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1.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5258, 2020 10 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33067458

RESUMO

Macrophages play an essential role in the early immune response against Toxoplasma and are the cell type preferentially infected by the parasite in vivo. Interferon gamma (IFNγ) elicits a variety of anti-Toxoplasma activities in macrophages. Using a genome-wide CRISPR screen we identify 353 Toxoplasma genes that determine parasite fitness in naїve or IFNγ-activated murine macrophages, seven of which are further confirmed. We show that one of these genes encodes dense granule protein GRA45, which has a chaperone-like domain, is critical for correct localization of GRAs into the PVM and secretion of GRA effectors into the host cytoplasm. Parasites lacking GRA45 are more susceptible to IFNγ-mediated growth inhibition and have reduced virulence in mice. Together, we identify and characterize an important chaperone-like GRA in Toxoplasma and provide a resource for the community to further explore the function of Toxoplasma genes that determine fitness in IFNγ-activated macrophages.


Assuntos
Interferon gama/imunologia , Macrófagos/imunologia , Toxoplasma/genética , Toxoplasmose/imunologia , Animais , Feminino , Genoma de Protozoário , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Humanos , Interferon gama/genética , Macrófagos/parasitologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Toxoplasma/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Toxoplasma/metabolismo , Toxoplasma/patogenicidade , Toxoplasmose/genética , Toxoplasmose/parasitologia , Virulência
2.
Anticancer Res ; 40(11): 6473-6484, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33109586

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is an intractable tumor that has a very poor prognosis despite intensive treatment with temozolomide plus radiotherapy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Sixteen newly diagnosed patients with high-grade gliomas were enrolled in a phase II study of the α-type-1 DC vaccine. Briefly, DCs obtained from the culture of enriched monocytes in the presence of a cytokine cocktail, were pulsed with a cocktail of 5 synthetic peptides and cryopreserved until injection into patients. RESULTS: The amount of IL-12 produced by activated DCs was higher than that previously reported. Among 15 evaluable patients, 10 showed positive CTL responses to any peptides in an ELISPOT assay. After 6 years of observation, five patients were still alive, and two of these patients were relapse-free. Moreover, a significant survival-prolonging effect was verified in DC-treated glioma patients. CONCLUSION: Peptide-cocktail-pulsed α-type-1 DC vaccines have a potential therapeutic effect on survival when used in combination with the standard regimen, which is partly based on IL-12-IFN-γ-mediated T-cell activation.


Assuntos
Vacinas Anticâncer/administração & dosagem , Células Dendríticas/imunologia , Glioma/tratamento farmacológico , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Vacinas Anticâncer/imunologia , Polaridade Celular/imunologia , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Glioma/imunologia , Glioma/patologia , Humanos , Interferon gama/genética , Interleucina-12/genética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Monócitos/imunologia , Monócitos/patologia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/imunologia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Vacinação/métodos
3.
Clin Immunol ; 220: 108576, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32866645

RESUMO

Upper respiratory tract is the primary site of SARS-CoV-2 replication. Releasing of pro and anti-inflammatory mediators plays an important role in the immunopathogenesis of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). The aim of this study was to evaluate the early inflammatory response in upper airway by measuring of IFN-γ, TGF-ß1 and RANTES at mRNA level. Forty five SARS-CoV-2 infected patients were enrolled, whose were divided in two groups: asymptomatic and symptomatic. Twenty healthy persons, SARS-CoV-2 negative were included as controls. Higher IFN-γ expression was detected in SARS-CoV-2 infected patients in comparison with controls (p = 0.0393). IFN-γ expression was increased in symptomatic patients (p = 0.0405). TGF-ß1 and RANTES expressions were lower in SARS-CoV-2 infected patients than controls (p < 0.0001; p = 0.0011, respectively). A significant correlation between IFN-γ and TGF-ß1 was observed in SARS-CoV-2 asymptomatic patients (r = +0.61, p = 0.0014). The findings suggest that imbalance between IFN-γ and TGF-ß1 expression could be an impact in clinical expression of SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Quimiocina CCL5/genética , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Interferon gama/genética , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/genética , Adulto , Doenças Assintomáticas , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Quimiocina CCL5/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/genética , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/imunologia , Humanos , Interferon gama/imunologia , Pulmão/imunologia , Pulmão/patologia , Pulmão/virologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nasofaringe/imunologia , Nasofaringe/patologia , Nasofaringe/virologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , RNA Mensageiro/imunologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/imunologia
4.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0236320, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32941433

RESUMO

HIV-infected older individuals may have a diminished immune response because of exhaustion/immune aging of T-cells. Therefore, we have investigated HIV-specific CD4 and CD8 T-cell responses in 100 HIV-infected patients (HIV+) who have aged on long-term antiretroviral therapy (ART) and achieved controlled viremia (mostly undetectable viral load; 92 patients with <20 to <40 HIV RNA copies/mL and 8 <60 to <100) and improved CD4 T-cell counts. We show that the median frequencies of HIV-specific CD4+ and CD8+ IFN-γ T-cells were higher in HIV+ than uninfected individuals (HIV-), including increasing levels of IFN-γproduced by CD4+ T-cells and decreasing levels by CD8+ T-cells with increasing CD4 T-cell counts in HIV+. No correlation was found between T-cell responses and varying levels of undetectable viremia. HIV-specific TNF-α made by CD8+ T-cells was higher in HIV+ than HIV-, including decreasing levels with increasing CD4 T-cell counts in HIV+. Furthermore, the CD8+ T-cell mediators, CD107a and Granzyme-B, were higher in HIV+ than HIV-, and decreased with increasing CD4 T-cell counts in HIV+. Remarkably, HIV-specific CD8 T-cells produced decreasing levels of IFN-γwith increasing age of HIV+, including decreased levels of CD107a and Granzyme-B in older HIV+. However, HIV-specific CD8+ T-cells produced increasing levels of TNF-α with increasing age of the HIV+, suggesting continued inflammation. In conclusion, HIV+ with controlled viremia on long-term ART and with higher CD4 T-cell counts showed reduced HIV-specific CD8 T-cell responses as compared to those with lower CD4 T-cell counts, and older HIV+ exhibited decreasing levels of CD8 T-cell responses with increasing age.


Assuntos
Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/sangue , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Viremia/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antirretrovirais/administração & dosagem , Relação CD4-CD8 , Feminino , Granzimas/genética , Granzimas/metabolismo , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Humanos , Interferon gama/genética , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Proteína 1 de Membrana Associada ao Lisossomo/genética , Proteína 1 de Membrana Associada ao Lisossomo/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/genética , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo , Viremia/tratamento farmacológico
5.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239231, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32997686

RESUMO

It is controversially discussed whether immune-deficient mice experience severity in the absence of infection. Because a comprehensive analysis of the well-being of immune-deficient mice under specific pathogen free conditions is missing, we used a multi-parametric test analyzing, corticosterone, weight, nest building and facial expression over a period of 9 month to determine the well-being of two immune-deficient mouse lines (recombination activating gene 2- and interferon gamma receptor-deficient mice). We do not find evidence for severity when comparing immune-deficient mice to their heterozygous immune-competent littermates. Our data challenge the assumption that immune-deficiency per se regardless of housing conditions causes severity. Based on our study we propose to use objective non-invasive parameters determined by laboratory animal science for decisions concerning severity of immune-deficient mice.


Assuntos
Corticosterona/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Interferon gama/genética , Camundongos SCID/genética , Animais , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Corticosterona/imunologia , Humanos , Infecções/genética , Infecções/imunologia , Rim/metabolismo , Rim/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos SCID/imunologia , Dor/genética , Dor/patologia , Receptores de Interferon/deficiência , Receptores de Interferon/genética , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Testosterona/genética
6.
PLoS Pathog ; 16(9): e1008840, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32913355

RESUMO

P. vivax-infected Retics (iRetics) express human leukocyte antigen class I (HLA-I), are recognized by CD8+ T cells and killed by granulysin (GNLY) and granzymes. However, how Plasmodium infection induces MHC-I expression on Retics is unknown. In addition, whether GNLY helps control Plasmodium infection in vivo has not been studied. Here, we examine these questions using rodent infection with the P. yoelii 17XNL strain, which has tropism for Retics. Infection with P. yoelii caused extramedullary erythropoiesis, reticulocytosis and expansion of CD8+CD44+CD62L- IFN-γ-producing T cells that form immune synapses with iRetics. We now provide evidence that MHC-I expression by iRetic is dependent on IFN-γ-induced transcription of IRF-1, MHC-I and ß2-microglobulin (ß2-m) in erythroblasts. Consistently, CTLs from infected wild type (WT) mice formed immune synapses with iRetics in an IFN-γ- and MHC-I-dependent manner. When challenged with P. yoelii 17XNL, WT mice cleared parasitemia and survived, while IFN-γ KO mice remained parasitemic and all died. ß2-m KO mice that do not express MHC-I and have virtually no CD8+ T cells had prolonged parasitemia, and 80% survived. Because mice do not express GNLY, GNLY-transgenic mice can be used to assess the in vivo importance of GNLY. Parasite clearance was accelerated in GNLY-transgenic mice and depletion of CD8+ T cells ablated the GNLY-mediated resistance to P. yoelii. Altogether, our results indicate that in addition to previously described mechanisms, IFN-γ promotes host resistance to the Retic-tropic P. yoelii 17XNL strain by promoting MHC-I expression on iRetics that become targets for CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes and GNLY.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Diferenciação de Linfócitos T/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Interferon gama/imunologia , Malária/imunologia , Plasmodium yoelii/imunologia , Animais , Antígenos de Diferenciação de Linfócitos T/genética , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/patologia , Interferon gama/genética , Malária/genética , Malária/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Knockout
7.
APMIS ; 128(11): 583-592, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32865844

RESUMO

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an immune-mediated inflammatory disease which affects the central nervous system (CNS). In the present study, the in vivo effects of ATRA, calcitriol, and their combinations on the expression of murine CD4+ T cell cytokines and their specific transcription factors in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE)-induced mice were explored. Thirty-two EAE induced inbred C57BL/6 female mice with an age ranged from 8 to 10 weeks were divided into four categories in a random manner. The first, second, and third groups received ATRA, calcitriol, ATRA+ calcitriol, respectively, and the fourth group received vehicle. The treatment started on the day prior to immunization and through the IP injections every other days for 21 days. The dosages of administration for calcitriol, ATRA, and calcitriol+ ATRA were 100 ng, 250 µg, and 50ng + 125 µg, respectively per mouse. An equal volume of excipient was administered for the vehicle group. T-bet, IFN-γ, GATA-3, and IL-4 genes expression were assessed in the splenocytes of EAE -induced mice. The expression of T-bet and IFN-γ genes in the splenocytes of ATRA, calcitriol and combination- treated mice were significantly reduced compared to vehicle group (p < 0.05). A significant decrease in T-bet expression was observed in the combination-treated group compared to the ATRA-treated group (p < 0.05). The expression of GATA3 and IL-4 genes was significantly increased in the ATRA-, calcitriol-, and combination-treated mice when compared with the control group (p < 0.05). Furthermore, the effect of calcitriol alone and in combination with ATRA was more considerable than that of ATRA alone. The nutraceutical approaches may be promising in the prevention and/or treatment of MS.


Assuntos
Calcitriol/farmacologia , Encefalomielite Autoimune Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Fatores Imunológicos/farmacologia , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Tretinoína/farmacologia , Animais , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/patologia , Esquema de Medicação , Quimioterapia Combinada , Encefalomielite Autoimune Experimental/induzido quimicamente , Encefalomielite Autoimune Experimental/imunologia , Encefalomielite Autoimune Experimental/patologia , Feminino , Fator de Transcrição GATA3/genética , Fator de Transcrição GATA3/imunologia , Interferon gama/genética , Interferon gama/imunologia , Interleucina-4/genética , Interleucina-4/imunologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Glicoproteína Mielina-Oligodendrócito/administração & dosagem , Transdução de Sinais , Medula Espinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Medula Espinal/imunologia , Medula Espinal/patologia , Proteínas com Domínio T/genética , Proteínas com Domínio T/imunologia
8.
Anticancer Res ; 40(10): 5641-5647, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32988888

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have gained remarkable attention because of their ability to dualistically regulate tumor growth. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the apoptotic effects of human bone marrow-derived (hBM) MSCs in combination with interferon gamma (IFN-γ) on MCF-7 breast cancer cells, and to determine the cytokines involved in the apoptotic process. MATERIALS AND METHODS: hBM-MSCs were co-cultured with MCF-7 cells either directly and indirectly for 72 h in-vitro. Levels of tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL), apoptosis and cytokines were analyzed. RESULTS: hBM-MSCs increased the apoptosis of MCF-7 cells partially through TRAIL in vitro. IFN-γ enhanced the apoptotic effect of hBM-MSCs (p<0.001). CONCLUSION: hBM-MSCs in combination with IFN-γ might be a suitable therapy for breast cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Interferon gama/farmacologia , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/metabolismo , Ligante Indutor de Apoptose Relacionado a TNF/genética , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Técnicas de Cocultura , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Interferon gama/genética , Células MCF-7 , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/citologia
9.
Adv Biol Regul ; 77: 100737, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32773100

RESUMO

Natural killer (NK) cells are pivotal effectors of the innate immunity protecting an individual from microbes. They are the first line of defense against invading viruses, given their substantial ability to directly target infected cells without the need for specific antigen presentation. By establishing cellular networks with a variety of cell types such as dendritic cells, NK cells can also amplify and modulate antiviral adaptive immune responses. In this review, we will examine the role of NK cells in SARS-COV2 infections causing the ongoing COVID19 pandemic, keeping in mind the controversial role of NK cells specifically in viral respiratory infections and in inflammatory-driven lung damage. We discuss lessons learnt from previous coronavirus outbreaks in humans (caused by SARS-CoV-1 and MERS-COV).


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/imunologia , Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Respiratória/epidemiologia , Doença Aguda , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Imunidade Inata , Interferon gama/genética , Interferon gama/imunologia , Interleucinas/genética , Interleucinas/imunologia , Células Matadoras Naturais/patologia , Células Matadoras Naturais/virologia , Pulmão/imunologia , Pulmão/patologia , Pulmão/virologia , Ativação Linfocitária , Proteína 1 de Membrana Associada ao Lisossomo/genética , Proteína 1 de Membrana Associada ao Lisossomo/imunologia , Subfamília C de Receptores Semelhantes a Lectina de Células NK/genética , Subfamília C de Receptores Semelhantes a Lectina de Células NK/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Insuficiência Respiratória/complicações , Insuficiência Respiratória/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Respiratória/imunologia , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/genética , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/imunologia
10.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 48(15): 8724-8739, 2020 09 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32735645

RESUMO

T cell activation is a well-established model for studying cellular responses to exogenous stimulation. Motivated by our previous finding that intron retention (IR) could lead to transcript instability, in this study, we performed BruChase-Seq to experimentally monitor the expression dynamics of nascent transcripts in resting and activated CD4+ T cells. Computational modeling was then applied to quantify the stability of spliced and intron-retained transcripts on a genome-wide scale. Beyond substantiating that intron-retained transcripts were considerably less stable than spliced transcripts, we found a global stabilization of spliced mRNAs upon T cell activation, although the stability of intron-retained transcripts remained relatively constant. In addition, we identified that La-related protein 4 (LARP4), an RNA-binding protein (RBP) known to enhance mRNA stability, was involved in T cell activation-dependent mRNA stabilization. Knocking out Larp4 in mice destabilized Nfκb1 mRNAs and reduced secretion of interleukin-2 (IL2) and interferon-gamma (IFNγ), two factors critical for T cell proliferation and function. We propose that coordination between splicing regulation and mRNA stability may provide a novel paradigm to control spatiotemporal gene expression during T cell activation.


Assuntos
Interferon gama/genética , Interleucina-2/genética , Proteínas/genética , Estabilidade de RNA/genética , Transcriptoma/genética , Processamento Alternativo/genética , Animais , Humanos , Íntrons/genética , Ativação Linfocitária/genética , Camundongos , NF-kappa B/genética , Ligação Proteica/genética , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Linfócitos T/metabolismo
11.
Front Immunol ; 11: 1311, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32676080

RESUMO

Chimeric antigen receptor T cell (CART) therapy, administration of certain T cell-agonistic antibodies, immune check point inhibitors, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and Toxic shock syndrome (TSS) caused by streptococcal as well as staphylococcal superantigens share one common complication, that is T cell-driven cytokine release syndrome (CRS) accompanied by multiple organ dysfunction (MOD). It is not understood whether the failure of a particular organ contributes more significantly to the severity of CRS. Also not known is whether a specific cytokine or signaling pathway plays a more pathogenic role in precipitating MOD compared to others. As a result, there is no specific treatment available to date for CRS, and it is managed only symptomatically to support the deteriorating organ functions and maintain the blood pressure. Therefore, we used the superantigen-induced CRS model in HLA-DR3 transgenic mice, that closely mimics human CRS, to delineate the immunopathogenesis of CRS as well as to validate a novel treatment for CRS. Using this model, we demonstrate that (i) CRS is characterized by a rapid rise in systemic levels of several Th1/Th2/Th17/Th22 type cytokines within a few hours, followed by a quick decline. (ii) Even though multiple organs are affected, small intestinal immunopathology is the major contributor to mortality in CRS. (iii) IFN-γ deficiency significantly protected from lethal CRS by attenuating small bowel pathology, whereas IL-17A deficiency significantly increased mortality by augmenting small bowel pathology. (iv) RNA sequencing of small intestinal tissues indicated that IFN-γ-STAT1-driven inflammatory pathways combined with enhanced expression of pro-apoptotic molecules as well as extracellular matrix degradation contributed to small bowel pathology in CRS. These pathways were further enhanced by IL-17A deficiency and significantly down-regulated in mice lacking IFN-γ. (v) Ruxolitinib, a selective JAK-1/2 inhibitor, attenuated SAg-induced T cell activation, cytokine production, and small bowel pathology, thereby completely protecting from lethal CRS in both WT and IL-17A deficient HLA-DR3 mice. Overall, IFN-γ-JAK-STAT-driven pathways contribute to lethal small intestinal immunopathology in T cell-driven CRS.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/tratamento farmacológico , Interferon gama/genética , Interleucina-17/genética , Inibidores de Janus Quinases/uso terapêutico , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Pirazóis/uso terapêutico , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/patologia , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/prevenção & controle , Citocinas/sangue , Citocinas/imunologia , Antígeno HLA-DR3/genética , Intestino Delgado/imunologia , Intestino Delgado/patologia , Ativação Linfocitária/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Linfócitos T Auxiliares-Indutores/imunologia
12.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235706, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32639988

RESUMO

During type 1 immune responses, CD4 T helper 1 (Th1) cells and CD8 T cells are activated via IL-12 and contribute to the elimination of intracellular pathogens through interferon gamma (IFNγ) production. In this study, we identified Placenta-specific 8 (Plac8) as a gene that is uniquely expressed in Th1 CD4 T cells relative to other CD4 T cell subsets and hypothesized that Plac8 may represent a novel therapeutic target in Th1 CD4 T cells. First, we determined that Plac8 mRNA in CD4 T cells was induced following IL-12 stimulation via an indirect route that required new protein synthesis. Upon evaluating the functional relevance of Plac8 expression in Th1 CD4 T cells, we discovered that Plac8 was important for suppressing IFNγ mRNA and protein production by CD4 T cells 24 hours after IL-12 stimulation, however Plac8 did not contribute to pathogenic CD4 T cell function during two models of intestinal inflammation. We also noted relatively high basal expression of Plac8 in CD8 T cells which could be further induced following IL-12 stimulation in CD8 T cells. Furthermore, Plac8 expression was important for establishing an optimal CD8 T cell response against influenza A virus via a T cell-intrinsic manner. Altogether, these results implicate Plac8 as a potential regulator of Th1 CD4 and CD8 T cell responses during Th1 T cell-driven inflammation.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/metabolismo , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/metabolismo , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Proteínas/metabolismo , Animais , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Colite/imunologia , Colite/patologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Interferon gama/genética , Interleucina-12/farmacologia , Antígenos Comuns de Leucócito/genética , Antígenos Comuns de Leucócito/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/imunologia , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/patologia , Proteínas/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos
13.
Zhejiang Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 40(7): 930-935, 2020 May 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32701231

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of neutralizing CD96 on natural killer (NK) cell functions in mice with pulmonary Chlamydia muridarum infection and explore the possible mechanism. METHODS: Male BALB/c mice were randomly divided into infection group (Cm group), anti-CD96 treatment group (anti-CD96 group) and control group (n=5). In the former two groups, C. muridarum was inoculated via intranasal administration to establish mouse models of pulmonary C. muridarum infection, and the mice in the control group received intranasal administration of the inhalation buffer. In anti-CD96 group, the mice were injected with anti-CD96 antibody intraperitoneally at the dose of 250 µg every 3 days after the infection; the mice in Cm group received intraperitoneal injections of saline. The body weight of the mice was recorded daily. The mice were sacrificed 5 days after C. muridarum infection, and CD96 expression was detected by quantitative real-time PCR and Western blotting. HE staining and pathological scores were used to evaluate pneumonia of the mice. The inclusion body forming units (IFUs) were detected in the lung tissue homogenates to assess lung tissue chlamydia load. Flow cytometry and ELISA were used to assess the capacity of the lung NK cells to produce interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and regulate macrophages and Th1 cells. RESULTS: C. muridarum infection inhibited CD96 expression in NK cells of the mice. Compared with those in Cm group, the mice in antiCD96 mice showed significantly milder lung inflammation (P < 0.05) and reduced chlamydia load in the lung tissue (P < 0.05). Neutralizing CD96 with anti-CD96 significantly enhanced IFN-γ secretion by the NK cells (P < 0.05) and augmented the immunoregulatory effect of the NK cells shown by enhanced responses of the lung macrophages (P < 0.05) and Th1 cells (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Inhibition of CD96 alleviates pneumonia in C. muridarum-infected mice possibly by enhancing IFN-γ secretion by NK cells and augmenting the immunoregulatory effect of the NK cells on innate and adaptive immunity.


Assuntos
Infecções por Chlamydia , Chlamydia muridarum , Interferon gama , Lesão Pulmonar , Animais , Antígenos CD/metabolismo , Infecções por Chlamydia/complicações , Infecções por Chlamydia/imunologia , Infecções por Chlamydia/fisiopatologia , Interferon gama/genética , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Células Matadoras Naturais/metabolismo , Lesão Pulmonar/etiologia , Lesão Pulmonar/genética , Lesão Pulmonar/prevenção & controle , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
14.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236375, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32726331

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Malaria in pregnancy causes maternal, fetal and neonatal morbidity and mortality, and maternal innate immune responses are implicated in pathogenesis of these complications. The effects of malaria exposure and obstetric and demographic factors on the early maternal immune response are poorly understood. METHODS: Peripheral blood mononuclear cell responses to Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes and phytohemagglutinin were compared between pregnant women from Papua New Guinea (malaria-exposed) with and without current malaria infection and from Australia (unexposed). Elicited levels of inflammatory cytokines at 48 h and 24 h (interferon γ, IFN-γ only) and the cellular sources of IFN-γ were analysed. RESULTS: Among Papua New Guinean women, microscopic malaria at enrolment did not alter peripheral blood mononuclear cell responses. Compared to samples from Australia, cells from Papua New Guinean women secreted more inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin 1ß, interleukin 6 and IFN-γ; p<0.001 for all assays, and more natural killer cells produced IFN-γ in response to infected erythrocytes and phytohemagglutinin. In both populations, cytokine responses were not affected by gravidity, except that in the Papua New Guinean cohort multigravid women had higher IFN-γ secretion at 24 h (p = 0.029) and an increased proportion of IFN-γ+ Vδ2 γδ T cells (p = 0.003). Cytokine levels elicited by a pregnancy malaria-specific CSA binding parasite line, CS2, were broadly similar to those elicited by CD36-binding line P6A1. CONCLUSIONS: Geographic location and, to some extent, gravidity influence maternal innate immunity to malaria.


Assuntos
Imunidade Inata/genética , Malária Falciparum/imunologia , Plasmodium falciparum/imunologia , Complicações Parasitárias na Gravidez/imunologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Austrália/epidemiologia , Antígenos CD36/genética , Eritrócitos/imunologia , Eritrócitos/parasitologia , Eritrócitos/patologia , Feminino , Número de Gestações/imunologia , Humanos , Interferon gama/genética , Interferon gama/imunologia , Interleucina-6/genética , Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Células Matadoras Naturais/parasitologia , Leucócitos Mononucleares/imunologia , Leucócitos Mononucleares/parasitologia , Leucócitos Mononucleares/patologia , Malária Falciparum/epidemiologia , Malária Falciparum/parasitologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Papua Nova Guiné/epidemiologia , Plasmodium falciparum/patogenicidade , Gravidez , Complicações Parasitárias na Gravidez/parasitologia , Complicações Parasitárias na Gravidez/patologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Linfócitos T/parasitologia , Adulto Jovem
15.
BMC Med Genet ; 21(1): 143, 2020 07 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32620160

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intervertebral disc degeneration (IVDD) is an age-related degenerative disease, presenting with low back pain or radicular pain. The inflammatory changes would occur in discs in the process of IVDD. Therefore, the inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines, as well as their respective genes, have been proposed to play roles in pathophysiology of disease. This study has been conducted to elucidate the role of IL-2, IL-12, and IFN-γ single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in this disease. METHOD: Seventy-six patients who were diagnosed with IVDD and 140 healthy controls who complied with eligibility criteria were included. A total volume of 5 cc peripheral blood was obtained from each participant to investigate the IL-2 + 166G/T, IL-2 -330G/T, IL-12 - 1188A/C, and IFN-γ +847A/T SNPs through PCR-SSP method. RESULTS: The 'TG' and 'TT' genotypes of IL-2 - 330G/T polymorphism were significantly more common among patients and healthy controls respectively. The 'GT' and 'TT' haplotypes of IL-2 (comprised of -330G/T, and + 166G/T SNPs) were also more common among patients and controls respectively. CONCLUSION: This study indicated the significant role of IL-2 genotypes and haplotypes in IVDD. These SNPs were differently distributed in patients and controls. Therefore, alteration in the structure of IL-2 gene could play an important role in pathophysiology of IVDD.


Assuntos
Estudos de Associação Genética , Interferon gama/genética , Interleucina-12/genética , Interleucina-2/genética , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Avaliação da Deficiência , Frequência do Gene/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Degeneração do Disco Intervertebral/genética , Irã (Geográfico) , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Escala Visual Analógica
16.
Arch Virol ; 165(10): 2249-2258, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32696270

RESUMO

While infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) mainly targets immature B cells and causes T cell infiltration in the bursa of Fabricius (BF) of chickens, the effect of IBDV infection on the properties of T cells and relevant cytokine production in avian gut-associated lymphoid tissues (GALTs) remains unknown. Here, we show that while the CD8+ T cell subset is not affected, IBDV infection decreases the percentage of CD4+ T cells in the cecal tonsil (CT), but not in esophagus tonsil, pylorus tonsil, and Meckel's diverticulum of GALTs, in contrast to BF and spleen, in which the proportion of CD4+ cells increases upon IBDV infection. Further, IBDV infection upregulates IFN-γ, IL-10, and the T cell checkpoint receptor LAG-3 mRNA expression in BF. In contrast, in CTs, IBDV infection significantly increases the production of IFN-ß and CTLA-4 mRNA, while no significant effect is seen in the case of IFN-γ, IL-10 and LAG-3. Together, our data reveal differential modulation of T cell subsets and proinflammatory cytokine production in different lymphoid tissues during the course of IBDV infection.


Assuntos
Subpopulações de Linfócitos B/imunologia , Infecções por Birnaviridae/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/imunologia , Animais , Antígenos CD/genética , Antígenos CD/imunologia , Subpopulações de Linfócitos B/virologia , Infecções por Birnaviridae/genética , Infecções por Birnaviridae/patologia , Infecções por Birnaviridae/virologia , Bolsa de Fabricius/imunologia , Bolsa de Fabricius/virologia , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/virologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/virologia , Antígeno CTLA-4/genética , Antígeno CTLA-4/imunologia , Galinhas/virologia , Vírus da Doença Infecciosa da Bursa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Vírus da Doença Infecciosa da Bursa/imunologia , Vírus da Doença Infecciosa da Bursa/patogenicidade , Interferon beta/genética , Interferon beta/imunologia , Interferon gama/genética , Interferon gama/imunologia , Interleucina-10/genética , Interleucina-10/imunologia , Mucosa Intestinal/imunologia , Mucosa Intestinal/virologia , Tonsila Palatina/imunologia , Tonsila Palatina/virologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/genética , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/patologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/virologia
17.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(28): 16567-16578, 2020 07 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32606244

RESUMO

Malaria infection induces complex and diverse immune responses. To elucidate the mechanisms underlying host-parasite interaction, we performed a genetic screen during early (24 h) Plasmodium yoelii infection in mice and identified a large number of interacting host and parasite genes/loci after transspecies expression quantitative trait locus (Ts-eQTL) analysis. We next investigated a host E3 ubiquitin ligase gene (March1) that was clustered with interferon (IFN)-stimulated genes (ISGs) based on the similarity of the genome-wide pattern of logarithm of the odds (LOD) scores (GPLS). March1 inhibits MAVS/STING/TRIF-induced type I IFN (IFN-I) signaling in vitro and in vivo. However, in malaria-infected hosts, deficiency of March1 reduces IFN-I production by activating inhibitors such as SOCS1, USP18, and TRIM24 and by altering immune cell populations. March1 deficiency increases CD86+DC (dendritic cell) populations and levels of IFN-γ and interleukin 10 (IL-10) at day 4 post infection, leading to improved host survival. T cell depletion reduces IFN-γ level and reverse the protective effects of March1 deficiency, which can also be achieved by antibody neutralization of IFN-γ. This study reveals functions of MARCH1 (membrane-associated ring-CH-type finger 1) in innate immune responses and provides potential avenues for activating antimalaria immunity and enhancing vaccine efficacy.


Assuntos
Malária/imunologia , Plasmodium yoelii/fisiologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/imunologia , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Humanos , Imunidade Inata , Interferon Tipo I/genética , Interferon Tipo I/imunologia , Interferon gama/genética , Interferon gama/imunologia , Interleucina-10/genética , Interleucina-10/imunologia , Malária/enzimologia , Malária/genética , Malária/parasitologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Plasmodium yoelii/imunologia , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/genética
18.
Cell ; 182(3): 734-743.e5, 2020 08 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32643603

RESUMO

COVID-19, caused by SARS-CoV-2, is a virulent pneumonia, with >4,000,000 confirmed cases worldwide and >290,000 deaths as of May 15, 2020. It is critical that vaccines and therapeutics be developed very rapidly. Mice, the ideal animal for assessing such interventions, are resistant to SARS-CoV-2. Here, we overcome this difficulty by exogenous delivery of human ACE2 with a replication-deficient adenovirus (Ad5-hACE2). Ad5-hACE2-sensitized mice developed pneumonia characterized by weight loss, severe pulmonary pathology, and high-titer virus replication in lungs. Type I interferon, T cells, and, most importantly, signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) are critical for virus clearance and disease resolution in these mice. Ad5-hACE2-transduced mice enabled rapid assessments of a vaccine candidate, of human convalescent plasma, and of two antiviral therapies (poly I:C and remdesivir). In summary, we describe a murine model of broad and immediate utility to investigate COVID-19 pathogenesis and to evaluate new therapies and vaccines.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Vacinação , Animais , Chlorocebus aethiops , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Interferon gama/genética , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Pulmão/patologia , Pulmão/virologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/genética , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Receptor de Interferon alfa e beta/genética , Receptor de Interferon alfa e beta/metabolismo , Fator de Transcrição STAT1/genética , Fator de Transcrição STAT1/metabolismo , Organismos Livres de Patógenos Específicos , Transdução Genética , Células Vero , Carga Viral , Replicação Viral
19.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0235422, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32584899

RESUMO

Alternatives to antibiotics for prevention of respiratory tract infections in cattle are urgently needed given the increasing public and regulatory pressure to reduce overall antibiotic usage. Activation of local innate immune defenses in the upper respiratory tract is one strategy to induce non-specific protection against infection with the diverse array of viral and bacterial pathogens associated with bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC), while avoiding the use of antibiotics. Our prior studies in rodent models demonstrated that intranasal administration of liposome-TLR complexes (LTC) as a non-specific immune stimulant generated high levels of protection against lethal bacterial and viral pathogens. Therefore, we conducted studies to assess LTC induction of local immune responses and protective immunity to BRDC in cattle. In vitro, LTC were shown to activate peripheral blood mononuclear cells in cattle, which was associated with secretion of INFγ and IL-6. Macrophage activation with LTC triggered intracellular killing of Mannheimia hemolytica and several other bacterial pathogens. In studies in cattle, intranasal administration of LTC demonstrated dose-dependent activation of local innate immune responses in the nasopharynx, including recruitment of monocytes and prolonged upregulation (at least 2 weeks) of innate immune cytokine gene expression by nasopharyngeal mucosal cells. In a BRDC challenge study, intranasal administration of LTC prior to pathogen exposure resulted in significant reduction in both clinical signs of infection and disease-associated euthanasia rates. These findings indicate that intranasal administration of a non-specific innate immune stimulant can be an effective method of rapidly generating generalized protection from mixed viral and bacterial respiratory tract infections in cattle.


Assuntos
Complexo Respiratório Bovino/patologia , Imunidade Inata/efeitos dos fármacos , Fármacos do Sistema Respiratório/farmacologia , Administração Intranasal , Animais , Complexo Respiratório Bovino/tratamento farmacológico , Complexo Respiratório Bovino/mortalidade , Bovinos , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe II/metabolismo , Interferon gama/genética , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Interleucina-6/genética , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Leucócitos Mononucleares/citologia , Leucócitos Mononucleares/metabolismo , Lipossomos/química , Macrófagos/citologia , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/imunologia , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Mannheimia haemolytica/isolamento & purificação , Mannheimia haemolytica/patogenicidade , Nasofaringe/metabolismo , Nasofaringe/microbiologia , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Fagocitose , Fármacos do Sistema Respiratório/uso terapêutico , Taxa de Sobrevida , Receptor 3 Toll-Like/agonistas , Receptor Toll-Like 9/agonistas , Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos
20.
Parasitol Res ; 119(8): 2505-2510, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32535733

RESUMO

Human trichinellosis is acquired by eating raw or undercooked meats carrying muscle larvae of Trichinella spp. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are essential components of the innate immune system. However, little is known about the potential application of TLR agonists for immunotherapy against Trichinella spiralis (T. spiralis) infection. Here, we evaluated the effects of four TLR agonists (i.e., TLR3, TLR4, TLR8, and TLR9 agonists) on T. spiralis infection in mice. The reduction rate of worm burden showed that TLR3 agonist poly(I:C) significantly reduced T. spiralis infection rather than TLR4, TLR8, and TLR9 agonists (p < 0.05). Moreover, TLR3 showed a continuous high-level of expression during 6-35 days post infection (dpi). The levels of interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), interleukin (IL)-2, and IL-6 increased significantly in mice serum compared with control group after treatment with TLR3 agonist at 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, 21, 28, and 35 dpi (p < 0.05). A significant decreasing trend was also detected in levels of IL-10 and IL-4 after treatment with TLR3 agonist compared with control group at 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, 21, 28, and 35 dpi (p < 0.05). Overall, this study suggested that TLR3-targeted therapies might be effective on worm burden reduction by regulation of the cytokine levels in the mice infected with T. spiralis.


Assuntos
Receptores Toll-Like/imunologia , Trichinella spiralis/imunologia , Triquinelose/imunologia , Animais , Feminino , Humanos , Interferon gama/genética , Interferon gama/imunologia , Interleucina-10/genética , Interleucina-10/imunologia , Interleucina-2/genética , Interleucina-2/imunologia , Larva/genética , Larva/imunologia , Larva/fisiologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Receptores Toll-Like/genética , Trichinella spiralis/genética , Trichinella spiralis/fisiologia , Triquinelose/parasitologia
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