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3.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34200872

RESUMO

(1) Background: The term 'food literacy' has gained momentum globally; however, a lack of clarity around its definition has resulted in inconsistencies in use of the term. Therefore, the objective was to conduct a systematic scoping review to describe the use, reach, application and definitions of the term 'food literacy' over time. (2) Methods: A search was conducted using the PRISMA-ScR guidelines in seven research databases without any date limitations up to 31 December 2019, searching simply for use of the term 'food literacy'. (3) Results: Five hundred and forty-nine studies were included. The term 'food literacy' was used once in 243 articles (44%) and mentioned by researchers working in 41 countries. Original research was the most common article type (n = 429, 78%). Food literacy was published across 72 In Cites disciplines, with 456 (83%) articles from the last 5 years. In articles about food literacy (n = 82, 15%), review articles were twice as prevalent compared to the total number of articles (n = 10, 12% vs. n = 32, 6%). Fifty-one different definitions of food literacy were cited. (4) Conclusions: 'Food literacy' has been used frequently and broadly across differing article types and disciplines in academic literature internationally. However, agreement on a standardised definition of food literacy endorsed by a peak international agency is needed in order to progress the field.


Assuntos
Consenso , Alimentos , Educação em Saúde , Internacionalidade , Humanos , Publicações , Fatores de Tempo
4.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 52(2): 555-563, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34130398

RESUMO

In recent decades, wildfires have increased in frequency and geographic scale across the globe. The human health implications and ecological succession after wildfires are well documented and studied, but there is a lack of empirical research about the direct effects of wildfires on wildlife. Recent wildfires have demonstrated the need to better understand animal burn injuries and innovations in veterinary burn treatment. An online survey was distributed to wildlife rehabilitation facilities internationally to collect baseline information about the number and type of burned wildlife cases admitted, treatments used, and survivorship of wildlife affected by wildfires. Approximately 80% (n = 49) of all respondents (n = 61) reported admitting cases of burned wildlife from 2015 to 2018. Respondents included facilities from six different countries and roughly 43% of facilities reported having a veterinarian on staff. Electrical burns were most commonly reported with 89% of respondents stating that they had seen electrical burns while 38% of respondents reported seeing wildfire-source thermal burns in wildlife patients. Respondents were asked about their frequency of use of different treatment methods. Bandages, colloid fluids, and opioids were used at significantly higher rates at facilities with veterinarians compared with facilities that did not report having a veterinarian; however, survival of burned wildlife patients did not significantly differ based on the factor of having a veterinarian on staff. Long-term and short-term complications were commonly reported for wildlife burn patients; 88% of facilities reported scarring, 81% reported alopecia, and 61% reported sepsis. Burned animals admitted to facilities were reported to have equal odds of dying and surviving. Burn care recommendations have changed considerably in recent decades. This study provided a unique opportunity to compare contemporary recommendations in human medicine with current methods used in wildlife rehabilitation facilities to identify potential areas of further investigation and improvement for wildlife medicine.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens , Queimaduras/veterinária , Incêndios Florestais , Animais , Queimaduras/mortalidade , Queimaduras/patologia , Queimaduras/terapia , Coleta de Dados , Internacionalidade
5.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 3429, 2021 06 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34103514

RESUMO

Neuroscience research in Africa remains sparse. Devising new policies to boost Africa's neuroscience landscape is imperative, but these must be based on accurate data on research outputs which is largely lacking. Such data must reflect the heterogeneity of research environments across the continent's 54 countries. Here, we analyse neuroscience publications affiliated with African institutions between 1996 and 2017. Of 12,326 PubMed indexed publications, 5,219 show clear evidence that the work was performed in Africa and led by African-based researchers - on average ~5 per country and year. From here, we extract information on journals and citations, funding, international coauthorships and techniques used. For reference, we also extract the same metrics from 220 randomly selected publications each from the UK, USA, Australia, Japan and Brazil. Our dataset provides insights into the current state of African neuroscience research in a global context.


Assuntos
Neurociências/tendências , Publicações/tendências , África , Autoria , Internacionalidade , Fator de Impacto de Revistas , Neurociências/economia , Apoio à Pesquisa como Assunto/economia
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34072299

RESUMO

This study proposes a method for calculating the appropriate medical treatment price level for foreign visitors (FVs) in Japan. Hospital management costs and foreign prices were analyzed from a market principles perspective to determine the medical treatment price. The study involved two stages: a preliminary survey and an extended survey, supplemented by an international survey. Relatively frequent diseases were selected, and the costs incurred by hospitals for the treatment of FVs were analyzed though data from three hospitals, covering 24 outpatients and 4 inpatients. Payments made by three insurance companies for overseas medical institution services for Japanese tourists with pharyngitis were analyzed. This study shows that the appropriate medical treatment prices for FVs, considering profits, were 1.22-4.26 times higher compared with prices under Japan's public health insurance plans. Furthermore, these prices were 1.31-4.26 times higher for outpatients with pharyngitis and external injury and 1.22-3.66 times higher for inpatients with appendicitis and femoral fractures. The price of pharyngitis treatment in 12 countries was USD 20.32-158.75 per patient for Japanese tourists, whereas FVs paid 60.24 dollars (1.13 times higher than Japan's public healthcare price) in Japan. This study shows it was appropriate to set the ideal price level for FVs higher than that for Japanese patients.


Assuntos
Custos Hospitalares , Internacionalidade , Humanos , Japão
8.
J Neuroimmunol ; 357: 577627, 2021 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34139567

RESUMO

In this consensus statement, we provide updated recommendations on multiple sclerosis (MS) management during the COVID-19 crisis and the post-pandemic period applicable to neurology services around the world. Statements/recommendations were generated based on available literature and the experience of 13 MS expert panelists using a modified Delphi approach online. The statements/recommendations give advice regarding implementation of telemedicine; use of disease-modifying therapies and management of MS relapses; management of people with MS at highest risk from COVID-19; management of radiological monitoring; use of remote pharmacovigilance; impact on MS research; implications for lowest income settings, and other key issues.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/terapia , Internacionalidade , Esclerose Múltipla/epidemiologia , Esclerose Múltipla/terapia , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto/normas , Gerenciamento Clínico , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Farmacovigilância , Telemedicina/normas , Telemedicina/tendências
9.
Epidemiol Infect ; 149: e146, 2021 06 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34130770

RESUMO

Characteristics and research collaboration of registered systematic reviews (SRs) on treatment modalities for coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) remain unclear. This study analysed research collaboration, interventions and outcome measures in registered SRs on COVID-19 treatments and pointed out the relevant problems. PROSPERO (international prospective register of systematic reviews) was searched for SRs on COVID-19 treatments as of 2 June 2020. Excel 2016 was used for descriptive analyses of the extracted data. VOSviewer 1.6.14 software was used to generate network maps for collaborations between countries and institutions. A total of 189 SRs were included, which were registered by 301 institutions from 39 countries. China (69, 36.50%) exhibited the highest output. Cooperation between countries was not close enough. As an institution, the Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine (7, 3.70%) had the highest output. There was close cooperation between institutions. Interventions included antiviral therapy (81, 42.86%), respiratory support (16, 8.47%), circulatory support (11, 5.82%), plasma therapy for convalescent patients (11, 5.82%), immunotherapy (9, 4.76%), TCM (traditional Chinese medicine) treatment (9, 4.76%), rehabilitation treatment (5, 2.65%), anti-inflammatory treatment (16, 8.47%) and other treatments (31, 16.40%). Concerning antiviral therapy (81, 42.86%), the most commonly used antiviral agents were chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine (26, 13.76%), followed by remdesivir (12, 6.35%), lobinavir/ritonavir (11, 5.82%), favipiravir (5, 2.65%), ribavirin (5, 2.65%), interferon (5, 2.65%), abiron (4, 2.12%) and abidor (4, 2.12%). The most frequently used primary and secondary outcomes were the mortality rate (92, 48.68%) and hospital stay length (48, 25.40%), respectively. The expression of the outcomes was not standardised. Many COVID-19 SRs on treatment modalities have been registered, with a low completion rate. Although there was some collaboration between countries and institutions in the currently registered SRs on treatment modalities for COVID-19 on PROSPERO, cooperation between countries should be further enhanced. More attention should be directed towards identifying deficiencies of outcome measures, and the standardisation of results should be maximised.


Assuntos
COVID-19/terapia , Bases de Dados Factuais/estatística & dados numéricos , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Internacionalidade , Colaboração Intersetorial , SARS-CoV-2 , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto , Resultado do Tratamento
10.
Front Public Health ; 9: 674729, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34123994

RESUMO

This paper empirically investigates the effects of pandemics uncertainty on income inequality We consider a new measure of pandemics uncertainty, the World Pandemic Discussion Index (WPDI), and the post-tax (net) Gini coefficient We focus on the panel data of 141 countries from 1996 to 2020. The results from the Feasible General Least Squares estimations indicate that the WPDI is negatively related to income inequality in 107 non-OECD countries. However, the WPDI is positively associated with income inequality in 34 OECD economies. This evidence remains robust when considering different models, including several controls, and implementing various sensitivity analyses.


Assuntos
Renda , Pandemias , Internacionalidade , Incerteza
12.
J Med Microbiol ; 70(6)2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34128782

RESUMO

The Journal of Medical Microbiology has a global presence with an international Editorial Board. Asian countries such as PR China, India and Iran are prolific in the submission of manuscripts. Overall, the acceptance rate has been highest for European countries, the USA, Canada and Australia, and lowest for African, Asian and Latin American (LATAM) countries. The creation of regional Editors to assist the authors from these countries would serve the scientific community.


Assuntos
Políticas Editoriais , Internacionalidade , Microbiologia , Revisão da Pesquisa por Pares , Sociedades Científicas , Humanos
13.
J Environ Manage ; 294: 113033, 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34139643

RESUMO

Globalization and human capital accumulation are the main drivers of technology spillovers and essential for economic growth. At the same time, globalization and human capital are drivers to construct a green growth path that prevents pollution and the overuse of resources, and thus mitigates environmental degradation and achieves sustainable development. This mechanism, known as the 'technique/technology effect', may occur by stimulating technological development and creating environmental awareness and is of utmost importance in developed and developing countries to protect the environment. The aim of this study is to evaluate these outcomes, investigating how the environment reacts to developments in globalization and human capital accumulation by performing time-series analyses augmented with Fourier extensions, for countries in the BRICS group (Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa). The study first checks unit root and cointegration relationship by using Fourier unit root and Fourier cointegration approaches. Having confirmed a cointegration relationship, the FMOLS estimator extended with Fourier terms is applied to estimate cointegration parameters. Empirical results show that globalization and human capital are beneficial to protect the environment and to build a sustainable blueprint for the future, which specifically refer to more investment in the educational system and more efforts promoting social and cultural interaction across the globe.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono , Desenvolvimento Econômico , Brasil , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , China , Humanos , Índia , Internacionalidade , Federação Russa , África do Sul , Tecnologia
17.
Wiad Lek ; 74(5): 1208-1212, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34090292

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim: is to analyze the realities and to determine prospects of the medical reform in Ukraine as a method of public administration of healthcare. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Materials and methods: The given paper uses an integrated approach, which consists in the study of public administration of healthcare as a single whole with the coordinated functioning of all its constituents; besides this, the methods, which were used at the empirical and theoretical levels, such as, an abstract logical method, a method of analyses and synthesis, and a method of comparison were applied in the given research. CONCLUSION: Conclusions: The medical reform is not a goal in itself, but when implementing the reform, it is necessary to consider other related processes, such as globalization, technological progress, urbanization, demographic crisis, macro-economic situation, unfinished distribution of the rights of property in business, specialization. Now, there is «The Strategy of the Reformation of Healthcare of Ukraine¼. And the proper use of the complex of methods of public administration, directed both at balanced growth of the national health field, and prevention of negative influence of related sectors and fields of national economy guarantees its successful realization.


Assuntos
Atenção à Saúde , Internacionalidade , Comércio , Humanos , Ucrânia
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