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1.
Rinsho Ketsueki ; 60(11): 1555-1559, 2019.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31839634

RESUMO

A 67-year-old male was referred to our hospital because of anemia, thrombocytopenia, and massive ascites. A diagnosis of systemic mastocytosis was made based on the observation of many mast cells in his bone marrow, elevated serum tryptase levels, and the presence of c-kit point mutation Asp816Val. Dasatinib and cladribine were ineffective, and a large volume of ascites was removed approximately every 3 days. Then, following an asthma attack, the patient was treated with pranlukast, a leukotriene receptor antagonist (LTRA). After LTRA treatment initiation, the frequency of ascites drainage decreased, and no puncture was necessary from the 10th day after the start of LTRA. Interferon α (IFN-α) was administered from the 15th day after the start of LTRA. Thereafter, his anemia and thrombocytopenia gradually improved, the ascites disappeared, the mast cells in his bone marrow were significantly reduced, and the Asp816Val mutation disappeared. Because persistent monocytosis was evident, he was suspected of chronic myelomonocytic leukemia but has not been diagnosed and is undergoing watchful waiting. This was considered to be a rare case of refractory ascites in which IFN-α was effective and LTRA might have been beneficial.


Assuntos
Ascite/etiologia , Interferon-alfa/uso terapêutico , Antagonistas de Leucotrienos/uso terapêutico , Mastocitose Sistêmica , Idoso , Humanos , Masculino , Mastócitos , Mastocitose Sistêmica/complicações , Mastocitose Sistêmica/tratamento farmacológico
2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(51): e18442, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31861015

RESUMO

Genetic variation and genotype of Hepatitis B virus (HBV) are related to the efficiency of interferon alpha (IFN-α)-based antiviral therapy. However, the correlation of variation in interferon-stimulated response element (ISRE) and HBV genotype response to IFN-α therapy remains elusive.Differences of ISRE between genotype B and C HBV were explored using the HBV sequences retrieved from GenBank, and further investigated by ISRE region cloning and sequencing from 60 clinical samples post-IFN-α therapy. Additionally, ISRE mutants were constructed and their relation to responsiveness of IFN-α was evaluated by real-time PCR and Southern blot analysis.ISRE pattern between genotype B and C were found based on both clinical sample sequencing and full-length sequence alignment. The primary difference is the fourth base within the ISRE region, with T and C for genotype B and C, respectively. HBV with genotype C-type ISRE had a higher replicative capability as compared to HBV with genotype B-type ISRE after IFN-α treatment in huh7 cells. CONCLUSION:: Preference of ISRE between genotype B and C HBV are distinct. Single nucleotide difference (C to T) within the HBV ISRE region may link to the efficacy of IFN-α therapy to genotype B and C HBV. Therefore, this study provides a clue for the determination of IFN-α therapy response to HBV treatment.


Assuntos
Vírus da Hepatite B/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepatite B/tratamento farmacológico , Interferon-alfa/farmacologia , Elementos de Resposta , Adulto , Feminino , Genótipo , Vírus da Hepatite B/genética , Humanos , Interferon-alfa/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Adulto Jovem
3.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 870, 2019 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31640578

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mortality is high among patients with Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infection. We aimed to determine hospital mortality and the factors associated with it in a cohort of MERS-CoV patients. METHODS: We reviewed hospital records of confirmed cases (detection of virus by polymerase chain reaction from respiratory tract samples) of MERS-CoV patients (n = 63) admitted to Buraidah Central Hospital in Al-Qassim, Saudi Arabia between 2014 and 2017. We abstracted data on demography, vital signs, associated conditions presented on admission, pre-existing chronic diseases, treatment, and vital status. Bi-variate comparisons and multiple logistic regressions were the choice of data analyses. RESULTS: The mean age was 60 years (SD = 18.2); most patients were male (74.6%) and Saudi citizens (81%). All but two patients were treated with Ribavirin plus Interferon. Hospital mortality was 25.4%. Patients who were admitted with septic shock and/or organ failure were significantly more likely to die than patients who were admitted with pneumonia and/or acute respiratory distress syndrome (OR = 47.9, 95% CI = 3.9, 585.5, p-value 0.002). Age, sex, and presence of chronic conditions were not significantly associated with mortality. CONCLUSION: Hospital mortality was 25%; septic shock/organ failure at admittance was a significant predictor of mortality.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Adulto , Idoso , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Estudos de Coortes , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Feminino , Humanos , Pacientes Internados/estatística & dados numéricos , Interferon-alfa/uso terapêutico , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/genética , Pneumonia/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/etiologia , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Ribavirina/uso terapêutico , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia , Resultado do Tratamento
4.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 875, 2019 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31640596

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major cause of chronic liver disease globally. Direct acting antivirals (DAAs) have proven effective in curing HCV. However, the current standard of care (SOC) in Botswana remains PEGylated interferon-α (IFN-α) with ribavirin. Several mutations have been reported to confer resistance to interferon-based treatments. Therefore, there is a need to determine HCV genotypes in Botswana, as these data will guide new treatment guidelines and understanding of HCV epidemiology in Botswana. METHODS: This was a retrospective cross-sectional pilot study utilizing plasma obtained from 55 participants from Princess Marina Hospital in Gaborone, Botswana. The partial core region of HCV was amplified, and genotypes were determined using phylogenetic analysis. RESULTS: Four genotype 5a and two genotype 4v sequences were identified. Two significant mutations - K10Q and R70Q - were observed in genotype 5a sequences and have been associated with increased risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), while R70Q confers resistance to interferon-based treatments. CONCLUSION: Genotypes 5a and 4v are circulating in Botswana. The presence of mutations in genotype 5 suggests that some patients may not respond to IFN-based regimens. The information obtained in this study, in addition to the World health organization (WHO) recommendations, can be utilized by policy makers to implement DAAs as the new SOC for HCV treatment in Botswana.


Assuntos
Hepacivirus/genética , Hepatite C/virologia , Mutação , Filogenia , Adulto , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Botsuana , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/virologia , Estudos Transversais , Farmacorresistência Viral , Feminino , Genótipo , Hepacivirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepacivirus/isolamento & purificação , Hepatite C/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Interferon-alfa/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/virologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos Piloto , Estudos Retrospectivos , Ribavirina/uso terapêutico
5.
Rinsho Ketsueki ; 60(9): 1176-1185, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31597841

RESUMO

Although the Janus kinase (JAK) inhibitor ruxolitinib has long been the only drug licensed for treatment of the classic Philadelphia chromosome negative (Ph-) myeloproliferative neoplasms, years of drug development efforts have begun to bear fruit with the recent approval of a novel monopegylated interferon alfa-2b, ropeginterferon alfa, for patients with polycythemia vera without symptomatic splenomegaly in Europe. Several newer JAK inhibitors (fedratinib, pacritinib, momelotinib) have shown activity in phase 3 trials in patients with myelofibrosis but have, for various reasons, not yet received regulatory approval; all these agents, however, remain in active clinical development. Many other agents with diverse mechanisms of action are being explored in clinical trials in patients with myelofibrosis, both as single agents and in combination with ruxolitinib. Besides splenomegaly and symptoms, improvement of anemia has become a new focus of drug development in myelofibrosis. Ruxolitinib appears promising also in chronic neutrophilic leukemia, where mutations in CSF3R are common. Pemigatinib, a potent and selective inhibitor of fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR), has shown impressive efficacy in a small registration-directed trial in patients with FGFR1-rearranged myeloid/lymphoid neoplasms. Finally, avapritinib, a highly potent and selective inhibitor of KITD816V, has demonstrated unprecedented response rates in patients with advanced systemic mastocytosis.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mieloproliferativos/terapia , Mielofibrose Primária/terapia , Ensaios Clínicos Fase III como Assunto , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Interferon alfa-2/uso terapêutico , Interferon-alfa/uso terapêutico , Policitemia Vera , Polietilenoglicóis/uso terapêutico , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Proteínas Recombinantes/uso terapêutico , Esplenomegalia
6.
Acta Virol ; 63(3): 261-269, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31507191

RESUMO

Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) exists in two main biotypes: cytopathic (cp) and noncytopathic (ncp). Although some studies were done on the effect of interferon alpha (IFN-α) on BVDV, the effect of exogenous IFN against BVDV biotypes remains unclear. In the present study, we evaluated the comparative effect of exogenous human IFN-α (HuIFN-α) on different BVDV biotypes and genotypes. The results showed that exogenous HuIFN-α greatly inhibited the growth of different BVDV biotypes and genotypes. However, HuINF-α has a significant inhibitory effect on cp biotype compared to ncp one without significant variation between different genotypes. The effect of HuIFN-α on BVDV reached the maximum level at early stages of infection (0-20 h post infection) and increased in a dose-dependent manner (10-500 U/ml). Quantitative real-time RT-PCR was used to evaluate the effect of exogenous HuIFN-α on RNA synthesis of both BVDV biotypes. HuIFN-α reduced RNA production of cp by 4 logs compared to only 2 logs for ncp strains. Additionally, the antiviral effect of IFN-α against both BVDV biotypes seems to be independent of the RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR) activation as assayed by direct analysis of in vivo phosphorylation of eIF2-α and by 2-aminopurine (2-AP) treatment. Collectively, these results indicated that the exogenous HuIFN-α treatment has an inhibitory effect not only on cp BVDV biotype but also on the ncp BVDV. The antiviral effect of exogenous HuIFN-α was biotype, time, dose but not genotype dependent. PKR has no role in the inhibitory effect suggesting that other IFN-antiviral pathways were involved. Keywords: BVDV biotypes; HuIFN-α; RNA synthesis; PKR-independent.


Assuntos
Doença das Mucosas por Vírus da Diarreia Viral Bovina , Vírus da Diarreia Viral Bovina , Interferon-alfa , Animais , Antivirais/farmacologia , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Doença das Mucosas por Vírus da Diarreia Viral Bovina/tratamento farmacológico , Doença das Mucosas por Vírus da Diarreia Viral Bovina/virologia , Bovinos , Vírus da Diarreia Viral Bovina/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Interferon-alfa/farmacologia , Interferon-alfa/uso terapêutico , Replicação Viral/efeitos dos fármacos
7.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(36): e17022, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31490387

RESUMO

Pegylated interferon alpha (PEG-IFN-α) is a first-line treatment for patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB), but its efficacy varies from individual to individual. Early discrimination between responder and non-responder patients is important for optimal clinical management. In addition, low therapeutic efficacy is still a major issue; thus, treatment timing should be optimized.We reviewed our experience with hepatitis B e-antigen (HBeAg)-positive patients treated with PEG-IFN-α, alone or in combination with nucleoside analogues (NAs), from 2009 through 2014. Collected data included both general characteristics of 113 patients and laboratory data at baseline and at treatment weeks 12, 24, 52, and 76. The endpoint was HBeAg seroconversion at week 76.A total of 113 patients with changed to or start of NAs therapy were included in this study. At the end of treatment, 44 (38.9%) patients exhibited HBeAg seroconversion. Patients with HBeAg seroconversion had lower baseline HBeAg (475.5 vs 751.7; P = .007). The incidence of HBeAg seroconversion was significantly higher among patients with HBeAg ≤ 500 signal-to-cutoff ratio (S/CO) (OR = 2.60, 95% CI: 1.16-5.83, P = .02) at baseline, HBeAg S/CO ≤ 20 (OR = 3.37, 95% CI: 1.47-7.73, P = .003), or a higher than 10-fold HBeAg drop (OR = 3.55, 95% CI: 1.50-8.37, P = .003) at week 12 or HBeAg ≤ 15 S/CO (OR = 10.35, 95% CI: 4.09-26.20, P < .001) at week 24. Subgroup analyses demonstrated that in patients with HBeAg >20 S/CO at 24 weeks, the addition of NAs treatment may increase HBeAg seroconversion (23.3% vs 0%, P = .03).HBeAg levels had an impact on the rate of serological conversion in CHB patients receiving PEG-IFN-based treatment. Combination therapy with NAs should be considered in CHB patients maintaining a high HBeAg level after 24 weeks of PEG-IFN monotherapy.


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Hepatite B Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Interferon-alfa/uso terapêutico , Nucleosídeos/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Adulto , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Antígenos E da Hepatite B/sangue , Hepatite B Crônica/imunologia , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Soroconversão , Adulto Jovem
8.
J Immunol Res ; 2019: 5878960, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31485460

RESUMO

Chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand (CXCL)10 and other CXCR3 chemokines are involved in the pathogenesis of acute and "chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection" (CHC). Here, we review the scientific literature about HCV and CXCL10. The combination of circulating CXCL10 and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in IL-28B can identify patients with acute HCV infection most likely to undergo spontaneous HCV clearance and those in need of early antiviral therapy. In CHC, the HCV and intrahepatic interferon- (IFN-) γ drive a raised CXCL10 expression by sinusoidal endothelium and hepatocytes, thereby inducing the recruitment of CXCR3-expressing T cells into the liver; thus, CXCL10 plays an important role in the development of necroinflammation and fibrosis. Increased CXCL10 was significantly associated with the presence of active vasculitis in HCV-associated cryoglobulinemia, or with autoimmune thyroiditis in CHC. Pretreatment CXCL10 levels are predictive of early virological response and sustained virological response (SVR) to IFN-α and ribavirin and may be useful in the evaluation of candidates for therapy. The occurrence of SNPs adjacent to IL-28B (rs12979860, rs12980275, and rs8099917), and CXCL10 below 150 pg/mL, independently predicted the first phase viral decline and rapid virological response, which in turn independently predicted SVR. Directly acting antiviral agents-mediated clearance of HCV is associated with the loss of intrahepatic immune activation by IFN-α, associated by decreased levels of CXCL10. In conclusion, CXCL10 is an important marker of HCV clearance and successful therapy in CHC patients. Whether CXCL10 is a novel therapeutic target in CHC will be evaluated.


Assuntos
Quimiocina CXCL10/sangue , Hepatite C Crônica/imunologia , Doença Aguda , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Quimiocina CXCL10/genética , Hepatite C/imunologia , Hepatite C Crônica/diagnóstico , Hepatite C Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Imunomodulação , Interferon-alfa/uso terapêutico , Interferon gama/uso terapêutico , Interferons/genética , Fígado/patologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Prognóstico , Receptores CXCR3/imunologia , Ribavirina/uso terapêutico
9.
Acta Med Indones ; 51(2): 128-136, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31383827

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: HIV infection in HCV-infected patients accelerates disease progression and reduces the success rate of Peg-IFN/RBV treatment. HCV mutation in NS5A-ISDR/PKR-BD region improved the outcome in HCV monoinfection treated with Peg-IFN/RBV. SNP-IL28B polymorphism is predicted to have an effect on HCV quasispecies evolution. However, the role of NS5A mutation and SNP IL-28B in HIV-HCV coinfection is still unclear. The aim of the study is to determine the role of HCV NS5A-ISDR/PKR-BD mutation and SNP IL-28 polymorphism on the successfulness of Peg-IFN/RBV therapy in HCV-HIV coinfection. METHODS: prospective cohort was performed in this study. Plasma sample were obtained from 30 and 8 patients with HCV-HIV coinfection and HCV monoinfection, respectively. PCR nucleotide sequencing was performed after RNA virus extraction and cDNA synthesis. Protein secondary structure and prediction of mutation function were analyzed using PredictProtein (PP) program. RESULTS: sixteen HCV-HIV coinfected patients and none from eight HCV patients achieved sustained virological response (SVR). ≥1 non-neutral mutation was found in 24/30 HCV-HIV coinfection and more frequent in SVR group (14 patients). ≥1 non-neutral mutation were found statistically significant for overall SVR achievement (p<0.05) in all patients regardless of coinfection or monoinfection status. Of the 27 HCV-HIV coinfected patients with CC-gene, 21 subjects had non-neutral mutation. The structure which was expected as NS5A binding site structure was different from consensus (wild type) in SVR group, while the structure was similar to consensus in non-SVR group. CONCLUSION: having ≥1 non-neutral mutation was associated with SVR achievement in Peg-IFN/RBV therapy, regardless of monoinfection and coinfection status.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/complicações , Hepacivirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepacivirus/genética , Hepatite C Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Interferons/genética , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/genética , Adulto , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Coinfecção/tratamento farmacológico , Coinfecção/virologia , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Genótipo , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Hepatite C Crônica/complicações , Hepatite C Crônica/virologia , Humanos , Interferon-alfa/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Polietilenoglicóis , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Estudos Prospectivos , Ribavirina/uso terapêutico , Resposta Viral Sustentada
10.
Hepatol Int ; 13(4): 422-430, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31172416

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The safety of nucleos(t)ide analogue (NA) treatment cessation remains one of the most controversial topics in the management of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients. This study investigated the efficiency of 48-week pegylated-interferon (peg-IFN) alfa-2a consolidation therapy on viral relapse after discontinued NA treatment in CHB patients who achieved hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) seroconversion for > 1 year. METHODS: NA-treated HBeAg-positive patients who achieved the standard of discontinued NA treatment (i.e. time of HBeAg seroconversion > 1 year) were randomly assigned to receive peg-IFN consolidation (n = 24) treatment or continue original NA therapy (n = 24) for 48 weeks. The treatments were then discontinued, and the patients were observed up to 144 weeks. The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients with viral relapse at week 144 among those who received at least one dose of study drug or had at least one study visit [modified intention-to-treat population (mITT)]. RESULTS: Of the 24 patients who received peg-IFN treatment, 6 (25%) experienced viral relapse and 8 (36.3%) showed HBsAg loss during 96 weeks of treatment-free follow-up. Of the patients who underwent NA consolidation treatment, only 1 (4.3%) of 23 patients showed HBsAg loss and 14 (58.3%) of 24 patients experienced viral relapse during follow-up. HBsAg level decline < 0.25 log10 IU/mL at week 96 was significantly associated with viral relapse. CONCLUSION: A 48-week peg-IFN alfa-2a consolidation therapy increased the rate of HBsAg loss and sustained viral replication suppression in HBeAg-positive patients who achieved HBeAg seroconversion for > 1 year after NA treatment discontinuation.


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Guanina/análogos & derivados , Hepatite B Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Interferon-alfa/uso terapêutico , Polietilenoglicóis/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Feminino , Guanina/uso terapêutico , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/metabolismo , Antígenos E da Hepatite B/metabolismo , Hepatite B Crônica/imunologia , Humanos , Masculino , Projetos Piloto , Proteínas Recombinantes/uso terapêutico , Soroconversão , Resposta Viral Sustentada , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
Afr Health Sci ; 19(1): 1411-1421, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31148968

RESUMO

Background: Interferon therapy is used as a line of treatment of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) in several areas of the world including Egypt. Objective: Our aim was to investigate the value of hepatic progenitor cells (HPCs) in predicting response of patients with chronic HCV, genotype 4 to pegylated interferon (PEGIFN) plus ribavirin (RBV) therapy. Methods: Pre-treatment liver biopsies obtained from 110 patients with chronic HCV, genotype 4 were examined immunohistochemically for HPCs using cytokeratin19. The mean number of HPCs as ductular reaction (DR) and as isolated progenitor cells (IPCs) was counted in each case. The patients were classified into: those with sustained virological response (SVR) and those who did not achieve SVR. The results were compared between the two groups. Also, the relationships between HPCs and other clinico-pathologic variables were estimated using multivariate analysis. Results: The mean number of HPCs was the only independent predictor of therapeutic response, being significantly higher in non-responders (P = 0 for DR and P = 0.03 for IPCs). On the other hand, fibrosis stage and steatosis were the only independent factors which showed a significant direct association with the mean number of HPCs in the form of DR and IPCs (P = 0 for each). Conclusion: The number of HPCs provides prognostic information in chronic HCV since it is significantly associated with stage of fibrosis. More importantly, it can be used as a marker to predict response of patients with chronic HCV to PEGIFN plus RBV therapy.


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Hepacivirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepatite C Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Interferon-alfa/uso terapêutico , Ribavirina/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Biópsia , Quimioterapia Combinada , Egito , Feminino , Genótipo , Hepacivirus/isolamento & purificação , Hepatite C Crônica/diagnóstico , Hepatite C Crônica/virologia , Humanos , Fígado/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
13.
Virol J ; 16(1): 61, 2019 05 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31064399

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) seroconversion represents an endpoint of treatment of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections. METHODS: We have studied whether levels of serum hepatitis B virus ribonucleic acid (HBV RNA) during pegylated interferon alfa-2a treatment might be helpful for predicting HBeAg seroconversion. 61 HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients treated with pegylated interferon alfa-2a alone or in combination with adefovir (10 mg/day) for 48 weeks were included in this retrospective analysis. Response was defined as HBeAg seroconversion at 24 weeks posttreatment. Receiver operating characteristic analyses were used to identify baseline and on-treatment HBV RNA levels associated with response. RESULTS: Twenty-two of 61 (36.1%) patients achieved a response. Baseline HBV RNA levels were lower in responders than in nonresponders (4.55 ± 1.19 and 5.90 ± 1.13 copies/mL, respectively, P = 0.001). Baseline HBV RNA cut off level (200,000 copies/mL) provided a positive predictive value (PPV) of 56.0% and a negative predictive value (NPV) of 77.8%. HBV RNA level (3000 copies/mL) at week 12 provide a PPV of 75.0% and a NPV of 82.8%. Moreover, HBeAg seroconversion rates at 24 weeks posttreatment were significantly higher in patients with HBV RNA ≤ 200,000 copies/mL at baseline and HBV RNA ≤ 3000 copies/mL at week 12 (92.9%) versus others (12.5%) (All P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: In Conclusions, serum HBV RNA levels may serve as a novel tool for prediction of HBeAg seroconversion during therapy with pegylated interferon alfa-2a in HBeAg-positive CHB patients.


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , DNA Viral/sangue , Antígenos E da Hepatite B/sangue , Hepatite B Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Interferon-alfa/uso terapêutico , Polietilenoglicóis/uso terapêutico , Adenina/análogos & derivados , Adenina/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Feminino , Vírus da Hepatite B/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Organofosfonatos/uso terapêutico , Curva ROC , Proteínas Recombinantes/uso terapêutico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Soroconversão , Adulto Jovem
14.
BMC Gastroenterol ; 19(1): 65, 2019 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31046700

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pegylated interferon (PEG-IFN) alfa-2b is recommended for chronic hepatitis B (CHB). We aimed to investigate the sustainability of off-treatment responses among Chinese HBeAg-positive CHB patients treated with PEG-IFN alfa-2b from a randomized trial. METHODS: Eligible Chinese patients (n = 322) were followed up by one visit after a median of 6 years (LTFU) following their participation in a randomized trial evaluating the efficacy of three PEG-IFN alfa-2b dosing regimens (1.0 or 1.5 µg/kg/wk. 24 weeks or 1.5 µg/kg/wk. 48 weeks). Primary endpoints at the LTFU were sustained SR and CR (SR/CR at the end of original study [EOS] and at the LTFU). SR was defined as HBeAg loss and seroconversion to anti-HBe and CR as HBeAg loss and seroconversion to anti-HBe and HBV-DNA < 2000 IU/mL. RESULTS: The proportions of patients achieving sustained SR among patients who had SR at EOS were high in three treatment groups (61.9, 65.5, 76.5%, respectively, p = 0.46); treatment with PEG-IFN alfa-2b 1.5 µg/kg/wk. 48 weeks had the highest proportion of a sustained CR among patients who had CR at EOS (75.0%, p = 0.05). A considerable number of patients achieved sustained SR (18.2-29.9%) and sustained CR (14.8-18.3%) after EOS despite no further NA treatment. At the LTFU, rates of SR and CR were less than 70.0 and 50.0%, respectively, among all enrolled patients regardless of additional nucleos(t)ide analogs before the LTFU. CONCLUSIONS: PEG IFN alfa-2b therapy had considerable off-treatment sustainability in Chinese HBeAg positive chronic hepatitis B patients with serological and complete responses.


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Antígenos E da Hepatite B/sangue , Hepatite B Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatite B Crônica/virologia , Interferon alfa-2/uso terapêutico , Interferon-alfa/uso terapêutico , Polietilenoglicóis/uso terapêutico , Resposta Viral Sustentada , Adulto , Antivirais/administração & dosagem , China , Feminino , Seguimentos , Hepatite B Crônica/sangue , Humanos , Interferon alfa-2/administração & dosagem , Interferon-alfa/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Polietilenoglicóis/administração & dosagem , Proteínas Recombinantes/administração & dosagem , Proteínas Recombinantes/uso terapêutico , Adulto Jovem
15.
J Chemother ; 31(5): 274-283, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31070545

RESUMO

The objective of this project was to describe longitudinal change in chronic hepatitis C virologic reponse using time-to-event (TTE) analysis and to identify patient characteristics that determine the dynamics of this change. We compiled demographic, clinical, and genetic data from 715 chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) patients treated with pegylated interferon (PEG-IFN) alfa-2a and ribavirin. TTE modelling described the time between antiviral treatment initiation and the first observation of undetectable HCV RNA. A lognormal TTE model was selected to describe time to first undetectable HCV RNA. The identified predictors of prolonged time to achieve undetectable HCV RNA include HCV genotype 1, low pre-treatment ALT level, older age, or with elevated baseline haemoglobin level. In conclusion, a cohort of patients with low probability of achieving SVR can be identified. This project identifies patients with a low risk of responding to PEG-IFN alfa-2a and ribavirin combination.


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , DNA Viral/análise , Hepacivirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepatite C Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Interferon-alfa/uso terapêutico , Polietilenoglicóis/uso terapêutico , Ribavirina/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , DNA Viral/genética , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Genótipo , Hepacivirus/genética , Hepacivirus/isolamento & purificação , Hepatite C Crônica/virologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteínas Recombinantes/uso terapêutico , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
16.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev ; 20(4): 1257-1264, 2019 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31030503

RESUMO

Background: Vitamin D deficiency is related to poor clinical outcomes in patients with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. Methods: We aimed to investigate the association between the genetic variants in the vitamin D metabolic pathway and the response to pegylated interferon (Peg-IFN) therapy in patients with HBeAg-negative chronic HBV infection. One hundred seven patients treated with Peg-IFN for 48 weeks were selected from 13 specialty hospitals. Eight genotypes of vitamin D cascade genes, including CYP27B1 (rs10877012), DHCR7 (rs12785878), CYP2R1 (rs2060793, rs12794714) and GC (rs4588, rs7041, rs222020, rs2282679), were found. Results: Eighty-two patients (83.7%) were infected with HBV genotype C. Eight patients had compensated liver cirrhosis (8.7%). At 24 weeks after treatment discontinuation, 41 patients (42.3%) achieved sustained treatment response, 53 (55.2%) obtained HBV DNA<2,000 IU/ml, 6 (5.6%) gained HBsAg seroclearance, 2 (1.9%) had HBsAg seroconversion and 69 (64.5%) exhibited alanine aminotransferase (ALT) normalization. Multivariate analysis revealed that baseline HBsAg level (OR =0.06, 95% CI: 0.08-0.49, p=0.008) and the GC rs222020 TT genotype (OR=17.72, 95% CI: 1.07-294.38, p=0.04) independently predicted sustained HBsAg seroclearance. In addition, this genotype was a predictor for normalization of ALT (OR=4.61, 95%CI: 1.59-13.40, p=0.005) after therapy. The HBsAg levels at baseline and during and post-treatment tended to be reduced with the GC rs222020 TT compared with the non-TT genotypes. The other studied polymorphisms were not associated with treatment response. Conclusions: The GC rs222020 TT genotype, which is a variant in the vitamin D-binding protein gene, could identify HBeAg-negative patients who have a high probability to achieve HBsAg clearance and ALT normalization after treatment with Peg-IFN.


Assuntos
Antígenos E da Hepatite B/sangue , Vírus da Hepatite B/imunologia , Hepatite B Crônica/sangue , Interferon-alfa/uso terapêutico , Polietilenoglicóis/uso terapêutico , Polimorfismo Genético , Proteína de Ligação a Vitamina D/genética , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Seguimentos , Antígenos E da Hepatite B/imunologia , Hepatite B Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatite B Crônica/genética , Hepatite B Crônica/imunologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Proteínas Recombinantes/uso terapêutico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Soroconversão
17.
Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol ; 41(2): 312-318, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30932714

RESUMO

Introduction: Sjogren's syndrome is an immunologic disorder, characterized by symptoms of dry mouth and dry eyes. Management of xerostomia is more difficult and challenging, various pharmacologic agents have been tried and evaluated in the management of xerostomia in these patients, but the results were inconsistent and variable. Hence, the present study is aimed at evaluation and comparison of different pharmacological agents in the management of xerostomia in patients with Sjogren's syndrome. Materials and methods: A meta-analysis of case-control studies was conducted on pharmacological management of xerostomia in patients with Sjogren's Syndrome and the collected data are subjected to exclusion and inclusion criteria and standard mean difference (SMD), ODD's ratio and confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated by Review Manager software using fixed and random effects model from the data of five studies. Results: Both objective response and subjective response evaluation favored experimental group suggesting an increase in unstimulated salivary flow rate using pharmacological agents. Interferon alpha 150 IU three times daily had a good effect in increasing the unstimulated whole saliva flow rate with SMD 2.72 at 95% CI [2.43, 3.00] p < .00001. Cevimeline vs placebo showed good response with ODDS ratio 2.74 at 95% CI [1.58, 4.76] p = .0003. Conclusion: Interferon - α 150 IU thrice daily was proven to be effective in increasing salivary flow rate and also has an advantage of disease modification in SS patients attributing to its immunomodulatory action. Cevimeline 30 mg thrice daily also had a considerable therapeutic effect in SS patients compared to Pilocarpine.


Assuntos
Interferon-alfa/uso terapêutico , Pilocarpina/uso terapêutico , Quinuclidinas/uso terapêutico , Síndrome de Sjogren/tratamento farmacológico , Tiofenos/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Saliva/metabolismo , Síndrome de Sjogren/metabolismo , Síndrome de Sjogren/patologia
18.
Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 42(6): 362-371, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30952463

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Chronic infection with hepatitis C virus is a risk factor for developing atheromatous plaques, although the possible effect of virus clearance is unknown. Our aim was to determine whether or not subclinical atheromatosis improved and there was any modification in the composition of the plaques 12 months after eradication of hepatitis C virus by direct-acting antiviral agents. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Prospective study that included 85 patients with chronic hepatitis C virus infection in different stages of fibrosis who were on direct-acting antiviral agents. Patients with a cardiovascular history, diabetes and kidney disease were excluded. An arterial ultrasound (carotid and femoral) was performed to diagnose atheromatous plaques (defined as intima-media thickness ≥1.5mm) and the composition (percentage of lipids, fibrosis and calcium with HEMODYN4 software) was analysed at the beginning of the study and 12 months after stopping the therapy. RESULTS: After follow-up no changes were detected in the intima-media thickness (0.65mm vs. 0.63mm, P=.240) or in the presence of plaques (65.9% vs 71.8%, P=.063). There was also no significant change in their composition or affected vascular territory, with an increase in blood lipid profile (P<.001) after 12 months of treatment. These results were confirmed in subgroups by severity of liver disease. DISCUSSION: The eradication of hepatitis C virus by direct-acting antiviral agents does not improve the atheroma plaques and nor does it vary their composition, regardless of liver fibrosis. More prospective studies are needed to evaluate residual cardiovascular risk after virus eradication.


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Hepacivirus , Hepatite C Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Placa Aterosclerótica/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Doenças das Artérias Carótidas/sangue , Doenças das Artérias Carótidas/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças das Artérias Carótidas/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças das Artérias Carótidas/virologia , Espessura Intima-Media Carotídea , Feminino , Artéria Femoral/diagnóstico por imagem , Artéria Femoral/virologia , Hepatite C Crônica/sangue , Hepatite C Crônica/complicações , Humanos , Interferon alfa-2/uso terapêutico , Interferon-alfa/uso terapêutico , Lipídeos/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Placa Aterosclerótica/sangue , Placa Aterosclerótica/diagnóstico por imagem , Placa Aterosclerótica/virologia , Polietilenoglicóis/uso terapêutico , Estudos Prospectivos , Proteínas Recombinantes/uso terapêutico , Ribavirina/uso terapêutico , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo
19.
J Chemother ; 31(4): 209-213, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30963812

RESUMO

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections and sequelae present significant health problems worldwide. Two groups of medications are available for chronic HBV infection treatment: (1) interferons (IFNs) and (2) nucleos(t)ide analogues. This study aimed to evaluate entecavir (ETV) and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) efficacies in chronic HBV patients, who achieved virological response during Peg-IFN treatment but did not sustain this response and relapsed a year after treatment end. In this study, 74 patients with chronic HBV infection who had virological responses to 180 µg/week Peg-IFNα-2a treatment were included; 38 (20 and 18 HBeAg positive and negative, respectively) of these patients were treated with 245 mg/day TDF, and 36 (20 and 16 HBeAg positive and negative, respectively) were treated with 0.5 mg/day ETV upon relapse after initial treatment discontinuation. In HBeAg-positive patients biochemical response rates were higher for TDF at weeks 96 and 144 (p = 0.044 and 0.019, respectively). However, biochemical response rates were similar for TDF and ETV in HBeAg-positive and HBeAg-negative groups at other weeks (p > 0.05). Virological and serological response rates were similar in patients treated with TDF and ETV in HBeAg-positive and HBeAg-negative groups (p > 0.05).


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Guanina/análogos & derivados , Hepatite B Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Interferon-alfa/uso terapêutico , Polietilenoglicóis/uso terapêutico , Tenofovir/uso terapêutico , Adulto , DNA Viral/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Guanina/uso terapêutico , Antígenos E da Hepatite B/metabolismo , Vírus da Hepatite B/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepatite B Crônica/metabolismo , Hepatite B Crônica/virologia , Humanos , Masculino , Proteínas Recombinantes/uso terapêutico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Carga Viral/efeitos dos fármacos
20.
J Med Case Rep ; 13(1): 98, 2019 Apr 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31006385

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is no established treatment after failure of proven therapies for patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma. CASE PRESENTATION: A 66-year-old Japanese man with metastatic renal cell carcinoma became refractory to interferon α and sunitinib therapies. He started treatment with axitinib at 10 mg/day, and the dose was gradually tapered down to 4 mg/day because of intolerable adverse events. His metastatic lesions shrank; however, he could not continue due to the adverse events. He started fourth-line therapy with nivolumab; however, the metastatic lesions increased. Rechallenge with axitinib 4 mg/day was started, and the dose was reduced to 2 mg/day because of adverse events. Subsequently, the adverse events became controllable, and the metastatic lesions were maintained at reduced size. CONCLUSION: Therapeutic drug monitoring of axitinib could play an important role in the development of safe and effective therapeutic treatment and individualization of these medications.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Axitinibe/administração & dosagem , Carcinoma de Células Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Axitinibe/efeitos adversos , Carcinoma de Células Renais/diagnóstico , Monitoramento de Medicamentos/métodos , Humanos , Interferon-alfa/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Renais/diagnóstico , Masculino , Invasividade Neoplásica , Nivolumabe/uso terapêutico , Sunitinibe/uso terapêutico
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