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1.
Prog Orthod ; 21(1): 2, 2020 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31930444

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aims of this cross-sectional study were to investigate the regulatory compliance of Dutch practice websites offering orthodontic services, readability of the available treatment information, website design as well as possible relationship with practice location and professional qualification of practitioners. METHODS: A comprehensive Internet search was performed using the Google search engine and five relevant terms in Dutch. Eligibility screening of the first 50 results of each search led to the final inclusion of 111 websites. The content of the selected websites was evaluated in terms of compliance to international regulations on ethical advertising guidelines (CED), treatment information text readability using Flesch Reading Ease Score (FRES), and website design using the BDC assessment tool. RESULTS: Reporting of websites according to CED guidelines covered on average 85% of the mandatory items. No significant differences were observed between dental and orthodontic practices, and between practices located in densely and sparsely populated regions (P > 0.05). The mean FRES of the displayed information indicated difficult-to-understand text. BDC scores of multi-location practices were significantly higher than the rest (P < 0.006). CONCLUSIONS: The websites of orthodontic practices in The Netherlands do not fully comply with CED guidelines on ethical advertising. Readability of the displayed information and website technical performance needs to be further optimized.


Assuntos
Compreensão , Ferramenta de Busca , Estudos Transversais , Internet , Países Baixos , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto , Leitura
2.
Ann R Coll Surg Engl ; 102(1): 3-8, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31858833

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Achieving a standard of clinical research at the pinnacle of the evidence pyramid is historically expensive and logistically challenging. Research collaboratives have delivered high-impact prospective multicentre audits and clinical trials by using trainee networks with a range of enabling technology. This review outlines such use of technology in the UK and provides a framework of recommended technologies for future studies. METHODS: A review of the literature identified technology used in collaborative projects. Additional technologies were identified through web searches. Technologies were grouped into themes including access (networking and engagement), collaboration and event organisation. The technologies available to support each theme were studied further to outline relative benefits and limitations. FINDINGS: Thirty-three articles from trainee research collaboratives were identified. The most frequently documented technologies were social media applications, website platforms and research databases. The Supportive Technologies in Collaborative Research framework is proposed, providing a structure for using the technologies available to support multicentre collaboration. Such technologies are often overlooked in the literature by established and start-up collaborative project groups. If used correctly, they might help to overcome the physical, logistical and financial barriers of multicentre clinical trials.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica/métodos , Tecnologia Biomédica/métodos , Comportamento Cooperativo , Relações Interprofissionais , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Comunicação , Cirurgia Geral/educação , Humanos , Internet , Redes Sociais Online , Estudantes de Medicina
3.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1180: 267-276, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31784968

RESUMO

The advances in the Internet and related technologies may lead to changes in professional roles of psychiatrists and psychotherapists. The application of artificial intelligence (AI) and electronic measurement-based care (eMBC) in the treatment of depressive disorder has addressed more interest. AI could play a role in population health management and patient administration as well as assist physicians to make a decision in the real-world clinical practice. The eMBC strengthens MBC through web/mobile devices and telephone consulting services, to monitor disease progression, and customizes the MBC interface in electronic medical record systems (EMRs).


Assuntos
Inteligência Artificial , Transtorno Depressivo/terapia , Internet , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Humanos
4.
Indian J Dent Res ; 30(5): 798-802, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31854377

RESUMO

Introduction: Internet has become ubiquitous with the advent of smartphones. The dental fraternity keeps themselves updated and share knowledge through webinars, video conferences, research publications, etc. Hence, the internet serves as an imperative tool for dissemination of information. The usage of internet in dental education can be exploited to the fullest, especially due to the increased ownership rates of smartphones. Materials and Methods: A total of 490 students from four dental colleges in Tamil Nadu were asked to fill a close-ended questionnaire to assess the knowledge and attitude of dental students toward internet usage in smartphones. This study was conducted from November 2016 to January 2017. Results: The response rate was 100%. Almost all the students (98%) had knowledge on browsing. The percentage of internet use in smartphones were the highest (55.2%) followed by computers or laptops at home (26.5%). About 34.6% of students used internet in smartphones daily. More than half of the students (52.2%) used internet in smartphone at least 2-3 h a day. About one quarter (23.4%) of students used internet on a daily basis while 29.59% of students accessed the internet thrice a week for searching content related to dentistry. The preferred source for collecting dental-related information was through the internet (28.9%) and textbooks (28.5%). Conclusion: Dental students have considerable knowledge in using the internet for dental education and some of them utilize internet more frequently because of the possession of smartphones.


Assuntos
Smartphone , Educação em Odontologia , Humanos , Índia , Internet , Estudantes de Odontologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
5.
Expert Rev Pharmacoecon Outcomes Res ; 19(6): 663-676, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31859542

RESUMO

Introduction: Health anxiety, also known as 'hypochondriasis', is a common, distressing and costly condition that responds to cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) but evidence pertaining to response and remission rates, treatment in routine care, therapist-guided Internet-delivered CBT (ICBT) and health economics has not been systematically reviewed.Areas covered: In this systematic review and meta-analysis we searched PubMed, PsycINFO, and OATD (17/06/2019) for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing CBT to non-CBT controls for health anxiety. Based on 19 RCTs, the pooled between-group effect on health anxiety was moderate to large (g = 0.79; 95% CI: 0.57-1.01; adjusted for publication bias: g = 0.62), with small to moderate effects on secondary symptoms and effects largely sustained 12-18 months after treatment. Moderators were control condition and recruitment path, but not treatment setting. The pooled CBT response rate was 66%, and the remission rate 48%. ICBT had effects comparable to face-to-face CBT. CBT for health anxiety is probably cost-effective, but with limited effect on the quality of life.Expert opinion: CBT is a highly efficacious and probably cost-effective treatment for health anxiety. We recommend that ICBT is implemented more widely, and that health economic outcomes and ways of increasing response and remission rates are explored further.


Assuntos
Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental/métodos , Hipocondríase/terapia , Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental/economia , Análise Custo-Benefício , Economia Médica , Humanos , Hipocondríase/economia , Internet , Qualidade de Vida , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Resultado do Tratamento
6.
Estud. pesqui. psicol. (Impr.) ; 19(3): 665-685, dez. 2019. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS, Index Psicologia - Periódicos técnico-científicos | ID: biblio-1045992

RESUMO

Pesquisas sobre sexting vêm abordando quantitativamente aspectos da individualidade dos adolescentes, desconsiderando suas percepções. Portanto, o objetivo dessa pesquisa qualitativa e descritiva foi conhecer a percepção de adolescentes sobre o sexting e sobre o papel das relações familiares no fenômeno. Foram realizadas entrevistas semiestruturadas com seis adolescentes entre 14 e 17 anos de uma escola da região metropolitana de Porto Alegre, com ou sem envolvimento em sexting. A partir da análise de conteúdo, os resultados mostraram que o fenômeno foi descrito como comum e não negativo. Entretanto, os participantes o descreveram como problemático caso ocorra o compartilhamento não autorizado. O exemplo dos pais e o diálogo na família foram percebidos como influenciadores de sexting ativo. Sugere-se que educadores, pais e terapeutas não o qualifiquem pejorativamente. Também que ampliem a comunicação sobre sexualidade para além do caráter informativo, bem como a discussão dos riscos de exposição que o compartilhamento não autorizado do sexting acarreta.(AU)


Sexting research has quantitatively addressed aspects of adolescent individuality, disregarding their perceptions. Therefore, the purpose of this qualitative and descriptive research was to know the adolescents' perception about sexting and the role of family relationships in the phenomenon. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with six adolescents between 14 and 17 years of age from a school in the metropolitan region of Porto Alegre city, with or without involvement in sexting. From the content analysis, the results showed that the phenomenon was described as common and non-negative. However, participants described it as problematic if unauthorized sharing occurs. Parents' example and the dialogue in the family were perceived as influencers of active sexting. It is suggested that educators, parents and therapists do not qualify the phenomenon pejoratively. Also, they should extend communication about sexuality beyond the informational aspect, as well as the discussion of the exposure risks that the unauthorized sharing of sexting entails.(AU)


Las encuestas sobre sexting vienen abordando cuantitativamente aspectos de la individualidad de los adolescentes, desconsiderando sus percepciones. Por lo tanto, el objetivo de esta investigación cualitativa y descriptiva fue conocer la percepción de adolescentes sobre el sexting y del papel de las relaciones familiares en el fenómeno. Se realizaron entrevistas semiestructuradas con seis adolescentes entre 14 y 17 años de una escuela de la región metropolitana de Porto Alegre, con o sin participación en sexting. A partir del análisis de contenido, los resultados mostraron que el fenómeno fue descrito como común y no negativo. Sin embargo, los participantes lo describieron como problemático si se produce un intercambio no autorizado. El ejemplo de los padres y el diálogo en la familia fueron percibidos como influyentes de sexting activo. Se sugiere que los educadores, padres y terapeutas no lo califiquen peyorativamente. También que amplíen la comunicación sobre sexualidad más allá del carácter informativo, así como la discusión de los riesgos de exposición que el compartir no autorizado del sexting acarreta.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Internet , Adolescente
7.
RECIIS (Online) ; 13(4): 803-816, out.-dez. 2019. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1047569

RESUMO

A formação de Redes Sociais Virtuais (RSVs) em comunidades como o Facebook tornou-se um importante instrumento de busca por socialização e informação. Este artigo apresenta dados sobre fontes de informação utilizadas por responsáveis de crianças com Transtorno do Espectro Autista (TEA) e como essas interferem na percepção de suporte interpessoal e nos processos de governança em saúde. No estudo quantitativo, participaram 90 membros das três maiores RSVs sobre TEA. Para a coleta de dados foi utilizado questionário semiestruturado, cujas respostas foram quantificadas para melhor visualização. Os resultados demonstraram que a participação nessas redes é a principal fonte de informação para metade dos participantes, especialmente para a parcela da população com menor renda; 70/90 voluntários informaram se sentir amparados pelos parceiros de RSV e 63/90 se sentem desamparados pela sociedade em geral. Este fenômeno pode ser explicado pela formação de laços sociais marcados pela reciprocidade de situações vividas.


The formation of Virtual Social Networks (RSVs) in communities as Facebook has become an important tool for searching for socialization and information. This article presents data on the sources of information used by those responsible for children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), and how they interfere in the perception of interpersonal support and health governance processes. In the quantitative study, 90 members from the 3 largest RSVs on ASD participated. For the data collection, a semi-structured questionnaire was used. Responses were quantified to facilitate visualization of the data. The results showed that participation in these networks is the main source of information for half of the participants, especially for the portion of the population with lower income; 70/90 volunteers reported feeling supported by RSV partners and 63/90 reported feeling helpless by society in general. A phenomenon that can be explained by the formation of social bonds marked by the reciprocity of lived situations.


La formación de Redes Sociales Virtuales (RSVs) en comunidades como Facebook se ha convertido en un importante instrumento de búsqueda de socialización e información. Este artículo presenta datos sobre fuentes de información utilizadas por responsables de niños con trastorno del espectro autista (TEA), y cómo interfieren en la percepción de soporte interpersonal y en los procesos de gobernanza en salud. Se trató de estudio cuantitativo, participaron 90 miembros de las 3 mayores RSVs sobre TEA. Para la recolección de datos se utilizó un cuestionario semiestructurado. Las respuestas se cuantificaron para facilitar la visualización de los datos. Los resultados demostraron que la participación en esas redes es la principal fuente de información para la mitad de los participantes, especialmente para la parcela de la población con menores ingresos; 70/90 voluntarios informaron sentirse amparados por los socios de RSV y 63/90 informaron sentirse desamparados por la sociedad en general. Fenómeno que puede ser explicado por la formación de lazos sociales marcados por la reciprocidad de situaciones vividas.


Assuntos
Humanos , Apoio Social , Governança Clínica , Rede Social , Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Relações Interpessoais , Socialização , Comportamento , Criança , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adolescente , Pessoal de Saúde , Comunicação , Internet , Acesso à Informação , Mídias Sociais , Governança
8.
RECIIS (Online) ; 13(4): 817-830, out.-dez. 2019. ilus
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1047572

RESUMO

Este artigo mapeia as estratégias de atuação do Ministério da Saúde na rede social Instagram. Realizou-se um estudo de caso no período de agosto de 2017 a agosto de 2018 para verificar como o tema da amamentação foi abordado na rede oficial do governo brasileiro para saúde. O corpus tem 65 posts sobre a questão, que foram analisados considerando as métricas de monitoramento das redes sociais: alcance; volume; atividade; engajamento dos usuários e influência do conteúdo junto aos seguidores. Analisando as estratégias de atuação do marketing social e digital identificou-se a falta de interação e resposta aos usuários e a baixa diversidade de representação das mulheres. O levantamento aponta a necessidade de problematizar as práticas do Ministério nesta rede e propor melhorias para ampliar o diálogo com a sociedade.


This article maps out the strategies of performance of the Brazilian Ministry of Health in Instagram's social network. A case study was carried out in the period from August 2017 to August 2018 to verify how the topic of breast-feeding was approached in the official network of the Brazilian government for health. The corpus has 65 posts about that issue which were analised considering the measures to monitor social networks: scope, volume, activity, user engagement and influence of the content on the followers. Analyzing the strategies of social and digital marketing used by the Brazilian government for health, it was identified the lack of interaction with users and of response to them and the low diversity of women represented on its Instagram profile. The research points out that we need to problematize Ministry practices in this network and to propose improvements to broaden the dialogue with the society.


El artículo mapea las estrategias de actuación del Ministerio de Salud de Brasil en la red social Instagram. Se realizó un estudio de caso en el período de agosto de 2017 hasta agosto de 2018 para escudriñar como se abordó el tema de la lactancia en la red oficial del gobierno brasileño para salud. El corpus tiene 65 posts a respecto del asunto y fueron estudiados considerando las medidas para monitorizar redes sociales: alcance; volumen; actividad; interacción de los usuarios e la influencia del contenido en los seguidores. Analizando las estrategias de actuación del marketing social y digital se identificó falta de interactividad, usuarios sin respuesta y la baja diversidad de representación de las mujeres en lo perfil del gobierno brasileño en Instagram. La investigación apunta la necesidad de problematizar las prácticas del Ministerio en esta red y de proponer mejorías para ampliar el diálogo con la sociedad.


Assuntos
Humanos , Aleitamento Materno , Relatos de Casos , Marketing Social , Rede Social , Promoção da Saúde , Sistema Único de Saúde , Comunicação , Redes Comunitárias , Internet , Nutrição do Lactente , Política de Saúde , Relações Interpessoais
9.
RECIIS (Online) ; 13(4): 911-921, out.-dez. 2019. ilus
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1047676

RESUMO

Uma vez que a internet assumiu o papel de fonte preferencial e espontânea de acesso à informação, o objetivo deste estudo é sintetizar o que as mães brasileiras buscam e encontram na internet sobre aleitamento materno, por meio de revisão crítica da literatura científica dos últimos 10 anos. Os estudos selecionados permitiram a categorização de três tópicos de discussão: qualidade das informações disponíveis; desenvolvimento de facilitadores para acesso a informações sobre aleitamento materno; e grupos virtuais de apoio à amamentação como espaço de educação em saúde. A internet é uma área com grande potencial para o desenvolvimento de ações de educação em saúde e promoção do aleitamento materno. Apesar de pertinente e atual, a literatura científica carece de pesquisas que explorem o tema do aleitamento materno sob o ponto de vista da interação on-line das mães, sendo este um campo muito rico para estudos futuros.


Since the internet has assumed the role of a preferential and spontaneous source of access to information, this work intends to synthesize what Brazilian mothers search and find on the internet about breastfeeding through a Critical Review of Literature in the last 10 years. The selected studies have allowed for the categorization of three discussion topics: quality of information available, development of facilitators for access to information on breastfeeding and virtual groups supporting breastfeeding as a space for health education. The internet is an area with great potential for the development of actions of health education and promotion of breastfeeding. Although pertinent and current, the scientific literature lacks research that explores the topic of breastfeeding from the perspective of the online interaction of mothers, which is a very rich field for future studies.


El objetivo de este estudio es sintetizar lo que las madres brasileñas buscan y encuentran en internet sobre lactancia materna, por medio de una revisión crítica de la literatura científica de los últimos 10 años. Los estudios seleccionados permitieron la categorización de tres temas de discusión: calidad de la información disponible; desarrollo de facilitadores para acceso a informaciones sobre lactancia materna y grupos virtuales de apoyo a la lactancia como espacio de educación en salud. La internet es un área con gran potencial para el desarrollo de acciones de educación en salud y promoción de la lactancia materna. A pesar de pertinente y actual, la literatura científica carece de investigaciones que exploren el tema de la lactancia materna desde el punto de vista de la interacción online de las madres, siendo este un campo muy rico para estudios futuros.


Assuntos
Humanos , Aleitamento Materno , Saúde Materno-Infantil , Internet , Tecnologia Biomédica , Promoção da Saúde , Socialização , Mulheres , Revisão , Poder Familiar , Nutrição do Lactente , Mídias Sociais , Mães
10.
BMJ ; 367: l5922, 2019 11 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31690561

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinical effectiveness and safety of stand alone and blended internet based vestibular rehabilitation (VR) in the management of chronic vestibular syndromes in general practice. DESIGN: Pragmatic, three armed, parallel group, individually randomised controlled trial. SETTING: 59 general practices in the Netherlands. PARTICIPANTS: 322 adults aged 50 and older with a chronic vestibular syndrome. INTERVENTIONS: Stand alone VR comprising a six week, internet based intervention with weekly online sessions and daily exercises (10-20 minutes a day). In the blended VR group, the same internet based intervention was supplemented by face-to-face physiotherapy support (home visits in weeks 1 and 3). Participants in the usual care group received standard care from a general practitioner, without any restrictions. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome was vestibular symptoms after six months as measured by the vertigo symptom scale-short form (VSS-SF range 0-60, clinically relevant difference ≥3 points). Secondary outcomes were dizziness related impairment, anxiety, depressive symptoms, subjective improvement of vestibular symptoms after three and six months, and adverse events. RESULTS: In the intention-to-treat analysis, participants in the stand alone and blended VR groups had lower VSS-SF scores at six months than participants in the usual care group (adjusted mean difference -4.1 points, 95% confidence interval -5.8 to -2.5; and -3.5 points, -5.1 to -1.9, respectively). Similar differences in VSS-SF scores were seen at three months follow-up. Participants in the stand alone and blended VR groups also experienced less dizziness related impairment, less anxiety, and more subjective improvement of vestibular symptoms at three and six months. No serious adverse events related to online VR occurred during the trial. CONCLUSION: Stand alone and blended internet based VR are clinically effective and safe interventions to treat adults aged 50 and older with a chronic vestibular syndrome. Online VR is an easily accessible form of treatment, with the potential to improve care for an undertreated group of patients in general practice. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Netherlands Trial Register NTR5712.


Assuntos
Medicina Geral/métodos , Modalidades de Fisioterapia , Qualidade de Vida , Telemedicina/métodos , Doenças Vestibulares/reabilitação , Idoso , Doença Crônica/psicologia , Doença Crônica/reabilitação , Feminino , Humanos , Internet , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Países Baixos , Síndrome , Resultado do Tratamento , Doenças Vestibulares/diagnóstico , Doenças Vestibulares/psicologia
11.
Zootaxa ; 4691(5): zootaxa.4691.5.6, 2019 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31719380

RESUMO

A new species of frog belonging to the genus Polypedates Tschudi is described from the state of West Bengal, Eastern India. A mid-sized frog, SVL ranges from 47.9-53.6 mm in males and 72.0 mm in the single female. The species is diagnosable in showing the following suite of characters: digits lack webbing, inner and outer metacarpal tubercles present; no dermal fold on forearm; toes webbed, webbing formula I1-1 II0.5-2III1-2IV2-0.5V; an inner metatarsal tubercle present; tibio-tarsal articulation reaches between eye and nostril; and skin on forehead co-ossified to cranium. Additionally, males possess paired vocal sacs. The new species is compared with known species of the genus Polypedates.


Assuntos
Anuros , Internet , Animais , Feminino , Índia , Masculino , Filogenia
12.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1168: 103-115, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31713167

RESUMO

The past two decades have seen unprecedented advances in the field of oncogenomics. The ongoing characterization of neoplastic tissues through genomic techniques has transformed many aspects of cancer research, diagnosis, and treatment. However, identifying sequence variants with biological and clinical significance is a challenging endeavor. In order to accomplish this task, variants must be annotated and interpreted using various online resources. Data on protein structure, functional prediction, variant frequency in relevant populations, and multiple other factors have been compiled in useful databases for this purpose. Thus, understanding the available online resources for the annotation and interpretation of sequence variants is critical to aid molecular pathologists and researchers working in this space.


Assuntos
Bases de Dados Genéticas , Privacidade Genética , Neoplasias , Farmacogenética , Privacidade Genética/tendências , Variação Genética , Recursos em Saúde , Humanos , Internet , Neoplasias/fisiopatologia , Neoplasias/terapia , Análise de Sequência de DNA/normas , Análise de Sequência de DNA/tendências
13.
Zootaxa ; 4567(2): zootaxa.4567.2.11, 2019 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31715904

RESUMO

The most common methods for combining different phylogenetic trees with uneven but overlapping taxon sampling are the Matrix Representation with Parsimony (MRP) and consensus tree methods. Although straightforward, some steps of MRP are time-consuming and risky when manually performed, especially the preparation of the matrix representations from the original topologies, and the creation of the single matrix containing all the information of the individual trees. Here we present Building MRP-Matrices (BuM), a free online tool for generating a combined matrix, following Baum and Ragan coding scheme, from files containing phylogenetic trees in parenthetical format.


Assuntos
Filogenia , Animais , Internet
14.
Zootaxa ; 4608(3): zootaxa.4608.3.13, 2019 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31717142

RESUMO

In a revision of the generic classification of the tanagers, Burns et al. (2016) proposed the name Islerothraupis with type species Tanagra cristata Linnaeus, 1766 (long known as Tachyphonus cristatus); however, they overlooked a previous designation of that species as the type of a genus. In 1821, Feliks Pawel Jarocki, in the second volume of Zoologiia czyli Zwiérzetopismo Ogólne podlug Naynowszego Systematu ulozone ("Zoology, or general natural history account according to the newest arranged system"), page 133, specified Tanagra cristata as the type of a proposed subgenus Loriotus. The original text in Polish is available at the website www.rcin.org.pl, the Digital Repository of Scientific Institutes, which has made a wide diversity of scholarship in Polish available over the Internet. The original description of Loriotus, in parallel with other names Jarocki introduced in his Zoologiia, is minimal: "Dziób ostro konczysty, cokolwiek zgiety. Zuchwy sczeki spodniey przy nasadzie bardzo malo zgrubiale." (Bill ending in a point, somewhat curved. Lower mandible slightly thickened at base.).


Assuntos
Cubomedusas , Passeriformes , Animais , Internet , Mandíbula , Zoologia
15.
Pan Afr Med J ; 33: 311, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31692835

RESUMO

Introduction: Problem-based learning (PBL) method which was introduced about 50 years ago in Canada is beginning to gain acceptance over conventional teaching method (CTM) worldwide in medical education but still remains unpopular in Nigeria. This study aims to determine the perception of clinical medical students to the use of both learning methods in pathology courses. Methods: A cross-sectional quantitative survey was conducted in four Nigerian universities drawn from four regions of the country. Data were collected using pretested semi-structured self-administered questionnaires. Results: The study included 310 respondents, 182(58.7%) males and 128(41.3%) females. Of all the participants, 257(82.9%) had heard of PBL prior to the study and 260(83.9%) thought it suitable for teaching and learning Pathology. Majority of participants, 221(71.3%) preferred a combination of both PBL and CTM while 238(76.8%) thought PBL suitable for all medical students. Some identified factors capable of enhancing adaptation of PBL into medical curriculum include conducive quiet spaces for learning and availability of computers with internet facilities for students' use. Conclusion: Participants demonstrated high level of awareness of PBL and thought it suitable for all medical students. Availability of computers and up-to-date libraries with internet and audio-visual facilities could enhance adaptation of PBL into medical curriculum in Nigeria.


Assuntos
Currículo , Educação Médica/métodos , Aprendizagem Baseada em Problemas/métodos , Estudantes de Medicina/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Internet , Masculino , Nigéria , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
16.
Nurs Res ; 68(6): 483-487, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31693554

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Limited guidelines to assist nurse researchers who use web-based interventions are available. Nurses must develop the supporting technology enabling participants to complete study activities and collected data while maintaining data security and participant confidentiality. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to describe how the authors used advanced Research Electronic Data Capture (REDCap) functionality to support the data management infrastructure of an interactive, web-based therapeutic intervention. METHODS: The data management infrastructure for the WISER (Writing to Improve Self-in-Relationships) intervention pilot study consisted of two components: a website for presentation of the intervention and participant account management and a REDCap project for data capture and storage. The REDCap application programming interface connected these two components using HTML links and data exchanges. RESULTS: We completed an initial pilot study of WISER with 14 participants using the REDCap-based infrastructure. Minimal technical difficulties were encountered. DISCUSSION: REDCap is cost-effective, is readily available, and, through its advanced functionality, is able to facilitate confidential, secure interactions with participants, robust data management, and seamless participant progression in web-based intervention research.


Assuntos
Coleta de Dados , Gestão da Informação em Saúde , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde , Internet , Pesquisa em Enfermagem , Software , Bases de Dados Factuais , Humanos , Projetos Piloto , Inquéritos e Questionários
17.
Nurs Res ; 68(6): E8-E12, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31693558

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Scarce and differing reasons for including closing questions in qualitative research exist, but how data generated from these questions are used remains uncertain. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of the study was to understand if and how researchers use closing questions in qualitative research, specifically the research questions were: (a) "Why do qualitative researchers include or exclude closing questions during interviews?" and (b) "How do qualitative researchers use data from closing questions?" METHODS: A qualitative descriptive design using a single, asynchronous, web-based, investigator-designed survey containing 14 items was used to collect data. Convenience and snowball sampling were used to recruit participants. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and qualitative content analysis. Codes were developed from the qualitative data. Subcategories were derived from similar codes, and these subcategories were further scrutinized and were used to create broad categories. RESULTS: The number of respondents per question ranged from 76 to 99; most identified nursing and sociology as their academic disciplines, lived in the United States, and were involved in qualitative research for 1-10 years. Data, the interview, the interviewee, and the interviewer were broad categories to emerge as reasons for including closing questions. Only one respondent reported a reason for excluding closing questions. The uses of closing question data were described in four broad categories: analysis, data, the interview guide, and inquiry. DISCUSSION: Researchers frequently included closing questions in qualitative studies. The reasons for including these questions and how data are used vary, and support limited previously published literature. One unique reason, adding "new breath" to the interview, emerged. Study findings can aid qualitative researchers in deciding whether to include closing questions.


Assuntos
Internet , Entrevistas como Assunto , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Inquéritos e Questionários , Tomada de Decisões , Humanos
18.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1192: 263-279, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31705499

RESUMO

This article gives an overview of the concept and brain mechanisms of Internet game and smartphone addiction and the applicability of precision medicine and smart healthcare system. Internet game and smartphone addiction are categorized as behavioral addictions, which share similar phenomenology and neurobiological underpinnings with substance addictions. Neuroimaging studies revealed the alteration in the functional activity and structure of individuals with Internet game and smartphone addiction, which also can be potent biomarkers. Precision medicine is defined as treatments targeted to the individual patients on the basis of genetic, biomarker, phenotypic or psychosocial characteristics. Recent advances in high-throughput technology and bioinformatics have enabled us to integrate these big data with behavioral data collected from smartphones or other wearable devices. Data collected via smart devices can be transferred to medical institute and integrated in order to diagnose current status precisely and to provide optimal intervention. The feedbacks of intervention are sent back to the medical provider via self-reports or objective measures to evaluate the appropriateness of the intervention. In conclusion, Internet game and smartphone addiction can be diagnosed precisely using high-throughput technology and optimally managed via smart healthcare system.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo/diagnóstico , Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental/métodos , Assistência à Saúde/métodos , Internet , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Medicina de Precisão , Smartphone , Comportamento Aditivo/terapia , Humanos , Neuroimagem , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Jogos de Vídeo
19.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1192: 583-627, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31705515

RESUMO

Mental disorders are highly prevalent and often remain untreated. Many limitations of conventional face-to-face psychological interventions could potentially be overcome through Internet-based and mobile-based interventions (IMIs). This chapter introduces core features of IMIs, describes areas of application, presents evidence on the efficacy of IMIs as well as potential effect mechanisms, and delineates how Artificial Intelligence combined with IMIs may improve current practices in the prevention and treatment of mental disorders in adults. Meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials clearly show that therapist-guided IMIs can be highly effective for a broad range of mental health problems. Whether the effects of unguided IMIs are also clinically relevant, particularly under routine care conditions, is less clear. First studies on IMIs for the prevention of mental disorders have shown promising results. Despite limitations and challenges, IMIs are increasingly implemented into routine care worldwide. IMIs are also well suited for applications of Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning, which provides ample opportunities to improve the identification and treatment of mental disorders. Together with methodological innovations, these approaches may also deepen our understanding of how psychological interventions work, and why. Ethical and professional restraints as well as potential contraindications of IMIs, however, should also be considered. In sum, IMIs have a high potential for improving the prevention and treatment of mental health disorders across various indications, settings, and populations. Therefore, implementing IMIs into routine care as both adjunct and alternative to face-to-face treatment is highly desirable. Technological advancements may further enhance the variability and flexibility of IMIs, and thus even further increase their impact in people's lives in the future.


Assuntos
Inteligência Artificial , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Aplicativos Móveis , Psicoterapia/métodos , Adulto , Humanos , Internet , Telemedicina
20.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1192: 629-641, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31705516

RESUMO

Cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-I) is the treatment of choice for insomnia; however, it is not widely used due to a lack of experienced therapists and its relatively high clinical cost. Recently, Internet and mobile CBT-I have been developed to replace face-to-face CBT-I, and research on this topic has been increasing. In addition, attempts have been made to use wearable devices for sleep-wake estimation. Studies on digital CBT-I thus far have shown favorable treatment effects in general, but the problem of a high dropout rate has not been sufficiently improved. In addition, more sophisticated technology is needed to develop fully automated digital CBT-I. As part of efforts to maximize the treatment effectiveness of future insomnia patients, research and development of mobile and Internet CBT-I and improvement of sleep tracker accuracy and validation studies are needed.


Assuntos
Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental , Aplicativos Móveis , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/terapia , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis , Humanos , Internet , Sono , Resultado do Tratamento
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