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1.
J Immunol ; 209(3): 435-445, 2022 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35803695

RESUMO

TOLLIP is a central regulator of multiple innate immune signaling pathways, including TLR2, TLR4, IL-1R, and STING. Human TOLLIP deficiency, regulated by single-nucleotide polymorphism rs5743854, is associated with increased tuberculosis risk and diminished frequency of bacillus Calmette-Guérin vaccine-specific CD4+ T cells in infants. How TOLLIP influences adaptive immune responses remains poorly understood. To understand the mechanistic relationship between TOLLIP and adaptive immune responses, we used human genetic and murine models to evaluate the role of TOLLIP in dendritic cell (DC) function. In healthy volunteers, TOLLIP single-nucleotide polymorphism rs5743854 G allele was associated with decreased TOLLIP mRNA and protein expression in DCs, along with LPS-induced IL-12 secretion in peripheral blood DCs. As in human cells, LPS-stimulated Tollip -/- bone marrow-derived murine DCs secreted less IL-12 and expressed less CD40. Tollip was required in lung and lymph node-resident DCs for optimal induction of MHC class II and CD40 expression during the first 28 d of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in mixed bone marrow chimeric mice. Tollip -/- mice developed fewer M. tuberculosis-specific CD4+ T cells after 28 d of infection and diminished responses to bacillus Calmette-Guérin vaccination. Furthermore, Tollip -/- DCs were unable to optimally induce T cell proliferation. Taken together, these data support a model where TOLLIP-deficient DCs undergo suboptimal maturation after M. tuberculosis infection, impairing T cell activation and contributing to tuberculosis susceptibility.


Assuntos
Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Tuberculose , Animais , Vacina BCG , Antígenos CD40 , Células Dendríticas , Humanos , Interleucina-12/metabolismo , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/metabolismo , Lipopolissacarídeos/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Nucleotídeos/metabolismo
2.
Front Immunol ; 13: 912583, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35860266

RESUMO

GM-CSF-producing T helper (Th) cells play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS). Recent studies have identified a distinct population of GM-CSF-producing Th cells, named ThGM cells, that also express cytokines TNF, IL-2, and IL-3, but lack expression of master transcription factors (TF) and signature cytokines of commonly recognized Th cell lineages. ThGM cells are highly encephalitogenic in a mouse model of MS, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Similar to Th17 cells, in response to IL-12, ThGM cells upregulate expression of T-bet and IFN-γ and switch their phenotype to Th1. Here we show that in addition to T-bet, TF RUNX3 also contributes to the Th1 switch of ThGM cells. T-bet-deficient ThGM cells in the CNS of mice with EAE had low expression of RUNX3, and knockdown of RUNX3 expression in ThGM cells abrogated the Th1-inducing effect of IL-12. Comparison of ThGM and Th1 cell transcriptomes showed that ThGM cells expressed a set of TFs known to inhibit the development of other Th lineages. Lack of expression of lineage-specific cytokines and TFs by ThGM cells, together with expression of TFs that inhibit the development of other Th lineages, suggests that ThGM cells are a non-polarized subset of Th cells with lineage characteristics.


Assuntos
Subunidade alfa 3 de Fator de Ligação ao Core/metabolismo , Encefalomielite Autoimune Experimental , Esclerose Múltipla , Animais , Citocinas/metabolismo , Fator Estimulador de Colônias de Granulócitos e Macrófagos/metabolismo , Interleucina-12/metabolismo , Camundongos , Fenótipo , Células Th1 , Células Th17 , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
3.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 11870, 2022 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35831470

RESUMO

Immunotherapies have revolutionized the treatment of B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL), but the duration of responses is still sub-optimal. We sought to identify mechanisms of immune suppression in B-ALL and strategies to overcome them. Plasma collected from children with B-ALL with measurable residual disease after induction chemotherapy showed differential cytokine expression, particularly IL-7, while single-cell RNA-sequencing revealed the expression of genes associated with immune exhaustion in immune cell subsets. We also found that the supernatant of leukemia cells suppressed T-cell function ex vivo. Modeling B-ALL in mice, we observed an altered tumor immune microenvironment, including compromised activation of T-cells and dendritic cells (DC). However, recombinant IL-12 (rIL-12) treatment of mice with B-ALL restored the levels of several pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines in the bone marrow and increased the number of splenic and bone marrow resident T-cells and DCs. RNA-sequencing of T-cells isolated from vehicle and rIL-12 treated mice with B-ALL revealed that the leukemia-induced increase in genes associated with exhaustion, including Lag3, Tigit, and Il10, was abrogated with rIL-12 treatment. In addition, the cytolytic capacity of T-cells co-cultured with B-ALL cells was enhanced when IL-12 and blinatumomab treatments were combined. Overall, these results demonstrate that the leukemia immune suppressive microenvironment can be restored with rIL-12 treatment which has direct therapeutic implications.


Assuntos
Interleucina-12 , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras , Animais , Medula Óssea/metabolismo , Citocinas/metabolismo , Células Dendríticas , Interleucina-12/genética , Interleucina-12/metabolismo , Camundongos , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/metabolismo , RNA/metabolismo , Microambiente Tumoral
4.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 11185, 2022 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35778468

RESUMO

T cell-dendritic cell (DC) interactions contribute to reciprocal stimulation leading to DC maturation that results in production of interleukin-12 (IL-12) and interferon-gamma (IFN-γ). Both cytokines have been implicated in autoimmune diseases while being necessary for effective immune responses against foreign antigens. We describe a lipidic peptide, designated IK14004, that modifies crosstalk between T cells and DCs resulting in suppression of IL-12p40/IFN-γ production. T cell production of interleukin-2 (IL-2) and IFN-γ is uncoupled and IL-12p70 production is enhanced. IK14004 induces expression of activating co-receptors in CD8+ T cells and increases the proportion of Foxp3-expressing CD4+ T regulatory cells. The potential for IK14004 to impact on signalling pathways required to achieve a balanced immune response upon stimulation of DCs and T cells is highlighted. This novel compound provides an opportunity to gain further insights into the complexity of T cell-DC interactions relevant to autoimmunity associated with malignancies and may have therapeutic benefit.


Assuntos
Células Dendríticas , Linfócitos T Reguladores , Citocinas/metabolismo , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Interleucina-12/metabolismo , Linfócitos T Reguladores/metabolismo
5.
Sci Transl Med ; 14(653): eabm9043, 2022 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35857639

RESUMO

T cell-directed cancer immunotherapy often fails to generate lasting tumor control. Harnessing additional effectors of the immune response against tumors may strengthen the clinical benefit of immunotherapies. Here, we demonstrate that therapeutic targeting of the interferon-γ (IFN-γ)-interleukin-12 (IL-12) pathway relies on the ability of a population of natural killer (NK) cells with tissue-resident traits to orchestrate an antitumor microenvironment. In particular, we used an engineered adenoviral platform as a tool for intratumoral IL-12 immunotherapy (AdV5-IL-12) to generate adaptive antitumor immunity. Mechanistically, we demonstrate that AdV5-IL-12 is capable of inducing the expression of CC-chemokine ligand 5 (CCL5) in CD49a+ NK cells both in tumor mouse models and tumor specimens from patients with cancer. AdV5-IL-12 imposed CCL5-induced type I conventional dendritic cell (cDC1) infiltration and thus increased DC-CD8 T cell interactions. A similar observation was made for other IFN-γ-inducing therapies such as Programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) blockade. Conversely, failure to respond to IL-12 and PD-1 blockade in tumor models with low CD49a+ CXCR6+ NK cell infiltration could be overcome by intratumoral delivery of CCL5. Thus, therapeutic efficacy depends on the abundance of NK cells with tissue-resident traits and, specifically, their capacity to produce the DC chemoattractant CCL5. Our findings reveal a barrier for T cell-focused therapies and offer mechanistic insights into how T cell-NK cell-DC cross-talk can be enhanced to promote antitumor immunity and overcome resistance.


Assuntos
Integrina alfa1 , Neoplasias , Animais , Células Dendríticas , Imunoterapia , Integrina alfa1/metabolismo , Interleucina-12/metabolismo , Células Matadoras Naturais , Camundongos , Neoplasias/patologia , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/metabolismo , Microambiente Tumoral
6.
Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao ; 42(7): 976-987, 2022 Jul 20.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35869759

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of Enterococcus faecium QH06 on TNBS-induced ulcerative colitis (UC) in rats and explore the mechanisms in light of intestinal flora and intestinal immunity. METHODS: Thirty-six male Wistar rats were randomized equally into control group, UC model group, and E.faecium QH06 intervention group. The rats in the latter two groups were subjected to colonic enema with 5% TNBS/ethanol to induce UC, followed by treatment with intragastric administration of distilled water or E.faecium QH06 at the dose of 0.21 g/kg. After 14 days of treatment, the rats were examined for colon pathologies with HE staining. The mRNA and protein expression levels of IL-4, IL-10, IL-12, and IFN-γ in the colon tissues were detected using RT-qPCR and ELISA, and the expression of TLR2 protein was detected with immunohistochemistry and ELISA. Illumina Miseq platform was used for sequencing analysis of the intestinal flora of the rats with bioinformatics analysis. The correlations of the parameters of the intestinal flora with the expression levels of TLR2 and cytokines were analyzed. RESULTS: The rats with TNBS- induced UC showed obvious weight loss (P < 0.01) and severe colon tissue injury with high pathological scores (P < 0.01). The protein expression levels of IFN-γ, IL-12, and TLR2 (P < 0.01) and the mRNA expression levels of IFN-γ, IL-12 and IL-10 (P < 0.05) were significantly increased in the colon tissues of the rats with UC. Illumina Miseq sequence analysis showed that in UC rats, the Shannon index (P < 0.05) ACE (P < 0.01)and Chao (P < 0.05) index for the diversity of intestinal flora both decreased with a significantly increased abundance of Enterobacteriaceae (P < 0.01) and a lowered abundance of Burkholderiaceae (P < 0.05). Compared with the UC rats, the rats treated with E. faecium QH06 showed obvious body weight gain (P < 0.05), lessened colon injuries, lowered pathological score of the colon tissue (P < 0.05), decreased protein expressions of IFN- γ, IL- 12, and TLR2 and mRNA expressions of IFN- γ and IL-12 (P < 0.01 or 0.05), and increased protein expressions of IL- 4 (P < 0.05). The Shannon index ACE (P < 0.05) and Chao (P < 0.05) index of intestinal microflora were significantly increased, the abundance of Enterobacteriaceae was lowered and that of Burkholderiaceae and Rikenellaceae was increased in E.faecium QH06- treated rats (P < 0.01 or 0.05). Correlation analysis showed that IFN-γ was positively correlated with the abundance of Enterobacteriaceae, and IFN-γ was negatively correlated with the abundance of Prevotellaceae, Desulfovibrionaceae, norank_o_Mollicutes_RF39 and Clostridiales_vadinBB60_group; TLR2 was negatively correlated with Clostridiales_vadinBB60_group, norank_o_Mollicutes_RF39 and Prevotellaceae. CONCLUSION: E.faecium QH06 can alleviate TNBS-induced colonic mucosal injury in rats, and its effect is mediated possibly by increasing the abundance of SCFA-producing bacteria such as Prevotellaceae and inhibiting abnormal immune responses mediated by TLR2.


Assuntos
Colite Ulcerativa , Interleucina-10 , Animais , Colite Ulcerativa/tratamento farmacológico , Colo/metabolismo , Interleucina-12/metabolismo , Interleucina-12/farmacologia , Interleucina-12/uso terapêutico , Masculino , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Receptor 2 Toll-Like/metabolismo
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(13)2022 Jun 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35806005

RESUMO

Nerve injury of the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system still poses a major challenge in modern clinics. Understanding the roles of neurotrophic factors and their molecular mechanisms on neuro-regeneration will not only benefit patients with neural damage but could potentially treat neurodegenerative disorders, such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. In this study, we showed that human IL12 p40-p40 homodimer (hIL12p80) within PLA and PLGA conduits improved sciatic nerve regeneration in mice. As such, the group of conduits with NSCs and hIL12p80 (CNI) showed the best recovery among the groups in the sciatic functional index (SFI), compound muscle action potential (CMAP), and Rotarod performance analyses. In addition, the CNI group had a faster recovery and outperformed the other groups in SFI and Rotarod performance tests beginning in the fourth week post-surgery. Immunohistochemistry showed that the CNI group increased the diameter of the newly regenerated nerve by two-fold (p < 0.01). In vitro studies showed that hIL12p80 stimulated differentiation of mouse NSCs to oligodendrocyte lineages through phosphorylation of Stat3 at Y705 and S727. Furthermore, implantation using PLGA conduits (C2.0 and C2.1) showed better recovery in the Rotarod test and CMAP than using PLA conduits in FVB mice. In B6 mice, the group with C2.1 + NSCs + hIL12p80 (C2.1NI) not only promoted sciatic functional recovery but also reduced the rate of experimental autotomy. These results suggested that hIL12p80, combined with NSCs, enhanced the functional recovery and accelerated the regeneration of damaged nerves in the sciatic nerve injury mice. Our findings could further shed light on IL12's application not only in damaged nerves but also in rectifying the oligodendrocytes' defects in neurodegenerative diseases, such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and multiple sclerosis.


Assuntos
Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral , Interleucina-12 , Traumatismos dos Nervos Periféricos , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/metabolismo , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/patologia , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/terapia , Animais , Humanos , Interleucina-12/metabolismo , Camundongos , Regeneração Nervosa/fisiologia , Oligodendroglia , Traumatismos dos Nervos Periféricos/metabolismo , Traumatismos dos Nervos Periféricos/patologia , Traumatismos dos Nervos Periféricos/terapia , Nervo Isquiático/lesões
8.
Biomater Sci ; 10(15): 4293-4308, 2022 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35766864

RESUMO

Oncolytic virotherapy is a highly promising and novel treatment modality for cancer. Several clinical trials with oncolytic viruses have illustrated that the potent antitumor efficacy of these viruses may rely on the efficient induction of antitumor immune response. In contrast, antiviral immune response is attributed to adverse side defects and diminishing therapeutic efficacy. In the present report, we generated a nanohybrid complex incorporating immune stimulatory oncolytic adenovirus (oAd) co-expressing decorin (DCN) and interleukin (IL)-12 with a bioreducible nanomaterial composed of PEI-Arg-mPEG-S-S-mPEG-Arg-PEI blocks (PAPS), ultimately aiming to modulate both antitumor and antiviral immune responses to be favorable toward oncolytic virotherapy. The transduction efficacy of the PAPS-incorporated nanohybrid vector (Ad/PAPS) was significantly higher than that of a complex using our previously reported polymer PPSA (Ad/PPSA) regardless of the cellular coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor expression level of cancer cells. oAd complexed with PAPS (oAd/PAPS) also elicited a more potent cancer cell killing effect, antitumor efficacy, and metastasis inhibition than naked oAd or oAd complexed with PPSA (oAd/PPSA) through a higher level of therapeutic transgenes (DCN and IL-12), viral replication, and more efficient infiltration of T cells into tumor tissues. Notably, oAd/PAPS induced the highest level of antitumor immune response while the antiviral immune response was mediated at a significantly lower level than those of naked oAd. Adaptive immune response against the virus was also significantly attenuated in the oAd/PAPS group. oAd/PAPS treatment also led to the highest level of antitumor central memory T cells and the lowest level of immunosuppressive regulatory T cells in the spleen. Collectively, our findings illustrate that oAd/PAPS can simultaneously regulate both antitumor and antiviral immune responses to be more favorable to oncolytic virotherapy, leading to improved gene expression, viral replication, and growth inhibition of both primary and metastatic tumors.


Assuntos
Adenoviridae , Terapia Viral Oncolítica , Imunidade Adaptativa , Adenoviridae/genética , Adenoviridae/metabolismo , Antivirais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Interleucina-12/metabolismo , Polímeros/metabolismo
9.
Cell Death Dis ; 13(6): 531, 2022 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35668079

RESUMO

Mitochondrial activation and the production of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (mROS) are crucial for CD4+ T cell responses and have a role in naïve cell signaling after TCR activation. However, little is known about mROS role in TCR-independent signaling and in recall responses. Here, we found that mROS are required for IL-12 plus IL-18-driven production of IFN-γ, an essential cytokine for inflammatory and autoimmune disease development. Compared to TCR stimulation, which induced similar levels of mROS in naïve and memory-like cells, IL-12/IL-18 showed faster and augmented mROS production in memory-like cells. mROS inhibition significantly downregulated IFN-γ and CD44 expression, suggesting a direct mROS effect on memory-like T cell function. The mechanism that promotes IFN-γ production after IL-12/IL-18 challenge depended on the effect of mROS on optimal activation of downstream signaling pathways, leading to STAT4 and NF-κB activation. To relate our findings to IFN-γ-driven lupus-like disease, we used Fas-deficient memory-like CD4+ T cells from lpr mice. Importantly, we found significantly increased IFN-γ and mROS production in lpr compared with parental cells. Treatment of WT cells with FasL significantly reduced mROS production and the activation of signaling events leading to IFN-γ. Moreover, Fas deficiency was associated with increased mitochondrial levels of cytochrome C and caspase-3 compared with WT memory-like cells. mROS inhibition significantly reduced the population of disease-associated lpr CD44hiCD62LloCD4+ T cells and their IFN-γ production. Overall, these findings uncovered a previously unidentified role of Fas/FasL interaction in regulating mROS production by memory-like T cells. This apoptosis-independent Fas activity might contribute to the accumulation of CD44hiCD62LloCD4+ T cells that produce increased IFN-γ levels in lpr mice. Overall, our findings pinpoint mROS as central regulators of TCR-independent signaling, and support mROS pharmacological targeting to control aberrant immune responses in autoimmune-like disease.


Assuntos
Interleucina-18 , Linfócitos T , Animais , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Interleucina-12/metabolismo , Interleucina-18/metabolismo , Camundongos , Oxigênio/metabolismo , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais
10.
J Immunother Cancer ; 10(6)2022 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35688559

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dendritic cells (DCs) are professional antigen presenting cells that initiate immune defense to pathogens and tumor cells. Human tumors contain only few DCs that mostly display a non-activated phenotype. Hence, activation of tumor-associated DCs may improve efficacy of cancer immunotherapies. Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists and interferons are known to promote DC maturation. However, it is unclear if DCs in human tumors respond to activation signals and which stimuli induce the optimal activation of human tumor DCs. METHODS: We first screened combinations of TLR agonists, a STING agonist and interferons (IFNs) for their ability to activate human conventional DCs (cDCs). Two combinations: TL8-506 (a TLR8 agonist)+IFN-γ and TL8-506+Poly(I:C) (a TLR3 agonist) were studied in more detail. cDC1s and cDC2s derived from cord blood stem cells, blood or patient tumor samples were stimulated with either TL8-506+IFN-γ or TL8-506+Poly(I:C). Different activation markers were analyzed by ELISA, flow cytometry, NanoString nCounter Technology or single-cell RNA-sequencing. T cell activation and migration assays were performed to assess functional consequences of cDC activation. RESULTS: We show that TL8-506 synergized with IFN-γ or Poly(I:C) to induce high expression of different chemokines and cytokines including interleukin (IL)-12p70 in human cord blood and blood cDC subsets in a combination-specific manner. Importantly, both combinations induced the activation of cDC subsets in patient tumor samples ex vivo. The expression of immunostimulatory genes important for anticancer responses including CD40, IFNB1, IFNL1, IL12A and IL12B were upregulated on stimulation. Furthermore, chemokines associated with CD8+ T cell recruitment were induced in tumor-derived cDCs in response to TL8-506 combinations. In vitro activation and migration assays confirmed that stimulated cDCs induce T cell activation and migration. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that cord blood-derived and blood-derived cDCs are a good surrogate to study treatment responses in human tumor cDCs. While most cDCs in human tumors display a non-activated phenotype, TL8-506 combinations drive human tumor cDCs towards an immunostimulatory phenotype associated with Th1 responses on stimulation. Hence, TL8-506-based combinations may be promising candidates to initiate or boost antitumor responses in patients with cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias , Receptor 8 Toll-Like , Adjuvantes Imunológicos/farmacologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Células Dendríticas , Humanos , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Interferon gama/farmacologia , Interleucina-12/metabolismo , Poli I-C/metabolismo , Poli I-C/farmacologia
11.
Cell Rep ; 39(13): 110989, 2022 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35767946

RESUMO

The interleukin-12 (IL-12) family comprises the only heterodimeric cytokines mediating diverse functional effects. We previously reported a striking bimodal IL-12p70 response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation in healthy donors. Herein, we demonstrate that interferon ß (IFNß) is a major upstream determinant of IL-12p70 production, which is also associated with numbers and activation of circulating monocytes. Integrative modeling of proteomic, genetic, epigenomic, and cellular data confirms IFNß as key for LPS-induced IL-12p70 and allowed us to compare the relative effects of each of these parameters on variable cytokine responses. Clinical relevance of our findings is supported by reduced IFNß-IL-12p70 responses in patients hospitalized with acute severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection or chronically infected with hepatitis C (HCV). Importantly, these responses are resolved after viral clearance. Our systems immunology approach defines a better understanding of IL-12p70 and IFNß in healthy and infected persons, providing insights into how common genetic and epigenetic variation may impact immune responses to bacterial infection.


Assuntos
Interferon beta , Interleucina-12 , Receptor 4 Toll-Like , COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/metabolismo , COVID-19/virologia , Citocinas/imunologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Humanos , Interferon beta/imunologia , Interferon beta/metabolismo , Interleucina-12/imunologia , Interleucina-12/metabolismo , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Proteômica , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia
12.
Microb Pathog ; 168: 105557, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35623565

RESUMO

ArsR-family transcriptional factors regulates diverse physiological functions necessary for Brucella adaptation to environmental changes. However, whether the ArsR-family transcriptional regulator are related to virulence, and the precise determination of ArsR direct targets in Brucella are still unknown. Therefore, we created a 2308ΔArsR6 mutant of B. abortus 2308 (S2308). Virulence assay was performed using a murine macrophage cell line (RAW 264.7). We performed chromatin immunoprecipitation of ArsR6 followed by next-generation sequencing (ChIP-seq). We also selected the target gene pobA (BAB2_0600), and created the mutant (2308ΔpobA). The survival capability of 2308ΔpobA strain in RAW 264.7 was detected and the levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), interleukin-12 (IL-12) and interleukin-18 (IL-18) were also measured. The results showed that 2308ΔArsR6 reduced survival capability in RAW 264.7. We detected 40 intergenic ChIP-seq peaks of ArsR6 binding distributed across the Brucella genome. 2308ΔpobA was significantly reduced survival capability in RAW 264.7. After the macrophages were infected with 2308ΔpobA, the levels of TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-12 and IL-18 were decreased and were significantly lower than that for the S2308-infected group, indicating that the 2308ΔpobA could reduce the secretion of inflammatory cytokines. Taken together, the research provided new insights into the functionality of ArsR6 and great significance to clarify the function of ArsR6.


Assuntos
Brucella abortus , Brucelose , Animais , Brucelose/patologia , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Interleucina-12/metabolismo , Interleucina-18/metabolismo , Camundongos , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo , Virulência
13.
Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 38(4): 289-294, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35583056

RESUMO

Objective This study is aimed to investigate the effect of paeonol on inflammation of BV2 microglia induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and the underlying mechanism. Methods Mouse BV2 microglia was cultured in vitro. BV2 microglia was pretreated with paeonol of different concentration for 24 hours, then stimulated by LPS for 12 hours. Cell viability was detected by CCK-8 assay. Morphological changes of microglia were monitored by microscopy. The mRNA expression of TNF-α, IL-1ß, IL-12 and IL-6 by BV2 microglia was measured by real time quantitative-PCR. The protein expression of NF-κB p65 and phosphorylated NF-κB p65 (p-NF-κB p65) was determined by Western blot analysis. Results Paeonol treatment improved cell viability, and inhibited over-activation of BV2 microglia challenged by LPS. Paeonol treatment concentration-dependently suppressed LPS induced mRNA expression of inflammatory cytokines including TNF-α, IL-1ß, IL-6, and IL-12 by BV2 microglia. Phosphorylation of NF-κB p65, but not protein level of NF-κB p65, was suppressed by paeonol treatment in a concentration-dependent manner. Conclusion Paeonol inhibits LPS induced phosphorylation of NF-κB p65 and transcription of downstream proinflammatory cytokines in BV2 microglia.


Assuntos
Lipopolissacarídeos , Microglia , Acetofenonas , Animais , Citocinas/metabolismo , Interleucina-12/metabolismo , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Lipopolissacarídeos/metabolismo , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Camundongos , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Fosforilação , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
14.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 151: 113110, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35605298

RESUMO

Intratumoral injection of various effector cells combined with oncolytic adenovirus expressing antitumor cytokines exert an effective antitumor immune effect by oncolysis and altering the tumor microenvironment. However, this combination therapy had certain limitations. When used in high concentrations, effector cells and oncolytic viruses can spread rapidly to surrounding non-target tissues. And because both therapies used in combination are immunogenic and exhibit shorter biological activity, multiple injections were required to attain an adequate therapeutic index. To overcome these drawbacks, we encapsulated gelatin-based hydrogel capable of co-deliver oncolytic adenovirus armed with IL12 and IL15 (CRAd-IL12-IL15) and CIK cells for enhancing and prolonging the antitumor effects of both therapies after a single intratumoral injection. The injectable and biodegradable hydrogel reduced the dispersion of high-dose oncolytic adenovirus and CIK cells from the injection site to the liver and other non-target tissues. In this study, a novel oncolytic adenoviral vector CRAd-IL12-IL15 was constructed to verify the cytokine expression and oncolytic ability, which can upregulate the expression levels of Bcl-2, Cish and Gzmb in tumor cells. The CRAd-IL12-IL15 + CIKs/gelatin treatment maintained sustained release of CRAd-IL12-IL15 and active CIK cells over a longer period of time, attenuating the antiviral immune response against adenovirus. In conclusion, the results suggested that hydrogel-mediated co-delivery of CRAd-IL12-IL15 and CIK cells might be a an approach to overcome limitations. Both treatments could be effectively retained in tumor tissue and sustained to induce potent anti-tumor immune responses with a single administration.


Assuntos
Células Matadoras Induzidas por Citocinas , Neoplasias , Adenoviridae/genética , Adenoviridae/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Gelatina , Hidrogéis , Imunoterapia , Interleucina-12/genética , Interleucina-12/metabolismo , Interleucina-15/genética , Neoplasias/terapia
15.
J Immunother Cancer ; 10(5)2022 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35577502

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Oncolytic virotherapy (OV) represents a method to treat a variety of solid tumors by inducing antitumor immune responses. While this therapy has been extremely efficacious in preclinical models, translating these successes into human patients has proven challenging. One of the major reasons for these failures is the existence of immune-regulatory mechanisms, which dampen the efficacy of virally induced antitumor immunity. Unfortunately, the full extent of these immune-regulatory pathways remains unclear. METHODS: To address this issue, we generated a doubly recombinant, oncolytic myxoma virus which expresses both a soluble fragment of programmed cell death protein 1 (PD1) and an interleukin 12 (IL-12) fusion protein (vPD1/IL-12 (virus-expressing PD1 and IL-12)). We then tested the molecular impact and therapeutic efficacy of this construct in multiple models of disseminated disease to identify novel pathways, which are associated with poor therapeutic outcomes. RESULTS: Our results demonstrate that vPD1/IL-12 causes robust inflammation during therapy including inducing high levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF). Surprisingly, although expression of TNF has generally been assumed to be beneficial to OV, the presence of this TNF appears to inhibit therapeutic efficacy by reducing intratumoral T-cell viability. Likely because of this, disruption of the TNF pathway, either through genetic knockout or antibody-based blockade, significantly enhances the overall outcomes of vPD1/IL-12-based therapy that allows for the generation of complete cures in normally non-responsive models. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that some aspects of OV-induced inflammation might represent a double-edged sword during therapy and that specific blockade of TNF might enhance the efficacy of these treatments.


Assuntos
Myxoma virus , Terapia Viral Oncolítica , Vírus Oncolíticos , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa , Humanos , Inflamação , Interleucina-12/genética , Interleucina-12/metabolismo , Myxoma virus/genética , Terapia Viral Oncolítica/métodos , Vírus Oncolíticos/genética , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/antagonistas & inibidores , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
16.
ACS Chem Biol ; 17(6): 1315-1320, 2022 06 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35580266

RESUMO

Interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase 3 (IRAK3) is a pseudokinase mediator in the human inflammatory pathway, and ablation of its function is associated with enhanced antitumor immunity. Traditionally, pseudokinases have eluded "druggability" and have not been considered tractable targets in the pharmaceutical industry. Herein we disclose a CRISPR/Cas9-mediated knockout of IRAK3 in monocyte-derived dendritic cells that results in an increase in IL-12 production upon lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation. Furthermore, we disclose and characterize Degradomer D-1, which displays selective proteasomal degradation of IRAK3 and reproduces the 1L-12p40 increases observed in the CRISPR/Cas9 knockout.


Assuntos
Citocinas , Quinases Associadas a Receptores de Interleucina-1 , Citocinas/metabolismo , Humanos , Quinases Associadas a Receptores de Interleucina-1/metabolismo , Interleucina-12/metabolismo , Lipopolissacarídeos/metabolismo , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Monócitos/metabolismo
17.
Front Immunol ; 13: 779888, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35371019

RESUMO

Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) play an integral role in the adaptive immune response by killing infected cells. Antigen presenting cells (APCs), such as dendritic cells, present pathogenic peptides to the T cell receptor on the CTL surface and co-stimulatory signals required for complete activation. Activated CTLs secrete lytic granules containing enzymes that trigger target cell death at the CTL-target contact, also known as the immune synapse (IS). The actin and microtubule cytoskeletons are instrumental in the killing of CTL targets. Lytic granules are transported along microtubules to the IS, where granule secretion is facilitated by actin depletion and recovery. Furthermore, actomyosin contractility promotes target cell death by mediating mechanical force exertion at the IS. Recent studies have shown that inflammatory cytokines produced by APCs, such as interleukin-12 (IL-12), act as a third signal for CTL activation and enhance CTL proliferation and effector function. However, the biophysical mechanisms mediating such enhanced effector function remain unclear. We hypothesized that the third signal for CTL activation, IL-12, modulates cytoskeletal dynamics and force exertion at the IS, thus potentiating CTL effector function. Here, we used live cell total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy to study actomyosin and microtubule dynamics at the IS of murine primary CTLs activated in the presence of peptide-MHC and co-stimulation alone (two signals), or additionally with IL-12 (three signals). We found that three signal-activated CTLs have altered actin flows, myosin dynamics and microtubule growth rates as compared to two signal-activated CTLs. We further showed that lytic granules in three-signal activated CTLs are less clustered and have lower velocities than in two-signal activated CTLs. Finally, we used traction force microscopy to show that three signal-activated CTLs exert greater traction forces than two signal-activated CTLs. Our results demonstrate that activation of CTLs in the presence of IL-12 leads to differential modulation of the cytoskeleton, thereby augmenting the mechanical response of CTLs to their targets. This indicates a potential physical mechanism via which the third signal can enhance the CTL response.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos , Linfócitos T Citotóxicos , Citoesqueleto de Actina , Actinas/metabolismo , Actomiosina/metabolismo , Animais , Interleucina-12/metabolismo , Camundongos
18.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 209(Pt A): 506-512, 2022 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35398387

RESUMO

Gum Arabic, a mixture of polysaccharide and glycoprotein, is used as an emulsifying stabilizer in the food industry. It might have immunomodulatory effects. We hypothesized that the combination of IFN-γ and Gum Arabic promotes the production of pro-inflammatory factors in RAW 264.7 cells. Treatment of RAW 264.7 cells with the combination of 3% Gum Arabic and 40 ng/mL IFN-γ resulted in a drastic increase (320%) in nitric oxide production compared with that induced by IFN-γ alone. PGE-2 was produced after the cells were treated with 3% Gum Arabic and 40 ng/mL IFN-γ for 6 h. Gum Arabic and IFN-γ increased the production of iNOS and COX-2 proteins, and triggered TNF-α release. Apart from TNF-α, the release of both G-CSF and IL-6 increased by more than 100 times. The release of IL-3, RANTES, and IL-10 increased by more than ten times. Gum Arabic and IFN-γ also increased the secretion of IL-10, IL-1α, IL-1ß, IL-13, KC, IL-5, IL-4, IL-12, Eotaxin, IL-9, MCP-1, and ROS. Cytokines associated with M1 polarization of macrophages such as TNF-α, IL-1ß, IL-12, NO, and ROS were induced by Gum Arabic and IFN-γ. Our findings help to explore the inflammatory reaction caused by Gum Arabic in cosmetics.


Assuntos
Interleucina-10 , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa , Citocinas/metabolismo , Goma Arábica/farmacologia , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Interferon gama/farmacologia , Interleucina-10/metabolismo , Interleucina-12/metabolismo , Macrófagos , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
19.
Front Immunol ; 13: 856230, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35464417

RESUMO

Beauvericin (BEA), a mycotoxin of the enniatin family produced by various toxigenic fungi, has been attributed multiple biological activities such as anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, and anti-microbial functions. However, effects of BEA on dendritic cells remain unknown so far. Here, we identified effects of BEA on murine granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF)-cultured bone marrow derived dendritic cells (BMDCs) and the underlying molecular mechanisms. BEA potently activates BMDCs as signified by elevated IL-12 and CD86 expression. Multiplex immunoassays performed on myeloid differentiation primary response 88 (MyD88) and toll/interleukin-1 receptor (TIR) domain containing adaptor inducing interferon beta (TRIF) single or double deficient BMDCs indicate that BEA induces inflammatory cytokine and chemokine production in a MyD88/TRIF dependent manner. Furthermore, we found that BEA was not able to induce IL-12 or IFNß production in Toll-like receptor 4 (Tlr4)-deficient BMDCs, whereas induction of these cytokines was not compromised in Tlr3/7/9 deficient BMDCs. This suggests that TLR4 might be the functional target of BEA on BMDCs. Consistently, in luciferase reporter assays BEA stimulation significantly promotes NF-κB activation in mTLR4/CD14/MD2 overexpressing but not control HEK-293 cells. RNA-sequencing analyses further confirmed that BEA induces transcriptional changes associated with the TLR4 signaling pathway. Together, these results identify TLR4 as a cellular BEA sensor and define BEA as a potent activator of BMDCs, implying that this compound can be exploited as a promising candidate structure for vaccine adjuvants or cancer immunotherapies.


Assuntos
Micotoxinas , Receptor 4 Toll-Like , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transporte Vesicular/metabolismo , Animais , Citocinas/metabolismo , Células Dendríticas , Depsipeptídeos , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Interleucina-12/metabolismo , Camundongos , Fator 88 de Diferenciação Mieloide/genética , Fator 88 de Diferenciação Mieloide/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/metabolismo
20.
Front Immunol ; 13: 848149, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35444657

RESUMO

Recently microRNAs (miRNAs) have been recognized as powerful regulators of many genes and pathways involved in the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases including Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE). SLE is an autoimmune disease characterized by production of various autoantibodies, inflammatory immune cells, and dysregulation of epigenetic changes. Several candidate miRNAs regulating inflammation and autoimmunity in SLE are described. In this study, we found significant increases in the expression of miR21, miR25, and miR186 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of SLE patients compared to healthy controls. However, miR146a was significantly decreased in SLE patients compared to healthy controls and was negatively correlated with plasma estradiol levels and with SLE disease activity scores (SLEDAI). We also found that protein levels of IL-12 and IL-21 were significantly increased in SLE patients as compared to healthy controls. Further, our data shows that protein levels of IL-12 were positively correlated with miR21 expression and protein levels of IL-21 positively correlated with miR25 and miR186 expression in SLE patients. In addition, we found that levels of miR21, miR25, and miR186 positively correlated with SLEDAI and miR146a was negatively correlated in SLE patients. Thus, our data shows a dynamic interplay between disease pathogenesis and miRNA expression. This study has translational potential and may identify novel therapeutic targets in patients with SLE.


Assuntos
Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico , MicroRNAs , Humanos , Inflamação/genética , Inflamação/metabolismo , Interleucina-12/metabolismo , Leucócitos Mononucleares , MicroRNAs/genética , MicroRNAs/metabolismo
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