Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 1.398
Filtrar
1.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239238, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32941515

RESUMO

Zika virus (ZIKV) is a single-stranded RNA virus belonging to the family Flaviviridae. ZIKV predominantly enters cells using the TAM-family protein tyrosine kinase receptor AXL, which is expressed on a range of cell types, including neural progenitor cells, keratinocytes, dendritic cells, and osteoblasts. ZIKV infections have been associated with fetal brain damage, which prompted the World Health Organization to declare a public health emergency in 2016. ZIKV infection has also been linked to birth defects in other organs. Several studies have reported congenital heart defects (CHD) in ZIKV infected infants and cardiovascular complications in adults infected with ZIKV. To develop a better understanding of potential causes for these pathologies at a cellular level, we characterized ZIKV infection of human fetal cardiac mesenchymal stromal cells (fcMSCs), a cell type that is known to contribute to both embryological development as well as adult cardiac physiology. Total RNA, supernatants, and/or cells were collected at various time points post-infection to evaluate ZIKV replication, cell death, and antiviral responses. We found that ZIKV productively infected fcMSCs with peak (~70%) viral mRNA detected at 48 h. Use of an antibody blocking the AXL receptor decreased ZIKV infection (by ~50%), indicating that the receptor is responsible to a large extent for viral entry into the cell. ZIKV also altered protein expression of several mesenchymal cell markers, which suggests that ZIKV could affect fcMSCs' differentiation process. Gene expression analysis of fcMSCs exposed to ZIKV at 6, 12, and 24 h post-infection revealed up-regulation of genes/pathways associated with interferon-stimulated antiviral responses. Stimulation of TLR3 (using poly I:C) or TLR7 (using Imiquimod) prior to ZIKV infection suppressed viral replication in a dose-dependent manner. Overall, fcMSCs can be a target for ZIKV infection, potentially resulting in CHD during embryological development and/or cardiovascular issues in ZIKV infected adults.


Assuntos
Células-Tronco Embrionárias Humanas/virologia , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/virologia , Miócitos Cardíacos/virologia , Replicação Viral , Infecção por Zika virus/virologia , Zika virus/fisiologia , Animais , Morte Celular , Células Cultivadas , Chlorocebus aethiops , Células-Tronco Embrionárias Humanas/metabolismo , Humanos , Interferons/genética , Interferons/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/metabolismo , Miócitos Cardíacos/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas/metabolismo , RNA Viral/genética , RNA Viral/metabolismo , Receptores Proteína Tirosina Quinases/metabolismo , Receptores Toll-Like/genética , Receptores Toll-Like/metabolismo , Células Vero , Zika virus/patogenicidade , Infecção por Zika virus/metabolismo
2.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(38): 23782-23793, 2020 09 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32907944

RESUMO

Human noroviruses (HuNoVs) are the leading cause of viral gastroenteritis worldwide; yet currently, no vaccines or FDA-approved antiviral drugs are available to counter these pathogens. To understand HuNoV biology and the epithelial response to infection, we performed transcriptomic analyses, RT-qPCR, CRISPR-Cas9 modification of human intestinal enteroid (HIE) cultures, and functional studies with two virus strains (a pandemic GII.4 and a bile acid-dependent GII.3 strain). We identified a predominant type III interferon (IFN)-mediated innate response to HuNoV infection. Replication of both strains is sensitive to exogenous addition of IFNs, suggesting the potential of IFNs as therapeutics. To obtain insight into IFN pathway genes that play a role in the antiviral response to HuNoVs, we developed knockout (KO) HIE lines for IFN alpha and lambda receptors and the signaling molecules, MAVS, STAT1, and STAT2 An unexpected differential response of enhanced replication and virus spread was observed for GII.3, but not the globally dominant GII.4 HuNoV in STAT1-knockout HIEs compared to parental HIEs. These results indicate cellular IFN responses restrict GII.3 but not GII.4 replication. The strain-specific sensitivities of innate responses against HuNoV replication provide one explanation for why GII.4 infections are more widespread and highlight strain specificity as an important factor in HuNoV biology. Genetically modified HIEs for innate immune genes are useful tools for studying immune responses to viral or microbial pathogens.


Assuntos
Infecções por Caliciviridae , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/imunologia , Interferons , Intestinos , Norovirus , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Infecções por Caliciviridae/imunologia , Infecções por Caliciviridae/virologia , Humanos , Interferons/genética , Interferons/metabolismo , Intestinos/imunologia , Intestinos/virologia , Modelos Biológicos , Norovirus/genética , Norovirus/imunologia , Norovirus/patogenicidade , Organoides/imunologia , Organoides/virologia , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Transcriptoma/genética , Replicação Viral
4.
Arch Virol ; 165(10): 2165-2176, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32740830

RESUMO

The PI3K/Akt signalling pathway is a crucial signalling cascade that regulates transcription, protein translation, cell growth, proliferation, cell survival, and metabolism. During viral infection, viruses exploit a variety of cellular pathways, including the well-known PI3K/Akt signalling pathway. Conversely, cells rely on this pathway to stimulate an antiviral response. The PI3K/Akt pathway is manipulated by a number of viruses, including DNA and RNA viruses and retroviruses. The aim of this review is to provide up-to-date information about the role of the PI3K-Akt pathway in infection with members of five different families of negative-sense ssRNA viruses. This pathway is hijacked for viral entry, regulation of endocytosis, suppression of premature apoptosis, viral protein expression, and replication. Although less common, the PI3K/Akt pathway can be downregulated as an immunomodulatory strategy or as a mechanism for inducing autophagy. Moreover, the cell activates this pathway as an antiviral strategy for interferon and cytokine production, among other strategies. Here, we present new data concerning the role of this pathway in infection with the paramyxovirus Newcastle disease virus (NDV). Our data seem to indicate that NDV uses the PI3K/Akt pathway to delay cell death and increase cell survival as a means of improving its replication. The interference of negative-sense ssRNA viruses with this essential pathway might have implications for the development of antiviral therapies.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/genética , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinase/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/genética , Infecções por Vírus de RNA/genética , Apoptose/genética , Autofagia/genética , Autofagia/imunologia , Citocinas/genética , Citocinas/imunologia , Endocitose/genética , Endocitose/imunologia , Filoviridae/genética , Filoviridae/metabolismo , Filoviridae/patogenicidade , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/imunologia , Interferons/genética , Interferons/imunologia , Orthomyxoviridae/genética , Orthomyxoviridae/metabolismo , Orthomyxoviridae/patogenicidade , Paramyxoviridae/genética , Paramyxoviridae/metabolismo , Paramyxoviridae/patogenicidade , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinase/imunologia , Pneumovirinae/genética , Pneumovirinae/metabolismo , Pneumovirinae/patogenicidade , Biossíntese de Proteínas , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/imunologia , Infecções por Vírus de RNA/imunologia , Infecções por Vírus de RNA/virologia , Rhabdoviridae/genética , Rhabdoviridae/metabolismo , Rhabdoviridae/patogenicidade , Transdução de Sinais , Proteínas Virais/genética , Proteínas Virais/imunologia , Internalização do Vírus , Replicação Viral
5.
Nat Rev Immunol ; 20(10): 585-586, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32788708
6.
Molecules ; 25(12)2020 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32604797

RESUMO

Viruses can be spread from one person to another; therefore, they may cause disorders in many people, sometimes leading to epidemics and even pandemics. New, previously unstudied viruses and some specific mutant or recombinant variants of known viruses constantly appear. An example is a variant of coronaviruses (CoV) causing severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), named SARS-CoV-2. Some antiviral drugs, such as remdesivir as well as antiretroviral drugs including darunavir, lopinavir, and ritonavir are suggested to be effective in treating disorders caused by SARS-CoV-2. There are data on the utilization of antiretroviral drugs against SARS-CoV-2. Since there are many studies aimed at the identification of the molecular mechanisms of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection and the development of novel therapeutic approaches against HIV-1, we used HIV-1 for our case study to identify possible molecular pathways shared by SARS-CoV-2 and HIV-1. We applied a text and data mining workflow and identified a list of 46 targets, which can be essential for the development of infections caused by SARS-CoV-2 and HIV-1. We show that SARS-CoV-2 and HIV-1 share some molecular pathways involved in inflammation, immune response, cell cycle regulation.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/metabolismo , Mineração de Dados/métodos , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/metabolismo , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/imunologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/metabolismo , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Antígenos de Diferenciação/genética , Antígenos de Diferenciação/imunologia , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Proteínas do Sistema Complemento/genética , Proteínas do Sistema Complemento/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/imunologia , HIV-1/efeitos dos fármacos , HIV-1/imunologia , HIV-1/patogenicidade , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/efeitos dos fármacos , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/genética , Humanos , Imunidade Inata/efeitos dos fármacos , Fatores Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Inflamação , Interferons/genética , Interferons/imunologia , Interleucinas/genética , Interleucinas/imunologia , Redes e Vias Metabólicas/efeitos dos fármacos , Redes e Vias Metabólicas/genética , Redes e Vias Metabólicas/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Proteínas Repressoras/genética , Proteínas Repressoras/imunologia , Transdução de Sinais , Receptores Toll-Like/genética , Receptores Toll-Like/imunologia , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/genética , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/imunologia
7.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 9(1): 1418-1428, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-595042

RESUMO

The Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which is caused by the novel SARS-CoV-2 virus, is now causing a tremendous global health concern. Since its first appearance in December 2019, the outbreak has already caused over 5.8 million infections worldwide (till 29 May 2020), with more than 0.35 million deaths. Early virus-mediated immune suppression is believed to be one of the unique characteristics of SARS-CoV-2 infection and contributes at least partially to the viral pathogenesis. In this study, we identified the key viral interferon antagonists of SARS-CoV-2 and compared them with two well-characterized SARS-CoV interferon antagonists, PLpro and orf6. Here we demonstrated that the SARS-CoV-2 nsp13, nsp14, nsp15 and orf6, but not the unique orf8, could potently suppress primary interferon production and interferon signalling. Although SARS-CoV PLpro has been well-characterized for its potent interferon-antagonizing, deubiquitinase and protease activities, SARS-CoV-2 PLpro, despite sharing high amino acid sequence similarity with SARS-CoV, loses both interferon-antagonising and deubiquitinase activities. Among the 27 viral proteins, SARS-CoV-2 orf6 demonstrated the strongest suppression on both primary interferon production and interferon signalling. Orf6-deleted SARS-CoV-2 may be considered for the development of intranasal live-but-attenuated vaccine against COVID-19.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/metabolismo , Infecções por Coronavirus/metabolismo , Endorribonucleases/metabolismo , Exorribonucleases/metabolismo , Interferons/antagonistas & inibidores , Interferons/metabolismo , Metiltransferases/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/metabolismo , RNA Helicases/metabolismo , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/metabolismo , Proteínas Virais/metabolismo , Betacoronavirus/genética , Linhagem Celular , Infecções por Coronavirus/genética , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Endorribonucleases/genética , Exorribonucleases/genética , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Humanos , Interferons/genética , Metiltransferases/genética , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/genética , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , RNA Helicases/genética , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/genética , Proteínas Virais/genética
8.
Mol Cell ; 78(6): 1207-1223.e8, 2020 06 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32504554

RESUMO

Tumor interferon (IFN) signaling promotes PD-L1 expression to suppress T cell-mediated immunosurveillance. We identify the IFN-stimulated non-coding RNA 1 (INCR1) as a long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) transcribed from the PD-L1 locus and show that INCR1 controls IFNγ signaling in multiple tumor types. Silencing INCR1 decreases the expression of PD-L1, JAK2, and several other IFNγ-stimulated genes. INCR1 knockdown sensitizes tumor cells to cytotoxic T cell-mediated killing, improving CAR T cell therapy. We discover that PD-L1 and JAK2 transcripts are negatively regulated by binding to HNRNPH1, a nuclear ribonucleoprotein. The primary transcript of INCR1 binds HNRNPH1 to block its inhibitory effects on the neighboring genes PD-L1 and JAK2, enabling their expression. These findings introduce a mechanism of tumor IFNγ signaling regulation mediated by the lncRNA INCR1 and suggest a therapeutic target for cancer immunotherapy.


Assuntos
Antígeno B7-H1/genética , Interferon gama/metabolismo , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , Idoso , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Imunoterapia , Imunoterapia Adotiva/métodos , Interferon gama/genética , Interferons/genética , Interferons/metabolismo , Janus Quinase 2/genética , Janus Quinase 2/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos NOD , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteína 2 Ligante de Morte Celular Programada 1/genética , Fator de Transcrição STAT1/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T Citotóxicos
10.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 9(1): 1418-1428, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32529952

RESUMO

The Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which is caused by the novel SARS-CoV-2 virus, is now causing a tremendous global health concern. Since its first appearance in December 2019, the outbreak has already caused over 5.8 million infections worldwide (till 29 May 2020), with more than 0.35 million deaths. Early virus-mediated immune suppression is believed to be one of the unique characteristics of SARS-CoV-2 infection and contributes at least partially to the viral pathogenesis. In this study, we identified the key viral interferon antagonists of SARS-CoV-2 and compared them with two well-characterized SARS-CoV interferon antagonists, PLpro and orf6. Here we demonstrated that the SARS-CoV-2 nsp13, nsp14, nsp15 and orf6, but not the unique orf8, could potently suppress primary interferon production and interferon signalling. Although SARS-CoV PLpro has been well-characterized for its potent interferon-antagonizing, deubiquitinase and protease activities, SARS-CoV-2 PLpro, despite sharing high amino acid sequence similarity with SARS-CoV, loses both interferon-antagonising and deubiquitinase activities. Among the 27 viral proteins, SARS-CoV-2 orf6 demonstrated the strongest suppression on both primary interferon production and interferon signalling. Orf6-deleted SARS-CoV-2 may be considered for the development of intranasal live-but-attenuated vaccine against COVID-19.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/metabolismo , Infecções por Coronavirus/metabolismo , Endorribonucleases/metabolismo , Exorribonucleases/metabolismo , Interferons/antagonistas & inibidores , Interferons/metabolismo , Metiltransferases/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/metabolismo , RNA Helicases/metabolismo , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/metabolismo , Proteínas Virais/metabolismo , Betacoronavirus/genética , Linhagem Celular , Infecções por Coronavirus/genética , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Endorribonucleases/genética , Exorribonucleases/genética , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Humanos , Interferons/genética , Metiltransferases/genética , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/genética , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , RNA Helicases/genética , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/genética , Proteínas Virais/genética
11.
Cell Host Microbe ; 27(6): 870-878, 2020 06 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-436439

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a global pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Without approved antiviral therapeutics or vaccines to this ongoing global threat, type I and type III interferons (IFNs) are currently being evaluated for their efficacy. Both the role of IFNs and the use of recombinant IFNs in two related, highly pathogenic coronaviruses, SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV, have been controversial in terms of their protective effects in the host. In this review, we describe the recent progress in our understanding of both type I and type III IFN-mediated innate antiviral responses against human coronaviruses and discuss the potential use of IFNs as a treatment strategy for COVID-19.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Interferon Tipo I/imunologia , Interferons/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Animais , Antivirais/farmacologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Humanos , Evasão da Resposta Imune , Interferon Tipo I/genética , Interferon Tipo I/farmacologia , Interferons/genética , Interferons/farmacologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Proteínas Recombinantes/farmacologia , Transdução de Sinais
12.
Cell Host Microbe ; 27(6): 870-878, 2020 06 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-594357

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a global pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Without approved antiviral therapeutics or vaccines to this ongoing global threat, type I and type III interferons (IFNs) are currently being evaluated for their efficacy. Both the role of IFNs and the use of recombinant IFNs in two related, highly pathogenic coronaviruses, SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV, have been controversial in terms of their protective effects in the host. In this review, we describe the recent progress in our understanding of both type I and type III IFN-mediated innate antiviral responses against human coronaviruses and discuss the potential use of IFNs as a treatment strategy for COVID-19.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Interferon Tipo I/imunologia , Interferons/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Animais , Antivirais/farmacologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Humanos , Evasão da Resposta Imune , Interferon Tipo I/genética , Interferon Tipo I/farmacologia , Interferons/genética , Interferons/farmacologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Proteínas Recombinantes/farmacologia , Transdução de Sinais
14.
Dev Cell ; 53(5): 514-529.e3, 2020 06 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-276241

RESUMO

The factors mediating fatal SARS-CoV-2 infections are poorly understood. Here, we show that cigarette smoke causes a dose-dependent upregulation of angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), the SARS-CoV-2 receptor, in rodent and human lungs. Using single-cell sequencing data, we demonstrate that ACE2 is expressed in a subset of secretory cells in the respiratory tract. Chronic smoke exposure triggers the expansion of this cell population and a concomitant increase in ACE2 expression. In contrast, quitting smoking decreases the abundance of these secretory cells and reduces ACE2 levels. Finally, we demonstrate that ACE2 expression is responsive to inflammatory signaling and can be upregulated by viral infections or interferon treatment. Taken together, these results may partially explain why smokers are particularly susceptible to severe SARS-CoV-2 infections. Furthermore, our work identifies ACE2 as an interferon-stimulated gene in lung cells, suggesting that SARS-CoV-2 infections could create positive feedback loops that increase ACE2 levels and facilitate viral dissemination.


Assuntos
Células Epiteliais Alveolares/metabolismo , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Interferons/metabolismo , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/genética , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Mucosa Respiratória/metabolismo , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Fumar Tabaco/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Células CACO-2 , Células Cultivadas , Feminino , Células HCT116 , Humanos , Interferons/genética , Masculino , Camundongos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , RNA-Seq , Ratos , Transdução de Sinais , Análise de Célula Única , Fumar Tabaco/epidemiologia , Fumar Tabaco/metabolismo , Regulação para Cima
15.
Cell Host Microbe ; 27(6): 870-878, 2020 06 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-381944

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a global pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Without approved antiviral therapeutics or vaccines to this ongoing global threat, type I and type III interferons (IFNs) are currently being evaluated for their efficacy. Both the role of IFNs and the use of recombinant IFNs in two related, highly pathogenic coronaviruses, SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV, have been controversial in terms of their protective effects in the host. In this review, we describe the recent progress in our understanding of both type I and type III IFN-mediated innate antiviral responses against human coronaviruses and discuss the potential use of IFNs as a treatment strategy for COVID-19.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Interferon Tipo I/imunologia , Interferons/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Animais , Antivirais/farmacologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Humanos , Evasão da Resposta Imune , Interferon Tipo I/genética , Interferon Tipo I/farmacologia , Interferons/genética , Interferons/farmacologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Proteínas Recombinantes/farmacologia , Transdução de Sinais
16.
Cell ; 181(5): 1036-1045.e9, 2020 05 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-72372

RESUMO

Viral pandemics, such as the one caused by SARS-CoV-2, pose an imminent threat to humanity. Because of its recent emergence, there is a paucity of information regarding viral behavior and host response following SARS-CoV-2 infection. Here we offer an in-depth analysis of the transcriptional response to SARS-CoV-2 compared with other respiratory viruses. Cell and animal models of SARS-CoV-2 infection, in addition to transcriptional and serum profiling of COVID-19 patients, consistently revealed a unique and inappropriate inflammatory response. This response is defined by low levels of type I and III interferons juxtaposed to elevated chemokines and high expression of IL-6. We propose that reduced innate antiviral defenses coupled with exuberant inflammatory cytokine production are the defining and driving features of COVID-19.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Vírus de RNA/imunologia , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Quimiocinas/genética , Quimiocinas/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/genética , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Humanos , Imunidade Inata , Inflamação/virologia , Interferons/genética , Interferons/imunologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/genética , Vírus de RNA/classificação , Transcrição Genética
17.
Cell Host Microbe ; 27(6): 870-878, 2020 06 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32464097

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a global pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Without approved antiviral therapeutics or vaccines to this ongoing global threat, type I and type III interferons (IFNs) are currently being evaluated for their efficacy. Both the role of IFNs and the use of recombinant IFNs in two related, highly pathogenic coronaviruses, SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV, have been controversial in terms of their protective effects in the host. In this review, we describe the recent progress in our understanding of both type I and type III IFN-mediated innate antiviral responses against human coronaviruses and discuss the potential use of IFNs as a treatment strategy for COVID-19.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Interferon Tipo I/imunologia , Interferons/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Animais , Antivirais/farmacologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Humanos , Evasão da Resposta Imune , Interferon Tipo I/genética , Interferon Tipo I/farmacologia , Interferons/genética , Interferons/farmacologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Proteínas Recombinantes/farmacologia , Transdução de Sinais
18.
Cell ; 181(5): 1036-1045.e9, 2020 05 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32416070

RESUMO

Viral pandemics, such as the one caused by SARS-CoV-2, pose an imminent threat to humanity. Because of its recent emergence, there is a paucity of information regarding viral behavior and host response following SARS-CoV-2 infection. Here we offer an in-depth analysis of the transcriptional response to SARS-CoV-2 compared with other respiratory viruses. Cell and animal models of SARS-CoV-2 infection, in addition to transcriptional and serum profiling of COVID-19 patients, consistently revealed a unique and inappropriate inflammatory response. This response is defined by low levels of type I and III interferons juxtaposed to elevated chemokines and high expression of IL-6. We propose that reduced innate antiviral defenses coupled with exuberant inflammatory cytokine production are the defining and driving features of COVID-19.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Vírus de RNA/imunologia , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Quimiocinas/genética , Quimiocinas/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/genética , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Humanos , Imunidade Inata , Inflamação/virologia , Interferons/genética , Interferons/imunologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/genética , Vírus de RNA/classificação , Transcrição Genética
19.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0233096, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32421725

RESUMO

Congenital cytomegalovirus (cCMV) infection is the most common intrauterine infection. A non-specific immune response is the first line of host defense mechanism against human cytomegalovirus (HCMV). There is limited data on associations between Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes involving innate immunity and the risk and clinical manifestation of cCMV infection. The aim of the study was to investigate association between selected SNPs in genes encoding cytokines and cytokine receptors, and predisposition to cCMV infection including symptomatic course of disease and symptoms. A panel of eight SNPs: IL1B rs16944, IL12B rs3212227, IL28B rs12979860, CCL2 rs1024611, DC-SIGN rs735240, TLR2 rs5743708, TLR4 rs4986791, TLR9 rs352140 was analyzed in 233 infants (92 cCMV-infected and 141 healthy controls). Associations between genotyped SNPs and predisposition to cCMV infection and symptoms were analyzed. The association analysis was performed using SNPStats software. No statistically significant association was found between any genotyped SNPs and predisposition to cCMV infection and symptomatic course of disease. In relation to particular symptoms, polymorphism of IL12B rs3212227 was linked to decreased risk of prematurity (OR = 0.37;95%CI,0.14-0.98;p = 0.025), while polymorphism of IL1B rs16944 was linked to reduced risk of splenomegaly (OR = 0.36;95%CI,0.14-0.98; p = 0.034) in infants with cCMV infection. An increased risk of thrombocytopenia was associated with IL28B rs12979860 polymorphism (OR = 2.55;95%CI,1.03-6.32;p = 0.042), while hepatitis was associated with SNP of TLR4rs4986791 (OR = 7.80;95%CI,1.49-40,81; p = 0.024). This is the first study to demonstrate four new associations between SNPs in selected genes (IL1B, IL12B, IL28B, TLR4) and particular symptoms in cCMV disease. Further studies on the role of SNPs in the pathogenesis of cCMV infection and incorporation of selected SNPs in the clinical practice might be considered in the future.


Assuntos
Infecções por Citomegalovirus/genética , Interferons/genética , Interleucina-12/genética , Interleucina-1beta/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/genética , Adulto , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/virologia , Feminino , Frequência do Gene/genética , Genótipo , Técnicas de Genotipagem , Humanos , Masculino , Trombocitopenia/genética , Trombocitopenia/virologia
20.
Gene ; 751: 144761, 2020 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32407768

RESUMO

The ubiquitin specific peptidase (USP) family is involved in many life processes, of which antiviral is also an important basic function. One of the more important ways is to activate interferon. In this study, we reported the antiviral function of the ubiquitin specific peptidase 5(USP5) gene in zebrafish. Evolutionary and comparative protein sequence analysis of the USP5 was performed. The localization of USP5 in FHM cells cytoplasm was determined. Overexpression of USP5 significantly evoked higher expression of mRNA that encode IFNφ1 and ISGs, the promoteractivities of IFNφ1 and IFNstimulated response element (ISRE) were augmented likewise. USP5 was also able to enhance the expression of RIG-I and activate higher levels of IFNφ1 stimulated by Poly (I: C). Viral infection and interference tests demonstrated that USP5 inhibited the replication of SVCV in vitro. In summary, this study reveals that USP5 is able to activate higher levels of interferon by increasing RIG-I protein levels, and thus implement antivirus functions.


Assuntos
Proteases Específicas de Ubiquitina/fisiologia , Proteínas de Peixe-Zebra/fisiologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Interferons/biossíntese , Interferons/genética , Rhabdoviridae/fisiologia , Alinhamento de Sequência , Proteases Específicas de Ubiquitina/genética , Replicação Viral , Peixe-Zebra/genética , Peixe-Zebra/metabolismo , Peixe-Zebra/virologia , Proteínas de Peixe-Zebra/genética
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA