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1.
Food Funct ; 12(9): 4152-4164, 2021 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33977942

RESUMO

The human gut is a highly diverse microbial ecosystem. Although showing a well-defined core of dominant taxa, an interindividual variability exists in microbiome arrangement patterns, and the presence and proportion of specific species, determining individual metabolic features-metabotypes-which govern the health effects of dietary interventions (i.e. polyphenol consumption). Starting with a 19-volunteer human intervention study, divided into low, medium, and high wine-polyphenol-metabolizers, we detected interindividual discrepancies on the effect of wine consumption in gut bacterial alpha-diversity, but a significant homogenization of beta-diversity among moderate wine consumers, independently of their metabotype. In addition, the abundance of key health-related taxa such as Akkermansia sp. increased after moderate wine intake in the group of high polyphenol-metabolizers. Regarding the metabolic activity, significant (p < 0.05) positive correlations in the production of SCFAs were observed after wine intake. Finally, we were able to correlate the microbiome and the metabolome of the three metabotypes, and to identify some metabolites-biomarker species, highlighting the genera Phascolarctobacterium, Pelotomaculum and Prevotella, as positively correlated with polyphenol concentration, and Prevotella, Zymophilus and Eubacterium as positively correlated with SCFAs concentration in faeces. Our results contribute to the evidence of the need of including the microbiome variable in personalized nutrition programs, as different metabotyes respond differently to dietary interventions.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Intestinos/fisiologia , Metaboloma , Polifenóis/metabolismo , Vinho , Adulto , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bactérias/metabolismo , Variação Biológica da População , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Intestinos/microbiologia , Masculino , Metabolômica , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(21): e26204, 2021 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34032781

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Laparoscopic pancreaticoduodenectomy (LPD) is widely used as a treatment for periampullary tumors and pancreatic head tumors. However, postoperative pancreatic fistula (POPF), which significantly affects mortality and length of hospital stay of patients, remains one of the most common and serious complications following LPD. Though numerous technical modifications for pancreaticojejunostomy (PJ) have been proposed, POPF is still the "Achilles heel" of LPD.To reduce POPF rate and other postoperative complications following LPD by exploring the best approach to manage with the pancreatic remnant, a novel duct-to-mucosa anastomosis technique named Double Layer Running Suture (Double R) for the PJ was established. During 2018 and 2020, a totally 35 patients who underwent LPD with Double R were included, data on the total operative time, PJ duration, estimated blood loss, recovery of bowel function, postoperative complications, and length of hospital stay were collected and analyzed.The average duration of surgery was (380 ±â€Š69) minutes. The mean time for performing PJ was (34 ±â€Š5) minutes. The average estimated blood loss was (180 ±â€Š155) mL. The overall POPF rate was 8.6% (3/35), including 8.6% (3/35) for the biochemical leak, 0% (0/35) for Grade B, and 0% (0/35) for Grade C. No patient suffered from biliary fistula, post-pancreatectomy hemorrhage, and intra-abdominal infection, the 30-day mortality was 0%.Double R anastomosis is potentially a safe, reliable, and rapid anastomosis with a low rate of POPF and post-pancreatectomy hemorrhage. It provides surgeons more options when performing LPD. However, its safety and effectiveness should be verified further by a larger prospective multicenter study.


Assuntos
Laparoscopia/métodos , Pancreaticoduodenectomia/métodos , Pancreaticojejunostomia/métodos , Técnicas de Sutura , Adulto , Idoso , Neoplasias do Sistema Biliar/cirurgia , Perda Sanguínea Cirúrgica , Feminino , Humanos , Intestinos/fisiologia , Laparoscopia/efeitos adversos , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Duração da Cirurgia , Fístula Pancreática/prevenção & controle , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/cirurgia , Pancreaticoduodenectomia/efeitos adversos , Pancreaticojejunostomia/efeitos adversos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Hemorragia Pós-Operatória/prevenção & controle , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Estudos Retrospectivos , Técnicas de Sutura/efeitos adversos
3.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 3074, 2021 05 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34031373

RESUMO

Single-cell RNA sequencing combined with spatial information on landmark genes enables reconstruction of spatially-resolved tissue cell atlases. However, such approaches are challenging for rare cell types, since their mRNA contents are diluted in the spatial transcriptomics bulk measurements used for landmark gene detection. In the small intestine, enterocytes, the most common cell type, exhibit zonated expression programs along the crypt-villus axis, but zonation patterns of rare cell types such as goblet and tuft cells remain uncharacterized. Here, we present ClumpSeq, an approach for sequencing small clumps of attached cells. By inferring the crypt-villus location of each clump from enterocyte landmark genes, we establish spatial atlases for all epithelial cell types in the small intestine. We identify elevated expression of immune-modulatory genes in villus tip goblet and tuft cells and heterogeneous migration patterns of enteroendocrine cells. ClumpSeq can be applied for reconstructing spatial atlases of rare cell types in other tissues and tumors.


Assuntos
Transporte Biológico/genética , Transporte Biológico/fisiologia , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Intestinos/fisiologia , Animais , Diferenciação Celular , Enterócitos/metabolismo , Células Enteroendócrinas/metabolismo , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Epitélio , Expressão Gênica , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Intestino Delgado/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Análise de Sequência de RNA
4.
Nutrients ; 13(3)2021 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33803651

RESUMO

Malnutrition represents a major problem in the clinical management of the inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Presently, our understanding of the cross-link between eating behavior and intestinal inflammation is still in its infancy. Crohn's disease patients with active disease exhibit strong hedonic desires for food and emotional eating patterns possibly to ameliorate feelings of low mood, anxiety, and depression. Impulsivity traits seen in IBD patients may predispose them to palatable food intake as an immediate reward rather than concerns for future health. The upregulation of enteroendocrine cells (EEC) peptide response to food intake has been described in ileal inflammation, which may lead to alterations in gut-brain signaling with implications for appetite and eating behavior. In summary, a complex interplay of gut peptides, psychological, cognitive factors, disease-related symptoms, and inflammatory burden may ultimately govern eating behavior in intestinal inflammation.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiologia , Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/fisiopatologia , Intestinos/fisiologia , Regulação do Apetite/fisiologia , Doença de Crohn/fisiopatologia , Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Células Enteroendócrinas/metabolismo , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Humanos , Inflamação , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/psicologia , Recompensa
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(5)2021 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33807548

RESUMO

About 8% of the human genome is covered with candidate cis-regulatory elements (cCREs). Disruptions of CREs, described as "cis-ruptions" have been identified as being involved in various genetic diseases. Thanks to the development of chromatin conformation study techniques, several long-range cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) regulatory elements were identified, but the regulatory mechanisms of the CFTR gene have yet to be fully elucidated. The aim of this work is to improve our knowledge of the CFTR gene regulation, and to identity factors that could impact the CFTR gene expression, and potentially account for the variability of the clinical presentation of cystic fibrosis as well as CFTR-related disorders. Here, we apply the robust GWAS3D score to determine which of the CFTR introns could be involved in gene regulation. This approach highlights four particular CFTR introns of interest. Using reporter gene constructs in intestinal cells, we show that two new introns display strong cooperative effects in intestinal cells. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analyses further demonstrate fixation of transcription factors network. These results provide new insights into our understanding of the CFTR gene regulation and allow us to suggest a 3D CFTR locus structure in intestinal cells. A better understand of regulation mechanisms of the CFTR gene could elucidate cases of patients where the phenotype is not yet explained by the genotype. This would thus help in better diagnosis and therefore better management. These cis-acting regions may be a therapeutic challenge that could lead to the development of specific molecules capable of modulating gene expression in the future.


Assuntos
Regulador de Condutância Transmembrana em Fibrose Cística/genética , Intestinos/fisiologia , Células CACO-2 , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Imunoprecipitação da Cromatina/métodos , Fibrose Cística/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/genética , Genes Reporter/genética , Humanos , Íntrons/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
6.
Nat Metab ; 3(4): 546-557, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33820991

RESUMO

Tissue integrity is contingent on maintaining stem cells. Intestinal stem cells (ISCs) over-proliferate during ageing, leading to tissue dysplasia in Drosophila melanogaster. Here we describe a role for white, encoding the evolutionarily conserved ATP-binding cassette transporter subfamily G, with a particularly well-characterized role in eye colour pigmentation, in ageing-induced ISC proliferation in the midgut. ISCs increase expression of white during ageing. ISC-specific inhibition of white suppresses ageing-induced ISC dysregulation and prolongs lifespan. Of the proteins that form heterodimers with White, Brown mediates ISC dysregulation during ageing. Metabolomics analyses reveal previously unappreciated, profound metabolic impacts of white inhibition on organismal metabolism. Among the metabolites affected by White, tetrahydrofolate is transported by White, is accumulated in ISCs during ageing and is indispensable for ageing-induced ISC over-proliferation. Since Thomas Morgan's isolation of a white mutant as the first Drosophila mutant, white mutants have been used extensively as genetic systems and often as controls. Our findings provide insights into metabolic regulation of stem cells mediated by the classic gene white.


Assuntos
Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/genética , Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/fisiologia , Envelhecimento/genética , Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Proteínas de Drosophila/genética , Proteínas de Drosophila/fisiologia , Proteínas do Olho/genética , Proteínas do Olho/fisiologia , Homeostase/genética , Homeostase/fisiologia , Intestinos/fisiologia , Células-Tronco/fisiologia , Animais , Proliferação de Células , Drosophila melanogaster/genética , Cor de Olho/genética , Ácido Fólico/metabolismo , Intestinos/citologia , Intestinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Metabolômica
7.
Molecules ; 26(6)2021 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33802142

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to profile the bioaccessibility and intestinal absorption of epicatechins and flavonols in different forms of green tea and its formulation: loose leaf tea, powdered tea, 35% catechins containing GTE, and GTE formulated with green tea-derived polysaccharide and flavonols (CATEPLUS™). The bioaccessibillity and intestinal absorption of epicatechins and flavonols was investigated by using an in vitro digestion model system with Caco-2 cells. The bioaccessibility of total epicatechins in loose leaf tea, powdered tea, GTE, and CATEPLUS™ was 1.27%, 2.30%, 22.05%, and 18.72%, respectively, showing that GTE and CATEPLUS™ had significantly higher bioaccessibility than powdered tea and loose leaf tea. None of the flavonols were detected in powdered tea and loose leaf tea, but the bioaccessibility of the total flavonols in GTE and CATEPLUS™ was 85.74% and 66.98%, respectively. The highest intestinal absorption of epicatechins was found in CATEPLUS™ (171.39 ± 5.39 ng/mg protein) followed by GTE (57.38 ± 9.31), powdered tea (3.60 ± 0.67), and loose leaf tea (2.94 ± 1.03). The results from the study suggest that formulating green tea extracts rich in catechins with second components obtained from green tea processing could enhance the bioavailability of epicatechins.


Assuntos
Flavonoides/farmacologia , Chá/metabolismo , Antioxidantes , Disponibilidade Biológica , Transporte Biológico , Células CACO-2 , Catequina/química , Catequina/metabolismo , Digestão/efeitos dos fármacos , Digestão/fisiologia , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Flavonóis/química , Flavonóis/metabolismo , Humanos , Intestinos/efeitos dos fármacos , Intestinos/fisiologia , Modelos Biológicos , Extratos Vegetais
8.
Poult Sci ; 100(3): 100949, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33652523

RESUMO

Intestinal integrity, digestive enzyme activity, nutrient utilization, and egg quality of laying hens at different ages were evaluated and compared in this study. A total of 192 Hy-line Brown laying hens at 195-d-old (D195 group), 340-d-old (D340 group), and 525-d-old (D525 group) were allocated into one of 3 groups in accordance with their ages. Each group had 8 replicates of 8 birds each, and all birds were fed a maize-soybean meal basal diet for a 2-wk experiment. Compared with the D195 group, intestinal villus height and ratio of villus height to crypt depth, as well as serum D-lactate content increased in the D525 group (P < 0.05). The sucrase and maltase activities in the jejunal mucosa, amylase activity in the pancreas, and trypsin activity in the jejunal chyme of 525-d-old hens were lower than their 195-d-old counterparts (P < 0.05). In addition, there was a decline of trypsin and lipase activities in the ileal chyme of hens from D525 group in comparison with D195 or D340 group (P < 0.05). Apparent retention of dry matter and crude protein of birds in D340 and D525 group decreased when compared with the D195 group (P < 0.05). Moreover, birds in the D525 group exhibited a lower level of ether extract retention, and higher contents of several excreted amino acids than those in the D195 group (P < 0.05). Compared with the D195 group, eggs harvested from D525 group exhibited lower albumen height, eggshell strength and thickness, and a higher egg weight (P < 0.05). In conclusion, increased intestinal permeability (higher serum D-lactate content), compromised digestive function (lower digestive enzyme activities and apparent nutrient retention, and higher concentrations of excreted amino acids), and poor egg quality (lower albumen height, eggshell strength, and thickness) were observed with increasing age in the laying hens.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Galinhas , Digestão , Ovos , Intestinos , Fatores Etários , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Galinhas/fisiologia , Dieta/veterinária , Digestão/fisiologia , Ovos/normas , Feminino , Intestinos/fisiologia
9.
Poult Sci ; 100(3): 100960, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33652539

RESUMO

To have a better understanding of how the "gut-liver axis" mediates the lipid deposition in the liver, a comparison of overfeeding influence on intestine physiology and microbiota between Gang Goose and Tianfu Meat Goose was performed in this study. After force-feeding, compared with Gang Goose, Tianfu Meat Goose had better fat storage capacity in liver (397.94 vs. 166.54 for foie gras weight (g), P < 0.05; 6.37 vs. 2.92% for the ratio of liver to body, P < 0.05; 60.01 vs. 46.64% for fat content, P < 0.05) and the less subcutaneous adipose tissue weight (1240.96 g vs. 1440.46 g, P < 0.05). After force-feeding, the digestion-absorption capacity of Tianfu Meat Goose was higher than that of Gang Goose (5.56 vs. 3.64 and 4.63 vs. 3.68 for the ratio of villus height to crypt depth in duodenum and ileum, respectively, P < 0.05; 1394.96 vs. 782.59 and 1314.76 vs. 766.17 for the invertase activity (U/mg-prot), in duodenum and ileum, respectively, P < 0.05; 6038.36 vs. 3088.29 and 4645.29 vs. 3927.61 for the activity of maltase (U/mg-prot), in duodenum and ileum, respectively, P < 0.05). Force-feeding decreased the gene expression of Escherichia coli in the ileum of Tianfu Meat Goose; force-feeding increased the number of gut microbiota Enterobacterial Repetitive Intergenic Consensus-Polymerase Chain Reaction band in Tianfu Meat Goose and decreased the number in Gang Goose. In conclusion, compared with Gang Goose, the lipid deposition in the liver and the intestine digestion-absorption capacity and stability were higher in Tianfu Meat Goose. Thereby, Tianfu Meat Goose is the better breed for foie gras production for prolonged force-feeding; Gang Goose possesses better fat storage capacity in subcutaneous adipose tissue. However, Gang Goose has lower gut stability responding to force-feeding, so Gang Goose is suited to force-feeding in a short time to gain the body weight and subcutaneous fat as an overfed duck for roast duck.


Assuntos
Métodos de Alimentação , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Gansos , Intestinos , Animais , Métodos de Alimentação/veterinária , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Intestinos/microbiologia , Intestinos/fisiologia , Especificidade da Espécie
10.
Microbiome ; 9(1): 59, 2021 03 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33678185

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Spinal cord injury (SCI) patients display disruption of gut microbiome, and gut dysbiosis exacerbate neurological impairment in SCI models. Cumulative data support an important role of gut microbiome in SCI. Here, we investigated the hypothesis that fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) from healthy uninjured mice into SCI mice may exert a neuroprotective effect. RESULTS: FMT facilitated functional recovery, promoted neuronal axonal regeneration, improved animal weight gain and metabolic profiling, and enhanced intestinal barrier integrity and GI motility in SCI mice. High-throughput sequencing revealed that levels of phylum Firmicutes, family Christensenellaceae, and genus Butyricimonas were reduced in fecal samples of SCI mice, and FMT remarkably reshaped gut microbiome. Also, FMT-treated SCI mice showed increased amount of fecal short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), which correlated with alteration of intestinal permeability and locomotor recovery. Furthermore, FMT downregulated IL-1ß/NF-κB signaling in spinal cord and NF-κB signaling in gut following SCI. CONCLUSION: Our study demonstrates that reprogramming of gut microbiota by FMT improves locomotor and GI functions in SCI mice, possibly through the anti-inflammatory functions of SCFAs. Video Abstract.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiologia , Transplante de Microbiota Fecal , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Neuroproteção/fisiologia , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/terapia , Animais , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Fezes/química , Feminino , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Intestinos/microbiologia , Intestinos/fisiologia , Locomoção , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/patologia
11.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 1682, 2021 03 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33727562

RESUMO

Functional intestinal imaging holds importance for the diagnosis and evaluation of treatment of gastrointestinal diseases. Currently, preclinical imaging of intestinal motility in animal models is performed either invasively with excised intestines or noninvasively under anesthesia, and cannot reveal intestinal dynamics in the awake condition. Capitalizing on near-infrared optics and a high-absorbing contrast agent, we report the Trans-illumination Intestine Projection (TIP) imaging system for free-moving mice. After a complete system evaluation, we performed in vivo studies, and obtained peristalsis and segmentation motor patterns of free-moving mice. We show the in vivo typical segmentation motor pattern, that was previously shown in ex vivo studies to be controlled by intestinal pacemaker cells. We also show the effects of anesthesia on motor patterns, highlighting the possibility to study the role of the extrinsic nervous system in controlling motor patterns, which requires unanesthetized live animals. Combining with light-field technologies, we further demonstrated 3D imaging of intestine in vivo (3D-TIP). Importantly, the added depth information allows us to extract intestines located away from the abdominal wall, and to quantify intestinal motor patterns along different directions. The TIP system should open up avenues for functional imaging of the GI tract in conscious animals in natural physiological states.


Assuntos
Motilidade Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Imageamento Tridimensional , Intestinos/diagnóstico por imagem , Intestinos/fisiologia , Transiluminação , Anestesia , Animais , Meios de Contraste/química , Feminino , Cabelo/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Camundongos , Movimento , Fatores de Tempo
12.
Nutrients ; 13(2)2021 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33673254

RESUMO

The gut is a pivotal organ in health and disease. The events that take place in the gut during early life contribute to the programming, shaping and tuning of distant organs, having lifelong consequences. In this context, the maternal gut plays a quintessence in programming the mammary gland to face the nutritional, microbiological, immunological, and neuroendocrine requirements of the growing infant. Subsequently, human colostrum and milk provides the infant with an impressive array of nutrients and bioactive components, including microbes, immune cells, and stem cells. Therefore, the axis linking the maternal gut, the breast, and the infant gut seems crucial for a correct infant growth and development. The aim of this article is not to perform a systematic review of the human milk components but to provide an insight of their extremely complex interactions, which render human milk a unique functional food and explain why this biological fluid still truly remains as a scientific enigma.


Assuntos
Mama/fisiologia , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição do Lactente/fisiologia , Intestinos/fisiologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Materna/fisiologia , Aleitamento Materno , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Leite Humano/química , Leite Humano/fisiologia
13.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(5)2021 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33671067

RESUMO

Obesity has become a global public health and economic problem. Obesity is a major risk factor for a number of complications, such as type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, fatty liver disease, and cancer. Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine [5-HT]) is a biogenic monoamine that plays various roles in metabolic homeostasis. It is well known that central 5-HT regulates appetite and mood. Several 5-HT receptor agonists and selective serotonin receptor uptake inhibitors (SSRIs) have shown beneficial effects on appetite and mood control in clinics. Although several genetic polymorphisms related to 5-HT synthesis and its receptors are strongly associated with obesity, there is little evidence of the role of peripheral 5-HT in human metabolism. In this study, we performed a systemic analysis of transcriptome data from the Genotype-Tissue Expression (GTEX) database. We investigated the expression of 5-HT and tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH), the rate-limiting enzyme of 5-HT biosynthesis, in the human brain and peripheral tissues. We also performed differential gene expression analysis and predicted changes in metabolites by comparing gene expressions of tissues with high TPH expression to the gene expressions of tissues with low TPH expression. Our analyses provide strong evidence that serotonin plays an important role in the regulation of metabolic homeostasis in humans.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Intestinos/fisiologia , Metaboloma , Serotonina/metabolismo , Triptofano Hidroxilase/metabolismo , Homeostase , Humanos , Biologia de Sistemas , Transcriptoma , Triptofano Hidroxilase/genética
14.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 112: 46-55, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33609702

RESUMO

The present study aims to investigate the effects of dietary synbiotics supplementation methods on growth, feed utilization, hepatopancreas and intestinal histology, non-specific immunity and microbiota community of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei). A control diet was designed to contain 18% fish meal (CON), and then 3 g kg-1 synbiotics (Bioture, consisting of Bacillus subtilis, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, ß-glucan and mannan oligosaccharide, etc) was supplemented to the control diet with three methods, directly adding in diets for pelleting (DAP), spraying diets after pelleting at once (SDA), spraying diets before feeding every day (SDE). Shrimp with initial body weight of 1.5 ± 0.12 g were fed one of the four diets for 56 days. The results showed that dietary synbiotics significantly increased the weight gain (WG), apparent digestibility coefficient (ADC) of crude protein (CP) and dry matter (DM), hepatopancreatic protease activity and decreased feed conversion ratio (FCR) (P < 0.05). Among the three synbiotics-added diets, SDE group showed the best growth with significantly higher WG than DAP group (P < 0.05). Serum activities of total superoxide dismutase, catalase, acid phosphatase, lysozyme and alkaline phosphatase of synbiotics-added groups were significantly higher, and serum malondialdehyde level was significantly lower than those of the control (P < 0.05). The intestinal villus width and villus number were also increased by the supplementation of synbiotics. The cumulative mortality was reduced in the three synbiotics-added groups after challenging with Vibrio parahaemolyticus (P < 0.05), and SDE group showed a significantly lower mortality than the control and DAP groups (P < 0.05). In intestinal microbiota composition, the abundance of Lactococcus tended to increase and Vibro tended to decreased in SDA and SDE groups. In conclusion, dietary synbiotics improved the growth, feed utilization, intestine health and non-specific immunity of Pacific white shrimp, and spraying synbiotics on diet presented better performance than adding synbiotics in diet for pelleting.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Imunidade Inata/efeitos dos fármacos , Intestinos/efeitos dos fármacos , Penaeidae/imunologia , Simbióticos , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Dieta , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Intestinos/fisiologia , Penaeidae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Penaeidae/fisiologia , Distribuição Aleatória , Simbióticos/administração & dosagem , Vibrio parahaemolyticus/fisiologia
15.
Poult Sci ; 100(2): 810-819, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33518135

RESUMO

This study determined the effects of dietary supplementation of rhamnolipids (RLS) on the growth performance, gut morphology, immune function, intestinal volatile fatty acid, and microflora community in Linnan yellow broilers. A total of 480 1-day-old broiler chicks were randomly assigned to groups for supplementation with one of the following for 56 d: no supplement (control), 30 mg/kg bacitracin (ANT), 500 mg/kg RLS, or 1,000 mg/kg RLS (RLS2). The RLS2 diet was found to improve the final BW and ADG on day 56. The RLS diet reduced jejunal crypt depth, increased jejunal villus length, and increased serum IgA, IgM, IgY, IL-1ß, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) levels. The RLS broilers had higher cecum concentrations of acetic acid, propionic acid, butyrate, isobutyric acid, valerate, and isovalerate. High-throughput sequencing indicated that RLS affected microbial quantity and diversity in the cecum. Bacterial richness was higher in the RLS broilers than the ANT broilers. The RLS broilers had higher relative abundances of Megasphaera hypermegale and Lachnospiraceae bacterium 19gly4 on day 28 and Clostridium spiroforme and Alistipes obesi on day 56. These results suggest that RLS supplementation improves growth performance, benefits the intestinal villus morphology, regulates host immune function, and raises intestinal volatile fatty acid content and the relative abundance of the gut microbiota in broiler chickens.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Galinhas , Glicolipídeos/administração & dosagem , Intestinos/fisiologia , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Bacteroidetes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Galinhas/classificação , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Galinhas/fisiologia , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais , Firmicutes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Intestinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Intestinos/microbiologia , Distribuição Aleatória
16.
Poult Sci ; 100(2): 835-843, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33518137

RESUMO

Magnolol is a multifunctional plant polyphenol. To evaluate the effects of magnolol on laying hens in the late laying period, 360 (50-week-old) laying hens were randomly assigned to 4 dietary treatments: a non-supplemented control diet (C), and control diets supplemented with 100, 200, and 300 mg/kg of magnolol (M100, M200, and M300), respectively. Each treatment had 6 replicates with 15 hens per replicate. Results showed that dietary supplementation of 200 and 300 mg/kg of magnolol increased the laying rate and the M200 group had a lower feed conversion ratio (P < 0.05). Magnolol supplementation (200 and 300 mg/kg) could linearly increase albumen height and Haugh unit of fresh eggs in the late phase of the laying cycle (P < 0.01). And magnolol linearly alleviated the decline of the albumen height and Haugh unit of eggs stored for 14 d (P < 0.01). The total superoxide dismutase activity in the ovaries of M100 group was greater than that in the other treatments (P < 0.05). As dietary magnolol levels increased, villus height of jejunum and ileum linearly increased (P < 0.01). M200 and M300 groups had higher expression level of occludin in the ileum compared with group C (P < 0.01). The level of nitric oxide production and inducible nitric oxide synthase expression in the ileum of M200 group were lower than that in the C group (P < 0.05). In conclusion, dietary supplementation of 200 and 300 mg/kg magnolol can improve hen performance, albumen quality of fresh and storage eggs, and hepatic lipid metabolism in the late laying cycle. Also, magnolol has a good effect on increasing villi and improving the intestinal mucosal mechanical barrier function.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Compostos de Bifenilo/farmacologia , Galinhas/fisiologia , Ovos/normas , Intestinos/efeitos dos fármacos , Lignanas/farmacologia , Oviposição/efeitos dos fármacos , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Antioxidantes/administração & dosagem , Compostos de Bifenilo/administração & dosagem , Galinhas/metabolismo , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais , Feminino , Intestinos/anatomia & histologia , Intestinos/fisiologia , Lignanas/administração & dosagem , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Óvulo
17.
Poult Sci ; 100(2): 957-963, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33518149

RESUMO

Broiler chickens reared under heat stress (HS) conditions have decreased growth performance and show metabolic and immunologic alterations. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of supplementation with a standardized blend of plant-derived isoquinoline alkaloids (IQ) on the growth performance, protein catabolism, intestinal barrier function, and inflammatory status of HS-treated chickens. Three hundred sixty 0-day-old Ross 308 male broiler chickens were randomly distributed into 2 treatment groups: control diet (no additives) or diet supplemented with 100 ppm IQ. At day 14, the chicks in each diet group were further divided into 2 groups, each of which was reared under thermoneutral (TN) (22.4°C) or constant HS (33.0°C) conditions until day 42. Each group consisted of 6 replicates with 15 birds per replicate, and chickens were provided ad libitum access to water and feed. During days 15-21, the body weight gain (BWG) and feed intake (FI) were significantly lower in the HS treatment group than in the TN group, and feed conversion ratio was higher (P < 0.05); these factors were not alleviated by IQ supplementation. During days 22-42, the final BW, BWG, and FI of the HS birds were better among those administered IQ than those that were not (P < 0.05). HS treatment increased plasma lipid peroxide, corticosterone, and uric acid concentrations as well as serum fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran, a marker of intestinal barrier function, and decreased plasma total protein content (P < 0.05). These changes were not observed in the IQ group, suggesting that IQ supplementation improved oxidative damage, protein catabolism, and intestinal barrier function of chickens under HS. Isoquinoline alkaloid supplementation inhibited the expression of intestinal inflammatory factors, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-like factor 1A, and inducible nitric oxide synthase under HS treatment (P < 0.05). These results suggest that IQ supplementation can improve the growth performance of broiler chickens under HS conditions, which may be associated with amelioration of oxidative damage, protein catabolism, intestinal barrier function, and inflammation.


Assuntos
Alcaloides/farmacologia , Galinhas/fisiologia , Resposta ao Choque Térmico/fisiologia , Intestinos/efeitos dos fármacos , Isoquinolinas/administração & dosagem , Alcaloides/administração & dosagem , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais , Temperatura Alta , Intestinos/fisiologia , Isoquinolinas/química , Masculino
18.
Microbiome ; 9(1): 31, 2021 01 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33509277

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prebiotic galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) have an extensively demonstrated beneficial impact on intestinal health. In this study, we determined the impact of GOS diets on hallmarks of gut aging: microbiome dysbiosis, inflammation, and intestinal barrier defects ("leaky gut"). We also evaluated if short-term GOS feeding influenced how the aging gut responded to antibiotic challenges in a mouse model of Clostridioides difficile infection. Finally, we assessed if colonic organoids could reproduce the GOS responder-non-responder phenotypes observed in vivo. RESULTS: Old animals had a distinct microbiome characterized by increased ratios of non-saccharolytic versus saccharolytic bacteria and, correspondingly, a lower abundance of ß-galactosidases compared to young animals. GOS reduced the overall diversity, increased the abundance of specific saccharolytic bacteria (species of Bacteroides and Lactobacillus), increased the abundance of ß-galactosidases in young and old animals, and increased the non-saccharolytic organisms; however, a robust, homogeneous bifidogenic effect was not observed. GOS reduced age-associated increased intestinal permeability and increased MUC2 expression and mucus thickness in old mice. Clyndamicin reduced the abundance Bifidobacterium while increasing Akkermansia, Clostridium, Coprococcus, Bacillus, Bacteroides, and Ruminococcus in old mice. The antibiotics were more impactful than GOS on modulating serum markers of inflammation. Higher serum levels of IL-17 and IL-6 were observed in control and GOS diets in the antibiotic groups, and within those groups, levels of IL-6 were higher in the GOS groups, regardless of age, and higher in the old compared to young animals in the control diet groups. RTqPCR revealed significantly increased gene expression of TNFα in distal colon tissue of old mice, which was decreased by the GOS diet. Colon transcriptomics analysis of mice fed GOS showed increased expression of genes involved in small-molecule metabolic processes and specifically the respirasome in old animals, which could indicate an increased oxidative metabolism and energetic efficiency. In young mice, GOS induced the expression of binding-related genes. The galectin gene Lgals1, a ß-galactosyl-binding lectin that bridges molecules by their sugar moieties and is an important modulator of the immune response, and the PI3K-Akt and ECM-receptor interaction pathways were also induced in young mice. Stools from mice exhibiting variable bifidogenic response to GOS injected into colon organoids in the presence of prebiotics reproduced the response and non-response phenotypes observed in vivo suggesting that the composition and functionality of the microbiota are the main contributors to the phenotype. CONCLUSIONS: Dietary GOS modulated homeostasis of the aging gut by promoting changes in microbiome composition and host gene expression, which was translated into decreased intestinal permeability and increased mucus production. Age was a determining factor on how prebiotics impacted the microbiome and expression of intestinal epithelial cells, especially apparent from the induction of galectin-1 in young but not old mice. Video abstract.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Oligossacarídeos/farmacologia , Prebióticos , Envelhecimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Envelhecimento/genética , Animais , Feminino , Intestinos/efeitos dos fármacos , Intestinos/microbiologia , Intestinos/fisiologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo
19.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 53(1): 101, 2021 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33417070

RESUMO

This study investigated Lippia palmeri Watt (oregano) phytochemical compounds, their antioxidant capacity, and immunological effects on goat peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL), and on the presence of intermediate polar compounds in goat feces fed dietary oregano. The polar and nonpolar fractions of L. palmeri W. were characterized and phytochemical contents and antioxidant capacity were determined. Twelve healthy Anglo-Nubian goats were used for the in vivo trials, which were randomly assigned to control fed with basal diet, or oregano group fed with basal diet + 2.6% (DM basis) dried oregano leaves. Goat peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL) were isolated for the in vitro study, and PBL were stimulated with oregano extracts at 100 and 150 µg/mL after 24 h. For the in vivo trial, dietary oregano (2.6% on DM basis) was evaluated in the goats for 90 days. Relatively high abundance of carvacrol and thymol phytochemical compounds was found in oregano. The highest antioxidant capacity of oregano extracts was detected at 100 and 150 µg/mL. Nitric oxide production, phagocytosis, and superoxide dismutase activities increased (p < 0.05) in stimulated PBL with oregano extracts, whereas the pro-inflammatory (TNF-α and IL-1ß) transcription and antioxidant (CAT and GPX-4) genes downregulated. In the in vivo experiment, dietary oregano enabled the detection of nine compounds found in goat feces, from which caproic (C6) was in a high relative quantity compared with the control group. Oregano has phytochemical compounds with strong antioxidant capacity that protect cells against oxidative stress damage and could modulate immune response and feces composition in goats.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Cabras/fisiologia , Intestinos/fisiologia , Leucócitos/imunologia , Lippia/química , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Feminino , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Distribuição Aleatória
20.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 270, 2021 01 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33431892

RESUMO

Intestinal stem cells (ISCs) residing in the crypts are critical for the continual self-renewal and rapid recovery of the intestinal epithelium. The regulatory mechanism of ISCs is not fully understood. Here we report that CREPT, a recently identified tumor-promoting protein, is required for the maintenance of murine ISCs. CREPT is preferably expressed in the crypts but not in the villi. Deletion of CREPT in the intestinal epithelium of mice (Vil-CREPTKO) results in lower body weight and slow migration of epithelial cells in the intestine. Vil-CREPTKO intestine fails to regenerate after X-ray irradiation and dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) treatment. Accordingly, the deletion of CREPT decreases the expression of genes related to the proliferation and differentiation of ISCs and reduces Lgr5+ cell numbers at homeostasis. We identify that CREPT deficiency downregulates Wnt signaling by impairing ß-catenin accumulation in the nucleus of the crypt cells during regeneration. Our study provides a previously undefined regulator of ISCs.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/metabolismo , Intestinos/fisiologia , Proteínas de Neoplasias/metabolismo , Regeneração/fisiologia , Células-Tronco/metabolismo , Animais , Contagem de Células , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/deficiência , Diferenciação Celular , Proliferação de Células , Epitélio/metabolismo , Deleção de Genes , Humanos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Modelos Biológicos , Proteínas de Neoplasias/deficiência , Organoides/metabolismo , Células-Tronco/citologia , Via de Sinalização Wnt , Raios X , beta Catenina/metabolismo
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