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1.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4738, 2020 09 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32994397

RESUMO

Wildlife trade is a key driver of the biodiversity crisis. Unregulated, or under-regulated wildlife trade can lead to unsustainable exploitation of wild populations. International efforts to regulate wildlife mostly miss 'lower-value' species, such as those imported as pets, resulting in limited knowledge of trade in groups like reptiles. Here we generate a dataset on web-based private commercial trade of reptiles to highlight the scope of the global reptile trade. We find that over 35% of reptile species are traded online. Three quarters of this trade is in species that are not covered by international trade regulation. These species include numerous endangered or range-restricted species, especially hotspots within Asia. Approximately 90% of traded reptile species and half of traded individuals are captured from the wild. Exploitation can occur immediately after scientific description, leaving new endemic species especially vulnerable. Pronounced gaps in regulation imply trade is having unknown impacts on numerous threatened species. Gaps in monitoring demand a reconsideration of international reptile trade regulations. We suggest reversing the status-quo, requiring proof of sustainability before trade is permitted.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens , Comércio/legislação & jurisprudência , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção/legislação & jurisprudência , Internacionalidade/legislação & jurisprudência , Répteis , Animais , Comércio/economia , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção/economia , Internet/economia , Internet/legislação & jurisprudência
4.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ; 70(1): 317-320, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31626584

RESUMO

One of the goals of the International Code of Nomenclature of Prokaryotes is not only to make nomenclature transparent and predictable, but to also make sure that the biological material on which it is based is available to either verify previous work or to allow further work to be undertaken. The key elements in ensuring the latter two aspects are nomenclatural types (type strains) at the rank of species and subspecies. With increasing regulations controlling access to genetic resources, the limitations put on access are not always evident at the time novel species or subspecies are proposed and corresponding nomenclatural types (type strains) designated. In a number of cases, limitations put on access have been discovered after the fact.


Assuntos
Acesso à Informação/legislação & jurisprudência , Terminologia como Assunto , Biodiversidade , Internacionalidade/legislação & jurisprudência , Patentes como Assunto , Células Procarióticas
6.
Vet Rec ; 185(8): 230, 2019 08 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31409753

RESUMO

Based on their performance-enhancing potential, caffeine and theophylline are prohibited substances in equine sports. Residues in horses can be caused by wilful application or by unintended uptake of contaminated feed. The International Federation of Horseracing Authorities recently introduced international residue limits (IRLs) to facilitate the discrimination between pharmacological relevant and irrelevant concentrations in doping samples. The objective of this study was to investigate the scientific validity of these IRLs. A systematic analysis was performed to assess the IRLs by different statistical approaches using published pharmacokinetic data. 31 out of 218 potentially relevant publications met the inclusion criteria. Thereby, both IRLs were found to be appropriate for the exclusion of the presence of a relevant pharmacological effect after a wilful application. The IRL of theophylline was also determined to be suitable for the prevention of positive doping tests caused by the ingestion of contaminated feed. In contrast, the IRL of caffeine is not suitable to prevent positive doping test caused by the ingestion of more than 10 mg caffeine per day per horse with contaminated feed. The lack of corresponding regulation for paraxanthine, a major active metabolite of caffeine and theophylline, was recognised as a substantial shortcoming of the current system, rendering both IRLs incomplete.


Assuntos
Cafeína/farmacocinética , Doping nos Esportes/legislação & jurisprudência , Resíduos de Drogas/normas , Internacionalidade/legislação & jurisprudência , Teofilina/farmacocinética , Animais , Cavalos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
8.
J Health Econ ; 66: 163-179, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31202122

RESUMO

The impact of parallel trade on innovation in R&D-intensive industries, such as pharmaceuticals, is a hotly debated question in antitrust and IP policy. The well-known argument that parallel trade dampens innovation by undermining firms' ability to price discriminate has been challenged by recent literature. The argument is that with endogenous price controls, parallel trade increases innovation by reducing governments' incentives to set particularly low price caps. In this paper, we show that this result crucially depends on the degree of homogeneity of the trading countries. The result only holds if consumers in poorer countries have a relatively similar demand for medication as consumers in richer countries. Instead, when countries are relatively heterogeneous, parallel trade dampens innovation and lowers welfare by exporting price cap regulation from poorer to richer countries. These findings are in line with recent case evidence. We also show that when patent length is endogenous, richer countries will tend to choose longer patent protection with parallel trade, whereas equilibrium price caps tend to be tighter in that case.


Assuntos
Aprovação de Drogas/economia , Custos de Medicamentos/legislação & jurisprudência , Internacionalidade , Controle de Custos/legislação & jurisprudência , Custos de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Indústria Farmacêutica , Regulamentação Governamental , Humanos , Internacionalidade/legislação & jurisprudência , Modelos Estatísticos , Patentes como Assunto
10.
PLoS One ; 14(5): e0217409, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31136596

RESUMO

Commercial captive breeding and trade in body parts of threatened wild carnivores is an issue of significant concern to conservation scientists and policy-makers. Following a 2016 decision by Parties to the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora, South Africa must establish an annual export quota for lion skeletons from captive sources, such that threats to wild lions are mitigated. As input to the quota-setting process, South Africa's Scientific Authority initiated interdisciplinary collaborative research on the captive lion industry and its potential links to wild lion conservation. A National Captive Lion Survey was conducted as one of the inputs to this research; the survey was launched in August 2017 and completed in May 2018. The structured semi-quantitative questionnaire elicited 117 usable responses, representing a substantial proportion of the industry. The survey results clearly illustrate the impact of a USA suspension on trophy imports from captive-bred South African lions, which affected 82% of respondents and economically destabilised the industry. Respondents are adapting in various ways, with many euthanizing lions and becoming increasingly reliant on income from skeleton export sales. With rising consumer demand for lion body parts, notably skulls, the export quota presents a further challenge to the industry, regulators and conservationists alike, with 52% of respondents indicating they would adapt by seeking 'alternative markets' for lion bones if the export quota allocation restricted their business. Recognizing that trade policy toward large carnivores represents a 'wicked problem', we anticipate that these results will inform future deliberations, which must nonetheless also be informed by challenging inclusive engagements with all relevant stakeholders.


Assuntos
Leões , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Cruzamento/economia , Cruzamento/legislação & jurisprudência , Comércio/legislação & jurisprudência , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/legislação & jurisprudência , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção/legislação & jurisprudência , Feminino , Indústrias/economia , Indústrias/legislação & jurisprudência , Internacionalidade/legislação & jurisprudência , Masculino , Densidade Demográfica , Gravidez , África do Sul , Esportes/economia , Esportes/legislação & jurisprudência , Inquéritos e Questionários
11.
Milbank Q ; 97(2): 449-479, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31099058

RESUMO

Policy Points Tobacco industry denormalization is a key strategy for tobacco control that has been formalized in the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. International trade and investment laws are a potential threat to tobacco industry denormalization because they do not automatically incorporate denormalization and, in theory, treat tobacco firms like other commercial interests. Countries that seek to defend tobacco control policies against international trade and investment challenges need to have good governance in two senses: good governance as understood by tribunals and good-enough governance to manage the processes and requirements that enable policies to survive international challenges. CONTEXT: Tobacco industry denormalization (TID), portraying tobacco product manufacturers as a deadly industry, is a major strategy for public health advocates. Using this strategy, activists around the world have successfully pushed for governments to enact tobacco control regulations, including the unprecedented international Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC). TID has been a distinctive legal and political strategy that has affected the place of tobacco in law and has both inspired and constrained those who would imitate the strategy in other areas of regulation, such as diet or alcohol. It is therefore a case study in the creation of a distinctive legal approach and of threats to that approach from the changing role of world trade and investment law, which creates a new set of venues that tobacco industry advocates can use to redefine tobacco as a normal good and to seek out "fair and equitable treatment" for their industry. METHODS: I review legal and policy documents pertaining to two major challenges to tobacco control policies in Australia and Uruguay aimed at controlling industry branding. FINDINGS: International trade and investment law challenges TID and raises fundamental questions about the role of the state in protecting public health. Recent trade disputes involving Uruguay and Australia illustrate this dynamic. Despite losing high-court challenges against packaging regulations in both countries, tobacco firms were still able to challenge states in a different way, through international trade and investment agreements. This article identifies the industry's strategies and the responses of those seeking to avoid renormalizing tobacco as a part of world trade. In particular, states must demonstrate that their tobacco control policies satisfy standards set by tribunals, which include standards of good governance, and they must prepare their policies in a way that reduces legal risk and requires good governance. CONCLUSIONS: Although TID has strengthened the hand of tobacco control advocates, TID strategies alone are not sufficient to defend public regulations against extraterritorial legal challenges in an arena that resists the basic TID technique of singling out a particular industry. Public health advocates might also note the FCTC's aid in helping governments defend themselves against these challenges and consider similar international instruments for other areas.


Assuntos
Comércio/legislação & jurisprudência , Internacionalidade , Indústria do Tabaco/legislação & jurisprudência , Regulamentação Governamental , Humanos , Internacionalidade/legislação & jurisprudência , Saúde Pública/legislação & jurisprudência
13.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(11): 11191-11211, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30796670

RESUMO

Globalization persists the tendency to alter numerous aspects of today's world including religion, transport, language, living styles, and international relations; however, its potential to influence quality of environment is the prime concern for trade and environmental policies guidelines (Audi and Ali 2018). In response to the growing interest for identifying the dynamic relationship between globalization and environmental performance, the present study seeks to investigate the critical link between globalization and ecological footprints in top 15 globalized countries between 1970 and 2016. Applying the novel methods of quantile-on-quantile regression (QQ) and Granger causality in quantiles, the findings examine the manners in which quantiles of globalization affect the quantiles of ecological footprints and vice versa. The empirical results suggest that globalization has a long-term positive effect on ecological footprint and vice versa in case of Belgium, the Netherlands, Sweden, Switzerland, Denmark, Norway, Canada, and Portugal. On the other hand, the estimated results indicate a negative effect between globalization and ecological footprint in the case of France, Germany, the UK, and Hungary. These results extend the recent findings on the globalization-environment nexus implying that the magnitude of relationship among both variables varies with countries demanding individual focus and cautions for postulating environmental and trade policies.


Assuntos
Ecologia , Internacionalidade , Canadá , Ecologia/legislação & jurisprudência , Política Ambiental , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Internacionalidade/legislação & jurisprudência
14.
Bull World Health Organ ; 97(2): 108-117, 2019 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30728617

RESUMO

Law lies at the centre of successful national strategies for prevention and control of noncommunicable diseases. By law we mean international agreements, national and subnational legislation, regulations and other executive instruments, and decisions of courts and tribunals. However, the vital role of law in global health development is often poorly understood, and eclipsed by other disciplines such as medicine, public health and economics. This paper identifies key areas of intersection between law and noncommunicable diseases, beginning with the role of law as a tool for implementing policies for prevention and control of leading risk factors. We identify actions that the World Health Organization and its partners could take to mobilize the legal workforce, strengthen legal capacity and support effective use of law at the national level. Legal and regulatory actions must move to the centre of national noncommunicable disease action plans. This requires high-level leadership from global and national leaders, enacting evidence-based legislation and building legal capacities.


Assuntos
Política de Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Promoção da Saúde , Internacionalidade , Doenças não Transmissíveis/prevenção & controle , Organização Mundial da Saúde , Saúde Global , Promoção da Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Direitos Humanos , Humanos , Agências Internacionais , Internacionalidade/legislação & jurisprudência , Relações Interprofissionais , Prática de Saúde Pública/legislação & jurisprudência , Fatores de Risco
15.
PLoS One ; 14(2): e0210446, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30716084

RESUMO

The Doha Development Agenda recognizes the central role that international trade can play in the promotion of economic development. In fact, the increase of exports from developing countries to developed nations' markets has been considered a key element for developing countries to realize the potential benefits of globalization. Over the last decades, developed countries have provided preferential access to their markets to developing countries through nonreciprocal trade agreements. Moreover, developing countries have also participated in reciprocal trade agreements. This paper re-examines comparatively the effect of both kinds of trade agreements on exports from developing countries but also from the developed world. In line with other studies, our results across specifications are unstable. However, the results of our preferred specification give additional support to the argument raised by critics of nonreciprocal preference regimes who consider that developing countries should abandon their reliance on one-way trade preferences in favor of reciprocal agreements.


Assuntos
Comércio , Internacionalidade , Comércio/economia , Comércio/legislação & jurisprudência , Comércio/métodos , Países Desenvolvidos/economia , Países em Desenvolvimento/economia , Cooperação Internacional/legislação & jurisprudência , Internacionalidade/legislação & jurisprudência , Modelos Econômicos
16.
Int J Health Serv ; 49(2): 306-321, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30626258

RESUMO

This study evaluated the effect of the patent linkage system, fully introduced by the Korea-U.S. Free Trade Agreement in 2015, on patent challenges and the effective market exclusivity of new medicines in Korea. We used pharmaceutical approval data and pharmaceutical litigation data to detect new medicines and their counterparts, to collect patent challenges against new medicines, and to calculate effective market exclusivity for new medicines. Then, a nonparametric event history model was applied to statistically explain the duration of the market exclusivity of new medicines. Between 2007 and 2011, a total of 94 new medicines, consisting of 82 new chemical entities and 12 new biologics, were approved. The patent linkage system encouraged patent litigations to occur sooner, with a race to challenge the patents by various generic applicants. However, it was difficult to conclude that patent challenges had a significant impact on the prolongation of effective market exclusivity. The patent linkage system had a neutral effect on the effective market exclusivity of new medicines and encouraged patent challenges without abbreviating effective market exclusivity. In addition, this study highlights an important issue regarding biologics that has not been the subject of market competition, even for patent challenges.


Assuntos
Cooperação Internacional , Legislação de Medicamentos , Patentes como Assunto , Aprovação de Drogas/legislação & jurisprudência , Humanos , Cooperação Internacional/legislação & jurisprudência , Internacionalidade/legislação & jurisprudência , Legislação de Medicamentos/organização & administração , Marketing/legislação & jurisprudência , República da Coreia , Estados Unidos
17.
J Law Med Ethics ; 47(4): 524-540, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31957572

RESUMO

Regulatory agencies vary widely in their classification of FMT, with significant impact on patient access. This article conducts a global survey of national regulations and collates existing FMT classification statuses, ultimately suggesting that the human cell and tissue product designation best fits FMT's characteristics and that definitional objectives to that classification may be overcome.


Assuntos
Infecções por Clostridium/terapia , Transplante de Microbiota Fecal/classificação , Regulamentação Governamental , Direito Internacional , Internacionalidade/legislação & jurisprudência , Humanos , Legislação de Medicamentos/normas
20.
Nurs Adm Q ; 43(1): 10-18, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30516702

RESUMO

Nurses and other health care professionals are in a unique position to shift the paradigm around migration debates. As caregivers and advocates for patients and other providers, nurses are crucial to the health and well-being of individuals, families, and communities. This is especially true for migrants, including increasingly vulnerable refugee populations around the world. As negotiations surrounding the Global Compact for Migration and Global Compact on Refugees come to a close, nurses' roles are becoming more apparent. Nurses are facilitators of migration and can help ensure that the benefits of migration are maximized and the challenges are mitigated. Often, nurses are migrants themselves. Leveraging nurses' knowledge, experience, talents, and compassion is crucial for attaining the objectives of both the Global Compact for Migration and the Global Compact on Refugees. Nurses are large contributors to the United Nations' 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and its 17 Sustainable Development Goals. The global nursing workforce has enormous potential to advance the achievement of these goals and objectives. In a world that appears to be increasingly xenophobic and hostile to migrants, nurses stand out as professionals who can change the narrative while providing compassionate care for the most vulnerable.


Assuntos
Emigração e Imigração/tendências , Papel do Profissional de Enfermagem , Emigração e Imigração/legislação & jurisprudência , Política de Saúde , Humanos , Internacionalidade/legislação & jurisprudência , Refugiados/estatística & dados numéricos , Desenvolvimento Sustentável
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