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1.
Nature ; 608(7921): 80-86, 2022 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35922501

RESUMO

Risk management has reduced vulnerability to floods and droughts globally1,2, yet their impacts are still increasing3. An improved understanding of the causes of changing impacts is therefore needed, but has been hampered by a lack of empirical data4,5. On the basis of a global dataset of 45 pairs of events that occurred within the same area, we show that risk management generally reduces the impacts of floods and droughts but faces difficulties in reducing the impacts of unprecedented events of a magnitude not previously experienced. If the second event was much more hazardous than the first, its impact was almost always higher. This is because management was not designed to deal with such extreme events: for example, they exceeded the design levels of levees and reservoirs. In two success stories, the impact of the second, more hazardous, event was lower, as a result of improved risk management governance and high investment in integrated management. The observed difficulty of managing unprecedented events is alarming, given that more extreme hydrological events are projected owing to climate change3.


Assuntos
Secas , Clima Extremo , Inundações , Gestão de Riscos , Mudança Climática/estatística & dados numéricos , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Secas/prevenção & controle , Secas/estatística & dados numéricos , Inundações/prevenção & controle , Inundações/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Hidrologia , Internacionalidade , Gestão de Riscos/métodos , Gestão de Riscos/estatística & dados numéricos , Gestão de Riscos/tendências
2.
Rev Sci Tech ; 41(1): 198-210, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35925620

RESUMO

International trade in live insects involves the shipping of many different species, for various purposes, with a variety of handling requirements regulated by numerous authorities with varying objectives. The diversity of factors at play has both created and been subject to a complex regulatory landscape. A review of global production, shipping and use experiences from a range of perspectives has shown gaps and inconsistencies in international guidance and national implementation. Private carriers add another layer of uncertainty that is disproportionate to risks, resulting in variable practices and charges. Many benefits can come from international trade in insects, including pollinator services, control of pests and of disease vectors, and enhanced international scientific research and innovation. These benefits will be better achieved through a more evidence-based and efficient approach to regulating trade. This change in approach will in turn require an improved and widely accepted risk-management landscape for insect trade.


Le commerce international d'insectes vivants s'appuie sur les expéditions de nombreuses espèces différentes à diverses fins, assorties de multiples exigences relatives à la manutention régies par des autorités différentes poursuivant des objectifs distincts. La diversité des facteurs en jeu a rendu nécessaire la création d'un paysage normatif complexe, avec les contraintes qui lui sont associées. L'examen à l'échelle mondiale de la production, du transport et des expériences dans ce domaine depuis diverses perspectives a révélé un certain nombre de lacunes et d'incohérences au niveau des directives internationales et de leurs applications concrètes dans les pays. Les transporteurs privés ajoutent une dimension d'incertitude supplémentaire qui est disproportionnée par rapport aux risques, ce qui entraîne une forte variabilité des pratiques et des charges. Les échanges internationaux d'insectes génèrent nombre d'activités bénéfiques, parmi lesquelles les services de pollinisation, la lutte contre les ravageurs et les vecteurs de maladie, et l'accroissement de la recherche scientifique internationale et de l'innovation. Les objectifs attendus seront mieux atteints en adoptant une approche de la réglementation des échanges qui s'appuie davantage sur des éléments factuels et sur les gains d'efficacité. Ce changement méthodologique nécessitera à son tour la mise en place d'un cadre amélioré et plus largement accepté de la gestion des risques dans le domaine du commerce des insectes.


El comercio internacional de insectos vivos, que supone el transporte de muchas especies diferentes con fines diversos, se acompaña de requisitos de manipulación que dictan numerosas autoridades con todo tipo de objetivos. La diversidad de los factores que entran en juego ha sido a la vez causa y consecuencia de un complejo panorama reglamentario. Los autores, tras describir un estudio a escala mundial de la experiencia de producción, transporte y utilización de insectos vivos desde diferentes puntos de vista, exponen las carencias e incoherencias observadas en las directrices internacionales y su traslación a escala nacional. Los transportistas privados añaden otro factor de incertidumbre que tiene un peso desproporcionado en relación con el nivel de riesgo y se traduce en procedimientos y precios heterogéneos. El comercio internacional de insectos puede traer consigo muchos beneficios, en particular servicios de polinización, control de plagas y de vectores de enfermedad, y avances de la investigación e innovación científica a escala internacional. Pero obtener esos beneficios será más fácil si se aborda la regulación del comercio de manera más eficaz y científicamente fundamentada, operando un cambio de lógica que exigirá, a su vez, la aplicación al comercio de insectos de un régimen más sofisticado y ampliamente aceptado de gestión de los riesgos.


Assuntos
Comércio , Internacionalidade , Animais , Insetos/fisiologia
3.
Rev Sci Tech ; 41(1): 211-218, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35925621

RESUMO

The World Organisation for Animal Health (WOAH, founded as OIE) is the recognised intergovernmental standard-setting organisation for animal health and welfare. The WOAH mandate is to support its members in the prevention of the spread of animal diseases of concern, as listed in the Terrestrial Animal Health Code (Terrestrial Code). Once a disease, infection or infestation is listed, national Veterinary Authorities have the obligation regularly to notify WOAH of the presence or absence of the listed disease. In regard to insects, the scope of the Terrestrial Code limits its recommendations to preserving the health of bees (species of the genus Apis, extended to the genus Bombus and to the stingless bees for one disease). However, it does not include standards to mitigate the potential animal health risks associated with the international trade of other insects. A description of the standard-setting process and a review of the history of the standards for bee health highlight the resources and requirements to expand the scope of the Terrestrial Code to include recommendations for animal health risk mitigation measures for the safety of international trade in insects. Any initiative to develop guidance on insect trade should include WOAH in its role as the sole global standard-setting organisation on animal health and welfare matters. This aligns with the WOAH commitment to a One Health approach.


L'Organisation mondiale de la santé animale (OMSA, fondée en tant qu'OIE) est l'organisation inter-gouvernementale reconnue pour l'élaboration de normes relatives à la santé et au bien-être des animaux. L'OMSA a pour mandat d'apporter un soutien à ses Membres afin de prévenir la propagation des maladies animales d'importance majeure listées dans le Code sanitaire pour les animaux terrestres (Code terrestre). Dès lors qu'une maladie, une infection ou une infestation figure sur cette liste, les Autorités vétérinaires ont l'obligation de notifier régulièrement à l'OMSA la présence ou l'absence de cette maladie sur leur territoire. S'agissant des insectes, le champ d'application du Code terrestre limite ses recommandations à la préservation de la santé des abeilles (espèces du genre Apis, avec l'inclusion du genre Bombus et des abeilles sans dard pour une maladie). Néanmoins, le Code terrestre ne contient pas de normes visant à atténuer les risques pour la santé animale associés aux échanges internationaux d'autres insectes. La description faite par les auteurs du processus d'élaboration des normes et leur aperçu rétrospectif de la mise au point des normes relatives à la santé des abeilles font ressortir les ressources et les conditions nécessaires pour élargir le champ d'application du Code terrestre afin d'y inclure des recommandations portant sur les mesures d'atténuation des risques pour la santé animale applicables à la sécurité sanitaire des échanges internationaux d'insectes. Toute initiative visant à fournir des orientations sur les échanges d'insectes devrait inclure l'OMSA dans son rôle d'unique organisation chargée de l'élaboration des normes internationales relatives à la santé animale et au bien-être des animaux. Cette exigence est en cohérence avec l'engagement de l'OMSA en faveur de l'approche Une seule santé.


La Organización Mundial de Sanidad Animal (OMSA, fundada como OIE) es la organización intergubernamental facultada para ejercer funciones normativas en materia de sanidad y bienestar de los animales. La OMSA tiene por mandato ayudar a sus miembros a prevenir la propagación de una serie de enfermedades animales de importancia, recogidas en el Código Sanitario para los Animales Terrestres (Código Terrestre) de la OMSA. La inclusión de una enfermedad, infección o infestación en la lista de la OMSA obliga a las autoridades veterinarias nacionales a dar cuenta periódicamente a la OMSA de la presencia o ausencia de esa patología en su territorio. Por lo que respecta a los insectos, en el Código Terrestre solo se formulan una serie de recomendaciones para proteger la salud de las abejas (categoría que corresponde a las especies del género Apis, extensible también al género Bombus y, en el caso de una enfermedad, a las abejas sin aguijón). El Código Terrestre, sin embargo, no contiene norma alguna destinada a mitigar los posibles riesgos zoosanitarios ligados al comercio internacional de otros insectos. Los autores describen el proceso normativo y repasan la historia de las normas relativas a la sanidad de las abejas, con lo que ponen de relieve los recursos y demás elementos necesarios para conferir mayor alcance al Código Terrestre incluyendo en él recomendaciones sobre medidas de mitigación del riesgo zoosanitario para un comercio seguro de insectos a escala internacional. Toda iniciativa encaminada a marcar pautas sobre el comercio de insectos debería incluir a la OMSA, única organización con potestad normativa mundial sobre temas de sanidad y bienestar de los animales, lo que además se encuadra en el compromiso de la OMSA con los planteamientos de «Una sola salud¼.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Animais , Medicina Veterinária , Doenças dos Animais/prevenção & controle , Bem-Estar do Animal , Animais , Abelhas , Comércio , Saúde Global , Insetos , Cooperação Internacional , Internacionalidade
4.
Rev Sci Tech ; 41(1): 142-157, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35925628

RESUMO

Informal science education institutions such as zoos, natural history museums and botanical gardens exhibit live native and exotic insects and other arthropods to improve the general public's knowledge about these organisms and promote their conservation in nature. The purpose of this paper is to summarise the process of shipping exotic arthropods for exhibits and the regulations that apply, and to discuss issues that affect international shipment for this type of activity. These issues include escapes affecting the environment and delays affecting the viability of shipped insects. The regulatory agencies that issue permits for the importation of live insects for education and exhibit are discussed. The number of butterflies flying in the exhibits ranges from 100 specimens at the Butterfly Encounter of the Connecticut Science Center to a high of 15,000 specimens at the Dubai Butterfly Garden, with a mean of 2,048 specimens (n = 32). If the outlier of 15,000 is removed, the mean is 1,630 (n = 31). Insect zoos and butterfly exhibits play an overwhelmingly positive educational role by introducing millions of children and adults to the immensely important world of insects.


Les institutions scientifiques à vocation éducative informelle telles que les parcs zoologiques, les muséums d'histoire naturelle et les jardins botaniques exposent nombre d'espèces tant natives qu'exotiques d'insectes et d'autres arthropodes afin de mieux les faire connaître du grand public et de promouvoir leur conservation dans la nature. Cet article a pour objet de présenter succinctement les modalités de l'expédition d'arthropodes exotiques destinés aux espaces d'exposition ainsi que les réglementations applicables, et d'examiner les problèmes affectant les expéditions internationales d'insectes dans ce type d'activités. Les problèmes relevés concernant principalement les évasions d'insectes et leurs effets sur l'environnement, et les retards de livraison et leurs effets sur la survie des insectes transportés. L'autrice évoque également les agences de réglementation chargées de délivrer les autorisations d'importer des insectes à des fins éducatives et d'exposition. Le nombre de papillons vivant dans des serres d'exposition va des 100 spécimens du site du Connecticut Science Center aux 15 000 spécimens du Jardin aux papillons de Dubaï, la moyenne étant de 2 048 spécimens par site (n = 32). Si l'on retire le cas particulier du site de Dubaï, la moyenne par site est de 1 630 spécimens (n = 31). Les insectariums et les serres à papillons jouent un rôle éducatif essentiel en permettant à des millions d'enfants et d'adultes de découvrir le monde des insectes et leur rôle fondamental.


Los establecimientos científicos que ejercen una labor pedagógica oficiosa, como zoológicos, museos de historia natural o jardines botánicos, exponen especies autóctonas y alóctonas de insectos y otros artrópodos para familiarizar al gran público con ellos y promover su conservación en el medio natural. La autora, tras presentar sucintamente el proceso de expedición de artrópodos exóticos con destino a espacios de exposición y los reglamentos aplicables, examina una serie de cuestiones que inciden en este tipo de transporte internacional, principalmente las fugas de ejemplares y sus consecuencias ambientales y los retrasos que afectan a la supervivencia de los insectos transportados. También se detiene en los organismos de reglamentación que expiden los permisos de importación de insectos vivos con fines pedagógicos o de exposición. El número de mariposas expuestas puede ir desde los 100 ejemplares presentados en el Connecticut Science Center hasta los 15 000 que alberga el mariposario de Dubai, con un promedio que se sitúa en los 2 048 ejemplares (n = 32), aunque, si no se tiene en cuenta el valor atípico de Dubai, la media resultante es de 1 630 ejemplares (n = 31). Los insectarios y mariposarios cumplen una extraordinaria función pedagógica, pues millones de niños y adultos descubren en ellos el importantísimo mundo de los insectos.


Assuntos
Borboletas , Animais , Comércio , Insetos , Internacionalidade
5.
Rev Sci Tech ; 41(1): 117-131, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35925629

RESUMO

Insect breeding or farming for food and feed is an emerging enterprise that can address the ever-growing demand for protein and curb high unemployment rates in Africa and beyond. However, for the sector to prosper, its value chain needs to be regulated to ensure sustainability and safety for consumers and the environment. Although a few African countries, such as Kenya, Uganda and Rwanda, have promulgated standards on the use of insects as food and feed, greater efforts are needed in other countries, and relevant policies governing the sector need to be formulated. All over the globe, attention to the regulation of the edible insect sector is increasing, and more investment in the industry is foreseen. Safety issues such as identifying which species should be reared, substrate quality and traceability imposed by importing countries will be critical for expansion of the sector. This paper analyses safety, regulatory and environmental issues related to breeding and international trade of edible insects in Africa and provides case studies and recommendations for sustainable use of insects for food and feed.


Les élevages et les fermes d'insectes destinés à l'alimentation humaine et animale sont de nouvelles entreprises qui pourraient répondre à la hausse continue de la demande en protéines tout en réduisant les taux élevés du chômage en Afrique et ailleurs. Néanmoins, pour que ce secteur puisse prospérer, sa chaîne de création de valeur doit être réglementée afin de garantir sa durabilité et son innocuité pour les consommateurs et l'environnement. Si un petit nombre de pays africains dont le Kenya, l'Ouganda et le Rwanda ont élaboré des normes applicables à l'utilisation des insectes pour l'alimentation humaine et animale, dans d'autres pays les efforts doivent se poursuivre et des politiques appropriées doivent être mises en place pour régir ce secteur. Partout dans le monde, la réglementation du secteur des insectes comestibles fait désormais l'objet d'une attention considérable et des investissements accrus dans la filière sont attendus. Les questions de sécurité telles que l'identification des insectes à élever, la qualité du substrat et la traçabilité exigée par les pays importateurs seront cruciales pour le développement du secteur. Les auteurs analysent les questions de sécurité et les enjeux réglementaires et environnementaux liés à l'élevage et au commerce international d'insectes comestibles en Afrique et présentent des études de cas et des recommandations pour une utilisation durable des insectes destinés à l'alimentation humaine et animale.


La cría o producción de insectos con fines de alimentación humana o animal es una actividad incipiente que puede ayudar a responder a la siempre creciente demanda de proteínas y a contener las elevadas tasas de desempleo de África y otras regiones. Para que el sector prospere, no obstante, es preciso reglamentar su cadena de valor a fin de asegurar su sostenibilidad y su inocuidad para el consumidor y el medio ambiente. Aunque unos pocos países africanos, como Kenia, Uganda o Ruanda, tienen promulgadas normas sobre el uso de insectos para la alimentación humana o la producción de piensos, aún hay que redoblar esfuerzos en otros países y formular políticas que ordenen el sector. En todo el planeta se presta hoy una atención sin precedentes a la regulación del sector de los insectos comestibles, un sector que previsiblemente va a recibir cada vez más inversiones. Las cuestiones ligadas a la inocuidad, como la identidad de los insectos que se van a producir, la calidad del substrato o la rastreabilidad impuesta por los países importadores, serán fundamentales para el desarrollo del sector. Los autores analizan las cuestiones reglamentarias, ambientales y de inocuidad que se plantean en relación con la cría y el comercio internacional de insectos comestibles en África, presentan ejemplos concretos y formulan recomendaciones para un uso sostenible de los insectos con fines de alimentación humana o animal.


Assuntos
Insetos Comestíveis , Animais , Comércio , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Insetos , Internacionalidade , Uganda
6.
Vet Res ; 53(1): 63, 2022 Aug 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35927724

RESUMO

Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is one of the most important livestock diseases restricting international trade. While African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) act as the main wildlife reservoir, viral and immune response dynamics during FMD virus acute infection have not been described before in this species. We used experimental needle inoculation and contact infections with three Southern African Territories serotypes to assess clinical, virological and immunological dynamics for thirty days post infection. Clinical FMD in the needle inoculated buffalo was mild and characterised by pyrexia. Despite the absence of generalised vesicles, all contact animals were readily infected with their respective serotypes within the first two to nine days after being mixed with needle challenged buffalo. Irrespective of the route of infection or serotype, there were positive associations between the viral loads in blood and the induction of host innate pro-inflammatory cytokines and acute phase proteins. Viral loads in blood and tonsil swabs were tightly correlated during the acute phase of the infection, however, viraemia significantly declined after a peak at four days post-infection (dpi), which correlated with the presence of detectable neutralising antibodies. In contrast, infectious virus was isolated in the tonsil swabs until the last sampling point (30 dpi) in most animals. The pattern of virus detection in serum and tonsil swabs was similar for all three serotypes in the direct challenged and contact challenged animals. We have demonstrated for the first time that African buffalo are indeed systemically affected by FMD virus and clinical FMD in buffalo is characterized by a transient pyrexia. Despite the lack of FMD lesions, infection of African buffalo was characterised by high viral loads in blood and oropharynx, rapid and strong host innate and adaptive immune responses and high transmissibility.


Assuntos
Vírus da Febre Aftosa , Febre Aftosa , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais , Búfalos , Comércio , Febre/veterinária , Vírus da Febre Aftosa/fisiologia , Imunidade , Internacionalidade
7.
Global Health ; 18(1): 69, 2022 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35799303

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite the declining trends worldwide, infant and child mortality rates are still high in many African countries. These high rates are problematic; therefore, this study attempts to explore the contributing factors that cause high infant and child mortality rates in 14 African countries using panel data for the period of 2000-2018. In particular, the role globalisation is explored. METHODS: The panel corrected standard error (PCSE), the Feasible generalized least square (FGLS) models, and the pair-wise Granger causality test have been applied as methodological approaches. RESULTS: The public health expenditure, numbers of physicians, globalization, economic development, education, good governance, and HIV prevalence rate have been revealed as the determinants of infant and child mortality in these countries. All these variables except the HIV prevalence rate negatively affect the infant and child mortality rates, while the HIV prevalence rate is found to be positive. Bidirectional and unidirectional causal relationships between the variables are also attained. CONCLUSIONS: Effective socio-economic policy priority with due consideration of globalization should be emphasized to reduce infant and child mortality rates in these countries.


Assuntos
Mortalidade da Criança , Infecções por HIV , Criança , Desenvolvimento Econômico , Fatores Econômicos , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Internacionalidade , Fatores Socioeconômicos
8.
Vet Res ; 53(1): 56, 2022 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35804412

RESUMO

Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) remains a very serious barrier to agricultural development and the international trade of animals and animal products. Recently, serotype O has been the most prevalent FMDV serotype in China, and it has evolved into four different lineages: O/SEA/Mya-98, O/ME-SA/PanAsia, O/ME-SA/Ind-2001 and O/Cathay. PanAsia-2, belonging to the O/ME-SA topotype, is prevalent in neighbouring countries and poses the risk of cross-border spread in China. This study aimed to develop a promising vaccine candidate strain that can not only provide the best protection against all serotype O FMDVs circulating in China but also be used as an emergency vaccine for the prevention and control of transboundary incursion of PanAsia-2. Here, two chimeric FMDVs (rHN/TURVP1 and rHN/NXVP1) featuring substitution of VP1 genes of the O/TUR/5/2009 vaccine strain (PanAsia-2) and O/NXYCh/CHA/2018 epidemic strain (Mya98) were constructed and evaluated. The biological properties of the two chimeric FMDVs were similar to those of the wild-type (wt) virus despite slight differences in plaque sizes observed in BHK-21 cells. The structural protein-specific antibody titres induced by the rHN/TURVP1 and wt virus vaccines in pigs and cows were higher than those induced by the rHN/NXVP1 vaccine at 28-56 dpv. The vaccines prepared from the two chimeric viruses and wt virus all induced the production of protective cross-neutralizing antibodies against the viruses of the Mya-98, PanAsia and Ind-2001 lineages in pigs and cattle at 28 dpv; however, only the animals vaccinated with the rHN/TURVP1 vaccine produced a protective immune response to the field isolate of the Cathay lineage at 28 dpv, whereas the animals receiving the wt virus and the rHN/NXVP1 vaccines did not, although the wt virus and O/GXCX/CHA/2018 both belong to the Cathay topotype. This study will provide very useful information to help develop a potential vaccine candidate for the prevention and control of serotype O FMD in China.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos , Vírus da Febre Aftosa , Febre Aftosa , Vacinas Virais , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/prevenção & controle , Comércio , Febre Aftosa/epidemiologia , Vírus da Febre Aftosa/genética , Internacionalidade , Sorogrupo , Suínos
9.
Biomed Res Int ; 2022: 8503511, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35795312

RESUMO

Lymphoma is a serious malignant tumor that contains more than 70 different types and seriously endangers the body's lymphatic system. The lymphatic system is the regulatory center of the immune system and is important in the immune response to foreign antigens and tumors. Studies showed that multiple genetic variants are associated with lymphoma but determining the pathogenic mechanisms remains a challenge. In the present study, we first applied the Gene Ontology (GO) and KEGG pathway enrichment analyses of lymphoma-associated and lymphoma-nonassociated genes. Next, the Boruta and max-relevance and min-redundancy feature selection methods were performed to filter and rank features. Then, features preselected and ranked using the incremental feature selection method were applied for the decision tree model to identify the best GO terms and KEGG pathways and extract classification rules. Results indicate that our predicted features, such as B-cell activation, negative regulation of protein processing, negative regulation of mast cell cytokine production, and natural killer cell-mediated cytotoxicity, are associated with the biological process of lymphoma, consistent with those of recent publications. This study provides a new perspective for future research on the molecular mechanisms of lymphoma.


Assuntos
Linfoma , Apoptose , Ontologia Genética , Humanos , Internacionalidade , Linfoma/genética , Probabilidade
11.
BMC Genomics ; 23(1): 520, 2022 Jul 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35850574

RESUMO

Genetic evolution of Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) in Africa has been shaped mainly by environmental changes such as abnormal rainfall patterns and climate change that has occurred over the last few decades. These gradual environmental changes are believed to have effected gene migration from macro (geographical) to micro (reassortment) levels. Presently, 15 lineages of RVFV have been identified to be circulating within the Sub-Saharan Africa. International trade in livestock and movement of mosquitoes are thought to be responsible for the outbreaks occurring outside endemic or enzootic regions. Virus spillover events contribute to outbreaks as was demonstrated by the largest epidemic of 1977 in Egypt. Genomic surveillance of the virus evolution is crucial in developing intervention strategies. Therefore, we have developed a computational tool for rapidly classifying and assigning lineages of the RVFV isolates. The computational method is presented both as a command line tool and a web application hosted at https://www.genomedetective.com/app/typingtool/rvfv/ . Validation of the tool has been performed on a large dataset using glycoprotein gene (Gn) and whole genome sequences of the Large (L), Medium (M) and Small (S) segments of the RVFV retrieved from the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) GenBank database. Using the Gn nucleotide sequences, the RVFV typing tool was able to correctly classify all 234 RVFV sequences at species level with 100% specificity, sensitivity and accuracy. All the sequences in lineages A (n = 10), B (n = 1), C (n = 88), D (n = 1), E (n = 3), F (n = 2), G (n = 2), H (n = 105), I (n = 2), J (n = 1), K (n = 4), L (n = 8), M (n = 1), N (n = 5) and O (n = 1) were also correctly classified at phylogenetic level. Lineage assignment using whole RVFV genome sequences (L, M and S-segments) did not achieve 100% specificity, sensitivity and accuracy for all the sequences analyzed. We further tested our tool using genomic data that we generated by sequencing 5 samples collected following a recent RVF outbreak in Kenya. All the 5 samples were assigned lineage C by both the partial (Gn) and whole genome sequence classifiers. The tool is useful in tracing the origin of outbreaks and supporting surveillance efforts.Availability: https://github.com/ajodeh-juma/rvfvtyping.


Assuntos
Febre do Vale de Rift , Vírus da Febre do Vale do Rift , Animais , Comércio , Genômica , Internacionalidade , Quênia , Filogenia , Febre do Vale de Rift/epidemiologia , Vírus da Febre do Vale do Rift/genética
12.
Environ Sci Technol ; 56(15): 10904-10915, 2022 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35822514

RESUMO

Chromium (Cr) is a critical metal due to its non-substitutable application in the metallurgy industry and highly uneven distribution of global reserve. However, there is a lack of in-depth analysis of global Cr flow patterns and its trade networks among individual cycles, which leaves the potential barriers and opportunities unexplored for improving chromium resource efficiency. Here, we employ a trade-linked multilevel material flow analysis (MFA) to map the global anthropogenic Cr cycle for year 2019. Social network analysis is also used to identify the key countries involved in the global Cr trade network. The results highlight that the global Cr cycle depends substantially on international trade in different forms, of which stainless steel is the leading application. Although South Africa, Kazakhstan, and Turkey are the major Cr primary resource suppliers, China and India play substantial roles in manufacturing Cr-containing products. Regional disparities exist in the scrap contents of individual country cycles, varying from 7% (uncertainty ranges from 4 to 11%) in China to 88% (uncertainty ranges from 87 to 89%) in India. Additionally, several countries are essential in the global Cr redistribution and in the connectivity of the Cr trade network, which may lead to their strong import dependence and even supply disruption.


Assuntos
Cromo , Comércio , Internacionalidade , Metalurgia , Metais
13.
PLoS One ; 17(7): e0271088, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35895731

RESUMO

We examine the time-frequency spillovers, contagion, and pairwise interrelations between the BRIC index and its constituents, and between BRIC and G7 economies. The extent of interdependencies between market blocs and their constituents needs to be ascertained in the time-frequency domain for efficient asset allocation and portfolio management. Accordingly, the Baruník and Krehlík spillover index is employed with daily data between 11th December 2015 and 28th May 2021. We find the overall and net spillovers between BRIC and G7 to be significant in the short-term, with France, Germany, and the UK transmitting the greatest shocks to BRIC markets. We find no significant evidence of any sporadic volatilities for the studied markets in the COVID-19 period across all frequencies. However, we reveal contagious spillovers between the BRIC and G7 economies across all time scales in 2017 and 2019, which respectively reflect the persistent effect of Brexit and the US-China trade tension. Our findings divulge that in the short-term (mid-to-long-term), France and the UK (Canada and the US), are the sources of contagion between the BRIC and G7 markets. From the net-pairwise spillovers, we report high connectedness between the BRIC index and its members. BRIC countries are found to be transmitters of net-pairwise spillovers to the G7 markets excluding Japan. We recommend portfolio diversification using BRIC and G7 stocks in the intermediate-to-long-term horizon, where spillovers are less concentrated. Additionally, since individual markets are impacted by their unique shocks, investors should pay close attention to these shocks when distributing assets. In the interim, policy-makers and governments across the globe should ensure effective liberalisation of their economies to encourage international trade flows to boost portfolio diversification.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Comércio , COVID-19/epidemiologia , União Europeia , Humanos , Internacionalidade , Reino Unido
14.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 4351, 2022 Jul 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35896543

RESUMO

We quantify the criticality of the world's 1300 most important ports for global supply chains by predicting the allocation of trade flows on the global maritime transport network, which we link to a global supply-chain database to evaluate the importance of ports for the economy. We find that 50% of global trade in value terms is maritime, with low-income countries and small islands being 1.5 and 2.0 times more reliant on their ports compared to the global average. The five largest ports globally handle goods that embody >1.4% of global output, while 40 ports add >10% of domestic output of the economies they serve, predominantly small islands. We identify critical cross-border infrastructure dependencies for some landlocked and island countries that rely on specific ports outside their jurisdiction. Our results pave the way for developing new strategies to enhance the resilience and sustainability of port infrastructure and maritime trade.


Assuntos
Comércio , Internacionalidade
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35886530

RESUMO

Global environmental issues such as environmental degradation, climate change, and global warming have posed a threat to the global economy, including Pakistan. The primary source of these problems is greenhouse gas emissions. These emissions are the result of human activity. The objective of the study was to investigate the symmetric and asymmetric relationship between globalization and greenhouse gas emissions in Pakistan. The ARDL modern econometric techniques of the time series model were used. Firstly, the stationarity test favors the use of the ARDL model in this study. The BDS test result confirmed that the ARDL model has a non-linearity issue. As a result, the ARDL approach was used to test both the symmetric and asymmetric effect. The results of the asymmetric ARDL model are more robust and reliable than those of the symmetric ARDL model. According to the results of the symmetric ARDL, economic, social, and political globalization have a positive relationship with greenhouse gas emissions in both the short and long run. Furthermore, the long-run results of the asymmetric ARDL model show that positive and negative shocks of economic and political globalization have positive and negative shock effects on greenhouse gas emissions. In the long run, however, the positive shock of social globalization has a negative relationship with greenhouse gas emissions. According to the results of impulse response functions, economic globalization has a significantly more relationship with greenhouse gas emissions than social and political globalization. A policy should be developed that allows only the positive effects of globalization while prohibiting the negative effects of globalization.


Assuntos
Gases de Efeito Estufa , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Desenvolvimento Econômico , Gases de Efeito Estufa/análise , Humanos , Internacionalidade , Paquistão
17.
Toxins (Basel) ; 14(7)2022 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35878180

RESUMO

Food safety problems are a major hindrance to achieving food security, trade, and healthy living in Africa. Fungi and their secondary metabolites, known as mycotoxins, represent an important concern in this regard. Attempts such as agricultural, storage, and processing practices, and creation of awareness to tackle the menace of fungi and mycotoxins have yielded measurable outcomes especially in developed countries, where there are comprehensive mycotoxin legislations and enforcement schemes. Conversely, most African countries do not have mycotoxin regulatory limits and even when available, are only applied for international trade. Factors such as food insecurity, public ignorance, climate change, poor infrastructure, poor research funding, incorrect prioritization of resources, and nonchalant attitudes that exist among governmental organisations and other stakeholders further complicate the situation. In the present review, we discuss the status of mycotoxin regulation in Africa, with emphasis on the impact of weak mycotoxin legislations and enforcement on African trade, agriculture, and health. Furthermore, we discuss the factors limiting the establishment and control of mycotoxins in the region.


Assuntos
Micotoxinas , África , Comércio , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Fungos , Internacionalidade , Micotoxinas/análise
18.
J Environ Public Health ; 2022: 2156950, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35855816

RESUMO

This study analyzes the impact of the exports of China's masks and other antivirus supplies on the people from the importing countries who are subject to the severe pandemic during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Our main data include the COVID-19 cases data of countries around the world published by Johns Hopkins University and the data of China's exports of masks or other antivirus supplies to these countries from the Chinese Customs Database. Using cross-sectional data of about 180 countries and multiple regression analysis, we find that the antivirus supplies from China have played an important role in combating the COVID-19 pandemic. Specifically, China's masks are shipped to countries around the world, and these masks can improve the recovery rate and protect people against the COVID-19 pandemic. Our findings are relevant to global efforts in the COVID-19 pandemic containment.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , China/epidemiologia , Comércio , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Internacionalidade , Máscaras , Pandemias/prevenção & controle
20.
Comput Intell Neurosci ; 2022: 5044926, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35845869

RESUMO

Any developed port plays a dominant role both in domestic and international trade reflecting economic prosperity of the port and nearby regions in terms of its cargo throughput and port construction. An attempt is made in this study to use long-and short-term memory (LSTM) artificial neural network method to construct the port cargo throughput prediction model. Three ports namely, Tianjin Port, Dalian Port, and Tangshan Port from China's Bohai Rim region are selected as research objects. The historical cargo throughput of each port for nearly ten years was used as the input index data for joint prediction. The cargo throughput of Bohai Port provides another way to improve the accuracy of port cargo throughput prediction. The prediction results show that the LSTM model can effectively predict the port cargo throughput; the cargo throughput forecasts between the three Bohai Rim ports have both an interactive relationship and differences.


Assuntos
Comércio , Internacionalidade , China , Previsões , Redes Neurais de Computação
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