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1.
Pol J Vet Sci ; 24(3): 375-384, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34730305

RESUMO

Canine parvovirus (CPV) is a single-stranded DNA virus that causes severe and fatal gastrointestinal diseases in dogs. CPV has developed several strategies to evade innate immune response mediated by type I interferons (IFN-I) to achieve a successful infection. The aim of this work was to evaluate the capability of CVP-2c to evade the IFN-I mediated response in infected cells. To establish the role of this response, the gene expression of interferon ß (IFNß), IFIT1, IFIT3, MAVS, and STING were estimated in MDCK cells infected with CPV-2c. Viral replication and gene expression was evaluated by quantitative PCR, also, a treatment with IFN-I (interferon omega) was included to confirm the role of IFN-I during CPV infection. The results revealed that CPV-2c infection stimulates the expression of IFNß moderately, in these cells. Due to low IFNß induction, the IFIT1 and IFIT3 expression were also low, and therefore CPV-2c was able to replicate in these cells. However, when the cells were treated with exogenous IFN-I, the IFNß expression was higher, leading to an increased gene expression of IFIT1 and IFIT3, responsible for antiviral control. The overexpression of these proteins reduced the expression of NS1 and VP2 viral genes and hence viral replication. MAVS and STING expression on infected cells showed a mild increase compared to IFNß, suggesting that the viral infection could partially modify its expression. All results obtained in this study showed that during CPV-2c infection in MDCK cells, the IFNß expression was altered since this cytokine is one of the most critical factors for the control and inhibition of viral replication.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/sangue , Interferon Tipo I/farmacologia , Infecções por Parvoviridae/veterinária , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/genética , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/metabolismo , Animais , Proteínas do Capsídeo/genética , Proteínas do Capsídeo/metabolismo , Doenças do Cão/imunologia , Cães , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Interferon Tipo I/metabolismo , Interferon beta/sangue , Interferon beta/metabolismo , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/genética , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/metabolismo , Células Madin Darby de Rim Canino , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Infecções por Parvoviridae/sangue , Infecções por Parvoviridae/imunologia , Parvovirus Canino , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/genética , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/metabolismo , Replicação Viral/fisiologia
2.
BMC Neurol ; 21(1): 445, 2021 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34758765

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) represents a transient change in mental status with associated vasogenic edema of cortical and subcortical brain structures. It is often attributed to multifactorial etiology including hypertension and altered hemodynamics and disruption of vessel integrity. Patients with autoimmune disease and certain immune modulator therapies are at greater risk. CASE PRESENTATION: A 54-year-old female with past medical history of well-controlled multiple sclerosis on interferon-beta since 2013, presented with witnessed tonic colonic seizure. She also was noted to demonstrate left gaze deviation and left-sided hemiparesis. MRI fluid-attenuated inversion recovery sequence showed hyperintensity of the subcortical U fibers, concentrated in the occipital, parietal lobes and frontal lobes. Systolic blood pressure was 160 mmHg on arrival. The patient was started on seizure prophylxis and Interferon beta was discontinued. The patient's mentation, seizures and hemiapresis significantly improved in next 72 h with tight blood pressure control, and had notble improvement on MRI imaging and inflammatory markers. Lumbar puncture CSF results were devoid of infectious and autoimmune pathology. CONCLUSIONS: A middle-aged female with multiple sclerosis who was on chronic IFN-beta presented to the emergency room with a witnessed tonic-clonic seizure, with MRI T2 FLAIR imaging consistent with PRES. She had notable clinical improvement with decreased edema on imaging and improved inflammatory markers 72 h after cessation of IFN-beta therapy.


Assuntos
Síndrome da Leucoencefalopatia Posterior , Edema , Feminino , Humanos , Inflamação , Interferon beta/uso terapêutico , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Síndrome da Leucoencefalopatia Posterior/diagnóstico por imagem , Síndrome da Leucoencefalopatia Posterior/tratamento farmacológico
3.
Clin Drug Investig ; 41(12): 1037-1046, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34687413

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Interferon-ß, as with several other anti-viral agents, has been investigated as a treatment option for COVID-19 as a repurposed drug. The present study is a systematic review and meta-analysis of interferon-ß to determine its efficacy among moderate-to-severe COVID-19 patients. METHODS: A systematic literature search was done using relevant terms for 'COVID-19' and 'interferon-ß'. Randomised controlled trials (RCT) evaluating the efficacy of interferon-ß in COVID-19 were included. Data were extracted for outcome measures, namely mortality, time to clinical improvement and length of hospital stay. Random effects meta-analysis was performed using RevMan V.5.4.1 to calculate overall effect estimate as odds ratio/hazard ratio for categorical variables and mean difference for continuous variable. RESULT: Eight RCTs were eligible for qualitative synthesis and seven for meta-analysis. The overall effect estimate (odds ratio [OR] 0.59; 95 % CI 0.91, 1.12) and (mean difference [MD] - 1.41; 95 % CI - 2.84, 0.02) indicated no statistically significant difference between effect of IFN-ß and that of control on mortality and length of hospital stay, respectively. However, the overall effect estimate (hazard ratio [HR] 1.95; 95 % CI 1.36, 2.79) denoted a favourable effect of INF-ß on reducing the time to clinical improvement in moderate-to-severe COVID-19 patients. CONCLUSION: Addition of interferon-ß to standard of care resulted in significant reduction in time to clinical improvement but no significant benefit in terms of reduction in mortality and length of hospital stay in moderate-to-severe cases of COVID-19.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Interferon beta/uso terapêutico , SARS-CoV-2
4.
J Immunol ; 207(10): 2512-2520, 2021 11 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34625523

RESUMO

IFN-ß is a unique member of type I IFN in humans and contains four positive regulatory domains (PRDs), I-II-III-IV, in its promoter, which are docking sites for transcription factors IFN regulatory factor (IRF) 3/7, NF-κB, IRF3/7, and activating transcription factor 2/Jun proto-oncogene, respectively. In chicken IFN-ß and zebrafish IFNφ1 promoters, a conserved PRD or PRD-like sequences have been reported. In this study, a type I IFN gene, named as xl-IFN1 in the amphibian model Xenopus laevis, was found to contain similar PRD-like sites, IV-III/I-II, in its promoter, and these PRD-like sites were proved to be functionally responsive to activating transcription factor 2/Jun proto-oncogene, IRF3/IRF7, and p65, respectively. The xl-IFN1, as IFNφ1 in zebrafish, was transcribed into a long and a short transcript, with the long transcript containing all of the transcriptional elements, including PRD-like sites and TATA box in its proximal promoter. A retroposition model was then proposed to explain the transcriptional conservation of IFNφ1, xl-IFN1, and IFN-ß in chicken and humans.


Assuntos
Interferon beta/genética , Íntrons/genética , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética , Animais , Galinhas , Evolução Molecular , Humanos , Peixe-Zebra
5.
J Gen Virol ; 102(10)2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34665110

RESUMO

Viperin has antiviral function against many viruses, including dengue virus (DENV), when studied in cells in culture. Here, the antiviral actions of viperin were defined both in vitro and in a mouse in vivo model of DENV infection. Murine embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) derived from mice lacking viperin (vip-/-) showed enhanced DENV infection, accompanied by increased IFN-ß and induction of ISGs; IFIT1 and CXCL-10 but not IRF7, when compared to wild-type (WT) MEFs. In contrast, subcutaneous challenge of immunocompetent WT and vip-/- mice with DENV did not result in enhanced infection. Intracranial infection with DENV resulted in body weight loss and neurological disease with a moderate increase in mortality in vip-/- compared with WT mice, although this was not accompanied by altered brain morphology, immune cell infiltration or DENV RNA level in the brain. Similarly, DENV induction of IFN-ß, IFIT1, CXCL-10, IRF7 and TNF-α was not significantly different in WT and vip-/- mouse brain, although there was a modest but significant increase in DENV induction of IL-6 and IfI27la in the absence of viperin. NanoString nCounter analysis confirmed no significant difference in induction of a panel of inflammatory genes in WT compared to vip-/- DENV-infected mouse brains. Further, polyI:C stimulation of bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) induced TNF-α, IFN-ß, IL-6 and Nos-2, but responses were not different in BMDMs generated from WT or vip-/- mice. Thus, while there is significant evidence of anti-DENV actions of viperin in some cell types in vitro, for DENV infection in vivo a lack of viperin does not affect systemic or brain susceptibility to DENV or induction of innate and inflammatory responses.


Assuntos
Antivirais , Vírus da Dengue/imunologia , Vírus da Dengue/fisiologia , Dengue/imunologia , Dengue/virologia , Imunidade Inata , Proteínas/fisiologia , Animais , Encéfalo/imunologia , Encéfalo/virologia , Células Cultivadas , Inflamação , Fator Regulador 7 de Interferon/genética , Interferon beta/biossíntese , Interferon beta/genética , Macrófagos/imunologia , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Camundongos , Proteínas/genética , Replicação Viral
6.
J Gen Virol ; 102(10)2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34661519

RESUMO

Ubiquitin and ubiquitin-like protein modification play important roles in modulating the functions of viral proteins in many viruses. Here we demonstrate that hepatitis B virus (HBV) X protein (HBx) is modified by ISG15, which is a type I IFN-inducible, ubiquitin-like protein; this modification is called ISGylation. Immunoblot analyses revealed that HBx proteins derived from four different HBV genotypes accepted ISGylation in cultured cells. Site-directed mutagenesis revealed that three lysine residues (K91, K95 and K140) on the HBx protein, which are well conserved among all the HBV genotypes, are involved in acceptance of ISGylation. Using expression plasmids encoding three known E3 ligases involved in the ISGylation to different substrates, we found that HERC5 functions as an E3 ligase for HBx-ISGylation. Treatment with type I and type III IFNs resulted in the limited suppression of HBV replication in Hep38.7-Tet cells. When cells were treated with IFN-α, silencing of ISG15 resulted in a marked reduction of HBV replication in Hep38.7-Tet cells, suggesting a role of ISG15 in the resistance to IFN-α. In contrast, the silencing of USP18 (an ISG15 de-conjugating enzyme) increased the HBV replication in Hep38.7-Tet cells. Taken together, these results suggest that the HERC5-mediated ISGylation of HBx protein confers pro-viral functions on HBV replication and participates in the resistance to IFN-α-mediated antiviral activity.


Assuntos
Citocinas/metabolismo , Vírus da Hepatite B/fisiologia , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/metabolismo , Transativadores/metabolismo , Ubiquitinas/metabolismo , Proteínas Virais Reguladoras e Acessórias/metabolismo , Replicação Viral , Linhagem Celular , Farmacorresistência Viral , Vírus da Hepatite B/genética , Humanos , Interferon-alfa/farmacologia , Interferon beta/farmacologia , Interferons/farmacologia , Transativadores/química , Ubiquitina Tiolesterase/metabolismo , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/metabolismo , Proteínas Virais Reguladoras e Acessórias/química
7.
BMC Ophthalmol ; 21(1): 352, 2021 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34592956

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Susac syndrome (SS) is characterized by the triad of encephalopathy, branch retinal artery occlusion, and sensorineural hearing loss. However, the diagnosis of SS remains difficult because the clinical triad rarely occurs at disease onset, and symptom severity varies. SS symptoms often suggest other diseases, in particular multiple sclerosis (MS), which is more common. Misdiagnosing SS as MS may cause serious complications because MS drugs, such as interferon beta-1a, can worsen the course of SS. This case report confirms previous reports that the use of interferon beta-1a in the course of misdiagnosed MS may lead to exacerbation of SS. Moreover, our case report shows that glatiramer acetate may also exacerbate the course of SS. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of exacerbation of SS by glatiramer acetate. CASE PRESENTATION: We present a case report of a patient with a primary diagnosis of MS who developed symptoms of SS during interferon beta-1a treatment for MS; these symptoms were resolved after the discontinuation of the treatment. Upon initiation of glatiramer acetate treatment, the patient developed the full clinical triad of SS. The diagnosis of MS was excluded, and glatiramer acetate therapy was discontinued. The patient's neurological state improved only after the use of a combination of corticosteroids, intravenous immunoglobulins, and azathioprine. CONCLUSIONS: The coincidence of SS signs and symptoms with treatment for MS, first with interferon beta-1a and then with glatiramer acetate, suggests that these drugs may influence the course of SS. This case report indicates that treatment with glatiramer acetate may modulate or even exacerbate the course of SS.


Assuntos
Esclerose Múltipla , Síndrome de Susac , Erros de Diagnóstico , Acetato de Glatiramer/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Interferon beta-1a/efeitos adversos , Interferon beta/efeitos adversos , Esclerose Múltipla/diagnóstico , Esclerose Múltipla/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome de Susac/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Susac/tratamento farmacológico
8.
FEBS Lett ; 595(21): 2665-2674, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34591979

RESUMO

Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) recognizes viral double-stranded RNA (or the synthetic dsRNA analog poly I:C) and induces a signal transduction pathway that results in activation of transcription factors that induce expression of antiviral genes including type I interferon (IFN-I). Secreted IFN-I positively feeds back to amplify antiviral gene expression. In this report, we study the role of MEK/ERK MAP kinase in modulating antiviral gene expression downstream of TLR3. We find MEK/ERK is a negative regulator of antiviral gene expression by limiting expression of IFN-ß. However, MEK/ERK does not limit antiviral responses downstream of the type I interferon receptor. These findings provide insights into regulatory mechanisms of antiviral gene expression and reveal potential targets for modulating antiviral immunity.


Assuntos
Antivirais , MAP Quinases Reguladas por Sinal Extracelular , Interferon beta , Animais , Camundongos , Poli I-C , Células RAW 264.7
9.
BMC Vet Res ; 17(1): 318, 2021 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34587973

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) infection can cause reproductive failure in sows and acute myocarditis and sudden death in piglets. It has caused huge economic losses to the global pig industry and that is why it is necessary to develop effective new treatment compounds. Zedoary turmeric oil has been used for treating myocarditis. Curcumol extracted from the roots of curcuma is one of the main active ingredient of zedoary turmeric oil. The anti-EMCV activity of curcumol along with the molecular mechanisms involved with a focus on IFN-ß signaling pathway was investigated in this study. METHOD: 3-(4,5-dimethyithiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay was used to determine the maximum non-toxic concentration (MNTC), 50% cytotoxic concentration (CC50), maximum inhibition rate (MIR) and 50% effective concentration (EC50) against EMCV. Through EMCV load, the anti-viral effect of curcumol was quantitatively determined using real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR). The effect of curcumol on the expression of IFN-ß was investigated using real-time quantitative PCR and ELISA. Western blot was used to determine the amounts of MDA5, MAVS, TANK, IRF3 and P-IRF3 proteins in human embryonic kidney 293 T (HEK-293 T) cells infected with EMCV. RESULTS: The results of MTT showed that compared with the ribavirin positive control group, the maximum inhibition ratio (MIR) of curcumol was greater but the selection index (SI) value was much smaller than that of ribavirin. The results of qPCR showed that curcumol and ribavirin significantly reduced the replication of EMCV in HEK-293 T cells. The curcumol (0.025 mg/mL) treatment has significantly increased IFN-ß mRNA expression in the EMCV-infected HEK-293 T cells while ribavirin treatment did not. The results of ELISA showed that curcumol (0.025 mg/mL and 0.0125 mg/mL) has significantly increased the expression of IFN-ß protein in EMCV-infected HEK-293 T cells. The results of Western blot showed that curcumol can inhibit the degradation of TANK protein mediated by EMCV and promote the expression of MDA5 and P-IRF3, while the protein expression level of MAVS and IRF3 remain unchanged. CONCLUSION: Curcumol has biological activity against EMCV which we suggest that IFN-ß signaling pathway is one of its mechanisms.


Assuntos
Antivirais/farmacologia , Vírus da Encefalomiocardite/efeitos dos fármacos , Sesquiterpenos/farmacologia , Infecções por Cardiovirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Cardiovirus/virologia , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Interferon beta/efeitos dos fármacos , Interferon beta/metabolismo , Ribavirina/farmacologia , Sesquiterpenos/toxicidade , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Replicação Viral/efeitos dos fármacos
10.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0258017, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34587188

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We aim to overcome limitations of previous clinical and population-based studies by merging a clinical registry to routinely-collected healthcare data, and to specifically describe differences in clinical outcomes, healthcare resource utilization and costs between interferon beta formulations for multiple sclerosis (MS). METHODS: We included 850 patients with MS treated with interferon beta formulations, from 2015 to 2019, seen at the MS Clinical Care and Research Centre (Federico II University of Naples, Italy) and with linkage to routinely-collected healthcare data (prescription data, hospital admissions, outpatient services). We extracted and computed clinical outcomes (relapses, 6-month EDSS progression using a roving EDSS as reference), persistence (time spent on a specific interferon beta formulation), adherence (medication possession ratio (MPR)), healthcare resource utilization and costs (annualized hospitalization rate (AHR), costs for hospital admissions and DMTs). To evaluate differences between interferon beta formulations, we used linear regression (adherence), Poisson regression (AHR), mixed-effect regression (costs), and Cox-regression models (time varying variables); covariates were age, sex, treatment duration, baseline EDSS and adherence. RESULTS: Looking at clinical outcomes, rates of relapses and EDSS progression were lower than studies run on previous cohorts; there was no differences in relapse risk between interferon beta formulations. Risk of discontinuation was higher for Betaferon®/Extavia® (HR = 3.28; 95%CI = 2.11, 5.12; p<0.01). Adherence was lower for Betaferon®/Extavia® (Coeff = -0.05; 95%CI = -0.10, -0.01; p = 0.02), and Avonex® (Coeff = -0.06; 95%CI = -0.11, -0.02; p<0.01), when compared with Rebif® and Plegridy® (Coeff = 0.08; 95%CI = 0.01, 0.16; p = 0.02). AHR and costs for MS hospital admissions were higher for Betaferon®/Extavia® (IRR = 2.38; 95%CI = 1.01, 5.55; p = 0.04; Coeff = 14.95; 95%CI = 1.39, 28.51; p = 0.03). CONCLUSIONS: We have showed the feasibility of merging routinely-collected healthcare data to a clinical registry for future MS research, and have confirmed interferon beta formulations play an important role in the management of MS, with positive clinical outcomes. Differences between interferon beta formulations are mostly driven by adherence and healthcare resource utilization.


Assuntos
Fatores Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Interferon beta/uso terapêutico , Esclerose Múltipla/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sistema de Registros , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
PLoS Biol ; 19(9): e3001352, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34491982

RESUMO

Antiviral defenses can sense viral RNAs and mediate their destruction. This presents a challenge for host cells since they must destroy viral RNAs while sparing the host mRNAs that encode antiviral effectors. Here, we show that highly upregulated interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs), which encode antiviral proteins, have distinctive nucleotide compositions. We propose that self-targeting by antiviral effectors has selected for ISG transcripts that occupy a less self-targeted sequence space. Following interferon (IFN) stimulation, the CpG-targeting antiviral effector zinc-finger antiviral protein (ZAP) reduces the mRNA abundance of multiple host transcripts, providing a mechanistic explanation for the repression of many (but not all) interferon-repressed genes (IRGs). Notably, IRGs tend to be relatively CpG rich. In contrast, highly upregulated ISGs tend to be strongly CpG suppressed. Thus, ZAP is an example of an effector that has not only selected compositional biases in viral genomes but also appears to have notably shaped the composition of host transcripts in the vertebrate interferome.


Assuntos
Fosfatos de Dinucleosídeos , Fatores Reguladores de Interferon/genética , RNA Viral , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/metabolismo , Células A549 , Linhagem Celular , Humanos , Interferon beta/farmacologia , RNA Mensageiro , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/genética , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Virais , Vírus
12.
Mol Pain ; 17: 17448069211045211, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34517736

RESUMO

Interferons (IFNs) are cytokines secreted by infected cells that can interfere with viral replication. Besides activating antiviral defenses, type I IFNs also exhibit diverse biological functions. IFN-ß has been shown to have a protective effect against neurotoxic and inflammatory insults on neurons. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the possible role of IFN-ß in reducing mechanical allodynia caused by Complete Freund's Adjuvant (CFA) injection in rats. We assessed the antinociceptive effect of intrathecal IFN-ß in naïve rats and the rats with CFA-induced inflammatory pain. After the behavioral test, the spinal cords of the rats were harvested for western blot and immunohistochemical double staining. We found that intrathecal administration of IFN-ß in naïve rats can significantly increase the paw withdrawal threshold and paw withdrawal latency. Further, the intrathecal injection of a neutralizing IFN-ß antibody can reduce the paw withdrawal threshold and paw withdrawal latency, suggesting that IFN-ß is produced in the spinal cord in normal conditions and serves as a tonic inhibitor of pain. In addition, intrathecal injection of IFN-ß at dosages from 1000 U to 10000 U demonstrates a significant transient dose-dependent inhibition of CFA-induced inflammatory pain. This analgesic effect is reversed by intrathecal naloxone, suggesting that IFN-ß produces an analgesic effect through central opioid receptor-mediated signaling. Increased expression of phospho-µ-opioid receptors after IFN-ß injection was observed on western blot, and immunohistochemical staining showed that µ-opioids co-localized with IFN-α/ßR in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord. The findings of this study demonstrate that the analgesic effect of IFN-ß is through µ-opioid receptors activation in spial cord.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides/farmacologia , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Interferon beta/metabolismo , Dor/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Hiperalgesia/tratamento farmacológico , Hiperalgesia/metabolismo , Injeções Espinhais/métodos , Masculino , Dor/metabolismo , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
13.
Trials ; 22(1): 584, 2021 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34479601

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The primary objective of the study is to demonstrate the efficacy of low-dose IFN-ß in reducing the risk of SARS-CoV-2 recently infected elderly patients to progress towards severe COVID-19 versus control group within 28 days. Secondary objectives are: 1) To assess the reduction in Intensive Care Unit (ICU) admission in patients treated with IFN-ß versus control group within 28 days of randomization 2) To assess the reduction in number of deaths in IFN- ß compared to control group (day 28) 3) To evaluate the increase in proportion of participants returning to negative SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR in IFN-ß -treated versus control group at Day 14 and Day 28 4) To assess the increase in SARS-CoV-2-specific binding antibody titers in IFN-ß compared to control group (day 28) 5) To assess the safety of IFN-ß -treated patients versus control group TRIAL DESIGN: Randomized, Open-Label, Controlled, Superiority Phase II Study. Patients, who satisfy all inclusion criteria and no exclusion criteria, will be randomly assigned to one of the two treatment groups in a ratio 2:1 (IFN-treated versus control patients). Randomization will be stratified by gender. Stratified randomization will balance the presence of male and female in both study arms. PARTICIPANTS: Male and female adults aged 65 years or older with newly diagnosed SARS-CoV-2 infection and mild COVID-19 symptoms are eligible for the study. The trial is being conducted in Rome. Participants will be either hospitalized or home isolated. A group of physicians belonging to the Special Unit for Regional Continued Care (USCAR), specifically trained for the study and under the supervision of the National Institute for Infectious Diseases "Lazzaro Spallanzani", will be responsible for the screening, enrolment, treatment and clinical monitoring of patients, thus acting as a bridge between clinical centers and territorial health management. Inclusion criteria are as follows: ≥ 65 years of age at time of enrolment; Laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection as determined by PCR, in any specimen < 72 hours prior to randomization; Subject (or legally authorized representative) provides written informed consent prior to initiation of any study procedures; Understands and agrees to comply with planned study procedures; Agrees to the collection of nasopharyngeal swabs and venous blood samples per protocol; Being symptomatic for less than 7 days before starting therapy; NEWS2 score ≤2. Exclusion criteria are as follows: Hospitalized patients with illness of any duration, and at least one of the following: Clinical assessment (evidence of rales/crackles on exam) and SpO2 ≤ 94% on room air at rest or after walking test, OR Acute respiratory failure requiring mechanical ventilation and/or supplemental oxygen; Patients currently using IFN-ß (e.g., multiple sclerosis patients); Patients undergoing chemotherapy or other immunosuppressive treatments; Patients with chronic kidney diseases; Known allergy or hypersensitivity to IFN (including asthma); Any autoimmune disease (resulting from patient anamnesis); Patients with signs of dementia or neurocognitive disorders; Patients with current severe depression and/or suicidal ideations; Being concurrently involved in another clinical trial; HIV infection (based on the anamnesis); Use of any antiretroviral medication; Impaired renal function (eGFR calculated by CKD-EPI Creatinine equation < 30 ml/min); Presence of other severe diseases impairing life expectancy (e.g. patients are not expected to survive 28 days given their pre-existing medical condition); Any physical or psychological impediment in a patient that could let the investigator to suspect his/her poor compliance; Lack or withdrawal of informed consent INTERVENTION AND COMPARATOR: Control arm: No specific antiviral treatment besides standard of care. Treatment arm: 11µg (3MIU) of IFN-ß1a will be injected subcutaneously at day 1, 3, 7, and 10 in addition to standard of care. The drug solution, contained in a pre-filled cartridge, will be injected by means of the RebiSmart® electronic injection device. Interferon ß1a (Rebif®, Merck KGaA, Darmstadt, Germany) is a disease-modifying drug used to treat relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis (MS). The dose selected for this study is expected to exploit the antiviral and immunomodulatory properties of the cytokine without causing relevant toxicity or inducing refractoriness phenomena sometimes observed after high-dose and/or chronic IFNß treatments. MAIN OUTCOMES: Primary endpoint of the study is the proportion of patients experiencing a disease progression, during at least 5 days, according to the National Early Warning Score (NEWS2). The NEWS2 score is a standardized approach aimed at promptly detecting signs of clinical deterioration in acutely ill patients and establishing the potential need for higher level of care. It is based on the evaluation of vital signs, including respiratory rate, oxygen saturation, temperature, blood pressure, pulse/heart rate, AVPU response. The resulting observations, compared to a normal range, are combined in a single composite "alarm" score. Any other clinical sign clearly indicating a disease worsening will be considered as disease progression. RANDOMIZATION: Sixty patients will be randomized 2:1 to receive IFN-ß1a plus the standard of care or the standard of care only. Eligible patients will be randomized (no later than 36 h after enrolment) by means of a computerized central randomization system. All patients will receive a unique patient identification number at enrolling visit when signing the informed consent and before any study procedure is performed. This number remains constant throughout the entire study. The randomization of patients will be closed when 60 patients have been enrolled. The randomization will be stratified by sex; for each stratum a sequence of treatments randomly permuted in blocks of variable length (3 or 6) will be generated. BLINDING (MASKING): This is an open-label study. After the randomization, patients will be notified whether they will be in the experimental arm or in the control arm. NUMBERS TO BE RANDOMISED (SAMPLE SIZE): The study plans to enrol 60 patients: 40 in the IFN-ß1a arm, 20 in the control arm, according to a 2:1 - treated: untreated ratio. TRIAL STATUS: Protocol Version: 3.0 Version Date: 18/03/2021 The study is open for recruitment since 16/04/2021.Recruitment is expected to l be completed before 15/08/2021. TRIAL REGISTRATION: EudraCT N°: 2020-003872-42, registration date: 19/10/2020. FULL PROTOCOL: The full protocol is attached as an additional file, accessible from the Trials website (Additional file 1). In the interest in expediting dissemination of this material, the familiar formatting has been eliminated; this Letter serves as a summary of the key elements of the full protocol."


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , COVID-19 , Infecções por HIV , Interferon beta/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Ensaios Clínicos Fase II como Assunto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
J Immunol ; 207(7): 1903-1910, 2021 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34497149

RESUMO

Retinoic acid-inducible gene-I (RIG-I)-like receptors (RLRs), including RIG-I (encoded by Ddx58) and melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 (MDA5) (encoded by Ifih1), are crucial for initiating antiviral responses. Endogenous retroviral elements (ERVs) are transposable elements derived from exogenous retroviruses that are integrated into the genome. KRAB-associated protein 1 (KAP1) is a key epigenetic suppressor of ERVs that protects cells from detrimental genome instability. Increased ERV transcripts are sensed by RLRs and trigger innate immune signaling. However, whether KAP1 directly controls RLRs activity remains unclear. In this study, we show that KAP1 attenuates RNA viral infection-induced type I IFNs and facilitates viral replication by inhibiting RIG-I/MDA5 expression in primary peritoneal macrophages (PMs) of C57BL/6J mice. Kap1 deficiency increases IFN-ß expression and inhibits vesicular stomatitis virus replication in C57BL/6J mice in vivo. Mechanistically, KAP1 binds to the promoter regions of Ddx58 and Ifih1 and promotes the establishment of repressive histone marks in primary PMs of C57BL/6J mice. Concordantly, KAP1 suppresses the expression of RIG-I and MDA5 at the transcriptional level in primary PMs of C57BL/6J mice. Our results establish that KAP1 epigenetically suppresses host antiviral responses by directly targeting RIG-1 and MDA5, thus facilitating the immune escape of RNA viruses.


Assuntos
Interferon beta , RNA , Animais , Proteína DEAD-box 58/genética , Proteína DEAD-box 58/metabolismo , Epigênese Genética , Helicase IFIH1 Induzida por Interferon/metabolismo , Interferon beta/genética , Interferon beta/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
15.
J Immunol ; 207(9): 2325-2336, 2021 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34588221

RESUMO

Ubiquitination regulates immune signaling, and multiple E3 ubiquitin ligases have been studied in the context of their role in immunity. Despite this progress, the physiological roles of the Pellino E3 ubiquitin ligases, especially Pellino2, in immune regulation remain largely unknown. Accordingly, this study aimed to elucidate the role of Pellino2 in murine dendritic cells (DCs). In this study, we reveal a critical role of Pellino2 in regulation of the proinflammatory response following TLR9 stimulation. Pellino2-deficient murine DCs show impaired secretion of IL-6 and IL-12. Loss of Pellino2 does not affect TLR9-induced activation of NF-κB or MAPKs, pathways that drive expression of IL-6 and IL-12. Furthermore, DCs from Pellino2-deficient mice show impaired production of type I IFN following endosomal TLR9 activation, and it partly mediates a feed-forward loop of IFN-ß that promotes IL-12 production in DCs. We also observe that Pellino2 in murine DCs is downregulated following TLR9 stimulation, and its overexpression induces upregulation of both IFN-ß and IL-12, demonstrating the sufficiency of Pellino2 in driving these responses. This suggests that Pellino2 is critical for executing TLR9 signaling, with its expression being tightly regulated to prevent excessive inflammatory response. Overall, this study highlights a (to our knowledge) novel role for Pellino2 in regulating DC functions and further supports important roles for Pellino proteins in mediating and controlling immunity.


Assuntos
Células Dendríticas/imunologia , Inflamação/imunologia , Proteínas Nucleares/metabolismo , Receptor Toll-Like 9/metabolismo , Animais , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Imunidade , Interferon beta/metabolismo , Interleucina-12/metabolismo , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Transdução de Sinais , Ubiquitinação
16.
Cytokine ; 148: 155697, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34509038

RESUMO

The prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 is a great threat to global public health. However, the relationship between the viral pathogen SARS-CoV-2 and host innate immunity has not yet been well studied. The genome of SARS-CoV-2 encodes a viral protease called 3C-like protease. This protease is responsible for cleaving viral polyproteins during replication. In this investigation, 293T cells were transfected with SARS-CoV-2 3CL and then infected with Sendai virus (SeV) to induce the RIG-I like receptor (RLR)-based immune pathway. q-PCR, luciferase reporter assays, and western blotting were used for experimental analyses. We found that SARS-CoV-2 3CL significantly downregulated IFN-ß mRNA levels. Upon SeV infection, SARS-CoV-2 3CL inhibited the nuclear translocation of IRF3 and p65 and promoted the degradation of IRF3. This effect of SARS-CoV-2 3CL on type I IFN in the RLR immune pathway opens up novel ideas for future research on SARS-CoV-2.


Assuntos
Proteases 3C de Coronavírus/metabolismo , Fator Regulador 3 de Interferon/metabolismo , Interferon beta/biossíntese , Proteólise , Proteína DEAD-box 58/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Interferon beta/genética , NF-kappa B/genética , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Receptores Imunológicos/metabolismo , Elementos de Resposta/genética , Vírus Sendai/fisiologia , Transdução de Sinais
17.
FASEB J ; 35(10): e21917, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34533865

RESUMO

The resolution of inflammation facilitates proper wound healing and limits tissue repair short of exaggerated fibrotic scarring. The atypical chemokine receptor (ACKR)2/D6 scavenges inflammatory chemokines, while IFN-ß is a recently unveiled pro-resolving cytokine. Both effector molecules limit acute inflammatory episodes and promote their resolution in various organs. Here, we found fibrotic skin lesions from ACKR2-/- mice presented increased epidermal and dermal thickening, atrophy of the subcutaneous adipose tissue, augmented disorientation of collagen deposition, and enhanced deformation and loss of hair follicles compared to WT counterparts. In addition, affected skin sections from ACKR2-/- mice contained reduced levels of the pro-resolving mediators IFN-ß and IL-10, but increased levels of the pro-inflammatory chemokines CCL2 and 3, the pro-fibrotic cytokine TGF-ß, and the immune-stimulating cytokine IL-12. Notably, treatment with exogenous IFN-ß rescued, at least in part, all the pro-fibrotic outcomes and lesion size in ACKR2-/- mice and promoted expression of the pro-resolving enzyme 12/15-lipoxygenase (LO) in both ACKR2-/- and WT mice. Moreover, Ifnb-/- mice displayed enhanced pro-fibrotic indices upon exposure to bleomycin. These findings suggest ACKR2 is an important mediator in limiting inflammatory skin fibrosis and acts via IFN-ß production to promote the resolution of inflammation and minimize tissue scaring.


Assuntos
Alopecia/metabolismo , Fibrose/metabolismo , Interferon beta/metabolismo , Receptores de Quimiocinas/metabolismo , Pele/metabolismo , Alopecia/genética , Alopecia/patologia , Animais , Colágeno/metabolismo , Fibrose/genética , Fibrose/patologia , Inflamação/genética , Inflamação/metabolismo , Inflamação/patologia , Interferon beta/deficiência , Interferon beta/genética , Interleucina-10/metabolismo , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Fenótipo , Receptores de Quimiocinas/deficiência , Receptores de Quimiocinas/genética , Pele/patologia
18.
J Gen Virol ; 102(9)2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34491891

RESUMO

Murine norovirus (MNV) is widely used as a model for studying norovirus biology. While MNV isolates vary in their pathogenesis, infection of immunocompetent mice mostly results in persistent infection. The ability of a virus to establish a persistent infection is dependent on its ability to subvert or avoid the host immune response. Previously, we described the identification and characterization of virulence factor 1 (VF1) in MNV, and demonstrated its role as an innate immune antagonist. Here, we explore the role of VF1 during persistent MNV infection in an immunocompetent host. Using reverse genetics, we generated MNV-3 viruses carrying a single or a triple termination codon inserted in the VF1 ORF. VF1-deleted MNV-3 replicated to comparable levels to the wildtype virus in tissue culture. Comparative studies between MNV-3 and an acute MNV-1 strain show that MNV-3 VF1 exerts the same functions as MNV-1 VF1, but with reduced potency. C57BL/6 mice infected with VF1-deleted MNV-3 showed significantly reduced replication kinetics during the acute phase of the infection, but viral loads rapidly reached the levels seen in mice infected with wildtype virus after phenotypic restoration of VF1 expression. Infection with an MNV-3 mutant that had three termination codons inserted into VF1, in which reversion was suppressed, resulted in consistently lower replication throughout a 3 month persistent infection in mice, suggesting a role for VF1 in viral fitness in vivo. Our results indicate that VF1 expressed by a persistent strain of MNV also functions to antagonize the innate response to infection. We found that VF1 is not essential for viral persistence, but instead contributes to viral fitness in mice. These data fit with the hypothesis that noroviruses utilize multiple mechanisms to avoid and/or control the host response to infection and that VF1 is just one component of this.


Assuntos
Infecções por Caliciviridae/virologia , Norovirus/patogenicidade , Proteínas Virais/metabolismo , Fatores de Virulência/metabolismo , Animais , Apoptose , Infecções por Caliciviridae/imunologia , Linhagem Celular , Imunidade Inata , Interferon beta/biossíntese , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Norovirus/genética , Norovirus/fisiologia , Proteínas Virais/genética , Virulência , Fatores de Virulência/genética , Replicação Viral , Eliminação de Partículas Virais
19.
Mol Immunol ; 139: 202-210, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34583098

RESUMO

A balance between the positive and negative regulation of toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling pathways is required to avoid detrimental and inappropriate inflammatory responses. Although some protein post-translational modifications (PTMs) such as phosphorylation and ubiquitination have been demonstrated to potently modulate innate immune responses, the role of methylation, an important PTM, control of TLR4 signaling pathway remains unclear. In this study, we found that protein arginine methyltransferase 1, 2 and 3 (PRMT1, 2 and 3) were recruited to methylate TLR4-CD (cytoplasmic domain) after lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation respectively, but the effect of PRMT2 on arginine methylation of TLR4-CD is the most significant among above three PRMTs, which prompted us to focus on PRMT2. Reduction of PRMT2 expression down-regulated arginine (R) methylation level of TLR4 with or without LPS treatment. Methionine 115 (M115) mediated PRMT2 catalyzed-arginine methylation of TLR4 on R731 and R812. Furthermore, PRMT1, 2 and 3 was recruited to methylate interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) after LPS stimulation respectively, but the effect of PRMT2 on arginine methylation of IRF3 is the most significant among the above three PRMTs. Arginine methylation of TLR4 on R812 or arginine methylation of IRF3 on R285 mediated the interaction between TLR4 and IRF3 respectively. Arginine methylation of IRF3 on R285 induced by LPS led to its dimerization and promoted its translocation from the cytoplasm to the nucleus. In addition, the enhancement of arginine methylation of TLR4 induced by PRMT1 or 2 increased IRF3 transcription activity with or without LPS treatment, while PRMT2 with histidine 112 glutamine (H112Q) or methionine 115 isoleucine (M115I) mutation and TLR4 with arginine 812 lysine (R812K) mutation decreased it. Arginine methylation of TLR4 on R812 or PRMT2 enhanced interferon-ß (IFN-ß) production. Our study reveals a critical role for PRMT2 and protein arginine methylation in the enhancement of IFN-ß production via TLR4/IRF3 signaling pathway and may provide a therapeutic strategy to control endotoxemia.


Assuntos
Arginina/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Processamento de Proteína Pós-Traducional/fisiologia , Proteína-Arginina N-Metiltransferases/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia , Animais , Endotoxemia/imunologia , Endotoxemia/metabolismo , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Fator Regulador 3 de Interferon/imunologia , Fator Regulador 3 de Interferon/metabolismo , Interferon beta/imunologia , Interferon beta/metabolismo , Metilação , Camundongos , Proteína-Arginina N-Metiltransferases/imunologia , Células RAW 264.7 , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/imunologia , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/metabolismo
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