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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(35): e27130, 2021 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34477158

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Bevacizumab (BV) plus chemotherapy is broadly used in advanced ovarian cancer (OC). However, the efficacy of BV-based regimens for advanced OC patients is not satisfactory. Therefore, it is urgent to explore the predictive genetic biomarkers for BV.Tumor tissues from advanced OC patients receiving BV-based regimens were analyzed with a 150-gene targeted panel for next generation sequencing. The associations between gene alterations or clinicopathology features and progression-free survival (PFS) were analyzed by Kaplan-Meier curves or Cox regression. The association of the genetic alteration in potential predictive genes and expressions of 11 vascular endothelial growth factor-related genes were analyzed in The Cancer Genome Atlas cohort using 292 OC cases.Sixty two Chinese advanced OC patients treated with BV-based therapy were included. The median PFS of was 6.9 months, and objective response rate was 14.5%. In multivariate Cox regression analysis, the status of endothelial growth factor receptor (EGFR) (hazard ratio = 6.39, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.25-18.13, P < .001) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) (hazard ratio = 3.58, 95% CI 1.27-10.08, P = .016) were significantly correlated with PFS. MYC Proto-Oncogene amplification seemed to have a positive trend (hazard ratio = 0.21, 95% CI 0.05-1.02, P = .052). Moreover, EGFR and HER2 alterations were not prognostic factors of overall survival for OC in The Cancer Genome Atlas OC cohort. The vascular endothelial growth factor-related signature analysis indicated vascular endothelial factor A expression was upregulated with EGFR alterations (P = .034) which may be involved in BV resistance, and HER2 alterations were associated with hypoxia inducible factor 1 subunit alpha overexpression significantly (P = .029).EGFR or HER2 alterations are negative predictors of PFS for OC patient treated with BV plus chemotherapy. Therefore, the clinicians may consider to use alternative regimens such as anti-EGFR or anti-HER2 targeted therapy instead of BV-based regimens on these patients when standard care fail.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Bevacizumab/uso terapêutico , Genes erbB-1 , Genes erbB-2 , Neoplasias Ovarianas/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Subunidade alfa do Fator 1 Induzível por Hipóxia/metabolismo , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Ovarianas/mortalidade , Variantes Farmacogenômicos , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Receptores de Fatores de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo
2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(36): e27029, 2021 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34516493

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: There has been no effective biomarker for small cell lung cancer (SCLC) patients with first-line immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) treatment. The predictive value of neuron-specific enolase (NSE) in this cohort remains unclear.The medical records of 254 consecutive SCLC patients receiving programmed cell death receptor-1/programmed cell death-ligand 1 (PD-1/PD-L1) inhibitors were compiled from January 2015 to October 2020 in Chinese PLA General Hospital. Survival analysis was performed to explore the prognostic role of NSE at baseline and 3 weeks post treatment.One hundred two advanced SCLC patients treated with first-line PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors were enrolled in this study. Normal baseline NSE levels were correlated with significantly prolonged progression-free survival (PFS, median: 8.7 vs 4.7 months, P = .006) and overall survival (OS, median: 23.8 vs 15.2 months, P = .014) compared with elevated baseline NSE levels, so as for normal NSE levels at 3 weeks with prolonged PFS (median PFS: 8.4 vs 4.5 months, P = .0002) and OS (median OS: 23.3 vs 7.4 months, P < .0001). Intriguingly, elevated NSE levels at 3 weeks were associated with shorter PFS (median PFS: 4.5 vs 5.8 months, P = .04) and OS (median OS: 5.5 vs 14.7 months, P < .0001) compared with normal NSE levels in the elevated baseline NSE subgroup. Most subgroup analyses stratified by clinical characteristics confirmed the prognostic value of baseline NSE level.Elevated NSE levels at baseline and 3 weeks were associated with worse prognosis in advanced SCLC patients receiving first-line ICIs treatment. NSE level might be applied as a useful prognostic tool for SCLC patients with immunotherapy.


Assuntos
Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Fosfopiruvato Hidratase/sangue , Carcinoma de Pequenas Células do Pulmão/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue , China , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/mortalidade , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Registros Médicos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Estudos Retrospectivos , Carcinoma de Pequenas Células do Pulmão/mortalidade , Carcinoma de Pequenas Células do Pulmão/patologia , Análise de Sobrevida
3.
Orv Hetil ; 162(36): 1451-1458, 2021 09 05.
Artigo em Húngaro | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34482291

RESUMO

Összefoglaló. Bevezetés: A myeloma multiplex mindmáig alapvetoen gyógyíthatatlan betegség, ezért nagy klinikai jelentoségük van az eredményes mento kezeléseknek. A szájon át adható elso proteaszómagátlóval, az ixazomibbal kiegészített lenalidomid-dexametazon terápia jól tolerálható, csak orális szerekbol álló kombináció, mely hazánkban 2015 áprilisától kezdodoen a "Named Patient Program" keretén belül vált elérhetové relabált, refrakter myeloma multiplexes betegek kezelésére. Célkituzés: Kutatásunk célja az ixazomib-lenalidomid-dexametazon kezelés mellett a hosszú távon progressziómentes túlélok célzott vizsgálata. Módszer: A program keretében összesen 7 centrumban 80 visszaeso beteg részesült e triplet kezelésben, adataikat retrospektíven elemeztük. Leíró statisztikai és Kaplan-Meier-analízist végeztünk. Eredmények: A betegek nagyobb hányada reagált: 63,75%-os válaszarány mellett 14 (17,5%) betegnél nem volt terápiás válasz/stabil betegség alakult ki, és 15-nél (18,75%) a betegség a kezelés mellett is progrediált. A progressziómentes túlélés a teljes betegcsoportban 10,6 hónapnak adódott, ugyanakkor 16 beteg (18,75%) két éven túl progressziómentesnek bizonyult, sot közülük 11-nél a betegség még 3 év után sem progrediált. Tanulmányunkban a fenti, hosszú távú túlélo betegcsoport tulajdonságait tárjuk fel. Megbeszélés: A folyamatos terápia a myeloma multiplex kezelésében meghatározóvá vált. Ezért fontos ismernünk, hogy kik lehetnek azok a betegek, akik különösen sokat profitálnak egy bizonyos terápiából. A hosszú távon progressziómentes túlélok között az immunglobulin-nehézláncot érinto transzlokációk vagy triszómiák közül (trend szintjén) az utóbbiak kedvezobb progressziómentes túléléssel bírtak, de progressziómentes platót mindkét betegcsoportban észleltünk. A betegség tumortömegét méro nemzetközi stádiumbeosztás (ISS) nem jelezte elore a hosszú túlélést. Gyógyszerelhagyáshoz vezeto mellékhatást a hosszú távú túlélo csoportban egyet sem regisztráltunk; az észlelt mellékhatások nagy része enyhe volt. Következtetések: Munkánk során az ixazomib-lenalidomid-dexametazon kombinációt effektívnek és biztonságosnak találtuk relabált, refrakter myeloma multiplex kezelésére, mely a betegek mintegy hatodánál több éven át eredményesen alkalmazható. Cikkünkkel a hazai beteganyagon szerzett tapasztalatainkat szeretnénk megosztani a COVID-19-világjárvány alatt különösen aktuálissá vált, tisztán orális terápiás lehetoségrol. Orv Hetil. 2021; 162(36): 1451-1458. INTRODUCTION: Despite great advances in therapy, multiple myeloma is still a largely incurable disease, therefore the importance of salvage therapies is paramount. The first oral proteasome inhibitor ixazomib in combination with lenalidomide-dexamethasone is a tolerable, orally administered regime, which has become available for Hungarian relapsed, refractory multiple myeloma patients from April 2015 in the Named Patient Program. OBJECTIVE: Our goal was to investigate the long-time progression-free surviving patient population treated with the ixazomib-lenalidomide-dexamethasone triplet. METHOD: We retrospectively studied a total of 80 patients from 7 centers who received the triplet combination. Survival analyses were performed. RESULTS: Two-third of the patients responded: the overall response rate was 63.75%. 14 patients (17.5%) did not respond/had stable disease and 15 patients (18.75%) outright progressed upon therapy. Although progression-free survival was only 10.6 months for the entire patient cohort, the disease in a subgroup of 16 patients did not progress within two years. In fact, 11 of them were still in sustained remission after 3 years of therapy. Our goal was to analyze the characteristics of this subgroup. DISCUSSION: The idea of long-term therapy of multiple myeloma is gaining widespread acceptance. Therefore it is important to know which patients may benefit the most from certain therapies. Among these 16 long-term responder patients, reciprocal translocation of the immunoglobulin heavy chain seemed to lack an adverse impact on progression-free survival; comparable to trisomies, both curves had a progression-free plateau. The International Staging System (ISS) score at the start of therapy did not predict long-term survivorship. Most of the side effects in this subgroup were mild, manageable, none led to therapy discontinuation. CONCLUSION: Ixazomib-lenalidomide-dexamethasone was confirmed to be an effective and safe combination for relapsed, refractory multiple myeloma, and one-sixth of the treated patients were able to receive it for several years, effectively. This fully oral therapeutic option is at its best during the present COVID-19 pandemic. Orv Hetil. 2021; 162(36): 1451-1458.


Assuntos
Compostos de Boro/uso terapêutico , Dexametasona/uso terapêutico , Glicina/uso terapêutico , Lenalidomida/uso terapêutico , Mieloma Múltiplo , Glicina/análogos & derivados , Humanos , Mieloma Múltiplo/tratamento farmacológico , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Estudos Retrospectivos
4.
Anticancer Res ; 41(9): 4287-4294, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34475048

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Sunitinib continues to be administered as a first-line therapeutic agent in metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC). This study examined the potential role of p53 in sunitinib resistance and as a predictive marker in mRCC. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analysed the effects of p53 knockout on sunitinib resistance. p53 expression in 53 mRCC patients receiving first-line sunitinib was determined immunohistochemically. We performed in silico analysis to examine the predictive value of p53 in mRCC. RESULTS: WST-1 assays showed that p53 knockout decreased sensitivity to sunitinib. Sunitinib and nutlin-3 together suppressed cell growth. Immunohistochemistry revealed 11 p53-positive cases among 53 patients with mRCC. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that p53-positive cases tended to be associated with poor progression-free survival (PFS) after first-line sunitinib treatment. In the JAVELIN 101 study, TP53 mutation was significantly associated with poor PFS after sunitinib treatment. CONCLUSION: p53 may be involved in sunitinib resistance and represent a valuable marker for sunitinib treatment in mRCC.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Imidazóis/farmacologia , Neoplasias Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Piperazinas/farmacologia , Sunitinibe/farmacologia , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética , Regulação para Cima , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Carcinoma de Células Renais/genética , Carcinoma de Células Renais/metabolismo , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Simulação por Computador , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Feminino , Técnicas de Inativação de Genes , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Neoplasias Renais/genética , Neoplasias Renais/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/metabolismo , Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos
5.
BMJ ; 374: n1959, 2021 09 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34497044

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the regulatory handling of cancer drugs that were granted accelerated approval by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) but failed to improve the primary endpoint in post-approval trials and to evaluate the extent to which negative post-approval trials changed the recommendations in treatment guidelines. DESIGN: Retrospective observational study. SETTING: FDA and National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) reports. INCLUDED DRUGS: Cancer drugs that received accelerated approval from the FDA and had negative post-approval trials. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Regulatory outcomes, including withdrawal, conversion to regular approval, and no action. RESULTS: 18 indications for 10 cancer drugs that received accelerated approval but failed to improve the primary endpoint in post-approval trials were identified. Of these, 11 (61%) were voluntarily withdrawn by the manufacturer and one (bevacizumab for breast cancer) was revoked by the FDA. Of the 11 withdrawals, six occurred in 2021 alone. The remaining six (33%) indications remain on the label. The NCCN guidelines provide a high level of endorsement (category 1 endorsement for one and category 2A endorsement for seven) for accelerated approval drugs that have failed post-approval trials, sometimes even after the approval has been withdrawn or revoked. CONCLUSION: Cancer drug indications that received accelerated approval often remained on formal FDA approved drug labelling and continued to be recommended in clinical guidelines several years after statutorily required post-approval trials showed no improvement in the primary efficacy endpoint. Clinical guidelines should better align with the results of post-approval trials of cancer drugs that received accelerated approval.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Aprovação de Drogas , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Bases de Dados Factuais , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Rotulagem de Medicamentos , Determinação de Ponto Final , Humanos , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Estudos Retrospectivos , Retirada de Medicamento Baseada em Segurança/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Tempo , Incerteza , Estados Unidos , United States Food and Drug Administration
6.
Lancet Oncol ; 22(9): 1312-1321, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34416158

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tyrosine kinase inhibitors have shown activity in osteosarcoma and might enhance the efficacy of chemotherapy. We aimed to determine the recommended phase 2 dose and antitumour activity of lenvatinib with etoposide plus ifosfamide in patients with refractory or relapsed osteosarcoma. METHODS: This multicentre, open-label, multicohort, phase 1/2 trial was done at 17 hospitals in six countries. Eligible patients were aged 2-25 years, had relapsed or refractory osteosarcoma, measurable or evaluable disease per Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors version 1.1, Lansky play-performance score or Karnofsky performance score of 50% or higher, up to one previous VEGF or VEGF receptor-targeted therapy, and a life expectancy of at least 3 months. This study includes a combination dose-finding phase 1 part (cohort 3A) and a phase 2 combination expansion in patients with osteosarcoma (cohort 3B). Lenvatinib was administered orally at a starting dose of 11 mg/m2 per day, capped at 24 mg per day, and etoposide (100 mg/m2 per day) plus ifosfamide (3000 mg/m2 per day) were administered intravenously on days 1-3 of each 21-day cycle for a maximum of five cycles. Lenvatinib monotherapy continued after these five cycles until disease progression, toxic effects, or patient choice to discontinue. The phase 1 primary endpoint was to determine the recommended phase 2 dose by evaluating dose-limiting toxicity and the phase 2 primary endpoint was progression-free survival at 4 months. Progression-free survival was measured in the full analysis set, which included all patients enrolled for efficacy outcomes; safety was assessed in all patients who received any study drug. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02432274. FINDINGS: 30 patients were screened for enrolment into cohort 3A between May 9, 2016, and June 3, 2019, and 22 patients for enrolment into cohort 3B between Sept 13, 2018, and July 18, 2019. Eight patients from cohort 3A and two from cohort 3B were ineligible for enrolment in the study. In phase 1, dose-limiting toxicities were observed in three patients (one in the lenvatinib 11 mg/m2 combination group and two in the 14 mg/m2 combination group) and the recommended phase 2 dose was determined as lenvatinib 14 mg/m2 per day (with daily dose cap of 24 mg) and etoposide 100 mg/m2 per day plus ifosfamide 3000 mg/m2 per day administered intravenously on days 1-3 of each 21-day cycle for a maximum of five cycles. 35 patients from phase 1 (cohort 3A; n=15) and phase 2 (cohort 3B; n=20) were treated at the recommended phase 2 dose and their results were pooled. Progression-free survival at 4 months was 51% (95% CI 34-69) in 18 of 35 patients per the binomial estimate. The most common grade 3-4 treatment-emergent adverse events were neutropenia (27 [77%] of 35), thrombocytopenia (25 [71%]), anaemia (19 [54%]), and decreased white blood cell count (19 [54%]). 26 [74%] of 35 patients had serious treatment-emergent adverse events and no treatment-related deaths occurred. INTERPRETATION: Lenvatinib with etoposide plus ifosfamide shows promising antitumour activity with no new safety signals in patients with refractory and relapsed osteosarcoma. These findings warrant further investigation in an ongoing randomised phase 2 study (NCT04154189). FUNDING: Eisai and Merck Sharp & Dohme.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Ósseas/tratamento farmacológico , Osteossarcoma/tratamento farmacológico , Compostos de Fenilureia/uso terapêutico , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Quinolinas/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Adulto , Neoplasias Ósseas/patologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos , Etoposídeo/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Ifosfamida/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Osteossarcoma/patologia , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Critérios de Avaliação de Resposta em Tumores Sólidos , Adulto Jovem
7.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445007

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although malnutrition and bone fracture are both major complications in patients undergoing hemodialysis, their association has not been clarified. The aim of our study was to clarify the association between the geriatric nutritional risk index (GNRI), an indicator of nutritional status, and the incidence of bone fractures in patients undergoing hemodialysis. METHODS: We included 1342 registered patients undergoing hemodialysis and performed a post hoc analysis. We divided patients into the high GNRI group (≥92), considered to have a low risk of malnutrition, and the low GNRI group (<92), considered to have a high risk of malnutrition. Fracture-free survival in the low and high GNRI groups was evaluated by the Kaplan-Meier method. Cox proportional hazards models were used to identify the risk factors for fractures requiring hospitalization. All results were stratified by sex. RESULTS: New bone fractures developed in 108 (8.0%) patients in 5 years of follow-up. Bone fractures occurred more frequently in the low GNRI group compared with the high GNRI group (HR: 3.51, 95% CI: 1.91-6.42, p < 0.01 in males; HR: 2.47, 95% CI: 1.52-4.03, p < 0.01 in females). A low GNRI was significantly associated with an increased incidence of bone fractures, even after adjustment for covariates. However, the serum levels of calcium, phosphate, parathyroid hormone, and alkaline phosphatase were not associated with the incidence of bone fractures. CONCLUSIONS: A low GNRI is an independent risk factor for bone fractures in patients undergoing hemodialysis. Early intervention for the low GNRI group may be important in preventing the occurrence of fractures.


Assuntos
Fraturas Ósseas/epidemiologia , Avaliação Geriátrica , Nefropatias/terapia , Desnutrição/diagnóstico , Avaliação Nutricional , Estado Nutricional , Diálise Renal/efeitos adversos , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Feminino , Fraturas Ósseas/diagnóstico , Humanos , Incidência , Japão/epidemiologia , Nefropatias/diagnóstico , Nefropatias/epidemiologia , Masculino , Desnutrição/epidemiologia , Desnutrição/fisiopatologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo
8.
Lancet Oncol ; 22(9): 1290-1300, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34339623

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Systemic therapies for metastatic biliary tract cancers are few, and patients have a median overall survival of less than 1 year. MyPathway evaluates the activity of US Food and Drug Administration-approved therapies in non-indicated tumours with potentially actionable molecular alterations. In this study, we present an analysis of patients with metastatic biliary tract cancers with HER2 amplification, overexpression, or both treated with a dual anti-HER2 regimen, pertuzumab plus trastuzumab, from MyPathway. METHODS: MyPathway is a non-randomised, multicentre, open-label, phase 2a, multiple basket study. Patients aged 18 years and older with previously treated metastatic biliary tract cancers with HER2 amplification, HER2 overexpression, or both and an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0-2 were enrolled from 23 study sites in the USA and received intravenous pertuzumab (840 mg loading dose, then 420 mg every 3 weeks) plus trastuzumab (8 mg/kg loading dose, then 6 mg/kg every 3 weeks). The primary endpoint was investigator-assessed objective response rate according to Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) version 1.1. The primary outcome and adverse events were analysed in all patients who received at least one dose of pertuzumab and trastuzumab. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02091141, and is ongoing. FINDINGS: 39 patients enrolled in the MyPathway HER2 biliary tract cancer cohort between Oct 28, 2014, and May 29, 2019, were evaluable for anti-tumour activity by the March 10, 2020, data cutoff date. Median follow-up was 8·1 months (IQR 2·7-15·7). Nine of 39 patients achieved a partial response (objective response rate 23% [95% CI 11-39]). Grade 3-4 treatment-emergent adverse events were reported in 18 (46%) of 39 patients, most commonly increased alanine aminotransferase and increased aspartate aminotransferase (each five [13%] of 39). Treatment-related grade 3 adverse events were reported in three (8%) of 39 patients, including increased alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, blood alkaline phosphatase, and blood bilirubin. Serious treatment-emergent adverse events were observed in ten (26%) of 39 patients, of which only abdominal pain occurred in more than one patient (two [5%] of 39). There were no treatment-related serious adverse events, treatment-related grade 4 events, or deaths. INTERPRETATION: Treatment was well tolerated in patients with previously treated HER2-positive metastatic biliary tract cancer. The response rate is promising for the initiation of randomised, controlled trials of pertuzumab plus trastuzumab in this patient population. FUNDING: F Hoffmann-La Roche-Genentech.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias do Sistema Biliar/tratamento farmacológico , Receptor ErbB-2/metabolismo , Trastuzumab/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Neoplasias do Sistema Biliar/metabolismo , Neoplasias do Sistema Biliar/patologia , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Metástase Neoplásica , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Receptor ErbB-2/antagonistas & inibidores , Critérios de Avaliação de Resposta em Tumores Sólidos , Taxa de Sobrevida , Estados Unidos
9.
Lancet Oncol ; 22(9): 1275-1289, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34363762

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although most patients with epithelial ovarian cancer respond to frontline platinum-based chemotherapy, around 70% will relapse within 3 years. The phase 3 JAVELIN Ovarian 100 trial compared avelumab (anti-PD-L1 monoclonal antibody) in combination with chemotherapy followed by avelumab maintenance, or chemotherapy followed by avelumab maintenance, versus chemotherapy alone in patients with treatment-naive epithelial ovarian cancer. METHODS: JAVELIN Ovarian 100 was a global, open-label, three-arm, parallel, randomised, phase 3 trial run at 159 hospitals and cancer treatment centres in 25 countries. Eligible women were aged 18 years and older with stage III-IV epithelial ovarian, fallopian tube, or peritoneal cancer (following debulking surgery, or candidates for neoadjuvant chemotherapy), and had an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0 or 1. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1:1) via interactive response technology to receive chemotherapy (six cycles; carboplatin dosed at an area under the serum-concentration-time curve of 5 or 6 intravenously every 3 weeks plus paclitaxel 175 mg/m2 every 3 weeks or 80 mg/m2 once a week [investigators' choice]) followed by avelumab maintenance (10 mg/kg intravenously every 2 weeks; avelumab maintenance group); chemotherapy plus avelumab (10 mg/kg intravenously every 3 weeks) followed by avelumab maintenance (avelumab combination group); or chemotherapy followed by observation (control group). Randomisation was in permuted blocks of size six and stratified by paclitaxel regimen and resection status. Patients and investigators were masked to assignment to the two chemotherapy groups without avelumab at the time of randomisation until completion of the chemotherapy phase. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival assessed by blinded independent central review in all randomly assigned patients (analysed by intention to treat). Safety was analysed in all patients who received at least one dose of study treatment. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02718417. The trial was fully enrolled and terminated at interim analysis due to futility, and efficacy is no longer being assessed. FINDINGS: Between May 19, 2016 and Jan 23, 2018, 998 patients were randomly assigned (avelumab maintenance n=332, avelumab combination n=331, and control n=335). At the planned interim analysis (data cutoff Sept 7, 2018), prespecified futility boundaries were crossed for the progression-free survival analysis, and the trial was stopped as recommended by the independent data monitoring committee and endorsed by the protocol steering committee. Median follow-up for progression-free survival for all patients was 10·8 months (IQR 7·1-14·9); 11·1 months (7·0-15·3) for the avelumab maintenance group, 11·0 months (7·4-14·5) for the avelumab combination group, and 10·2 months (6·7-14·0) for the control group. Median progression-free survival was 16·8 months (95% CI 13·5-not estimable [NE]) with avelumab maintenance, 18·1 months (14·8-NE) with avelumab combination treatment, and NE (18·2 months-NE) with control treatment. The stratified hazard ratio for progression-free survival was 1·43 (95% CI 1·05-1·95; one-sided p=0·99) with the avelumab maintenance regimen and 1·14 (0·83-1·56; one-sided p=0·79) with the avelumab combination regimen, versus control treatment. The most common grade 3-4 adverse events were anaemia (69 [21%] patients in the avelumab maintenance group, 63 [19%] in the avelumab combination group, and 53 [16%] in the control group), neutropenia (91 [28%], 99 [30%], and 88 [26%]), and neutrophil count decrease (49 [15%], 45 [14%], and 59 [18%]). Serious adverse events of any grade occurred in 92 (28%) patients in the avelumab maintenance group, 118 (36%) in the avelumab combination group, and 64 (19%) in the control group. Treatment-related deaths occurred in one (<1%) patient in the avelumab maintenance group (due to atrial fibrillation) and one (<1%) patient in the avelumab combination group (due to disease progression). INTERPRETATION: Although no new safety signals were observed, results do not support the use of avelumab in the frontline treatment setting. Alternative treatment regimens are needed to improve outcomes in patients with advanced epithelial ovarian cancer. FUNDING: Pfizer and Merck KGaA, Darmstadt, Germany.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Ovarianas/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Antígeno B7-H1/antagonistas & inibidores , Antígeno B7-H1/metabolismo , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/patologia , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos , Feminino , Humanos , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/uso terapêutico , Quimioterapia de Manutenção , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Ovarianas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Intervalo Livre de Progressão
10.
Lancet Haematol ; 8(9): e648-e657, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34450102

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Autologous haematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (HSCT) in first remission is the current standard treatment in fit patients with mantle cell lymphoma. In this long-term follow-up study, we aimed to evaluate the efficacy of autologous HSCT versus interferon alfa maintenance after chemotherapy without or with rituximab in patients with primary advanced-stage mantle cell lymphoma. METHODS: We did a post-hoc, long-term analysis of an open-label, multicentre, randomised, phase 3 trial done in 121 participating hospitals or practices across six European countries. Patients who were aged 18-65 years with previously untreated stage III-IV mantle cell lymphoma and an ECOG performance score of 0-2 were eligible for participation. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive either myeloablative radiochemotherapy (fractionated total body irradiation with 12 Gy/day 6-4 days before autologous HSCT and cyclophosphamide 60 mg/kg per day intravenously 3-2 days before autologous HSCT) followed by autologous HSCT (the autologous HSCT group) or interferon alfa maintenance (the interferon alfa maintenance group; 6 × 106 IU three times a week subcutaneously until progression) after completion of CHOP-like induction therapy (cyclophosphamide 750 mg/m2 intravenously on day 1, doxorubicin 50 mg/m2 intravenously on day 1, vincristine 1·4 mg/m2 [maximum 2 mg] intravenously on day 1, and prednisone 100 mg/m2 orally on days 1-5; repeated every 21 days for up to 6 cycles) without or with rituximab (375 mg/m2 intravenously on day 0 or 1 of each cycle; R-CHOP). The primary outcome was progression-free survival from end of induction until progression or death among patients who had a remission and the secondary outcome was overall survival from the end of induction until death from any cause. We did comparisons of progression-free survival and overall survival according to the intention-to-treat principle between both groups among responding patients and explored efficacy in subgroups according to induction treatment without or with rituximab. Hazard ratios (HRs) were adjusted for the mantle cell lymphoma international prognostic index (MIPI) numerical score, and in the total group also for rituximab use (adjusted HR [aHR]). This trial was started before preregistration was implemented and is therefore not registered, recruitment is closed, and this is the final evaluation. FINDINGS: Between Sept 30, 1996, and July 1, 2004, 269 patients were randomly assigned to receive either autologous HSCT or interferon alfa maintenance therapy. The median follow-up was 14 years (IQR 10-16), with the intention-to-treat population consisting of 174 patients (93 [53%] in the autologous HSCT group and 81 [47%] in the interferon alfa maintenance group) who responded to induction therapy. The median age was 55 years (IQR 47-60), and R-CHOP was used in 68 (39%) of 174 patients. The median progression-free survival was 3·3 years (95% CI 2·5-4·3) in the autologous HSCT group versus 1·5 years (1·2-2·0) in the interferon alfa maintenance group (log-rank p<0·0001; aHR 0·50 [95% CI 0·36-0·69]). The median overall survival was 7·5 years (95% CI 5·7-12·0) in the autologous HSCT group versus 4·8 years (4·0-6·6) in the interferon alfa maintenance group (log-rank p=0·019; aHR 0·66 [95% CI 0·46-0·95]). For patients treated without rituximab, the progression-free survival adjusted HR for autologous HSCT versus interferon alfa was 0·40 (0·26-0·61), in comparison to 0·72 (0·42-1·24) for patients treated with rituximab. For overall survival, the adjusted hazard ratio for HSCT versus interferon alfa was 0·52 (0·33-0·82) without rituximab and 1·05 (0·55-1·99) for patients who received rituximab. INTERPRETATION: Our results confirm the long-term efficacy of autologous HSCT to treat mantle cell lymphoma established in the pre-rituximab era. The suggested reduced efficacy after immunochemotherapy supports the need for its re-evaluation now that antibody maintenance, high-dose cytarabine, and targeted treatments have changed the standard of care for patients with mantle cell lymphoma. FUNDING: Deutsche Krebshilfe, the European Community, and the Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung, Kompetenznetz Maligne Lymphome.


Assuntos
Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Linfoma de Célula do Manto/terapia , Adulto , Idoso , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Interferon-alfa/administração & dosagem , Linfoma de Célula do Manto/mortalidade , Linfoma de Célula do Manto/patologia , Linfoma de Célula do Manto/radioterapia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Rituximab/administração & dosagem , Taxa de Sobrevida , Transplante Autólogo , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(34): e27038, 2021 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34449486

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Whether programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression could predict the outcome of tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) treatment and prognosis of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-mutant nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is remaining controversial.Potential studies were search from PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science databases. Pooled odds ratio of objective response rate was used to describe the relationship between PD-L1 expression and primary resistance to EGFR-TKIs. Pooled hazard ratios (HRs) of progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were included to assess the effects of PD-L1 status on the outcome of EGFR-TKI treatment and survival of EGFR-mutant NSCLCs.Eighteen eligible studies (1986 EGFR-mutant NSCLCs) were included in this meta-analysis. Positive PD-L1 expression correlated with lower objective response rate of EGFR-TKI treatment (odds ratio [95% confidence interval {CI}] = 0.52 [0.28-0.98], P = .043), while PFS (adjusted HR [95% CI] = 1.49 [0.96-1.89], P = .332) and OS (HR [95% CI] = 1.24 [0.70-2.20], P = .456) of EGFR-TKI treatment did not correlated with PD-L1 status. Furthermore, PD-L1 expression was not a predictive biomarker for the OS (HR [95% CI] = 1.43 [0.98-2.08], P = .062) in overall EGFR-mutant cohort.Positive PD-L1 expression indicated a higher incidence of primary resistance, but did not correlate with the PFS or OS of EGFR-TKI therapy. In addition, PD-L1 expression was unlikely a predictive biomarker for prognosis of EGFR-mutant NSCLCs.


Assuntos
Antígeno B7-H1/biossíntese , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/genética , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Receptores ErbB/genética , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Análise de Sobrevida
12.
Acta Oncol ; 60(9): 1122-1129, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34402368

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The incidence of primary cardiac lymphoma (PCL) is increasing, but the optimal management approach remains unclear. We assessed the clinical characteristics of a single-centre cohort with the goal of determining the optimal management approach. The treatment outcomes and prognostic factors are reported. MATERIAL AND METHODS: All PCL patients were diagnosed via biopsy guided by whole-body imaging (positron emission tomography/computed tomography [PET/CT] and/or contrast-enhanced CT]. Curative therapy involved either surgery or prephase steroids followed by definitive immunochemotherapy, depending on the histological type. The primary outcomes were overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS); the secondary outcome was the treatment response. RESULTS: Twenty-two PCL patients (14 males, 8 females; age: 59.5 ± 14.7 years [mean ± S.D.]) were histologically confirmed to have diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL; n = 17 [77.3%]), fibrin-associated DLBCL (FA-DLBCL) (n = 4 [18.2%]) and Burkitt lymphoma (n = 1 [4.5%]). Seven patients underwent cardiotomy (three for biopsy, four with curative intent). The median and longest follow-up periods were 16.3 and 180.0 months, respectively. The 16 patients who received curative therapy (complete response [CR], n = 15 [93.8%]; partial response [PR], n = 1 [6.2%]) showed better survival than those who did not (5-year OS: 83.0 ± 11.3% vs. 0%; hazard ratio [HR]: 0.025[95% confidence interval, CI: 0.003-0.187], p < 0.001); 5-year PFS: 78.7 ± 11.0% vs. 0%, HR= 0.010[0.001-0.093], p < 0.001). The left ventricular ejection fractions (LVEF) before and after definitive treatment was 63.6 ± 2.4% and 64.6 ± 4.5%, respectively (p = 0.275, power = 0.318). Extrapericardial lesions were associated with poorer survival (5-year OS: 40.0 ± 29.7% vs. 100%, p = 0.027; 5-year PFS:40.0 ± 21.9% vs. 100%, p = 0.010). CONCLUSIONS: Whole-body imaging is essential for diagnosis and prognosis. Curative therapy provided reasonable outcomes and survival; extrapericardial lesions were associated with a poorer treatment response.


Assuntos
Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons combinada à Tomografia Computadorizada , Adulto , Idoso , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Fluordesoxiglucose F18 , Humanos , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Estudos Retrospectivos
13.
Eur J Radiol ; 142: 109863, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34343846

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the capability of a radiomics model, which was designed to identify histopathologic growth pattern (HGP) of colorectal liver metastases (CRLMs) based on contrast-enhanced multidetector computed tomography (ceMDCT), to predict early response and 1-year progression free survival (PFS) in patients treated with bevacizumab-containing chemotherapy. METHODS: Patients with unresectable CRLMs who were treated with bevacizumab-containing chemotherapy were included in this multicenter retrospective study. For each target lesion, the radiomics-diagnosed HGP (RAD_HGP) of desmoplastic (D) pattern or replacement (R) pattern was determined. Logistic regression and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to assess lesion- and patient-based responses according to morphologic response criteria. One-year PFS was calculated using Kaplan-Meier curves. Hazard ratios for 1-year PFS were obtained through Cox proportional hazard regression analysis. RESULTS: Among 119 study patients, 206 D pattern and 140 R pattern lesions were identified. In patients with multiple lesions, 52 had D pattern, 31 had R pattern, and 36 had mixed (D + R) pattern. The area under the curve value for RAD_HGP in predicting early response was 0.707 for lesion-based analysis and 0.720 for patient-based analysis. Patients with D pattern had a significantly longer PFS than patients with R pattern or mixed pattern (P < 0.001). RAD_HGP was the only independent predictor of 1-year PFS. CONCLUSIONS: HGP diagnosed using a radiomics model could be used as an effective predictor of PFS for patients with CRLMs treated with bevacizumab-containing chemotherapy.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Bevacizumab/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Estudos Retrospectivos
14.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(32): e26895, 2021 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34397915

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: There is a similarity of histological features and survival between ovarian mucinous carcinoma (MC) with expansile invasion and ovarian mucinous borderline tumor (MBT). The aim of this study was to compare the clinical outcomes of MC with expansile invasion with those of MBT based on the 2020 World Health Organization (WHO) criteria.A pathological review was performed on patients with MC, ovarian MBT, and seromucinous borderline tumors that underwent surgery at our hospital between 1984 and 2019. Clinicopathological features were compared retrospectively between MC with expansile invasion and MBT.Among 83 cases of MC, 85 cases of MBT, and 12 cases of seromucinous borderline tumor, 25 MC cases with expansile invasion and 98 MBT cases were included through review. MC cases with expansile invasion were diagnosed with advanced International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stages more frequently (P = .02) than that of MBT cases. In addition, patients with MC with expansile invasion received adjuvant chemotherapy more often (P < .01) than that of patients with MBT. There were no statistically significant differences in recurrence rate (P = .10) between MC with expansile invasion and MBT. Progression-free survival (PFS) was worse in MC cases with expansile invasion than that in MBT cases (P = .01). However, a multivariate analysis for PFS showed that histological subtype, FIGO stage, and adjuvant chemotherapy were not an independent prognostic factor.The prognostic outcome of MC with expansile invasion might mimic those of MBT. These results showed ovarian borderline tumor treatment could be applied to MC treatment.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma Mucinoso/patologia , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Biópsia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Invasividade Neoplásica , Prognóstico , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Estudos Retrospectivos
15.
Crit Rev Oncol Hematol ; 165: 103434, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34343657

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The role of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) rechallenge in cancer patients is not defined. When ICIs are discontinued due to treatment completion or toxicity, another course of ICIs is feasible in clinical practice, but the amount of data is still quite limited to draw definitive conclusions. Here we report the results of a meta-analysis evaluating efficacy and safety of ICI rechallenge. METHODS: PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane library were searched for studies reporting efficacy and safety of ICI rechallenge. Pooled analysis of response rate (ORR), median progression-free survival (mPFS) and median overall survival (mOS) were calculated. RESULTS: A total of 49 studies were included in qualitative and quantitative pooled analysis Overall response rate, mPFS and mOS were 21.8 % (range 0-70 %), 4.9 months (range 0-19.1 months) and 15.6 months (range 5.1-39 months), respectively. Incidence of any grade and grade 3-4 adverse events were 52.2 % (range 4-100 %) and 21.5 % (range 0-97.8 %), respectively. In the subgroup of patients who had previously discontinued ICI because of disease progression ORR, mPFS and mOS were 15.2 %, 2.9 and 7.9 months. Patients who had previously discontinued ICI because of toxicity achieved an ORR of 44 % and a mPFS of 13.2 months with the rechallenge. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that rechallenge ICI is an active and feasible strategy, and it could be considered on an individual basis. However, this analysis is based on non-randomized studies. Prospective studies are needed to clarify the role of rechallenge after disease progression or adverse events.


Assuntos
Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico , Neoplasias , Humanos , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Estudos Prospectivos
16.
Oncology ; 99(9): 555-561, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34247166

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) are the new standard therapy in patients with metastatic NSCLC (mNSCLC). Metformin, previously associated with improved chemotherapy efficacy in diabetic and nondiabetic cancer patients, was recently associated with increased ICI efficacy. In this study, we aimed to explore the correlations between diabetes mellitus (DM), metformin use, and benefit from ICI in mNSCLC patients. METHODS: All mNSCLC patients treated with ICI in our center between February 2015 and April 2018 were identified. Demographic and clinical data were extracted retrospectively. Cox proportional hazards regression, t tests, and χ2 tests were employed to evaluate associations of progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), overall response rate (ORR), and disease control rate (DCR), with DM status, metformin use, and HbA1c levels, as appropriate. RESULTS: Of 249 mNSCLC patients treated with ICI, 57 (22.8%) had DM. Thirty-seven (64.9% of all diabetic patients) patients were treated with metformin. A significant negative correlation of DM with PFS and OS was demonstrated (HR 1.5 [1.01-2.06], p = 0.011, and HR 1.5 [1.08-2.08], p = 0.017, respectively). Metformin exposure had no significant correlation with PFS or OS in diabetic mNSCLC patients (HR 1.08 [0.61-1.93], p = 0.79, and HR 1.29 [0.69-2.39], p = 0.42, respectively). There were no differences between groups with respect to ORR and DCR. CONCLUSION: Our data show a potential negative relationship between DM and ICI efficacy in mNSCLC patients. In contrast to reports with chemotherapy, we found no positive relationship between metformin use and ICI therapy in diabetic patients with mNSCLC. Further studies are needed to evaluate the effect of metformin in nondiabetic mNSCLC patients.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/complicações , Complicações do Diabetes , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/complicações , Metformina/uso terapêutico , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Estudos Retrospectivos
17.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4172, 2021 07 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34234141

RESUMO

Cell-free DNA (cfDNA) is attractive for many applications, including detecting cancer, identifying the tissue of origin, and monitoring. A fundamental task underlying these applications is SNV calling from cfDNA, which is hindered by the very low tumor content. Thus sensitive and accurate detection of low-frequency mutations (<5%) remains challenging for existing SNV callers. Here we present cfSNV, a method incorporating multi-layer error suppression and hierarchical mutation calling, to address this challenge. Furthermore, by leveraging cfDNA's comprehensive coverage of tumor clonal landscape, cfSNV can profile mutations in subclones. In both simulated and real patient data, cfSNV outperforms existing tools in sensitivity while maintaining high precision. cfSNV enhances the clinical utilities of cfDNA by improving mutation detection performance in medium-depth sequencing data, therefore making Whole-Exome Sequencing a viable option. As an example, we demonstrate that the tumor mutation profile from cfDNA WES data can provide an effective biomarker to predict immunotherapy outcomes.


Assuntos
DNA Tumoral Circulante/genética , Análise Mutacional de DNA/métodos , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/farmacologia , Neoplasias/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma/métodos , Adulto , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/farmacologia , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Biópsia , DNA Tumoral Circulante/sangue , Simulação por Computador , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Neoplasias/sangue , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/mortalidade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Prognóstico , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
19.
Cancer Treat Rev ; 99: 102255, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34332292

RESUMO

Poly-(ADP)-ribose polymerase inhibitors (PARPi) are a class of oral anticancer drugs first developed as "synthetically lethal" in cancers harboring BRCA1/BRCA2 inactivating mutations. In high-grade serous or endometrioid ovarian cancers (HGOC), PARPi demonstrated benefit as maintenance therapy in relapsing BRCA-mutated and non-mutated tumors. Recently, they extended their indications to frontline maintenance therapy. This review summarizes the current place of PARPi (i) as maintenance or single agent in recurrent disease and (ii) frontline maintenance with different settings. We reviewed the course of biomarker identification, the challenge of overcoming resistance to PARPi and future combinations with targeted therapies, including anti-angiogenic, immune checkpoint inhibitors and DNA damage response inhibitors.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Ovarianas/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerases/uso terapêutico , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Ensaios Clínicos Fase I como Assunto , Ensaios Clínicos Fase II como Assunto , Ensaios Clínicos Fase III como Assunto , Feminino , Humanos , Quimioterapia de Manutenção , Inibidores de Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerases/administração & dosagem , Inibidores de Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerases/efeitos adversos , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
20.
Cancer Treat Rev ; 99: 102261, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34332293

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Temozolomide (TEM) is an active treatment in metastatic neuroendocrine tumors (NETs). Patients affected by glioblastoma multiforme or advanced melanoma treated with TEM who have deficiency of O6-methylguanine DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) have a better responses and survival. However, the predictive role of MGMT in patients with NETs treated with TEM is still debated. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review of the literature and meta-analysis, based on PRISMA methodology, searching in the main databases (PubMed, Embase, Scopus, Web of Science, Cochrane Library and clinical trial.gov) and the proceedings of the main international congresses, until April 26, 2021. RESULTS: Twelve out of 616 articles were selected for our analysis, regarding a total of 858 NET patients treated with TEM-based chemotherapy. The status of MGMT had been tested in 513 (60%) patients, using various methods. The pooled overall response rate (ORR) was higher in MGMT-deficient compared with MGMT-proficient NETs, with a risk difference of 0.31 (95% confidence interval, CI: 0.13-0.50; p < 0.001; I2: 73%) and risk ratio of 2.29 (95% CI: 1.34-3.91; p < 0.001; I2: 55%). The pooled progression free survival (PFS) (hazard ratio, HR = 0.56; 95% CI: 0.43-0.74; p < 0.001) and overall survival (OS) (HR = 0.41; 95% CI: 0.20-0.62; p = 0.011) were longer in MGMT-deficient versus MGMT-proficient NETs. CONCLUSIONS: Our meta-analysis suggested that MGMT status may be predictive of TEM efficacy. However, due to the high heterogeneity of the evaluated studies the risk of biases should be considered. On this hypothesis future homogeneous prospective studies are warranted.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Metilases de Modificação do DNA/deficiência , Enzimas Reparadoras do DNA/deficiência , Tumores Neuroendócrinos/tratamento farmacológico , Tumores Neuroendócrinos/enzimologia , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/deficiência , Ensaios Clínicos Fase II como Assunto , Metilases de Modificação do DNA/metabolismo , Enzimas Reparadoras do DNA/metabolismo , Humanos , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Temozolomida/administração & dosagem , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/metabolismo
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