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1.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 5(1): 235, 2020 10 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33037188

RESUMO

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection can lead to respiratory illness and multi-organ failure in critically ill patients. Although the virus-induced lung damage and inflammatory cytokine storm are believed to be directly associated with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) clinical manifestations, the underlying mechanisms of virus-triggered inflammatory responses are currently unknown. Here we report that SARS-CoV-2 infection activates caspase-8 to trigger cell apoptosis and inflammatory cytokine processing in the lung epithelial cells. The processed inflammatory cytokines are released through the virus-induced necroptosis pathway. Virus-induced apoptosis, necroptosis, and inflammation activation were also observed in the lung sections of SARS-CoV-2-infected HFH4-hACE2 transgenic mouse model, a valid model for studying SARS-CoV-2 pathogenesis. Furthermore, analysis of the postmortem lung sections of fatal COVID-19 patients revealed not only apoptosis and necroptosis but also massive inflammatory cell infiltration, necrotic cell debris, and pulmonary interstitial fibrosis, typical of immune pathogenesis in the lung. The SARS-CoV-2 infection triggered a dual mode of cell death pathways and caspase-8-dependent inflammatory responses may lead to the lung damage in the COVID-19 patients. These discoveries might assist the development of therapeutic strategies to treat COVID-19.


Assuntos
Apoptose/imunologia , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Caspase 8/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/imunologia , Necroptose/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Fibrose Pulmonar/imunologia , Animais , Caspase 8/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Quimiocina CCL5/genética , Quimiocina CCL5/imunologia , Quimiocina CXCL10/genética , Quimiocina CXCL10/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/genética , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/genética , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/patologia , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/virologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Células Epiteliais/imunologia , Células Epiteliais/patologia , Células Epiteliais/virologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Interleucina-1beta/genética , Interleucina-1beta/imunologia , Interleucina-7/genética , Interleucina-7/imunologia , Interleucina-8/genética , Interleucina-8/imunologia , Pulmão/imunologia , Pulmão/patologia , Pulmão/virologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/genética , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Fibrose Pulmonar/genética , Fibrose Pulmonar/patologia , Fibrose Pulmonar/virologia , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/genética , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/imunologia
2.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 5(1): 186, 2020 09 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32883951

RESUMO

Sterol regulatory element binding protein-2 (SREBP-2) is activated by cytokines or pathogen, such as virus or bacteria, but its association with diminished cholesterol levels in COVID-19 patients is unknown. Here, we evaluated SREBP-2 activation in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of COVID-19 patients and verified the function of SREBP-2 in COVID-19. Intriguingly, we report the first observation of SREBP-2 C-terminal fragment in COVID-19 patients' blood and propose SREBP-2 C-terminal fragment as an indicator for determining severity. We confirmed that SREBP-2-induced cholesterol biosynthesis was suppressed by Sestrin-1 and PCSK9 expression, while the SREBP-2-induced inflammatory responses was upregulated in COVID-19 ICU patients. Using an infectious disease mouse model, inhibitors of SREBP-2 and NF-κB suppressed cytokine storms caused by viral infection and prevented pulmonary damages. These results collectively suggest that SREBP-2 can serve as an indicator for severity diagnosis and therapeutic target for preventing cytokine storm and lung damage in severe COVID-19 patients.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Colesterol/biossíntese , Infecções por Coronavirus/genética , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/genética , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/genética , Leucócitos Mononucleares/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/genética , Proteína de Ligação a Elemento Regulador de Esterol 2/genética , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/imunologia , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/mortalidade , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/virologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Proteínas de Choque Térmico/genética , Proteínas de Choque Térmico/imunologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/imunologia , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Interleucina-1beta/genética , Interleucina-1beta/imunologia , L-Lactato Desidrogenase/genética , L-Lactato Desidrogenase/imunologia , Leucócitos Mononucleares/metabolismo , Leucócitos Mononucleares/virologia , Pulmão/imunologia , Pulmão/metabolismo , Pulmão/virologia , NF-kappa B/genética , NF-kappa B/imunologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Cultura Primária de Células , Pró-Proteína Convertase 9/genética , Pró-Proteína Convertase 9/imunologia , Transdução de Sinais , Proteína de Ligação a Elemento Regulador de Esterol 2/imunologia , Análise de Sobrevida , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/genética , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/imunologia
3.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(38): 23336-23338, 2020 09 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32900927

RESUMO

Colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF1R) inhibition has been proposed as a method for microglia depletion, with the assumption that it does not affect peripheral immune cells. Here, we show that CSF1R inhibition by PLX5622 indeed affects the myeloid and lymphoid compartments, causes long-term changes in bone marrow-derived macrophages by suppressing interleukin 1ß, CD68, and phagocytosis but not CD208, following exposure to endotoxin, and also reduces the population of resident and interstitial macrophages of peritoneum, lung, and liver but not spleen. Thus, small-molecule CSF1R inhibition is not restricted to microglia, causing strong effects on circulating and tissue macrophages that perdure long after cessation of the treatment. Given that peripheral monocytes repopulate the central nervous system after CSF1R inhibition, these changes have practical implications for relevant experimental data.


Assuntos
Hematopoese/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/imunologia , Microglia/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostos Orgânicos/farmacologia , Receptores de Fator Estimulador das Colônias de Granulócitos e Macrófagos/antagonistas & inibidores , Animais , Antígenos CD/genética , Antígenos CD/imunologia , Antígenos de Diferenciação Mielomonocítica/genética , Antígenos de Diferenciação Mielomonocítica/imunologia , Feminino , Interleucina-1beta/genética , Interleucina-1beta/imunologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Microglia/imunologia , Fagocitose/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptores de Fator Estimulador das Colônias de Granulócitos e Macrófagos/genética , Receptores de Fator Estimulador das Colônias de Granulócitos e Macrófagos/imunologia , Especificidade da Espécie
4.
Nat Med ; 26(10): 1636-1643, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32839624

RESUMO

Several studies have revealed that the hyper-inflammatory response induced by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a major cause of disease severity and death. However, predictive biomarkers of pathogenic inflammation to help guide targetable immune pathways are critically lacking. We implemented a rapid multiplex cytokine assay to measure serum interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and IL-1ß in hospitalized patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) upon admission to the Mount Sinai Health System in New York. Patients (n = 1,484) were followed up to 41 d after admission (median, 8 d), and clinical information, laboratory test results and patient outcomes were collected. We found that high serum IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-α levels at the time of hospitalization were strong and independent predictors of patient survival (P < 0.0001, P = 0.0205 and P = 0.0140, respectively). Notably, when adjusting for disease severity, common laboratory inflammation markers, hypoxia and other vitals, demographics, and a range of comorbidities, IL-6 and TNF-α serum levels remained independent and significant predictors of disease severity and death. These findings were validated in a second cohort of patients (n = 231). We propose that serum IL-6 and TNF-α levels should be considered in the management and treatment of patients with COVID-19 to stratify prospective clinical trials, guide resource allocation and inform therapeutic options.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Interleucina-1beta/imunologia , Interleucina-6/imunologia , Interleucina-8/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/imunologia , Idoso , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Citocinas/imunologia , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Taxa de Sobrevida
5.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237182, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32764797

RESUMO

Necrotizing enterocolitis is the most common gastrointestinal disorder in premature neonates. This disease is characterized by massive epithelial necrosis, gut barrier dysfunction and improper mucosal defense development. Studies have shown that probiotic administration can decrease NEC incidence and mortality. The proposed mechanisms of probiotics for the prevention of NEC are: promotion of intestinal development; improved barrier function through decreased apoptosis and improved mucin production; decreased expression of proinflammatory cytokines IL6, IL8, and TNFα, and modulation of microbiota dysbiosis in preterm infants. However, reported sepsis in the immunocompromised preterm host has deterred routine prophylactic administration of probiotics in the neonatal intensive care unit. We hypothesize that maternal administration of probiotics to pregnant mouse dams can recapitulate the beneficial effects observed in neonates fed with probiotics directly. We exposed pregnant mice to the probiotics and monitored the changes in the developing intestines of the offspring. Pregnant mice were fed daily with the probiotics Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium infantis (LB) from embryonic day15 to 2-week-old postnatally. Intraperitoneal administration of IL-1ß in the pups was used to model proinflammatory insults. Sera were collected at 2 weeks of age and evaluated for inflammatory cytokines by enzyme-linked-immunosorbent-assay and gut permeability by Fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran tracer assay. Ileal tissues were collected for the evaluation of apoptosis and proliferation of the intestinal epithelium; as well as mucin and tight junction integrity at mucosal surface by immunofluorescent staining. We find that maternal LB exposure facilitated intestinal epithelial cell differentiation, prevented loss of mucin and preserved the intestinal integrity and barrier function and decreased serum levels of IL-1ß, TNF-α and IL-6 in the preweaned offsprings. in LB exposed pups. We demonstrate that maternal probiotic supplementation promotes gut maturation in developing offspring. This is potentially a safe alternative therapy to induce intestinal maturation and prevent prematurity-associated neonatal disorders.


Assuntos
Enterocolite Necrosante/prevenção & controle , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Mucosa Intestinal/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Exposição Materna , Probióticos/administração & dosagem , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais Recém-Nascidos/microbiologia , Bifidobacterium longum subspecies infantis , Diferenciação Celular/fisiologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Enterocolite Necrosante/imunologia , Enterocolite Necrosante/microbiologia , Enterocolite Necrosante/patologia , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos/fisiologia , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Interleucina-1beta/administração & dosagem , Interleucina-1beta/imunologia , Mucosa Intestinal/imunologia , Mucosa Intestinal/microbiologia , Mucosa Intestinal/patologia , Lactobacillus acidophilus , Camundongos
6.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(28): 16475-16480, 2020 07 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32601180

RESUMO

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterized by impaired social interactions and communication. The pathogenesis of ASD is not known, but it involves activation of microglia. We had shown that the peptide neurotensin (NT) is increased in the serum of children with ASD and stimulates cultured adult human microglia to secrete the proinflammatory molecules IL-1ß and CXCL8. This process is inhibited by the cytokine IL-37. Another cytokine, IL-38, has been reported to have antiinflammatory actions. In this report, we show that pretreatment of cultured adult human microglia with recombinant IL-38 (aa3-152, 1-100 ng/mL) inhibits (P < 0.0001) NT-stimulated (10 nM) secretion of IL-1ß (at 1 ng/mL) and CXCL8 (at 100 ng/mL). In fact, IL-38 (aa3-152, 1 ng/mL) is more potent than IL-37 (100 ng/mL). Here, we report that pretreatment with IL-38 (100 ng/mL) of embryonic microglia (HMC3), in which secretion of IL-1ß was undetectable, inhibits secretion of CXCL8 (P = 0.004). Gene expression of IL-38 and its receptor IL-36R are decreased (P = 0.001 and P = 0.04, respectively) in amygdala from patients with ASD (n = 8) compared to non-ASD controls (n = 8), obtained from the University of Maryland NeuroBioBank. IL-38 is increased (P = 0.03) in the serum of children with ASD. These findings indicate an important role for IL-38 in the inhibition of activation of human microglia, thus supporting its development as a treatment approach for ASD.


Assuntos
Tonsila do Cerebelo/imunologia , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/imunologia , Interleucinas/imunologia , Microglia/imunologia , Adolescente , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/sangue , Células Cultivadas , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Interleucina-16/sangue , Interleucina-16/imunologia , Interleucina-1beta/sangue , Interleucina-1beta/imunologia , Interleucina-8/imunologia , Interleucinas/sangue , Masculino , Neurotensina/sangue , Neurotensina/imunologia
7.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3687, 2020 07 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32703941

RESUMO

Microglia, resident immune cells of the CNS, are thought to defend against infections. Toxoplasma gondii is an opportunistic infection that can cause severe neurological disease. Here we report that during T. gondii infection a strong NF-κB and inflammatory cytokine transcriptional signature is overrepresented in blood-derived macrophages versus microglia. Interestingly, IL-1α is enriched in microglia and IL-1ß in macrophages. We find that mice lacking IL-1R1 or IL-1α, but not IL-1ß, have impaired parasite control and immune cell infiltration within the brain. Further, we show that microglia, not peripheral myeloid cells, release IL-1α ex vivo. Finally, we show that ex vivo IL-1α release is gasdermin-D dependent, and that gasdermin-D and caspase-1/11 deficient mice show deficits in brain inflammation and parasite control. These results demonstrate that microglia and macrophages are differently equipped to propagate inflammation, and that in chronic T. gondii infection, microglia can release the alarmin IL-1α, promoting neuroinflammation and parasite control.


Assuntos
Interleucina-1alfa/metabolismo , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/metabolismo , Microglia/imunologia , Proteínas de Ligação a Fosfato/metabolismo , Toxoplasma/imunologia , Toxoplasmose Cerebral/imunologia , Animais , Encéfalo/citologia , Encéfalo/imunologia , Encéfalo/parasitologia , Encéfalo/patologia , Células Cultivadas , Doença Crônica , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Humanos , Interleucina-1alfa/genética , Interleucina-1alfa/imunologia , Interleucina-1beta/imunologia , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/genética , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/imunologia , Macrófagos/imunologia , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Microglia/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a Fosfato/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a Fosfato/imunologia , Toxoplasma/isolamento & purificação , Toxoplasmose Cerebral/sangue , Toxoplasmose Cerebral/parasitologia , Toxoplasmose Cerebral/patologia
8.
JCI Insight ; 5(17)2020 09 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32706339

RESUMO

BACKGROUNDElevated levels of inflammatory cytokines have been associated with poor outcomes among COVID-19 patients. It is unknown, however, how these levels compare with those observed in critically ill patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) or sepsis due to other causes.METHODSWe used a Luminex assay to determine expression of 76 cytokines from plasma of hospitalized COVID-19 patients and banked plasma samples from ARDS and sepsis patients. Our analysis focused on detecting statistical differences in levels of 6 cytokines associated with cytokine storm (IL-1ß, IL-1RA, IL-6, IL-8, IL-18, and TNF-α) between patients with moderate COVID-19, severe COVID-19, and ARDS or sepsis.RESULTSFifteen hospitalized COVID-19 patients, 9 of whom were critically ill, were compared with critically ill patients with ARDS (n = 12) or sepsis (n = 16). There were no statistically significant differences in baseline levels of IL-1ß, IL-1RA, IL-6, IL-8, IL-18, and TNF-α between patients with COVID-19 and critically ill controls with ARDS or sepsis.CONCLUSIONLevels of inflammatory cytokines were not higher in severe COVID-19 patients than in moderate COVID-19 or critically ill patients with ARDS or sepsis in this small cohort. Broad use of immunosuppressive therapies in ARDS has failed in numerous Phase 3 studies; use of these therapies in unselected patients with COVID-19 may be unwarranted.FUNDINGFunding was received from NHLBI K23 HL125663 (AJR); The Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation OPP1113682 (AJR and CAB); Burroughs Wellcome Fund Investigators in the Pathogenesis of Infectious Diseases #1016687 NIH/NIAID U19AI057229-16; Stanford Maternal Child Health Research Institute; and Chan Zuckerberg Biohub (CAB).


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/imunologia , Citocinas/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/imunologia , Sepse/imunologia , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Infecções por Coronavirus/sangue , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/sangue , Citocinas/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Proteína Antagonista do Receptor de Interleucina 1/sangue , Proteína Antagonista do Receptor de Interleucina 1/imunologia , Interleucina-18/sangue , Interleucina-18/imunologia , Interleucina-1beta/sangue , Interleucina-1beta/imunologia , Interleucina-6/sangue , Interleucina-6/imunologia , Interleucina-8/sangue , Interleucina-8/imunologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/sangue , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/sangue , Sepse/sangue , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/sangue , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/imunologia
9.
Med Hypotheses ; 143: 109906, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32505910

RESUMO

Most COVID-19 infected individuals present with mild flu-like symptoms; however, 5-10% of cases suffer from life-threatening pneumonia and respiratory failure. The pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 and its pathology of associated acute lung injury (ALI), acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), sepsis, coagulopathy and multiorgan failure is not known. SARS-CoV-2 is an envelope virus with S (spike), M (membrane), N (nucleocapsid) and E (envelop) proteins. In a closely related coronavirus (SARS-CoV), the transmembrane E protein exerts an important role in membrane-ionic transport through viroporins, deletion of which reduced levels of IL-1ß and a remarkably reduced lung edema compared to wild type. IL-1ß is generated by macrophages upon activation of intracellular NLRP3 (NOD-like, leucine rich repeat domains, and pyrin domain-containing protein 3), part of the functional NLRP3 inflammasome complex that detects pathogenic microorganisms and stressors, while neutrophils are enhanced by increasing levels of IL-1ß. Expiring neutrophils undergo "NETosis", producing thread-like extracellular structures termed neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), which protect against mild infections and microbes. However, uncontrolled NET production can cause acute lung injury (ALI) and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), coagulopathy, multiple organ failure, and autoimmune disease. Herein, we present arguments underlying our hypothesis that IL-1ß and NETs, mediated via NLRP3 inflammasomes, form a feed-forward loop leading to the excessive alveolar and endothelial damage observed in severe cases of COVID-19. Considering such assertions, we propose potential drug candidates that could be used to alleviate such pathologies. Considering that recent efforts to ascertain effective treatments of COVID-19 in severe patients has been less than successful, investigating novel avenues of treating this virus are essential.


Assuntos
Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/etiologia , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Armadilhas Extracelulares/efeitos dos fármacos , Interleucina-1beta/antagonistas & inibidores , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Armadilhas Extracelulares/imunologia , Retroalimentação Fisiológica , Humanos , Inflamassomos/imunologia , Interleucina-1beta/imunologia , Modelos Biológicos , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/imunologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia
10.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 202(6): 812-821, 2020 09 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32584597

RESUMO

Rationale: Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is a global threat to health. Its inflammatory characteristics are incompletely understood.Objectives: To define the cytokine profile of COVID-19 and to identify evidence of immunometabolic alterations in those with severe illness.Methods: Levels of IL-1ß, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, and sTNFR1 (soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor 1) were assessed in plasma from healthy volunteers, hospitalized but stable patients with COVID-19 (COVIDstable patients), patients with COVID-19 requiring ICU admission (COVIDICU patients), and patients with severe community-acquired pneumonia requiring ICU support (CAPICU patients). Immunometabolic markers were measured in circulating neutrophils from patients with severe COVID-19. The acute phase response of AAT (alpha-1 antitrypsin) to COVID-19 was also evaluated.Measurements and Main Results: IL-1ß, IL-6, IL-8, and sTNFR1 were all increased in patients with COVID-19. COVIDICU patients could be clearly differentiated from COVIDstable patients, and demonstrated higher levels of IL-1ß, IL-6, and sTNFR1 but lower IL-10 than CAPICU patients. COVID-19 neutrophils displayed altered immunometabolism, with increased cytosolic PKM2 (pyruvate kinase M2), phosphorylated PKM2, HIF-1α (hypoxia-inducible factor-1α), and lactate. The production and sialylation of AAT increased in COVID-19, but this antiinflammatory response was overwhelmed in severe illness, with the IL-6:AAT ratio markedly higher in patients requiring ICU admission (P < 0.0001). In critically unwell patients with COVID-19, increases in IL-6:AAT predicted prolonged ICU stay and mortality, whereas improvement in IL-6:AAT was associated with clinical resolution (P < 0.0001).Conclusions: The COVID-19 cytokinemia is distinct from that of other types of pneumonia, leading to organ failure and ICU need. Neutrophils undergo immunometabolic reprogramming in severe COVID-19 illness. Cytokine ratios may predict outcomes in this population.


Assuntos
Reação de Fase Aguda/imunologia , Proteínas de Transporte/metabolismo , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/metabolismo , Citocinas/imunologia , Subunidade alfa do Fator 1 Induzível por Hipóxia/metabolismo , Ácido Láctico/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/metabolismo , Hormônios Tireóideos/metabolismo , alfa 1-Antitripsina/imunologia , Reação de Fase Aguda/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Betacoronavirus , Western Blotting , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/imunologia , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/metabolismo , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Estado Terminal , Eletroforese em Gel de Poliacrilamida , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Interleucina-10/imunologia , Interleucina-1beta/imunologia , Interleucina-6/imunologia , Interleucina-8/imunologia , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neutrófilos/imunologia , Neutrófilos/metabolismo , Pandemias , Fosforilação , Pneumonia/imunologia , Pneumonia/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Receptores Tipo I de Fatores de Necrose Tumoral/imunologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , alfa 1-Antitripsina/metabolismo
11.
Nat Rev Rheumatol ; 16(8): 465-470, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32561873

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an infectious disease, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, which predominantly affects the lungs and, under certain circumstances, leads to an excessive or uncontrolled immune activation and cytokine response in alveolar structures. The pattern of pro-inflammatory cytokines induced in COVID-19 has similarities to those targeted in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. Several clinical studies are underway that test the effects of inhibiting IL-6, IL-1ß or TNF or targeting cytokine signalling via Janus kinase inhibition in the treatment of COVID-19. Despite these similarities, COVID-19 and other zoonotic coronavirus-mediated diseases do not induce clinical arthritis, suggesting that a local inflammatory niche develops in alveolar structures and drives the disease process. COVID-19 constitutes a challenge for patients with inflammatory arthritis for several reasons, in particular, the safety of immune interventions during the pandemic. Preliminary data, however, do not suggest that patients with inflammatory arthritis are at increased risk of COVID-19.


Assuntos
Artrite Reumatoide/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Alvéolos Pulmonares/imunologia , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Antirreumáticos/uso terapêutico , Artralgia , Artrite Reumatoide/tratamento farmacológico , Azetidinas/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Assistência à Saúde , Proteína Antagonista do Receptor de Interleucina 1/uso terapêutico , Interleucina-1beta/imunologia , Interleucina-6/imunologia , Inibidores de Janus Quinases/uso terapêutico , Mialgia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Reumatologia , Sulfonamidas/uso terapêutico , Inibidores do Fator de Necrose Tumoral/uso terapêutico , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/imunologia
12.
Arch Virol ; 165(7): 1599-1609, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32399788

RESUMO

The viral hemorrhage disease caused by grass carp reovirus (GCRV) is a serious contagious disease of grass carp that mainly infects fingerlings and yearlings. Epidemiological studies have shown that GCRV genotype II is currently the prominent genotype. However, little is known about the histopathological characteristics, virus distribution, and expression of immunity-related genes in grass carp infected by GCRV genotype II. In this study, we found that grass carp infected by GCRV genotype II lost appetite, swam alone, and rolled, and their fins, eyes, operculum, oral cavity, abdomen, intestine, and muscles showed pronounced punctate hemorrhage. Congestion, swelling, deformation, thinning of membranes, dilatation and darkened color of nucleoli, cathepsis, erythrocyte infiltration, and vacuole formation were observed in some infected tissues. A qRT-PCR test showed that the 11 genome segments of GCRV had similar expression patterns in different tissues. The S8 segment, with unknown function and no homologous sequences, had the highest expression level, while the most conserved segment, L2, had the lowest expression level. GCRV particles were distributed in different tissues, especially in the intestine. In the infected intestine, the expression of various receptors and adaptor molecules was modulated at different levels. Pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß) expression was 2160.9 times higher than that in the control group. The upregulation of immunity-related genes activated the antiviral immunity pathways. Therefore, the intestine might play a dual role in mediating GCRV infection and the antiviral immune response. This study provides detailed information about the pathogenicity of GCRV and expression of immunity-related genes, laying the foundation for further research on virus control and treatment.


Assuntos
Carpas/virologia , Doenças dos Peixes/genética , Proteínas de Peixes/genética , Infecções por Reoviridae/veterinária , Reoviridae/fisiologia , Animais , Carpas/genética , Carpas/imunologia , Doenças dos Peixes/imunologia , Doenças dos Peixes/patologia , Doenças dos Peixes/virologia , Proteínas de Peixes/imunologia , Genoma Viral , Genótipo , Interleucina-1beta/genética , Interleucina-1beta/imunologia , Reoviridae/genética , Infecções por Reoviridae/genética , Infecções por Reoviridae/imunologia , Infecções por Reoviridae/virologia
13.
Nat Immunol ; 21(7): 736-745, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32367036

RESUMO

Cytosolic sensing of pathogens and damage by myeloid and barrier epithelial cells assembles large complexes called inflammasomes, which activate inflammatory caspases to process cytokines (IL-1ß) and gasdermin D (GSDMD). Cleaved GSDMD forms membrane pores, leading to cytokine release and inflammatory cell death (pyroptosis). Inhibiting GSDMD is an attractive strategy to curb inflammation. Here we identify disulfiram, a drug for treating alcohol addiction, as an inhibitor of pore formation by GSDMD but not other members of the GSDM family. Disulfiram blocks pyroptosis and cytokine release in cells and lipopolysaccharide-induced septic death in mice. At nanomolar concentration, disulfiram covalently modifies human/mouse Cys191/Cys192 in GSDMD to block pore formation. Disulfiram still allows IL-1ß and GSDMD processing, but abrogates pore formation, thereby preventing IL-1ß release and pyroptosis. The role of disulfiram in inhibiting GSDMD provides new therapeutic indications for repurposing this safe drug to counteract inflammation, which contributes to many human diseases.


Assuntos
Dissulfiram/farmacologia , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas de Ligação a Fosfato/antagonistas & inibidores , Piroptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Sepse/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Caspase 1/genética , Caspase 1/metabolismo , Inibidores de Caspase/farmacologia , Caspases/metabolismo , Caspases Iniciadoras/genética , Caspases Iniciadoras/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Dissulfiram/uso terapêutico , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Reposicionamento de Medicamentos , Feminino , Células HEK293 , Ensaios de Triagem em Larga Escala , Humanos , Interleucina-1beta/imunologia , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/genética , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/metabolismo , Lipopolissacarídeos/administração & dosagem , Lipopolissacarídeos/imunologia , Lipossomos , Camundongos , Mutagênese Sítio-Dirigida , Proteínas de Ligação a Fosfato/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a Fosfato/metabolismo , Piroptose/imunologia , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/metabolismo , Sepse/imunologia , Células Sf9 , Spodoptera
14.
PLoS Pathog ; 16(4): e1008474, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32315358

RESUMO

Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi) is the etiological agent of Chagas cardiomyopathy. In the present study, we investigated the role of extracellular vesicles (Ev) in shaping the macrophage (Mφ) response in progressive Chagas disease (CD). We purified T. cruzi Ev (TcEv) from axenic parasite cultures, and T. cruzi-induced Ev (TEv) from the supernatants of infected cells and plasma of acutely and chronically infected wild-type and Parp1-/- mice. Cultured (Raw 264.7) and bone-marrow Mφ responded to TcEV and TEv with a profound increase in the expression and release of TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1ß cytokines. TEv produced by both immune (Mφ) and non-immune (muscle) cells were proinflammatory. Chemical inhibition or genetic deletion of PARP1 (a DNA repair enzyme) significantly depressed the TEv-induced transcriptional and translational activation of proinflammatory Mφ response. Oxidized DNA encapsulated by TEv was necessary for PARP1-dependent proinflammatory Mφ response. Inhibition studies suggested that DNA-sensing innate immune receptors (cGAS>>TLR9) synergized with PARP1 in signaling the NFκB activation, and inhibition of PARP1 and cGAS resulted in >80% inhibition of TEv-induced NFκB activity. Histochemical studies showed intense inflammatory infiltrate associated with profound increase in CD11b+CD68+TNF-α+ Mφ in the myocardium of CD wild-type mice. In comparison, chronically infected Parp1-/- mice exhibited low-to-moderate tissue inflammation, >80% decline in myocardial infiltration of TNF-α+ Mφ, and no change in immunoregulatory IL-10+ Mφ. We conclude that oxidized DNA released with TEv signal the PARP1-cGAS-NF-κB pathway of proinflammatory Mφ activation and worsens the chronic inflammatory pathology in CD. Small molecule antagonists of PARP1-cGAS signaling pathway would potentially be useful in reprogramming the Mφ activation and controlling the chronic inflammation in CD.


Assuntos
Doença de Chagas/metabolismo , Vesículas Extracelulares/metabolismo , Ativação de Macrófagos/imunologia , Macrófagos/imunologia , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Nucleotidiltransferases/metabolismo , Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerase-1/metabolismo , Animais , Cardiomiopatia Chagásica/imunologia , Cardiomiopatia Chagásica/metabolismo , Citocinas/imunologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Feminino , Interleucina-1beta/imunologia , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Interleucina-6/imunologia , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , NF-kappa B/imunologia , Nucleotidiltransferases/imunologia , Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerase-1/imunologia , Células RAW 264.7 , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia , Trypanosoma cruzi/metabolismo , Trypanosoma cruzi/patogenicidade , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/imunologia , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
15.
Vet Res Commun ; 44(2): 51-59, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32297137

RESUMO

Inflammasome, a cytosolic multi-protein complex, assembly is a response to sensing intracellular pathogenic and endogenic danger signals followed by caspase-1 activation, which maturates precursor cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-1ß. Most inflammasome research has been undertaken in humans and rodents, and inflammasomes in veterinary species have not been well-characterized. In this study, we observed the effects of well-known inflammasome activators on equine peripheral blood monocytes (PBMCs). The NLRP3 inflammasome triggers include ATP, nigericin, aluminum crystals, and monosodium urate crystals, and NLRP3 activation induces IL-1ß secretion in a dose-dependent manner. Activators of NLRC4 and AIM2 inflammasomes include cytosolic flagellin and dsDNA, and their activation induces IL-1ß secretion. The bacterial inflammasome triggers Salmonella Typhimurium and Listeria monocytogenes also induce IL-ß releases. To elucidate the role of potassium efflux as an upstream signal of NLRP3 inflammasome activation, equine PBMCs were treated with blockers of potassium efflux in the presence of NLRP3 triggers. As a result, the IL-1ß secretion stemming from equine NLRP3 inflammasome activation was not completely attenuated by the inhibition of potassium efflux. Taken together, the results indicate that equine PBMCs normally secrete IL-1ß in response to well-known inflammasome activators, although equine NLRP3 inflammasome activation might not be dependent on potassium efflux.


Assuntos
Cavalos/imunologia , Inflamassomos/imunologia , Monócitos/imunologia , Trifosfato de Adenosina/farmacologia , Alumínio/farmacologia , Animais , DNA/farmacologia , Flagelina/farmacologia , Inflamassomos/efeitos dos fármacos , Interleucina-1beta/imunologia , Listeria monocytogenes/imunologia , Nigericina/farmacologia , Salmonella typhimurium/imunologia , Ácido Úrico/farmacologia
16.
Transpl Infect Dis ; 22(4): e13286, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32279418

RESUMO

During the novel coronavirus pandemic, organ transplant recipients represent a frail susceptible category due to long-term immunosuppressive therapy. For this reason, clinical manifestations may differ from general population and different treatment approaches may be needed. We present the case of a 36-year-old kidney-transplanted woman affected by Senior-Loken syndrome diagnosed with COVID-19 pneumonia after a contact with her positive mother. Initial symptoms were fatigue, dry cough, and coryza; she never had fever nor oxygen supplementation. Hydroxychloroquine and lopinavir/ritonavir were started, and the antiviral drug was replaced with darunavir/cobicistat after 2 days for diarrhea. Immunosuppressant levels were closely monitored, and we observed very high tacrolimus trough levels despite initial dose reduction. The patient was left with steroid therapy alone. The peculiarity of clinical presentation and the management difficulties represent the flagship of our case report. We stress the need for guidelines in transplant recipients with COVID-19 infection with particular regard to the management of therapy.


Assuntos
Antivirais/efeitos adversos , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores do Citocromo P-450 CYP3A/efeitos adversos , Rejeição de Enxerto/prevenção & controle , Imunossupressores/efeitos adversos , Transplante de Rim , Lopinavir/efeitos adversos , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Ritonavir/efeitos adversos , Tacrolimo/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus , Proteína C-Reativa/imunologia , Ciliopatias/complicações , Cobicistat/uso terapêutico , Resfriado Comum/etiologia , Resfriado Comum/fisiopatologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Tosse/etiologia , Tosse/fisiopatologia , Darunavir/uso terapêutico , Desprescrições , Combinação de Medicamentos , Interações Medicamentosas , Inibidores Enzimáticos/uso terapêutico , Fadiga/etiologia , Fadiga/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Glucocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Hidroxicloroquina/uso terapêutico , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido/imunologia , Interleucina-10/imunologia , Interleucina-1beta/imunologia , Interleucina-6/imunologia , Interleucina-8/imunologia , Doenças Renais Císticas/complicações , Falência Renal Crônica/etiologia , Falência Renal Crônica/cirurgia , Amaurose Congênita de Leber/complicações , Metilprednisolona/uso terapêutico , Atrofias Ópticas Hereditárias/complicações , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
17.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2049, 2020 04 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32341343

RESUMO

ILCs and T helper cells have been shown to exert bi-directional regulation in mice. However, how crosstalk between ILCs and CD4+ T cells influences immune function in humans is unknown. Here we show that human intestinal ILCs co-localize with T cells in healthy and colorectal cancer tissue and display elevated HLA-DR expression in tumor and tumor-adjacent areas. Although mostly lacking co-stimulatory molecules ex vivo, intestinal and peripheral blood (PB) ILCs acquire antigen-presenting characteristics triggered by inflammasome-associated cytokines IL-1ß and IL-18. IL-1ß drives the expression of HLA-DR and co-stimulatory molecules on PB ILCs in an NF-κB-dependent manner, priming them as efficient inducers of cytomegalovirus-specific memory CD4+ T-cell responses. This effect is strongly inhibited by the anti-inflammatory cytokine TGF-ß. Our results suggest that circulating and tissue-resident ILCs have the intrinsic capacity to respond to the immediate cytokine milieu and regulate local CD4+ T-cell responses, with potential implications for anti-tumor immunity and inflammation.


Assuntos
Células Apresentadoras de Antígenos/imunologia , Citocinas/imunologia , Imunidade Inata , Linfócitos/imunologia , Animais , Apresentação do Antígeno , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Neoplasias do Colo/imunologia , Humanos , Inflamassomos/imunologia , Interleucina-18/imunologia , Interleucina-1beta/imunologia , Mucosa Intestinal/imunologia , Mucosa Intestinal/patologia , Leucócitos Mononucleares/imunologia , Camundongos
18.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(1): 7-13, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32237405

RESUMO

The progression of renal damage in diabetic nephropathy(DN)is closely related to Nod-like receptor protein3(NLRP3)inflammasome activation. The characteristics of NLRP3 inflammasome activation include the changed expression and combination levels of NLRP3, apoptosis-associated speck-like protein(ASC)and pro-caspase-1, the increased expression levels of caspase-1, interleukin(IL)-1ß and IL-18 and the excessive release levels of the relative inflammatory mediators. Its molecular regulative mechanisms involve the activation of multiple signaling pathways including reactive oxygen species(ROS)/thioredoxin-interacting protein(TXNIP)pathway, nuclear factor(NF)-κB pathway, nuclear factor erythroid-related factor 2(Nrf2)pathway, long non-coding RNA(lncRNA)pathway and mitogen-activated protein kinases(MAPKs)pathway. In addition, more importantly, never in mitosis aspergillus-related kinase 7(Nek7), as a kinase regulator, could target-combine with NLRP3 at upstream to activate NLRP3 inflammasome. Some extracts of Chinese herbal medicines(CHMs)such as quercetin, curcumin, cepharanthine, piperine and salidroside, as well as Chinese herbal compound prescriptions such as Wumei Pills both could treat NLRP3 inflammasome to ameliorate inflammatory renal damage in DN. Therefore, accurately clarifying the targets of anti-inflammatory CHMs and Chinese herbal compound prescriptions delaying DN progression by targeting the molecular regulative mechanisms of NLRP3 inflammasome activation will be one of the development directions in the future.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus/tratamento farmacológico , Nefropatias Diabéticas/tratamento farmacológico , Nefropatias Diabéticas/imunologia , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/uso terapêutico , Inflamassomos/imunologia , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/imunologia , Caspase 1/imunologia , Humanos , Interleucina-18/imunologia , Interleucina-1beta/imunologia , Quinases Relacionadas a NIMA
19.
PLoS Pathog ; 16(3): e1008294, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32210476

RESUMO

Mycobacterium abscessus (MAB) is a rapidly growing mycobacterium (RGM), and infections with this pathogen have been increasing worldwide. Recently, we reported that rough type (MAB-R) but not smooth type (MAB-S) strains enhanced type 1 interferon (IFN-I) secretion via bacterial phagosome escape, contributing to increased virulence. Here, we sought to investigate the role of mitochondrial oxidative stress in bacterial survival, IFN-I secretion and NLRP3 inflammasome activation in MAB-infected murine macrophages. We found that live but not heat-killed (HK) MAB-R strains increased mitochondrial ROS (mtROS) and increased release of oxidized mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) into the cytosol of murine macrophages compared to the effects of live MAB-S strains, resulting in enhanced NLRP3 inflammasome-mediated IL-1ß and cGAS-STING-dependent IFN-I production. Treatment of the infected macrophages with mtROS-modulating agents such as mito-TEMPO or cyclosporin A reduced cytosolic oxidized mtDNA, which inhibited the MAB-R strain-induced production of IL-1ß and IFN-I. The reduced cytosolic oxidized mtDNA also inhibited intracellular growth of MAB-R strains via cytosolic escape following phagosomal rupture and via IFN-I-mediated cell-to-cell spreading. Moreover, our data showed that mtROS-dependent IFN-I production inhibited IL-1ß production, further contributing to MAB-R intracellular survival in murine macrophages. In conclusion, our data indicated that MAB-R strains enhanced IFN-I and IL-1ß production by inducing mtROS as a pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP). These events also enhance bacterial survival in macrophages and dampen inflammation, which contribute to the pathogenesis of MAB-R strains.


Assuntos
Inflamassomos/imunologia , Macrófagos/imunologia , Infecções por Mycobacterium não Tuberculosas/imunologia , Mycobacterium abscessus/fisiologia , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/imunologia , Animais , Humanos , Inflamassomos/genética , Interferon beta/genética , Interferon beta/imunologia , Interleucina-1beta/genética , Interleucina-1beta/imunologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Mitocôndrias/genética , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Infecções por Mycobacterium não Tuberculosas/genética , Infecções por Mycobacterium não Tuberculosas/metabolismo , Infecções por Mycobacterium não Tuberculosas/microbiologia , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/genética , Estresse Oxidativo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
20.
Exerc Immunol Rev ; 26: 10-22, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32139355

RESUMO

Moderate aerobic training may be therapeutic for chronic low-grade inflammatory diseases due to the associated anti-inflammatory response that is mediated by immune cells. The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) regulates the M1 (pro-inflammatory) and M2 (anti-inflammatory) polarization, as well as the immunometabolic response of macrophages. Against this background, the present study seeks to clarify whether the conditional deletion of PPARγ in macrophages would have any effect on the anti-inflammatory role of moderate aerobic training. To test this hypothesis, two mice strains were used: PPARγ LyzCre+/+ (KO) and littermates control animals (WT). Each genotype was divided into 1) sedentary high-fat diet (HF) and 2) high-fat diet and moderate aerobic training (HFT) (n = 5-8 per group). The experimental protocol lasted for 12 weeks, comprising 4 weeks of HF diet only and 8 weeks of HF diet and aerobic training (5 times/week, 50-60 minutes/day at 60% of maximum speed). Metabolic analyses were carried out on the serum glucose homeostase, adipose tissue morphology and cytokine content, and macrophage cytokine production.Immunophenotyping and gene expression were also performed. KO male mice were more prone to hypertrophy in the subcutaneous adipose tissue, though only the IL-1ß (p = 0.0049) was higher compared to the values observed in WT animals. Peritoneal macrophages from KO animals exhibited a marked inflammatory environment with an increase in TNF-α (p = 0.0008), IL- 1ß (p = 0.0017), and IL-6 (p < 0.0001) after lipopolysaccharide stimulation. The moderate aerobic training protected both genotypes from weight gain and reduced the caloric intake in the KO animals. Despite the attenuation of the M2 marker CD206 (p < 0.001) in the absence of PPAR-γ, the aerobic training modulated cytokine production in LPS stimulated peritoneal macrophages from both genotypes, reducing proinflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α (p = 0.0002) and IL-6 (p < 0.0001). Overall, our findings demonstrate the essential role of PPARγ in macrophage immunophenotypes. However, the deletion of PPARγ did not inhibit the exercise-mediated anti-inflammatory effect, underscoring the important role of exercise in modulating inflammation.


Assuntos
Inflamação/imunologia , Macrófagos Peritoneais/imunologia , PPAR gama/imunologia , Condicionamento Físico Animal , Animais , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Imunofenotipagem , Interleucina-1beta/imunologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Camundongos Obesos , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/imunologia
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