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1.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 5313, 2021 03 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33674661

RESUMO

A recent mathematical model has suggested that staying at home did not play a dominant role in reducing COVID-19 transmission. The second wave of cases in Europe, in regions that were considered as COVID-19 controlled, may raise some concerns. Our objective was to assess the association between staying at home (%) and the reduction/increase in the number of deaths due to COVID-19 in several regions in the world. In this ecological study, data from www.google.com/covid19/mobility/ , ourworldindata.org and covid.saude.gov.br were combined. Countries with > 100 deaths and with a Healthcare Access and Quality Index of ≥ 67 were included. Data were preprocessed and analyzed using the difference between number of deaths/million between 2 regions and the difference between the percentage of staying at home. The analysis was performed using linear regression with special attention to residual analysis. After preprocessing the data, 87 regions around the world were included, yielding 3741 pairwise comparisons for linear regression analysis. Only 63 (1.6%) comparisons were significant. With our results, we were not able to explain if COVID-19 mortality is reduced by staying at home in ~ 98% of the comparisons after epidemiological weeks 9 to 34.


Assuntos
/mortalidade , Saúde Global , Política de Saúde , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Quarentena/normas , /prevenção & controle , /virologia , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Humanos , Internet/estatística & dados numéricos , Modelos Lineares , Pandemias/estatística & dados numéricos , Dinâmica Populacional/estatística & dados numéricos , /patogenicidade
2.
Psychiatry Res ; 298: 113799, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33611165

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Suicide reports during the COVID pandemic is an increasing cause for concern. However, there is a limited understanding of suicide among individuals with positive/suspected COVID diagnosis specifically. Hence, this study, using online newspaper reports, aimed to determine factors influencing suicide among individuals withCOVID-19 infection status. METHODOLOGY: Information regarding positive/suspected COVID related suicide was obtained from online newspapers published in 4 languages between 30th Jan 2020 to 16th August 2020 using google news aggregator. Of 235 online identified, 93 were eligible for analysis after the exclusion and analysed using descriptive statistics. RESULTS: Median Age of COVID related suicide victims was 45 years (range 15 - 80) wherein 61.3% belonged to 30-59 year age group, and 75.3% were males. 50% of suicides occurred within the first week of COVID diagnosis confirmation, and 50% suicides occurred at COVID centres. Hanging (53.8%) was the commonest method of suicide, followed by jumping (12.9%). CONCLUSION: Higher risk for suicide was observed among male gender and those with positive/suspected COVID infection within the first week, while receiving treatment in COVID care centres. Hanging and jumping were the two commonest methods. The above highlight an urgent need to integrate suicide preventive strategies into standard care protocols of COVID-19 positive and suspected cases.


Assuntos
/psicologia , Suicídio/psicologia , Suicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Índia , Internet/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Meios de Comunicação de Massa/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
3.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 215, 2021 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33632140

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Public health is increasingly turning to non-traditional digital data to inform HIV prevention and control strategies. We demonstrate a parsimonious method using both traditional survey and internet search histories to provide new insights into HIV testing and pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) information seeking that can be easily extended to other settings. METHOD: We modeled how US internet search volumes from 2019 for HIV testing and PrEP compared against expected search volumes for HIV testing and PrEP using state HIV prevalence and socioeconomic characteristics as predictors. States with search volumes outside the upper and lower bound confidence interval were labeled as either over or under performing. State performance was evaluated by (a) Centers for Disease Control and Prevention designation as a hotspot for new HIV diagnoses (b) expanding Medicaid coverage. RESULTS: Ten states over-performed in models assessing information seeking for HIV testing, while eleven states under-performed. Thirteen states over-performed in models assessing internet searches for PrEP information, while thirteen states under-performed. States that expanded Medicaid coverage were more likely to over perform in PrEP models than states that did not expand Medicaid coverage. While states that were hotspots for new HIV diagnoses were more likely to over perform on HIV testing searches. CONCLUSION: Our study derived a method of measuring HIV and PrEP information seeking that is comparable across states. Several states exhibited information seeking for PrEP and HIV testing that deviated from model assessments. Statewide search volume for PrEP information was affected by a state's decision to expand Medicaid coverage. Our research provides health officials with an innovative way to monitor statewide interest in PrEP and HIV testing using a metric for information-seeking that is comparable across states.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Comportamento de Busca de Informação , Internet/estatística & dados numéricos , Profilaxia Pré-Exposição/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Medicaid/estatística & dados numéricos , Prevalência , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
4.
Rev Bras Enferm ; 74Suppl 1(Suppl 1): e20200631, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33533806

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: to know the strategies to cope with domestic violence against women disseminated by digital media at the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: a documentary study with a qualitative approach. The search took place from March 11 to April 30, 2020, from four sources: newspapers and online portals, social network, official government pages and third sector portals. Thematic content analysis of the findings was performed. RESULTS: seventy-seven strategies were identified in the journalistic press, 93 in the social network, 45 in government portals and 40 in third sector organizations. From analysis, three empirical categories emerged: Strategies for communication with women; Strategies adopted by customer service; Strategies to inform the population. FINAL CONSIDERATIONS: most of strategies were adaptations of existing services, centered on the reporting of violence by women.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Comunicação , Violência Doméstica/psicologia , Disseminação de Informação/métodos , Internet/estatística & dados numéricos , Mídias Sociais/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias
5.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(3): e23097, 2021 03 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33600348

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: With the spread of COVID-19, an infodemic is also emerging. In public health emergencies, the use of information to enable disease prevention and treatment is incredibly important. Although both the information adoption model (IAM) and health belief model (HBM) have their own merits, they only focus on information or public influence factors, respectively, to explain the public's intention to adopt online prevention and treatment information. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to fill this gap by using a combination of the IAM and the HBM as the framework for exploring the influencing factors and paths in public health events that affect the public's adoption of online health information and health behaviors, focusing on both objective and subjective factors. METHODS: We carried out an online survey to collect responses from participants in China (N=501). Structural equation modeling was used to evaluate items, and confirmatory factor analysis was used to calculate construct reliability and validity. The goodness of fit of the model and mediation effects were analyzed. RESULTS: The overall fitness indices for the model developed in this study indicated an acceptable fit. Adoption intention was predicted by information characteristics (ß=.266, P<.001) and perceived usefulness (ß=.565, P<.001), which jointly explained nearly 67% of the adoption intention variance. Information characteristics (ß=.244, P<.001), perceived drawbacks (ß=-.097, P=.002), perceived benefits (ß=.512, P<.001), and self-efficacy (ß=.141, P<.001) jointly determined perceived usefulness and explained about 81% of the variance of perceived usefulness. However, social influence did not have a statistically significant impact on perceived usefulness, and self-efficacy did not significantly influence adoption intention directly. CONCLUSIONS: By integrating IAM and HBM, this study provided the insight and understanding that perceived usefulness and adoption intention of online health information could be influenced by information characteristics, people's perceptions of information drawbacks and benefits, and self-efficacy. Moreover, people also exhibited proactive behavior rather than reactive behavior to adopt information. Thus, we should consider these factors when helping the informed public obtain useful information via two approaches: one is to improve the quality of government-based and other official information, and the other is to improve the public's capacity to obtain information, in order to promote truth and fight rumors. This will, in turn, contribute to saving lives as the pandemic continues to unfold and run its course.


Assuntos
/prevenção & controle , Comportamento do Consumidor/estatística & dados numéricos , Informação de Saúde ao Consumidor/métodos , Informação de Saúde ao Consumidor/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , China/epidemiologia , Informação de Saúde ao Consumidor/normas , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Comunicação em Saúde/métodos , Comunicação em Saúde/normas , Humanos , Internet/normas , Internet/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Assistência ao Paciente , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
6.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 1: CD013040, 2021 01 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33511633

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pulmonary rehabilitation is a proven, effective intervention for people with chronic respiratory diseases including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), interstitial lung disease (ILD) and bronchiectasis. However, relatively few people attend or complete a program, due to factors including a lack of programs, issues associated with travel and transport, and other health issues. Traditionally, pulmonary rehabilitation is delivered in-person on an outpatient basis at a hospital or other healthcare facility (referred to as centre-based pulmonary rehabilitation). Newer, alternative modes of pulmonary rehabilitation delivery include home-based models and the use of telehealth. Telerehabilitation is the delivery of rehabilitation services at a distance, using information and communication technology. To date, there has not been a comprehensive assessment of the clinical efficacy or safety of telerehabilitation, or its ability to improve uptake and access to rehabilitation services, for people with chronic respiratory disease. OBJECTIVES: To determine the effectiveness and safety of telerehabilitation for people with chronic respiratory disease. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Airways Trials Register, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials; six databases including MEDLINE and Embase; and three trials registries, up to 30 November 2020. We checked reference lists of all included studies for additional references, and handsearched relevant respiratory journals and meeting abstracts. SELECTION CRITERIA: All randomised controlled trials and controlled clinical trials of telerehabilitation for the delivery of pulmonary rehabilitation were eligible for inclusion. The telerehabilitation intervention was required to include exercise training, with at least 50% of the rehabilitation intervention being delivered by telerehabilitation. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We used standard methods recommended by Cochrane. We assessed the risk of bias for all studies, and used the ROBINS-I tool to assess bias in non-randomised controlled clinical trials. We assessed the certainty of evidence with GRADE. Comparisons were telerehabilitation compared to traditional in-person (centre-based) pulmonary rehabilitation, and telerehabilitation compared to no rehabilitation. We analysed studies of telerehabilitation for maintenance rehabilitation separately from trials of telerehabilitation for initial primary pulmonary rehabilitation. MAIN RESULTS: We included a total of 15 studies (32 reports) with 1904 participants, using five different models of telerehabilitation. Almost all (99%) participants had chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Three studies were controlled clinical trials. For primary pulmonary rehabilitation, there was probably little or no difference between telerehabilitation and in-person pulmonary rehabilitation for exercise capacity measured as 6-Minute Walking Distance (6MWD) (mean difference (MD) 0.06 metres (m), 95% confidence interval (CI) -10.82 m to 10.94 m; 556 participants; four studies; moderate-certainty evidence). There may also be little or no difference for quality of life measured with the St George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) total score (MD -1.26, 95% CI -3.97 to 1.45; 274 participants; two studies; low-certainty evidence), or for breathlessness on the Chronic Respiratory Questionnaire (CRQ) dyspnoea domain score (MD 0.13, 95% CI -0.13 to 0.40; 426 participants; three studies; low-certainty evidence). Participants were more likely to complete a program of telerehabilitation, with a 93% completion rate (95% CI 90% to 96%), compared to a 70% completion rate for in-person rehabilitation. When compared to no rehabilitation control, trials of primary telerehabilitation may increase exercise capacity on 6MWD (MD 22.17 m, 95% CI -38.89 m to 83.23 m; 94 participants; two studies; low-certainty evidence) and may also increase 6MWD when delivered as maintenance rehabilitation (MD 78.1 m, 95% CI 49.6 m to 106.6 m; 209 participants; two studies; low-certainty evidence). No adverse effects of telerehabilitation were noted over and above any reported for in-person rehabilitation or no rehabilitation. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: This review suggests that primary pulmonary rehabilitation, or maintenance rehabilitation, delivered via telerehabilitation for people with chronic respiratory disease achieves outcomes similar to those of traditional centre-based pulmonary rehabilitation, with no safety issues identified. However, the certainty of the evidence provided by this review is limited by the small number of studies, of varying telerehabilitation models, with relatively few participants. Future research should consider the clinical effect of telerehabilitation for individuals with chronic respiratory diseases other than COPD, the duration of benefit of telerehabilitation beyond the period of the intervention, and the economic cost of telerehabilitation.


Assuntos
Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/reabilitação , Transtornos Respiratórios/reabilitação , Telerreabilitação/métodos , Viés , Doença Crônica , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados como Assunto/estatística & dados numéricos , Dispneia/reabilitação , Tolerância ao Exercício/fisiologia , Humanos , Internet/estatística & dados numéricos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados não Aleatórios como Assunto/estatística & dados numéricos , Cooperação do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Qualidade de Vida , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto/estatística & dados numéricos , Telefone/estatística & dados numéricos , Telerreabilitação/estatística & dados numéricos , Comunicação por Videoconferência/estatística & dados numéricos , Teste de Caminhada/estatística & dados numéricos
7.
Cancer Radiother ; 25(1): 45-50, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33402288

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The annual follow-up in radiotherapy for prostate cancer consists of an oral interview with a radiation oncologist. The present study aimed at surveying the target population on their knowledge and perceptions of telemedicine. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A prospective study was conducted at the Lucien Neuwirth Cancer Institute (France) that included patients with prostate cancer undergoing treatment or in follow-up, during spring 2019 (n=158). A specific questionnaire was designed for the study. Patient's self-evaluation of satisfaction and enthusiasm was assessed through visual analog scale (VAS) (0/10 to 10/10). RESULTS: One hundred and fifty-eight patients completed the survey. The vast majority of the population commonly used phone for communication and 56% of patients owned internet connexion. Around 56% of patients declared telemedicine knowledge without having ever experienced telemedicine. If 60.8% of patients would not be against telemedicine with a median enthusiasm VAS of 6/10, patients' opinions were divergent: 48.7% of patients would like to keep a classical follow-up and 48.7% of patients would envision to alternate classical consultation with telemedicine. CONCLUSION: This feasibility study with an aged cohort showed that telemedicine is a valuable option for long-term radiotherapy follow-up, even if therapeutic education and information will be necessary to supervise this novel approach.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Neoplasias da Próstata/radioterapia , Telemedicina/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Viabilidade , Seguimentos , Humanos , Internet/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos , Telefone/estatística & dados numéricos
8.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 7(1): e22273, 2021 01 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33428580

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Effective communication is critical for mitigating the public health risks associated with the COVID-19 pandemic. OBJECTIVE: This study assesses the source(s) of COVID-19 information among people in Nigeria, as well as the predictors and the perceived accuracy of information from these sources. METHODS: We conducted an online survey of consenting adults residing in Nigeria between April and May 2020 during the lockdown and first wave of COVID-19. The major sources of information about COVID-19 were distilled from 7 potential sources (family and friends, places of worship, health care providers, internet, workplace, traditional media, and public posters/banners). An open-ended question was asked to explore how respondents determined accuracy of information. Statistical analysis was conducted using STATA 15.0 software (StataCorp Texas) with significance placed at P<.05. Approval to conduct this study was obtained from the Lagos State University Teaching Hospital Health Research Ethics Committee. RESULTS: A total of 719 respondents completed the survey. Most respondents (n=642, 89.3%) obtained COVID-19-related information from the internet. The majority (n=617, 85.8%) considered their source(s) of information to be accurate, and 32.6% (n=234) depended on only 1 out of the 7 potential sources of COVID-19 information. Respondents earning a monthly income between NGN 70,000-120,000 had lower odds of obtaining COVID-19 information from the internet compared to respondents earning less than NGN 20,000 (odds ratio [OR] 0.49, 95% CI 0.24-0.98). In addition, a significant proportion of respondents sought accurate information from recognized health organizations, such as the Nigeria Centre for Disease Control and the World Health Organization. CONCLUSIONS: The internet was the most common source of COVID-19 information, and the population sampled had a relatively high level of perceived accuracy for the COVID-19 information received. Effective communication requires dissemination of information via credible communication channels, as identified from this study. This can be potentially beneficial for risk communication to control the pandemic.


Assuntos
/prevenção & controle , Informação de Saúde ao Consumidor/estatística & dados numéricos , Informação de Saúde ao Consumidor/normas , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Internet/estatística & dados numéricos , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Percepção , Inquéritos e Questionários
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33375139

RESUMO

The lockdown restrictions due to the COVID-19 pandemic have led to increased stress levels and feelings of anxiety in the general population. Problematic usage of certain online applications is one frequent way to compensate for negative feelings and stress. The current study investigated changes of online media consumption during the lockdown in Germany. Gender and age specific differences in specific online activities were assessed. n = 3245 subjects participated in an online survey conducted between the 8th April and the 11th May 2020. Participants' age ranged between 18 and >55 years. A considerably high percentage (71.4%) of participants reported increased online media consumption during the lockdown. Male participants were more likely to increase their consumption of gaming and erotic platforms, while female participants reported a higher increase in the engagement in social networks, information research, and video streaming than males. The findings revealed an increased usage of all online applications during the lockdown. For the clarification whether the increase might present a risk for elevated Internet-use disorders or can be regarded as a functional and time-limited phenomenon, further studies, assessing changes in these online activities after the end of the pandemic, are needed.


Assuntos
Internet/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias , Mídias Sociais/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Feminino , Alemanha , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
12.
Cien Saude Colet ; 25(11): 4237-4248, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33175033

RESUMO

Sex workers become increasingly economically vulnerable due to the restrictive measures implemented to combat the coronavirus pandemic. In this respect, the scope of this study is to analyze the content of prostitution websites and advertisements regarding measures related to the COVID-19 pandemic. It involved a description of the visits and analysis of content of communications on websites that advertise commercial sex transactions. The percentage change in the number of visits for three periods from 02/2019 to 04/2020 was calculated. Subsequently, ads with the terms "corona," "pandemic" and "quarantine" on websites that offer search engines were extracted. The Bardin method was then used for content analysis. There was an increase in the number of visits to prostitution websites between 2019 and 2020, followed by a decrease with the advent of the coronavirus pandemic crisis. With regard to the protection measures during the pandemic, health recommendations and the incentive to engage in virtual sex are highlighted. Of the 1,991,014 advertisements, 0.51% mention the COVID-19 crisis regarding noncompliance with social distancing, protection measures and the offer of online sex.


Assuntos
Publicidade/estatística & dados numéricos , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Internet/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Trabalho Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Publicidade/métodos , Publicidade/tendências , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , França , Humanos , Itália , América Latina , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Portugal , Ferramenta de Busca/estatística & dados numéricos , Espanha
13.
J Med Internet Res ; 22(11): e22407, 2020 11 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33147163

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The internet is a well-known source of information that patients use to better inform their opinions and to guide their conversations with physicians during clinic visits. The novelty of the recent COVID-19 outbreak has led patients to turn more frequently to the internet to gather more information and to alleviate their concerns about the virus. OBJECTIVE: The aims of the study were to (1) determine the most commonly searched phrases related to COVID-19 in the United States and (2) identify the sources of information for these web searches. METHODS: Search terms related to COVID-19 were entered into Google. Questions and websites from Google web search were extracted to a database using customized software. Each question was categorized into one of 6 topics: clinical signs and symptoms, treatment, transmission, cleaning methods, activity modification, and policy. Additionally, the websites were categorized according to source: World Health Organization (WHO), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), non-CDC government, academic, news, and other media. RESULTS: In total, 200 questions and websites were extracted. The most common question topic was transmission (n=63, 31.5%), followed by clinical signs and symptoms (n=54, 27.0%) and activity modification (n=31, 15.5%). Notably, the clinical signs and symptoms category captured questions about myths associated with the disease, such as whether consuming alcohol stops the coronavirus. The most common websites provided were maintained by the CDC, the WHO, and academic medical organizations. Collectively, these three sources accounted for 84.0% (n=168) of the websites in our sample. CONCLUSIONS: In the United States, the most commonly searched topics related to COVID-19 were transmission, clinical signs and symptoms, and activity modification. Reassuringly, a sizable majority of internet sources provided were from major health organizations or from academic medical institutions.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Educação em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Internet/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Ferramenta de Busca/estatística & dados numéricos , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Surtos de Doenças , Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
14.
J Med Internet Res ; 22(11): e20044, 2020 11 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33151895

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Individuals with large followings can influence public opinions and behaviors, especially during a pandemic. In the early days of the pandemic, US president Donald J Trump has endorsed the use of unproven therapies. Subsequently, a death attributed to the wrongful ingestion of a chloroquine-containing compound occurred. OBJECTIVE: We investigated Donald J Trump's speeches and Twitter posts, as well as Google searches and Amazon purchases, and television airtime for mentions of hydroxychloroquine, chloroquine, azithromycin, and remdesivir. METHODS: Twitter sourcing was catalogued with Factba.se, and analytics data, both past and present, were analyzed with Tweet Binder to assess average analytics data on key metrics. Donald J Trump's time spent discussing unverified treatments on the United States' 5 largest TV stations was catalogued with the Global Database of Events, Language, and Tone, and his speech transcripts were obtained from White House briefings. Google searches and shopping trends were analyzed with Google Trends. Amazon purchases were assessed using Helium 10 software. RESULTS: From March 1 to April 30, 2020, Donald J Trump made 11 tweets about unproven therapies and mentioned these therapies 65 times in White House briefings, especially touting hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine. These tweets had an impression reach of 300% above Donald J Trump's average. Following these tweets, at least 2% of airtime on conservative networks for treatment modalities like azithromycin and continuous mentions of such treatments were observed on stations like Fox News. Google searches and purchases increased following his first press conference on March 19, 2020, and increased again following his tweets on March 21, 2020. The same is true for medications on Amazon, with purchases for medicine substitutes, such as hydroxychloroquine, increasing by 200%. CONCLUSIONS: Individuals in positions of power can sway public purchasing, resulting in undesired effects when the individuals' claims are unverified. Public health officials must work to dissuade the use of unproven treatments for COVID-19.


Assuntos
Comunicação , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Governo Federal , Internet/estatística & dados numéricos , Meios de Comunicação de Massa/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Monofosfato de Adenosina/análogos & derivados , Monofosfato de Adenosina/uso terapêutico , Alanina/análogos & derivados , Alanina/uso terapêutico , Azitromicina/uso terapêutico , Cloroquina/uso terapêutico , Fraude/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Hidroxicloroquina/uso terapêutico , Idioma , Pandemias , Saúde Pública/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde Pública/tendências , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
15.
J Med Internet Res ; 22(10): e21743, 2020 10 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33001829

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 outbreak was designated a global pandemic on March 11, 2020. The relationship between vaping and contracting COVID-19 is unclear, and information on the internet is conflicting. There is some scientific evidence that vaping cannabidiol (CBD), an active ingredient in cannabis that is obtained from the hemp plant, or other substances is associated with more severe manifestations of COVID-19. However, there is also inaccurate information that vaping can aid COVID-19 treatment, as well as expert opinion that CBD, possibly administered through vaping, can mitigate COVID-19 symptoms. Thus, it is necessary to study the spread of inaccurate information to better understand how to promote scientific knowledge and curb inaccurate information, which is critical to the health of vapers. Inaccurate information about vaping and COVID-19 may affect COVID-19 treatment outcomes. OBJECTIVE: Using structural topic modeling, we aimed to map temporal trends in the web-based vaping narrative (a large data set comprising web-based vaping chatter from several sources) to indicate how the narrative changed from before to during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: We obtained data using a textual query that scanned a data pool of approximately 200,000 different domains (4,027,172 documents and 361,100,284 words) such as public internet forums, blogs, and social media, from August 1, 2019, to April 21, 2020. We then used structural topic modeling to understand changes in word prevalence and semantic structures within topics around vaping before and after December 31, 2019, when COVID-19 was reported to the World Health Organization. RESULTS: Broadly, the web-based vaping narrative can be organized into the following groups or archetypes: harms from vaping; Vaping Regulation; Vaping as Harm Reduction or Treatment; and Vaping Lifestyle. Three archetypes were observed prior to the emergence of COVID-19; however, four archetypes were identified post-COVID-19 (Vaping as Harm Reduction or Treatment was the additional archetype). A topic related to CBD product preference emerged after COVID-19 was first reported, which may be related to the use of CBD by vapers as a COVID-19 treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Our main finding is the emergence of a vape-administered CBD treatment narrative around COVID-19 when comparing the web-based vaping narratives before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. These results are key to understanding how vapers respond to inaccurate information about COVID-19, optimizing treatment of vapers who contract COVID-19, and possibly minimizing instances of inaccurate information. The findings have implications for the management of COVID-19 among vapers and the monitoring of web-based content pertinent to tobacco to develop targeted interventions to manage COVID-19 among vapers.


Assuntos
Canabidiol/administração & dosagem , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/etiologia , Internet/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/etiologia , Vaping/efeitos adversos , Vaping/epidemiologia , Canabidiol/efeitos adversos , Canabidiol/farmacologia , Canabidiol/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Humanos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Fumantes/psicologia , Fumantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Mídias Sociais , Produtos do Tabaco
17.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 18680, 2020 10 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33122686

RESUMO

Two clusters of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) were confirmed in Hokkaido, Japan, in February 2020. To identify these clusters, this study employed web search query logs of multiple devices and user location information from location-aware mobile devices. We anonymously identified users who used a web search engine (i.e., Yahoo! JAPAN) to search for COVID-19 or its symptoms. We regarded them as web searchers who were suspicious of their own COVID-19 infection (WSSCI). We extracted the location of WSSCI via a mobile operating system application and compared the spatio-temporal distribution of WSSCI with the actual location of the two known clusters. In the early stage of cluster development, we confirmed several WSSCI. Our approach was accurate in this stage and became biased after a public announcement of the cluster development. When other cluster-related resources, such as detailed population statistics, are not available, the proposed metric can capture hints of emerging clusters.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Vigilância da População/métodos , Ferramenta de Busca/estatística & dados numéricos , Smartphone/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Utilização de Instalações e Serviços/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Internet/estatística & dados numéricos , Japão , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle
18.
BMJ Open ; 10(10): e040989, 2020 10 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33109677

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The spread of misinformation has accompanied the coronavirus pandemic, including topics such as immune boosting to prevent COVID-19. This study explores how immune boosting is portrayed on the internet during the COVID-19 pandemic. DESIGN: Content analysis. METHODS: We compiled a dataset of 227 webpages from Google searches in Canada and the USA using the phrase 'boost immunity' AND 'coronavirus' on 1 April 2020. We coded webpages for typology and portrayal of immune boosting and supplements. We recorded mentions of microbiome, whether the webpage was selling or advertising an immune boosting product or service, and suggested strategies for boosting immunity. RESULTS: No significant differences were found between webpages that appeared in the searches in Canada and the USA. The most common types of webpages were from news (40.5%) and commercial (24.7%) websites. The concept of immune boosting was portrayed as beneficial for avoiding COVID-19 in 85.5% of webpages and supplements were portrayed as beneficial in 40% of the webpages, but commercial sites were more likely to have these portrayals. The top immune boosting strategies were vitamin C (34.8%), diet (34.4%), sleep (34.4%), exercise (30.8%) and zinc (26.9%). Less than 10% of the webpages provide any critique of the concept of immune boosting. CONCLUSIONS: Pairing evidence-based advice for maintaining one's health (eg, healthy diet, exercise, sleep) with the phrase immune boosting and strategies lacking in evidence may inadvertently help to legitimise the concept, making it a powerful marketing tool. Results demonstrate how the spread of misinformation is complex and often more subtle than blatant fraudulent claims.


Assuntos
Comunicação , Informação de Saúde ao Consumidor , Infecções por Coronavirus , Fatores Imunológicos , Imunoterapia , Internet , Marketing , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Betacoronavirus , Canadá/epidemiologia , Informação de Saúde ao Consumidor/métodos , Informação de Saúde ao Consumidor/normas , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Confiabilidade dos Dados , Suplementos Nutricionais/normas , Humanos , Fatores Imunológicos/normas , Fatores Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Imunoterapia/métodos , Imunoterapia/normas , Disseminação de Informação/ética , Disseminação de Informação/métodos , Internet/estatística & dados numéricos , Internet/tendências , Marketing/ética , Marketing/métodos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Saúde Pública , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32987750

RESUMO

The true extent of the mental health implications of the COVID-19 pandemic are unclear, but early evidence suggests poorer mental health among those exposed to the pandemic. The Internet may have differential effects, by both connecting people with resources, or reinforce the constant checking of negative information. Moreover, locus of control becomes important in an uncontrollable pandemic. The current study aimed to examine whether exposure to COVID-19 would relate to greater symptoms of depression, anxiety and stress, and to examine the role of internet use and locus of control. Adults in the United States and five European countries (N = 1723) answered an online survey through the website Mturk. Results show elevated psychological symptoms among those who have become infected with COVID-19 or perceive themselves to be at high risk if infected. Experience using the Internet relates to fewer symptoms, but information seeking is associated with more symptoms. Internet social capital relates to fewer symptoms of depression. Having an external locus of control relates to greater symptoms. These findings suggest that public health officials need to focus on the mental health effects of the pandemic, and that internet use and locus of control could be targets to improve mental health in the population.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Internet/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde Mental , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Comportamento de Busca de Informação , Controle Interno-Externo , Pandemias , Estados Unidos
20.
PLoS Biol ; 18(9): e3000860, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32960891

RESUMO

Engagement with scientific manuscripts is frequently facilitated by Twitter and other social media platforms. As such, the demographics of a paper's social media audience provide a wealth of information about how scholarly research is transmitted, consumed, and interpreted by online communities. By paying attention to public perceptions of their publications, scientists can learn whether their research is stimulating positive scholarly and public thought. They can also become aware of potentially negative patterns of interest from groups that misinterpret their work in harmful ways, either willfully or unintentionally, and devise strategies for altering their messaging to mitigate these impacts. In this study, we collected 331,696 Twitter posts referencing 1,800 highly tweeted bioRxiv preprints and leveraged topic modeling to infer the characteristics of various communities engaging with each preprint on Twitter. We agnostically learned the characteristics of these audience sectors from keywords each user's followers provide in their Twitter biographies. We estimate that 96% of the preprints analyzed are dominated by academic audiences on Twitter, suggesting that social media attention does not always correspond to greater public exposure. We further demonstrate how our audience segmentation method can quantify the level of interest from nonspecialist audience sectors such as mental health advocates, dog lovers, video game developers, vegans, bitcoin investors, conspiracy theorists, journalists, religious groups, and political constituencies. Surprisingly, we also found that 10% of the preprints analyzed have sizable (>5%) audience sectors that are associated with right-wing white nationalist communities. Although none of these preprints appear to intentionally espouse any right-wing extremist messages, cases exist in which extremist appropriation comprises more than 50% of the tweets referencing a given preprint. These results present unique opportunities for improving and contextualizing the public discourse surrounding scientific research.


Assuntos
Bases de Dados como Assunto , Publicações , Ciência , Mudança Social , Mídias Sociais , Academias e Institutos/organização & administração , Academias e Institutos/normas , Academias e Institutos/estatística & dados numéricos , Acesso à Informação , Bases de Dados como Assunto/organização & administração , Bases de Dados como Assunto/normas , Bases de Dados como Assunto/estatística & dados numéricos , Processamento Eletrônico de Dados/organização & administração , Processamento Eletrônico de Dados/normas , Processamento Eletrônico de Dados/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Competência em Informação , Internet/organização & administração , Internet/normas , Internet/estatística & dados numéricos , Ativismo Político , Publicações/classificação , Publicações/normas , Publicações/estatística & dados numéricos , Publicações/provisão & distribução , Ciência/organização & administração , Ciência/normas , Ciência/estatística & dados numéricos , Mídias Sociais/organização & administração , Mídias Sociais/normas , Mídias Sociais/estatística & dados numéricos
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