Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 20.732
Filtrar
1.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5071, 2020 10 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33033235

RESUMO

Identifying species that are both geographically restricted and functionally distinct, i.e. supporting rare traits and functions, is of prime importance given their risk of extinction and their potential contribution to ecosystem functioning. We use global species distributions and functional traits for birds and mammals to identify the ecologically rare species, understand their characteristics, and identify hotspots. We find that ecologically rare species are disproportionately represented in IUCN threatened categories, insufficiently covered by protected areas, and for some of them sensitive to current and future threats. While they are more abundant overall in countries with a low human development index, some countries with high human development index are also hotspots of ecological rarity, suggesting transboundary responsibility for their conservation. Altogether, these results state that more conservation emphasis should be given to ecological rarity given future environmental conditions and the need to sustain multiple ecosystem processes in the long-term.


Assuntos
Aves/fisiologia , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Ecossistema , Internacionalidade , Mamíferos/fisiologia , Animais , Geografia , Humanos , Camada de Gelo , Filogenia , Análise de Componente Principal , Especificidade da Espécie
2.
Psychiatr Danub ; 32(Suppl 3): 371-377, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33030456

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The problem of peer violence is increasingly discussed. It is noticeable that it is not sufficiently researched and there is no sufficient information about its prevalence, forms, prevention methods, repression and coping with the problem and its consequences. It seems that it gets discussed more intensively only in case of a traumatic incident whose consequences cannot be denied and if they make a large impact on the entire society. To show the prevalence and manifestation of peer violence as well as problems in the prevention and addressing consequences of peer violence. METHODS: Data are collected from several studies on peer violence conducted in Bosnia and Herzegovina and worldwide. RESULTS: Collected data indicate that the peer violence ranges from 15% to 50% depending on the development of the country where research is conducted. CONCLUSIONS: It is necessary to identify peer violence on time and respond in a timely manner. Any claim of a child needs to be taken seriously, because timely response prevents the child who experienced some form of violence to revenge or become violent. It is important to start raising awareness among children from their early age and train them on techniques of non-violent communication, forms of violence, the ways of expressing violence and its effects on victims and observers of violence and why it is important to talk about it. They need to know where to report violence and what the duties of relevant institutions are. In addition to children, it is important to raise awareness among parents, teachers, politicians as well as mental health professionals. The entire society needs to be involved in the prevention of peer violence.


Assuntos
Agressão , Grupo Associado , Violência/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Bósnia e Herzegóvina/epidemiologia , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Internacionalidade , Masculino , Prevalência
4.
Rev Sci Tech ; 39(2): 359-371, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33046939

RESUMO

With human population growth, rapid urbanisation, increasing globalisation, and climate change, the interdependency of human health and animal health is mounting. Therefore, the importance of national emergency management plans (NEMPs) for the mitigation of, and preparedness for, all hazards, including disease epidemics, both zoonotic and zootic, is ever increasing. The authors decided to take a One Health approach by assessing the inclusion of Veterinary Services and animal health in NEMPs, based on geographical region, the date of the NEMP, national income status, and the proportion of the agricultural sector in national gross domestic product (GDP). To carry out the assessment, the authors analysed the publicly available NEMPs of 86 Members of the World Organisation for Animal Health. Of the 86 NEMPs reviewed, only a third expressly mentioned Veterinary Services, almost 60% mentioned zoonotic and/or zootic diseases, and about two-thirds mentioned animals to some extent. The highest correlating factor to the inclusion of animal health in NEMPs was the level of the agricultural sector's contributions to the national GDP. Fisheries and aquaculture were not a major consideration in any of the reviewed NEMPs, especially not in relation to diseases. Based on region, Latin America and the Caribbean exhibited the lowest inclusion rate of animal health in NEMPs. The results demonstrate that the omission of animal health is still a problem. A multi-disciplinary approach that includes veterinary medicine as well as human medicine is vital in the construction and/or revision of NEMPs. Future studies should consider whether or not there is a connection between countries' veterinary capacities and the inclusion of Veterinary Services in their NEMPs and whether or not they have the infrastructure and human resources to put into operation the roles of Veterinary Services as identified in their NEMPs.


Assuntos
Saúde Global , Saúde Única , Animais , Região do Caribe , Humanos , Internacionalidade , América Latina
5.
Environ Health Prev Med ; 25(1): 57, 2020 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33008319

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: At the end of 2019, the outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) severely damaged and endangered people's lives. The public health emergency management system in China has played an essential role in handling the response to the outbreak, which has been appreciated by the World Health Organization and some countries. Hence, it is necessary to conduct an overall analysis of the development of the health emergency management system in China. This can provide a reference for scholars to aid in understanding the current situation and to reveal new research topics. METHODS: We collected 2247 international articles from the Web of Science database and 959 Chinese articles from the China National Knowledge Infrastructure database. Bibliometric and mapping knowledge domain analysis methods were used in this study for temporal distribution analysis, cooperation network analysis, and co-word network analysis. RESULTS: The first international article in this field was published in 1991, while the first Chinese article was published in 2005. The research institutions producing these studies mainly existed in universities and health organizations. Developed countries and European countries published the most articles overall, while eastern China published the most articles within China. There were 52 burst words for international articles published from 1999-2018 and 18 burst words for Chinese articles published from 2003-2018. International top-ranked articles according to the number of citations appeared in 2005, 2007, 2009, 2014, 2015, and 2016, while the corresponding Chinese articles appeared in 2003, 2004, 2009, and 2011. CONCLUSIONS: There are differences in the regional and economic distribution of international and Chinese cooperation networks. International research is often related to timely issues mainly by focusing on emergency preparedness and monitoring of public health events, while China has focused on public health emergencies and their disposition. International research began on terrorism and bioterrorism, followed by disaster planning and emergency preparedness, epidemics, and infectious diseases. China considered severe acute respiratory syndrome as the starting research background and the legal system construction as the research starting point, which was followed by the mechanism, structure, system, and training abroad for public health emergency management.


Assuntos
Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/organização & administração , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Betacoronavirus , China/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Internacionalidade
7.
Environ Health Prev Med ; 25(1): 57, 2020 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-810436

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: At the end of 2019, the outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) severely damaged and endangered people's lives. The public health emergency management system in China has played an essential role in handling the response to the outbreak, which has been appreciated by the World Health Organization and some countries. Hence, it is necessary to conduct an overall analysis of the development of the health emergency management system in China. This can provide a reference for scholars to aid in understanding the current situation and to reveal new research topics. METHODS: We collected 2247 international articles from the Web of Science database and 959 Chinese articles from the China National Knowledge Infrastructure database. Bibliometric and mapping knowledge domain analysis methods were used in this study for temporal distribution analysis, cooperation network analysis, and co-word network analysis. RESULTS: The first international article in this field was published in 1991, while the first Chinese article was published in 2005. The research institutions producing these studies mainly existed in universities and health organizations. Developed countries and European countries published the most articles overall, while eastern China published the most articles within China. There were 52 burst words for international articles published from 1999-2018 and 18 burst words for Chinese articles published from 2003-2018. International top-ranked articles according to the number of citations appeared in 2005, 2007, 2009, 2014, 2015, and 2016, while the corresponding Chinese articles appeared in 2003, 2004, 2009, and 2011. CONCLUSIONS: There are differences in the regional and economic distribution of international and Chinese cooperation networks. International research is often related to timely issues mainly by focusing on emergency preparedness and monitoring of public health events, while China has focused on public health emergencies and their disposition. International research began on terrorism and bioterrorism, followed by disaster planning and emergency preparedness, epidemics, and infectious diseases. China considered severe acute respiratory syndrome as the starting research background and the legal system construction as the research starting point, which was followed by the mechanism, structure, system, and training abroad for public health emergency management.


Assuntos
Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/organização & administração , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Betacoronavirus , China/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Internacionalidade
8.
J Int Bioethique Ethique Sci ; Vol. 31(1): 21-30, 2020 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33045816

RESUMO

With the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, international law provides an effective reference source beyond the law of the States. This law has two specific characteristics. In the first place it is as much a law in relation with new technologies as a law of principles because it applies the principles in the light of the diversity of scientific practices.Secondly, these technologies are at their most active in the field of globalization and support some standardization of practices.When the first character deals with power and standardization of scientific practices, the second – the normative aspect – recognizes the cultural and professional dimension of technoscience. In both cases, the diffusion and integration of science and technologies in society is a global phenomenon, exceeding the sphere of local cultures and laws.


Assuntos
Bioética , Direitos Humanos , Direito Internacional , Diversidade Cultural , Humanos , Internacionalidade
10.
J Environ Manage ; 263: 110332, 2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32883471

RESUMO

The carbon-emission transfer between two representative developing economies - China and Africa - behind the international trade has aroused quite a few controversies, which have not been fully estimated and understood yet. In this paper, the Multiregional Input-Output (MRIO) method is applied to the participants of Forum on China-Africa Cooperation (FOCAC) from the global perspective to reveal the roles both China and Africa have played in the global supply chain as either the original emitter or the final consumer, and to depict the evolution pattern of carbon transfer via Sino-Africa trade from the year 2000-2015. The findings are as follows: 1) China has played the role of net exporter of embodied carbon-emission in Sino-Africa trade, for the amount of emitted carbon China had born yet resulted by consumption in Africa well surpassed that vice versa. 2) Compared to the carbon-emission flows embodied in EU-Africa and US-Africa trades, China has shouldered more carbon-emission derived from Africa's consumption. 3) The sectoral contribution and intensities of embodied carbon-emission correspond to the trading pattern between China and Africa, which stems from the two parties' comparative advantages and economic complementarity. 4) The intensities of embodied carbon-emission on both sides are declining towards a rosy prospect, which indicates an improving carbon-emission efficiency of both economies. From a global perspective, both China and Africa play a positive part in carbon-emission reduction. The results in this study can facilitate low-carbon and high-efficiency trading link between the two economies.


Assuntos
Comércio , Internacionalidade , África , Carbono , China
15.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(35): e21767, 2020 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32871897

RESUMO

Risk factors such as smoking and sugar intake threaten the health of human being at an individual national level as well as at a global level. The globalization affect health indirectly through macro and micro-level factors. This study aimed to identify the global trend of dental caries according to countries national income level, and to examine the role of globalization, health services, obesity, and sugar consumption on dental caries. Data for 160 countries were collected for the time period of the 1990s to 2010s. The final sample included 46 countries with complete data (21 high income countries (HIC) and 25 middle and low income countries (MLIC)). The main dependent variable was the mean decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT) index of 12-year-olds as an indicator of dental caries. Globalization was a main independent variable which was measured by economic growth, urbanization and economic freedom. Other independent variables were health services, obesity and sugar consumption. The data were analyzed first using repeated measures analysis of variance to compare dental caries trends in HIC and MLIC. Then, using multiple linear regression and partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM), the relationships between globalization, health services, obesity, sugar consumption, and dental caries were examined. The results of PLS-SEM revealed that globalization was associated with lower DMFT in HIC. The global dental caries trend had a declined pattern, but this pattern has been attenuated in MLIC after the new millennium. There is a need for policy change and regulations on sugar trade especially in MLIC to diminish the adverse consequences of globalization, and to improve population dental health.


Assuntos
Índice CPO , Cárie Dentária/epidemiologia , Países Desenvolvidos/estatística & dados numéricos , Países em Desenvolvimento/estatística & dados numéricos , Internacionalidade , Criança , Açúcares da Dieta , Desenvolvimento Econômico , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Análise de Classes Latentes , Modelos Lineares , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Urbanização
16.
J Med Internet Res ; 22(9): e22181, 2020 09 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32924951

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Real-time global mental health surveillance is urgently needed for tracking the long-term impact of the COVID-19 pandemic. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to use Google Trends data to investigate the impact of the pandemic on global mental health by analyzing three keywords indicative of mental distress: "insomnia," "depression," and "suicide." METHODS: We examined increases in search queries for 19 countries. Significant increases were defined as the actual daily search value (from March 20 to April 19, 2020) being higher than the 95% CIs of the forecast from the 3-month baseline via ARIMA (autoregressive integrated moving average) modeling. We examined the correlation between increases in COVID-19-related deaths and the number of days with significant increases in search volumes for insomnia, depression, and suicide across multiple nations. RESULTS: The countries with the greatest increases in searches for insomnia were Iran, Spain, the United States, and Italy; these countries exhibited a significant increase in insomnia searches on more than 10 of the 31 days observed. The number of COVID-19-related deaths was positively correlated to the number of days with an increase in searches for insomnia in the 19 countries (ρ=0.64, P=.003). By contrast, there was no significant correlation between the number of deaths and increases in searches for depression (ρ=-0.12, P=.63) or suicide (ρ=-0.07, P=.79). CONCLUSIONS: Our analysis suggests that insomnia could be a part of routine mental health screening during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Saúde Global/estatística & dados numéricos , Internacionalidade , Internet/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Ferramenta de Busca/estatística & dados numéricos , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus , Depressão/epidemiologia , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Suicídio/estatística & dados numéricos
20.
J Clin Gastroenterol ; 54(10): 833-840, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32909973

RESUMO

Performance of endoscopic procedures is associated with a risk of infection from COVID-19. This risk can be reduced by the use of personal protective equipment (PPE). However, shortage of PPE has emerged as an important issue in managing the pandemic in both traditionally high and low-resource areas. A group of clinicians and researchers from thirteen countries representing low, middle, and high-income areas has developed recommendations for optimal utilization of PPE before, during, and after gastrointestinal endoscopy with particular reference to low-resource situations. We determined that there is limited flexibility with regard to the utilization of PPE between ideal and low-resource settings. Some compromises are possible, especially with regard to PPE use, during endoscopic procedures. We have, therefore, also stressed the need to prevent transmission of COVID-19 by measures other than PPE and to conserve PPE by reduction of patient volume, limiting procedures to urgent or emergent, and reducing the number of staff and trainees involved in procedures. This guidance aims to optimize utilization of PPE and protection of health care providers.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Endoscopia Gastrointestinal/economia , Recursos em Saúde/economia , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa do Paciente para o Profissional/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Equipamento de Proteção Individual/normas , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Endoscopia Gastrointestinal/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Gastroenterologia/normas , Saúde Global , Humanos , Controle de Infecções/organização & administração , Internacionalidade , Masculino , Saúde do Trabalhador/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias/estatística & dados numéricos , Equipamento de Proteção Individual/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pobreza , Sociedades Médicas
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA