-fold increase, P < 0.05). Bioinformatics analyses of chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing (ChIP-seq) data identified at least one NF-κB consensus element within the promoter/enhancer regions of these miRNAs. Western blotting and immunofluorescence analyses of the muscle tissue from mice with severe myositis demonstrated reduced levels of dystrophin. In addition, elevated levels of NF-κB-regulated genes, TLR7, and miRNAs along with reduced dystrophin levels were observed in muscle biopsy tissue from patients with histologically severe myositis. CONCLUSION: These data demonstrate that an acquired dystrophin deficiency may occur through NF-κB-regulated miRNAs in myositis, thereby suggesting a unifying theme in which muscle injury, inflammation, and weakness are perpetuated both in myositis and in DMD.


Assuntos
Distrofina/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/genética , Debilidade Muscular/genética , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Miosite/genética , Animais , Sequenciamento de Cromatina por Imunoprecipitação , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe I/genética , Humanos , Interferon Tipo I/genética , Interferon Tipo I/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Debilidade Muscular/metabolismo , Miosite/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/genética , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Receptor 7 Toll-Like/genética , Receptor 7 Toll-Like/metabolismo
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