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1.
Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 35(7): 577-582, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31537240

RESUMO

Objective To investigate the roles of Th1 cytokines tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), interferon gamma (IFN-γ) and multifunctional T cells in nucleotides binding oligomer domain 2 knockout (NOD2-/-) mice infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) H37Ra. Methods Mouse models of pulmonary infection were established by tracheal instillation of MTB strain H37Ra into NOD2-/- mice and C57BL/6 mice (n=10 each group). Lung tissues were removed and stained by HE staining and pathological scores were evaluated 4 weeks after infection. The levels of TNF-α and IFN-γ in the lung homogenates were detected by ELISA, and the ratio of multifunctional CD4+ T and CD8+ T cells in the spleen were examined by flow cytometry. Results MTB infection promoted lung inflammation of NOD2-/- mice. The levels of TNF-α and IFN-γ in the lung tissues of NOD2-/- mice increased. Compared with normal saline group, TNF-α+, IFN-γ+ cells and TNF-α+IFN-γ+ cells in CD4+/CD8+T cells significantly increased in NOD2-/- mice and C57BL/6 mice after the infection. TNF-α+CD4+T cells, IFN-γ+CD4+T cells and IFN-γ+CD8+T cells in MTB-infected NOD2-/- mice were significantly higher than those in MTB-infected C57BL/6 mice. Conclusion H37Ra can induce Th1 immune response in NOD2-/- mice.


Assuntos
Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Células Th1/imunologia , Tuberculose/imunologia , Animais , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Interferon gama/imunologia , Pulmão/imunologia , Pulmão/microbiologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Proteína Adaptadora de Sinalização NOD2/genética , Baço/citologia , Baço/imunologia , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/imunologia
2.
Arch Virol ; 164(11): 2659-2669, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31385116

RESUMO

Interferon gamma (IFN-γ) is best known for its ability to regulate host immune responses; however, its direct antiviral activity is less well studied. Transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) is an economically important swine enteric coronavirus and causes acute diarrhea in piglets. At present, little is known about the function of IFN-γ in the control of TGEV infection. In this study, we demonstrated that IFN-γ inhibited TGEV infection directly in ST cells and intestine epithelial IPEC-J2 cells and that the anti-TGEV activity of IFN-γ was independent of IFN-α/ß. Moreover, IFN-γ suppressed TGEV infection in ST cells more efficiently than did IFN-α, and the combination of IFN-γ and IFN-α displayed a synergistic effect against TGEV. Mechanistically, using overexpression and functional knockdown experiments, we demonstrated that porcine interferon regulatory factor 1 (poIRF1) elicited by IFN-γ primarily mediated IFN-γ signaling cascades and the inhibition of TGEV infection by IFN-γ. Importantly, we found that TGEV elevated the expression of poIRF1 and IFN-γ in infected small intestines and peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Thus, IFN-γ plays a crucial role in curtailing enteric coronavirus infection and may serve as an effective prophylactic and/or therapeutic agent against TGEV infection.


Assuntos
Gastroenterite Suína Transmissível/imunologia , Fator Regulador 1 de Interferon/metabolismo , Interferon gama/imunologia , Vírus da Gastroenterite Transmissível/imunologia , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Cercopithecus aethiops , Fator Regulador 1 de Interferon/genética , Interferon-alfa/imunologia , Interferência de RNA , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia , Suínos , Células Vero
3.
Rev Soc Bras Med Trop ; 52: e20190101, 2019 Jul 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31340370

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Tropical spastic paraparesis/HTLV-1 associated myelopathy (TSP/HAM) is a disease caused by human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-I) that mainly infects CD4 T cells-for example, those of the CD4+CD25hiFOXP3+ [Treg] phenotype-where it inhibits forkhead box protein P3 (FOXP3) expression and promotes interferon-γ (IFN-γ) expression. However, the role it exerts on regulatory B cells (CD19+CD24hiCD38hi; Breg) is unknown. METHODS: The frequencies of Treg and Breg cells was evaluated and the Th1 profiles were assessed in TSP/HAM patients and healthy control subjects. RESULTS: Low percentages of Breg cells and high production of IFN-γ were observed in patients compared to those in healthy control subjects. CONCLUSIONS: The low percentage of Breg cells in patients and the increase in the frequency of Th1 cells suggest an imbalance in the control of the inflammatory response that contributes to the immunopathogenesis of TSP/HAM.


Assuntos
Linfócitos B Reguladores/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Interferon gama/imunologia , Paraparesia Espástica Tropical/imunologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Adolescente , Linfócitos B Reguladores/virologia , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/virologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/virologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Paraparesia Espástica Tropical/virologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/virologia , Carga Viral
4.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 568, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31262260

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: With the aim of preparing a more effective, safe and economical vaccine for tuberculosis, inhalable live mycobacterium formulations were evaluated. METHODS: Alginate particles in the size range of 2-4 µm were prepared by encapsulating live Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) and "Mycobacterium indicus pranii" (MIP). These particles were characterized for their size, stability and release profile. Mice were immunized with liquid aerosol or dry powder aerosol (DPA) alginate encapsulated mycobacterium particles and their in-vitro recall response and infection with mycobacterium H37Rv were investigated. RESULTS: It was found that the DPA of alginate encapsulated mycobacterium particles invoked superior immune response and provided higher protection in mice than the liquid aerosol. The BCG encapsulated in alginate particles (BEAP) and MIP encapsulated in alginate particles (MEAP) were engulfed by bone marrow dendritic cells (BMDCs) and co-localized with lysosome. The MEAP/BEAP activated BMDCs exhibited higher chemotaxis movement and had enhanced ability of antigen presentation to T cells. The in-vitro recall response of BEAP/MEAP immunized mice when compared in terms of proliferation index and Interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) released by splenocytes and mediastinal lymph node cells was found to be higher than mice immunized by liquid aerosol of BCG/MIP. Finally, different groups of immunized mice were infected with M. tb H37Rv and after 16 weeks the Colony forming units (CFUs) in lung and spleen estimated. The bacilli burden in the BEAP/MEAP immunized mice was significantly less than the respective liquid aerosol immunized mice and the histopathology of BEAP/MEAP immunized mice lungs showed very little damage. CONCLUSIONS: These inhale-able vaccines formulation of alginate coated live mycobacterium are more immunogenic as compared to the aerosol of bacilli and they provide better protection in mice when infected with H37Rv.


Assuntos
Aerossóis/administração & dosagem , Pulmão/imunologia , Vacinas contra a Tuberculose/farmacologia , Tuberculose/prevenção & controle , Alginatos/química , Animais , Vacina BCG/imunologia , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/métodos , Interferon gama/imunologia , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Pulmão/microbiologia , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Complexo Mycobacterium avium/química , Complexo Mycobacterium avium/imunologia , Mycobacterium bovis/química , Mycobacterium bovis/imunologia , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/imunologia , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/patogenicidade , Baço/microbiologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Linfócitos T/microbiologia , Tuberculose/imunologia , Vacinas contra a Tuberculose/administração & dosagem , Vacinas contra a Tuberculose/imunologia , Vacinação/métodos
5.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(24): 6773-6784, 2019 Jun 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31154759

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to evaluate the immunomodulatory effects of atractylodin, a polyethylene alkyne, on the maturation of bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BM-DC) as well as its antirheumatic effect on collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) in DBA/1 mice. Our results indicate that atractylodin effectively suppressed the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines, expression of costimulatory molecules, and p38 MAPK, ERK, and NF-κBp65 signaling pathways in LPS-incubated dendritic cells (DCs). Additionally, the proliferation and cytokine secretion (IFN-γ and IL-17A) of CD8+ and CD4+ T cells were reduced. In a murine CIA model, intraperitoneal injection of atractylodin significantly alleviated the severity of the disease progression, as indicated by reduced paw swelling, clinical arthritis scores, and pathological changes of joint tissues. In addition, the overall proliferation of T cells stimulated by type II collagen and the abundance of Th1 and Th17 in the spleens were also significantly decreased with atractylodin treatments. Furthermore, atractylodin significantly downregulated the expression levels of CD40, CD80, and CD86 of DCs in the spleens. In conclusion, this study shows for the first time that atractylodin has potential to manipulate the maturation of BM-DCs and should be further explored as a therapeutic agent in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA).


Assuntos
Artrite Reumatoide/tratamento farmacológico , Atractylodes/química , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Colágeno Tipo II/efeitos adversos , Células Dendríticas/citologia , Furanos/administração & dosagem , Animais , Artrite Reumatoide/induzido quimicamente , Artrite Reumatoide/imunologia , Artrite Reumatoide/fisiopatologia , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Dendríticas/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Dendríticas/imunologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Humanos , Interferon gama/genética , Interferon gama/imunologia , Interleucina-17/genética , Interleucina-17/imunologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Endogâmicos DBA , Células Th17/imunologia , Fator de Transcrição RelA/genética , Fator de Transcrição RelA/imunologia
6.
Nature ; 571(7763): 122-126, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31189952

RESUMO

Antibodies secreted into mucosal barriers serve to protect the host from a variety of pathogens, and are the basis for successful vaccines1. In type I mucosa (such as the intestinal tract), dimeric IgA secreted by local plasma cells is transported through polymeric immunoglobulin receptors2 and mediates robust protection against viruses3,4. However, owing to the paucity of polymeric immunoglobulin receptors and plasma cells, how and whether antibodies are delivered to the type II mucosa represented by the lumen of the lower female reproductive tract remains unclear. Here, using genital herpes infection in mice, we show that primary infection does not establish plasma cells in the lamina propria of the female reproductive tract. Instead, upon secondary challenge with herpes simplex virus 2, circulating memory B cells that enter the female reproductive tract serve as the source of rapid and robust antibody secretion into the lumen of this tract. CD4 tissue-resident memory T cells secrete interferon-γ, which induces expression of chemokines, including CXCL9 and CXCL10. Circulating memory B cells are recruited to the vaginal mucosa in a CXCR3-dependent manner, and secrete virus-specific IgG2b, IgG2c and IgA into the lumen. These results reveal that circulating memory B cells act as a rapidly inducible source of mucosal antibodies in the female reproductive tract.


Assuntos
Anticorpos/imunologia , Linfócitos B/citologia , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Movimento Celular/imunologia , Memória Imunológica/imunologia , Vagina/citologia , Vagina/imunologia , Animais , Formação de Anticorpos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Feminino , Herpes Simples/imunologia , Herpes Simples/virologia , Herpesvirus Humano 2/imunologia , Imunização , Imunoglobulina A/imunologia , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Interferon gama/imunologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Receptores CXCR3/imunologia , Vagina/virologia
7.
Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz ; 114: e180571, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31116244

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: TcP21 is a ubiquitous secreted protein of Trypanosoma cruzi and its recombinant form (rP21) promotes parasite cell invasion and acts as a phagocytosis inducer by activating actin polymerisation in the host cell. OBJECTIVE: Our goal was to evaluate if the additional supplementation of rP21 during a prime/boost/challenge scheme with T. cruzi TCC attenuated parasites could modify the well-known protective behavior conferred by these parasites. METHODS: The humoral immune response was evaluated through the assessment of total anti-T. cruzi antibodies as well as IgG subtypes. IFN-γ, TNF-α and IL-10 were measured in supernatants of splenic cells stimulated with total parasite homogenate or rP21. FINDINGS: Our results demonstrated that, when comparing TCC+rP21 vs. TCC vaccinated animals, the levels of IFN-γ were significantly higher in the former group, while the levels of IL-10 and TNF-α were significantly lower. Further, the measurement of parasite load after lethal challenge showed an exacerbated infection and parasite load in heart and skeletal muscle after pre-treatment with rP21, suggesting the important role of this protein during parasite natural invasion process. MAIN CONCLUSION: Our results demonstrated that rP21 may have adjuvant capacity able to modify the cytokine immune profile elicited by attenuated parasites.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/imunologia , Antígenos de Protozoários/imunologia , Doença de Chagas/imunologia , Proteínas de Protozoários/imunologia , Trypanosoma cruzi/imunologia , Vacinas Atenuadas/imunologia , Animais , Doença de Chagas/prevenção & controle , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Interferon-alfa/sangue , Interferon-alfa/imunologia , Interferon gama/sangue , Interferon gama/imunologia , Interleucina-10/sangue , Interleucina-10/imunologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Fagocitose , Vacinas Atenuadas/administração & dosagem
8.
Nat Med ; 25(6): 977-987, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31110348

RESUMO

Exposure to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) results in heterogeneous clinical outcomes including primary progressive tuberculosis and latent Mtb infection (LTBI). Mtb infection is identified using the tuberculin skin test and interferon-γ (IFN-γ) release assay IGRA, and a positive result may prompt chemoprophylaxis to prevent progression to tuberculosis. In the present study, we report on a cohort of Ugandan individuals who were household contacts of patients with TB. These individuals were highly exposed to Mtb but tested negative disease by IFN-γ release assay and tuberculin skin test, 'resisting' development of classic LTBI. We show that 'resisters' possess IgM, class-switched IgG antibody responses and non-IFN-γ T cell responses to the Mtb-specific proteins ESAT6 and CFP10, immunologic evidence of exposure to Mtb. Compared to subjects with classic LTBI, 'resisters' display enhanced antibody avidity and distinct Mtb-specific IgG Fc profiles. These data reveal a distinctive adaptive immune profile among Mtb-exposed subjects, supporting an expanded definition of the host response to Mtb exposure, with implications for public health and the design of clinical trials.


Assuntos
Tuberculose Latente/imunologia , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/imunologia , Tuberculose/imunologia , Adulto , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Antígenos de Bactérias/imunologia , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Interferon gama/imunologia , Testes de Liberação de Interferon-gama , Masculino , Teste Tuberculínico , Uganda , Adulto Jovem
9.
Scand J Immunol ; 90(3): e12794, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31141185

RESUMO

Natural killer T (NKT) cells are αß T cell receptor (TCR) expressing innate-like T cells that display natural killer (NK) cell markers. Based on TCR characteristics, they are divided into two groups restricted to the MHC class I-like molecule CD1d. Type I NKT cells, most extensively studied, are identified by a semi-invariant Vα14-Jα18 (mouse, Vα24-Jα18 in humans) TCR reactive to the prototypic ligand α-galactosylceramide presented on CD1d. In contrast, type II NKT cells display diverse TCR reacting to different CD1d-presented ligands. There are no reagents that identify all type II NKT cells, limiting their exploration. Here, we searched for novel type II NKT cells by comparing Jα18-/- MHCII-/- mice that harbour type II but not type I NKT cells, and CD1d-/- MHCII-/- mice, lacking all NKT cells. We identified significantly larger populations of CD4+ and CD4- CD8- (double negative, DN) TCRß+ cells expressing NKG2D or NKG2A/C/E in Jα18-/- MHCII-/- mice compared with CD1d-/- MHCII-/- mice, suggesting that 30%-50% of these cells were type II NKT cells. They expressed CD122, NK1.1, CXCR3 and intermediate/low levels of CD45RB. Further, the CD4+ subset was CD69+ , while the DN cells were CD49b+ and CD62L+ . Both subsets expressed the NKT cell-associated promyelocytic leukaemia zinc finger (PLZF) transcription factor and Tbet, while fewer cells expressed RORγt. NKG2D+ CD4+ and DN populations were producers of IFN-γ, but rarely IL-4 and IL-17. Taken together, we identify a novel subset of primary CD4+ and DN type II NKT cells that expresses NKG2 receptors have typical NKT cell phenotypes and a TH1-like cytokine production.


Assuntos
Antígenos CD1d/imunologia , Antígenos CD1d/metabolismo , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Células T Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Animais , Feminino , Galactosilceramidas/imunologia , Galactosilceramidas/metabolismo , Interferon gama/imunologia , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Células Matadoras Naturais/metabolismo , Ativação Linfocitária/imunologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Subfamília K de Receptores Semelhantes a Lectina de Células NK/imunologia , Subfamília K de Receptores Semelhantes a Lectina de Células NK/metabolismo , Células T Matadoras Naturais/metabolismo , Proteína com Dedos de Zinco da Leucemia Promielocítica/imunologia , Proteína com Dedos de Zinco da Leucemia Promielocítica/metabolismo , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T alfa-beta/imunologia , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T alfa-beta/metabolismo , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/imunologia , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/metabolismo
10.
J Immunol Res ; 2019: 7596786, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31049360

RESUMO

Type I interferon (IFN-I) plays a critical role in the antitumor immune response. In our previous study, we showed that IFN-I-inducible 2'-5' oligoadenylate synthetase-like 1 (OASL1) negatively regulated IFN-I production upon tumor challenge similar to that of viral infection. Thus, OASL1-deficient (Oasl1 -/-) mice were more resistant to implanted tumor growth than wild-type (WT) mice. In this study, we investigated whether targeting or suppressing OASL1 could show synergistic effects on tumor clearance with conventional cancer therapies (such as chemotherapy and radiotherapy) using Oasl1 -/- mice and a transplantable lung metastatic tumor cell model. Upon treatment with the anticancer drug cisplatin, we found that Oasl1 -/- mice showed enhanced resistance to injected tumors compared to untreated Oasl1 -/- mice. Similarly, irradiated Oasl1 -/- mice showed better resistance to tumor challenge than untreated Oasl1 -/- mice. Additionally, we found that Oasl1 -/- mice applied with both types of the cancer therapies contained more cytotoxic effector cells, such as CD8+ T cells and NK cells, and produced more cytotoxic effector cytokine IFN-γ as well as IFN-I in their tumor-containing lungs compared to untreated Oasl1 -/- mice. Collectively, these results show that targeting OASL1 together with conventional cancer therapies could be an effective strategy to enhance treatment efficacy.


Assuntos
2',5'-Oligoadenilato Sintetase/antagonistas & inibidores , Cisplatino/uso terapêutico , Interferon Tipo I/imunologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/imunologia , 2',5'-Oligoadenilato Sintetase/genética , Animais , Antineoplásicos , Interferon gama/imunologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/radioterapia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Metástase Neoplásica
11.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 454, 2019 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31117976

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mycolicibacterium phlei (M. phlei) is known to be a non-pathogenic nontuberculous mycobacterium (NTM) which rarely causes diseases in humans. A disseminated NTM infection is mostly caused by the Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) and is known to develop in immunocompromised hosts, like those with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Here, we report a case of disseminated M. phlei infection in an immunocompetent host carrying anti-interferon gamma (IFN-γ) autoantibodies. CASE PRESENTATION: We detected M. phlei in multiple organs of an elderly woman with no significant medical history except positivity for anti-IFN-γ autoantibodies. She tested negative for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1, 2/ Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) antibody. High-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) of the chest demonstrated a nodule in the left S1 + 2 segment, interlobular septal thickening, multi lymphadenopathy, and osteolysis. A maximum intensity projection image following fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) revealed multifocal hypermetabolic lesions in the nodule and all the swollen lymph nodes seen in HRCT. FDG also accumulated in multiple bones. Advanced primary lung cancer was suspected, and biopsies of each lesion were performed. The pathology revealed caseating granuloma, positive for acid-fast bacteria, and DNA sequencing of the acid-fast bacteria confirmed the organism to be M. phlei. The patient also tested positive for anti-IFN-γ autoantibodies. Based on these findings, she was diagnosed with disseminated M. phlei infection, with anti-IFN-γ autoantibodies. CONCLUSIONS: Though known to be non-pathogenic, we show that M. phlei can be pathogenic like the MAC in immunocompetent individuals carrying anti-IFN-γ autoantibodies.


Assuntos
Interferon gama/imunologia , Infecções por Micobactéria não Tuberculosa/imunologia , Micobactérias não Tuberculosas/patogenicidade , Idoso , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Autoanticorpos , Osso e Ossos/diagnóstico por imagem , Osso e Ossos/patologia , Feminino , Granuloma/diagnóstico por imagem , Granuloma/tratamento farmacológico , Granuloma/microbiologia , Humanos , Imunocompetência , Infecções por Micobactéria não Tuberculosa/diagnóstico por imagem , Infecções por Micobactéria não Tuberculosa/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Micobactéria não Tuberculosa/microbiologia , Micobactérias não Tuberculosas/imunologia , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons/métodos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Virulência
12.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2178, 2019 05 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31097717

RESUMO

T-cells play a crucial role in progression of autoimmunity, including vitiligo, yet the initial steps triggering their activation and tissue damage remain unknown. Here we demonstrate increased presence of type-1 innate lymphoid cells (NK and ILC1)-producing interferon gamma (IFNγ) in the blood and in non-lesional skin of vitiligo patients. Melanocytes of vitiligo patients have strong basal expression of chemokine-receptor-3 (CXCR3) isoform B which is directly regulated by IFNγ. CXCR3B activation by CXCL10 at the surface of cultured human melanocytes induces their apoptosis. The remaining melanocytes, activated by the IFNγ production, express co-stimulatory markers which trigger T-cell proliferation and subsequent anti-melanocytic immunity. Inhibiting the CXCR3B activation prevents this apoptosis and the further activation of T cells. Our results emphasize the key role of CXCR3B in apoptosis of melanocytes and identify CXCR3B as a potential target to prevent and to treat vitiligo by acting at the early stages of melanocyte destruction.


Assuntos
Autoimunidade , Melanócitos/imunologia , Receptores CXCR3/metabolismo , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Vitiligo/imunologia , Adulto , Idoso , Apoptose/imunologia , Biópsia , Células Cultivadas , Quimiocina CXCL10/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Imunidade Inata , Interferon gama/imunologia , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Células Matadoras Naturais/metabolismo , Ativação Linfocitária , Masculino , Melanócitos/metabolismo , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cultura Primária de Células , Isoformas de Proteínas/imunologia , Isoformas de Proteínas/metabolismo , Receptores CXCR3/imunologia , Pele/citologia , Pele/patologia , Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Vitiligo/sangue , Vitiligo/patologia
13.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2329, 2019 05 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31133636

RESUMO

Variability in bacterial sterilization is a key feature of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) disease. In a population of human macrophages, there are macrophages that restrict Mtb growth and those that do not. However, the sources of heterogeneity in macrophage state during Mtb infection are poorly understood. Here, we perform RNAseq on restrictive and permissive macrophages and reveal that the expression of genes involved in GM-CSF signaling discriminates between the two subpopulations. We demonstrate that blocking GM-CSF makes macrophages more permissive of Mtb growth while addition of GM-CSF increases bacterial control. In parallel, we find that the loss of bacterial control that occurs in HIV-Mtb coinfected macrophages correlates with reduced GM-CSF secretion. Treatment of coinfected cells with GM-CSF restores bacterial control. Thus, we leverage the natural variation in macrophage control of Mtb to identify a critical cytokine response for regulating Mtb survival and identify components of the antimicrobial response induced by GM-CSF.


Assuntos
Fator Estimulador de Colônias de Granulócitos e Macrófagos/metabolismo , Macrófagos/imunologia , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/imunologia , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia , Tuberculose/imunologia , Buffy Coat/citologia , Células Cultivadas , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Fator Estimulador de Colônias de Granulócitos e Macrófagos/imunologia , HIV/imunologia , HIV/patogenicidade , Infecções por HIV/imunologia , Infecções por HIV/microbiologia , Humanos , Interferon gama/imunologia , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Macrófagos/microbiologia , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/patogenicidade , Cultura Primária de Células , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Tuberculose/microbiologia , Vitamina D/imunologia , Vitamina D/metabolismo
14.
Nature ; 570(7759): 112-116, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31092922

RESUMO

Solid tumours are infiltrated by effector T cells with the potential to control or reject them, as well as by regulatory T (Treg) cells that restrict the function of effector T cells and thereby promote tumour growth1. The anti-tumour activity of effector T cells can be therapeutically unleashed, and is now being exploited for the treatment of some forms of human cancer. However, weak tumour-associated inflammatory responses and the immune-suppressive function of Treg cells remain major hurdles to broader effectiveness of tumour immunotherapy2. Here we show that, after disruption of the CARMA1-BCL10-MALT1 (CBM) signalosome complex, most tumour-infiltrating Treg cells produce IFNγ, resulting in stunted tumour growth. Notably, genetic deletion of both or even just one allele of CARMA1 (also known as Card11) in only a fraction of Treg cells-which avoided systemic autoimmunity-was sufficient to produce this anti-tumour effect, showing that it is not the mere loss of suppressive function but the gain of effector activity by Treg cells that initiates tumour control. The production of IFNγ by Treg cells was accompanied by activation of macrophages and upregulation of class I molecules of the major histocompatibility complex on tumour cells. However, tumour cells also upregulated the expression of PD-L1, which indicates activation of adaptive immune resistance3. Consequently, blockade of PD-1 together with CARMA1 deletion caused rejection of tumours that otherwise do not respond to anti-PD-1 monotherapy. This effect was reproduced by pharmacological inhibition of the CBM protein MALT1. Our results demonstrate that partial disruption of the CBM complex and induction of IFNγ secretion in the preferentially self-reactive Treg cell pool does not cause systemic autoimmunity but is sufficient to prime the tumour environment for successful immune checkpoint therapy.


Assuntos
Proteína 10 de Linfoma CCL de Células B/antagonistas & inibidores , Antígeno B7-H1/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Sinalização CARD/antagonistas & inibidores , Imunoterapia/métodos , Proteína de Translocação 1 do Linfoma de Tecido Linfoide Associado à Mucosa/antagonistas & inibidores , Complexos Multiproteicos/antagonistas & inibidores , Neoplasias/terapia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Animais , Autoimunidade , Antígeno B7-H1/imunologia , Antígeno B7-H1/metabolismo , Feminino , Tolerância Imunológica , Interferon gama/biossíntese , Interferon gama/imunologia , Macrófagos/imunologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Neoplasias/imunologia , Neoplasias/patologia
15.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 1685, 2019 04 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30976008

RESUMO

Neonatal sepsis is characterized by hyperinflammation causing enhanced morbidity and mortality compared to adults. This suggests differences in the response towards invading threats. Here we investigate activated cord blood macrophages (CBMΦ) in comparison to adult macrophages (PBMΦ), indicating incomplete interferon gamma (IFN-γ) and interleukin 10 (IL-10)-induced activation of CBMΦ. CBMΦ show reduced expression of phagocytosis receptors and cytokine expression in addition to altered energy metabolism. In particular, IFN-γ as well as IL-10-activated CBMΦ completely fail to increase glycolysis and furthermore show reduced activation of the mTOR pathway, which is important for survival in sepsis. MTOR inhibition by rapamycin equalizes cytokine production in CBMΦ and PBMΦ. Finally, incubation of PBMΦ with cord blood serum or S100A8/A9, which is highly expressed in neonates, suppresses mTOR activation, prevents glycolysis and the expression of an PBMΦ phenotype. Thus, a metabolic alteration is apparent in CBMΦ, which might be dependent on S100A8/A9 expression.


Assuntos
Citotoxicidade Imunológica , Metabolismo Energético/imunologia , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Calgranulina A/imunologia , Calgranulina A/metabolismo , Calgranulina B/imunologia , Calgranulina B/metabolismo , Diferenciação Celular/imunologia , Células Cultivadas , Sangue Fetal/citologia , Glicólise/imunologia , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Interferon gama/imunologia , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Interleucina-10/imunologia , Interleucina-10/metabolismo , Macrófagos/imunologia , Cultura Primária de Células , Sepse/imunologia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia , Sirolimo/farmacologia , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/imunologia , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo
16.
Vet Microbiol ; 231: 24-32, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30955817

RESUMO

Avian influenza virus (AIV) H9N2 infection causes economic losses on poultry farms, and immunostimulants are essential for improving chicken immunity. This study evaluated the immunological and pathological effects of vitamin E with Fetomune Plus® (a commercial product based on a yeast extract and vitamins) on chickens experimentally infected with AIV H9N2. Three groups of white Hy-Line chicks were included. The G1 group was kept as an uninfected untreated control, the G2 group was intranasally infected with the AIV H9N2 strain (0.5 ml of 106 50% egg infectious dose (EID50)), and the G3 group was infected and treated with vitamin E (200 mg/kg of diet) and Fetomune Plus® (1 ml/liter of drinking water) for four weeks. The gene expression of interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-2 was determined at 3, 5 and 7 days post-infection (PI). Virus shedding titers and rates and haemagglutination inhibition (HI) antibody titers were detected. Clinical signs, mortalities and post-mortem lesions were recorded. The birds were weighed, and relative organ weights were calculated. Tissue specimens were taken for histopathological examination and immunohistochemistry (IHC). The expression of IFN-γ in the duodenum revealed a significant increase in G2 compared to G3 at 3 days PI, while the duodenal and splenic expression of IL-6 was significantly increased in G2 compared to G3 at 5 days PI. IL-2 was overexpressed in the duodenum in G3 compared to G2 at 3 and 5 days PI. A significant decrease (P ≤ 0.05) in the virus shedding titer and an increase in the HI titers were detected in G3 compared to G2. The clinical signs and the mortality rate were clearly appeared in G2 than in G3. By IHC, lower H9N2 staining intensity was observed in the examined organs from G3 than in those from G2. In conclusion, as a first report, vitamin E with Fetomune Plus® supplementation for four weeks could improve the immunological and pathological effects of H9N2 infection on chickens.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais , Influenza Aviária/terapia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/terapia , Vitamina E/imunologia , Ração Animal , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Galinhas , Citocinas/imunologia , Testes de Inibição da Hemaglutinação , Imuno-Histoquímica , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H9N2 , Influenza Aviária/imunologia , Interferon gama/imunologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/imunologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/virologia , Eliminação de Partículas Virais/efeitos dos fármacos , Vitamina E/administração & dosagem
17.
Vet Microbiol ; 231: 87-92, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30955830

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy of a commercial porcine circovirus type 2a (PCV2a) subunit vaccine against experimental PCV2a, PCV2b, and PCV2d challenge. A total of 105 pigs were randomly divided into 7 groups (15 pigs per group). At 21 days old the pigs were intramuscularly administered the PCV2a vaccine as a 1.0 mL dose. Four weeks following vaccination, pigs were challenged with either Korean PCV2a, PCV2b, or PCV2d. All vaccinated pigs showed a significant (P < 0.05) reduction of clinical signs, PCV2 viremia, lymphoid lesions, and lymphoid PCV2 antigen levels compared to unvaccinated control pigs. Vaccination resulted also in significantly higher (P < 0.05) titers of neutralizing antibody against PCV2, and an increase in the frequency of PCV2-specific interferon-γ secreting cells (IFN-γ-SC). The vaccine showed similar protection among the vaccinated groups regardless of the genotype of the challenge. Interestingly, vaccinated pigs had higher levels of neutralizing antibody titers against PCV2a compared to PCV2b or PCV2d while the number of PCV2a-, PCV2b-, and PCV2d-specific IFN-γ-SC were similar. Taken together, the results presented here demonstrate that a PCV2a vaccine can be effective against experimental PCV2a, PCV2b, and PCV2d challenge.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Infecções por Circoviridae/veterinária , Doenças dos Suínos/prevenção & controle , Vacinas Virais/uso terapêutico , Animais , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Infecções por Circoviridae/imunologia , Infecções por Circoviridae/prevenção & controle , Circovirus/genética , Circovirus/imunologia , DNA Viral/sangue , Fazendas , Genótipo , Injeções Intramusculares , Interferon gama/imunologia , Gado , Distribuição Aleatória , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/imunologia , Vacinação , Vacinas de Subunidades/imunologia , Vacinas de Subunidades/uso terapêutico , Vacinas Virais/imunologia
18.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 1507, 2019 04 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30944315

RESUMO

Exhaustion of cytotoxic effector natural killer (NK) and CD8+ T cells have important functions in the establishment of persistent viral infections, but how exhaustion is induced during chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection remains poorly defined. Here we show, using the humanized C/OTg mice permissive for persistent HCV infection, that NK and CD8+ T cells become sequentially exhausted shortly after their transient hepatic infiltration and activation in acute HCV infection. HCV infection upregulates Qa-1 expression in hepatocytes, which ligates NKG2A to induce NK cell exhaustion. Antibodies targeting NKG2A or Qa-1 prevents NK exhaustion and promotes NK-dependent HCV clearance. Moreover, reactivated NK cells provide sufficient IFN-γ that helps rejuvenate polyclonal HCV CD8+ T cell response and clearance of HCV. Our data thus show that NKG2A serves as a critical checkpoint for HCV-induced NK exhaustion, and that NKG2A blockade sequentially boosts interdependent NK and CD8+ T cell functions to prevent persistent HCV infection.


Assuntos
Hepacivirus/imunologia , Hepatite C Crônica/imunologia , Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Subfamília C de Receptores Semelhantes a Lectina de Células NK/imunologia , Animais , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/metabolismo , Citocinas/imunologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Hepatite C Crônica/virologia , Hepatócitos/virologia , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe I/imunologia , Interferon gama/imunologia , Ativação Linfocitária/fisiologia , Proteínas de Membrana/imunologia , Camundongos , Distribuição Aleatória
19.
BMC Res Notes ; 12(1): 234, 2019 Apr 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31010428

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We recently showed that the anti-helminthic compound mebendazole (MBZ) has immunomodulating activity by inducing a M2 to M1 phenotype switch in monocyte/macrophage models. In the present study we investigated the potential role of protein kinases in mediating this effect. RESULTS: MBZ potently binds and inhibits Dual specificity tyrosine-phosphorylation-regulated kinase 1B (DYRK1B) with a Kd and an IC50 of 7 and 360 nM, respectively. The specific DYRK1B inhibitor AZ191 did not mimic the cytokine release profile of MBZ in untreated THP-1 monocytes. However, in THP-1 cells differentiated into macrophages, AZ191 strongly induced a pro-inflammatory cytokine release pattern similar to MBZ and LPS/IFNγ. Furthermore, like MBZ, AZ191 increased the expression of the M1 marker CD80 and decreased the M2 marker CD163 in THP-1 macrophages. In this model, AZ191 also increased phospho-ERK activity although to a lesser extent compared to MBZ. Taken together, the results demonstrate that DYRK1B inhibition could, at least partly, recapitulate immune responses induced by MBZ. Hence, DYRK1B inhibition induced by MBZ may be part of the mechanism of action to switch M2 to M1 macrophages.


Assuntos
Antinematódeos/farmacologia , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Mebendazol/farmacologia , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Tirosina Quinases/antagonistas & inibidores , Antígenos CD/genética , Antígenos CD/imunologia , Antígenos de Diferenciação Mielomonocítica/genética , Antígenos de Diferenciação Mielomonocítica/imunologia , Antinematódeos/metabolismo , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Compostos Heterocíclicos com 2 Anéis/farmacologia , Humanos , Interferon gama/genética , Interferon gama/imunologia , Interferon gama/farmacologia , Interleucinas/genética , Interleucinas/imunologia , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Macrófagos/citologia , Macrófagos/imunologia , Mebendazol/metabolismo , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Ligação Proteica , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/genética , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/imunologia , Proteínas Tirosina Quinases/genética , Proteínas Tirosina Quinases/imunologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-abl/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-abl/imunologia , Pirimidinas/farmacologia , Receptores de Superfície Celular/genética , Receptores de Superfície Celular/imunologia , Transdução de Sinais , Células THP-1 , Acetato de Tetradecanoilforbol/farmacologia
20.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 90: 150-164, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31028897

RESUMO

Interferon-gamma (IFN-ϒ) is probably one of the most relevant cytokines orchestrating the immune response in vertebrates. Although the activities mediated by this molecule are well known in mammals, several aspects of the IFN-ϒ system in teleosts remain a riddle to scientists. Numerous studies support a potentially similar role of the fish IFN-ϒ signalling pathway in some well-described immunological processes induced by this cytokine in mammals. Nevertheless, the existence in some teleost species of duplicated ifng genes and an additional gene derived from ifng known as interferon-γ-related (ifngrel), among other things, raises new interesting questions about the mode of action of these various molecules in fish. Moreover, certain IFN-ϒ-mediated activities recently observed in mammals are still fully unknown in fish. Another attractive but mainly unexplored curious property of IFN-ϒ in vertebrates is its potential dual role depending on the type of pathogen. In addition, some aspects mediated by this molecule could favour the resolution of a bacterial infection but be harmful in the context of a viral disease, and vice versa. This review collects old and new aspects of IFN-ϒ research in teleosts and discusses new questions and pathways of investigation based on recent discoveries in mammals.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Peixes/genética , Peixes/genética , Interferon gama/genética , Animais , Proteínas de Peixes/imunologia , Proteínas de Peixes/metabolismo , Peixes/imunologia , Interferon gama/imunologia , Interferon gama/metabolismo
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