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1.
Anticancer Res ; 40(4): 1981-1988, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32234887

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: We aimed to elucidate the pathological findings following acute and late re-irradiation in a preclinical model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Mice were divided into five treatment groups: sham-irradiation (Sham-IR), 10-12 Gy (Single IR Acute), 15 Gy (Single IR Late), 15 Gy followed by 10-12 Gy re-irradiation 7 days later (Re-IR Acute), or 15 Gy followed by 10-12 Gy re-irradiation 12 weeks later (Re-IR Late). Mice were sacrificed after either single irradiation or re-irradiation for pathological assessment. RESULTS: The Re-IR Late group had significantly lower numbers of crypts with apoptotic cells than those observed in mice in the Single IR Acute group. There were no significant differences between the Single IR Acute and re-IR Acute groups in cell proliferation or in a crypt survival assay. CONCLUSION: Re-irradiation with a long interval after the first irradiation may cause similar acute biological effects in normal intestine as observed following irradiation without re-irradiation.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos da radiação , Proliferação de Células/efeitos da radiação , Intestinos/efeitos da radiação , Lesões Experimentais por Radiação/fisiopatologia , Animais , Humanos , Intestinos/fisiopatologia , Camundongos , Modelos Animais , Reirradiação/efeitos adversos
2.
Am J Med Sci ; 359(3): 168-176, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32089158

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intestinal-barrier damage plays an important pathogenic role in immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN). In this study, we explored the characteristics of the intestinal barrier in rats with IgAN. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We randomly divided 17 Sprague Dawley (SD) male rats into a normal control group (NC; n = 9) and an IgAN model group (n = 8). Feces in the distal ileum were taken for intestinal-microbiota 16sDNA sequencing. We also took a segment of terminal ileum to analyze intestinal morphology and to detect mRNA and protein expression of the tight-junction proteins zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) and occludin (OCLN), as well as of mucin 2 (MUC2). We then measured levels of serum diamine oxidase (DAO) and D-lactic acid (D-LA), the biomarkers of intestinal permeability. RESULTS: Compared with the NC group, mRNA expression levels of ZO-1 (t = 4.216, P = 0.0007), OCLN (t = 2.413, P = 0.029) and MUC2 (t = 0.859, P < 0.0001) were significantly decreased in the IgAN model group. Protein expression of ZO-1 (t = 7.349, P < 0.0001) and OCLN (t = 6.367, P < 0.0001) was also decreased in the IgAN model group. Conversely, serum DAO (t = 3.758, P = 0.0024) and D-LA (t = 2.246, P = 0.0427) levels increased in this group. At the genus level, the relative abundance of Ruminococcus2 (P = 0.0086) was increased in the IgAN model group. CONCLUSIONS: Decreased expression of ZO-1, OCLN and MUC2, plus intestinal-microbiota dysbiosis, are associated with intestinal-barrier damage in IgAN rats.


Assuntos
Glomerulonefrite por IGA/fisiopatologia , Mucosa Intestinal/fisiologia , Intestinos/fisiopatologia , Junções Íntimas/fisiologia , Animais , Masculino , Permeabilidade , Distribuição Aleatória , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
3.
Radiol Clin North Am ; 58(1): 1-17, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31731894

RESUMO

Bowel wall thickening in the hospitalized patient can be due to myriad etiologies. Familiarity with the optimal study protocols and a structured approach for evaluation are important. Understanding the pathology and knowing the imaging features of most common entities (ischemia, shock bowel, hemorrhage, infection, graft-versus-host disease, and fluid overload) enable radiologists to provide unique value to clinical management.


Assuntos
Diagnóstico por Imagem/métodos , Pacientes Internados , Intestinos/fisiopatologia , Hospitalização , Humanos
4.
Khirurgiia (Mosk) ; (12): 66-73, 2019.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31825345

RESUMO

RELEVANCE: The leveling of postoperative pain, early activation of patients are the leading components of the fast-track program, providing fast recovery with good quality of life, minimizing postoperative problems. In colorectal surgery, the most important factor determining the early recovery of patients is the normalization of bowel function, the restoration of defecation rhythm. AIM: To assess the possibility of using dietary fiber (arabinogalactan) in combination with lactoferrin (the drug Fibraxin, Alfa Sigma) in the complex postoperative therapy of proctologic patients, as well as to determine the effectiveness of their influence on the dynamics of rehabilitation. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A non-randomized cohort comparative prospective study was conducted in two clinical groups of 100 patients operated on for proctological pathology. In the first (control) group, after the operation, venotonics were prescribed for 2-3 weeks, as well as topical preparations - for 2.5 weeks. In the second (main) group, this treatment is supplemented with the use of Fibraxin, at a dosage of 6g 1 time per day, the observation period is 4 weeks. A comparative analysis of the rates of relief of postoperative defecation disorders, as well as the effect of the drug on the dynamics of the relief of leading postoperative complaints, has been carried out. RESULTS: In the main group, the best results were obtained for the main parameters analyzed, early normalization of the frequency and rhythm of bowel movements was achieved, with adequate relief of complaints of pain during bowel movements and after it. Intolerance to the drug and pathological reactions associated with its use was not. The positive effect of Fibraxin in patients with concomitant diseases of the colon, including colitis, irritable bowel syndrome, diverticular disease and chronic colonic stasis, was noted. CONCLUSION: The use of the drug Fibraxin at a dose of 6g per day allows a significant influence on the course of the postoperative period in proctological patients. The inclusion of Fibraxin in the scheme of rehabilitation treatment allows to stabilize the immediate results of treatment and reliably improve long-term, due to the correction of rectal dysfunction, elimination of dysbiosis, normalization of motility, as well as potentiation of reparative and restorative processes.


Assuntos
Defecação/fisiologia , Galactanos/administração & dosagem , Fármacos Gastrointestinais/administração & dosagem , Intestinos/fisiopatologia , Lactoferrina/administração & dosagem , Protectomia/reabilitação , Protocolos Clínicos , Constipação Intestinal/etiologia , Constipação Intestinal/terapia , Humanos , Intestinos/cirurgia , Laxantes/administração & dosagem , Protectomia/efeitos adversos , Estudos Prospectivos , Qualidade de Vida , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
5.
Rev Soc Bras Med Trop ; 52: e20180486, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31778419

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Bowel dysfunction is frequent in patients with spinal cord diseases, but little is known about the prevalence of bowel symptoms in human T-lymphotropic virus-(HTLV-1) infected individuals. The purpose of this study is to determine the frequency of bowel symptoms in HTLV-1 infected individuals and their correlation with the degree of neurologic disease. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study comparing the frequency of bowel symptoms in HTLV-1-infected individuals* and seronegative donors (controls). Patients answered a questionnaire, the Rome III Criteria was applied, and stool consistency was evaluated by the Bristol Stool Form Scale. The individuals were classified as HTLV-1 carriers, probable HTLV-1 myelopathy and definitive HTLV-1 associated myelopathy or tropical spastic paraparesis (definitive HAM / TSP)**. RESULTS: We studied 72 HTLV-1 infected individuals and 72 controls with equal age and gender distribution. Constipation was the most frequent complaint, occurring in 38 % of HTLV-1 individuals and in 15 % of the controls. In comparison to the seronegative controls, the probability of constipation occurrence was approximately 18 times higher in definitive HAM / TSP patients. Straining, lumpy or hard stools, sensation of anorectal obstruction/blockage, fewer than 3 defecations per week, flatulence, soiling, evacuation pain, and bleeding were also more frequent in the HTLV-1 patients than in the controls. Moreover, bowel symptoms were more frequent in patients with definitive or probable HAM / TSP than in carriers. CONCLUSIONS: Bowel symptoms were more frequent in HTLV-1-infected patients than in seronegative controls and the frequency of bowel symptoms correlated with the severity of neurologic disease.


Assuntos
Infecções por HTLV-I/fisiopatologia , Intestinos/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores Socioeconômicos
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31594645

RESUMO

The number of disorders now linked to increased intestinal mucosal permeability implies that a substantial percent of the population is affected. Drug interventions targeting reduced tight junctional permeability are being pursued. Although hyper-permeability in itself is not a clinically recognized disease entity, its relationship to disease processes has driven interest in measuring, and even monitoring mucosal permeability in vivo. Along with improved knowledge of gut barrier physiology, advances have been made in tests and biomarkers of barrier function. Drawing from our experiences in the past decade, considerations and challenges faced in assessing in vivo intestinal permeability are discussed herein, along with indications of what the future might hold.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Mucosa Intestinal/fisiologia , Intestinos/fisiopatologia , Permeabilidade , Humanos
7.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4365, 2019 09 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31554796

RESUMO

Epithelia are exposed to diverse types of stress and damage from pathogens and the environment, and respond by regenerating. Yet, the proximal mechanisms that sense epithelial damage remain poorly understood. Here we report that p38 signaling is activated in adult Drosophila midgut enterocytes in response to diverse stresses including pathogenic bacterial infection and chemical and mechanical insult. Two upstream kinases, Ask1 and Licorne (MKK3), are required for p38 activation following infection, oxidative stress, detergent exposure and wounding. Ask1-p38 signaling in enterocytes is required upon infection to promote full intestinal stem cell (ISC) activation and regeneration, partly through Upd3/Jak-Stat signaling. Furthermore, reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by the NADPH oxidase Nox in enterocytes, are required for p38 activation in enterocytes following infection or wounding, and for ISC activation upon infection or detergent exposure. We propose that Nox-ROS-Ask1-MKK3-p38 signaling in enterocytes integrates multiple different stresses to induce regeneration.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Drosophila/metabolismo , Intestinos/fisiopatologia , MAP Quinase Quinase 3/metabolismo , MAP Quinase Quinase Quinases/metabolismo , NADPH Oxidases/metabolismo , Regeneração/fisiologia , Transdução de Sinais , Proteínas Quinases p38 Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Animais , Animais Geneticamente Modificados , Infecções Bacterianas/microbiologia , Proteínas de Drosophila/genética , Drosophila melanogaster/genética , Drosophila melanogaster/metabolismo , Enterócitos/metabolismo , Enterócitos/microbiologia , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Mucosa Intestinal/microbiologia , Mucosa Intestinal/fisiopatologia , Intestinos/microbiologia , Intestinos/patologia , MAP Quinase Quinase 3/genética , MAP Quinase Quinase Quinases/genética , NADPH Oxidases/genética , Estresse Oxidativo , Regeneração/genética , Células-Tronco/metabolismo , Células-Tronco/microbiologia , Estresse Mecânico , Proteínas Quinases p38 Ativadas por Mitógeno/genética
8.
Psychiatr Danub ; 31(Suppl 3): 561-567, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31488791

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Female sexuality may be affected by many somatic and psychological factors. Somatic conditions have impact on psychological well-being. We assumed that chronic disease like Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS), when producing the long-term distress, may greatly influence sexual functioning. AIM: The aim of this study was to determine whether the severity of IBS influences sexual functions of women and take into consideration other factors like Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth (SIBO) comorbidity and duration of IBS. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Study patients were recruited by contacting IBS patients at Gastroenterology Ward of Clinical University Centre in Katowice. The survey consisted of 3 parts. The first part were socio-demographic questions. The second part was polish translation of Female Sexuality Functions Index (FSFI) questionnaire. The third part consisted of questions about the patient condition, pharmacotherapy and Irritable Bowel Syndrome Severity Score (IBSSS) questionnaire. 307 women were included in the study and completed the questionnaire. 143 participants were diagnosed with IBS. The mean age of participants was 27 (IQR=23-33). 29% of the patients (n=41) had severe, 47% (n=68) moderate and 24% (n=34) mild IBS. RESULTS: The prevalence of sexual dysfunctions was greater in women with IBS (48%) than in healthy control group (23%) (p<0.001). The median of FSFI was: 30.1 (26.3-32.8) for healthy control group, 30 (23.5-32.6) for mild IBS, 26.2 (22.2-31.6) for moderate and 24.4 (20.1-28.9) for severe. CONCLUSION: IBS decreases all domains of women sexual activity. Severity of sexual dysfunctions relate to intensity of IBS symptoms. All physicians treating IBS-patients should take sexual dysfunctions into their clinical consideration.


Assuntos
Síndrome do Intestino Irritável/complicações , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável/psicologia , Disfunções Sexuais Fisiológicas/complicações , Disfunções Sexuais Psicogênicas/complicações , Sexualidade/psicologia , Infecções Bacterianas/complicações , Infecções Bacterianas/microbiologia , Infecções Bacterianas/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Intestinos/microbiologia , Intestinos/fisiopatologia , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável/microbiologia , Disfunções Sexuais Fisiológicas/fisiopatologia , Disfunções Sexuais Fisiológicas/psicologia , Disfunções Sexuais Psicogênicas/fisiopatologia , Disfunções Sexuais Psicogênicas/psicologia
9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(16)2019 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31404995

RESUMO

The enzyme vascular non-inflammatory molecule-1 (vanin 1) is highly expressed at gene and protein level in many organs, such as the liver, intestine, and kidney. Its major function is related to its pantetheinase activity; vanin 1 breaks down pantetheine in cysteamine and pantothenic acid, a precursor of coenzyme A. Indeed, its physiological role seems strictly related to coenzyme A metabolism, lipid metabolism, and energy production. In recent years, many studies have elucidated the role of vanin 1 under physiological conditions in relation to oxidative stress and inflammation. Vanin's enzymatic activity was found to be of key importance in certain diseases, either for its protective effect or as a sensitizer, depending on the diseased organ. In this review, we discuss the role of vanin 1 in the liver, kidney, intestine, and lung under physiological as well as pathophysiological conditions. Thus, we provide a more complete understanding and overview of its complex function and contribution to some specific pathologies.


Assuntos
Amidoidrolases/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Amidoidrolases/análise , Animais , Proteínas Ligadas por GPI/análise , Proteínas Ligadas por GPI/metabolismo , Humanos , Inflamação/metabolismo , Inflamação/fisiopatologia , Enteropatias/metabolismo , Enteropatias/fisiopatologia , Intestinos/fisiopatologia , Rim/metabolismo , Rim/fisiopatologia , Nefropatias/metabolismo , Nefropatias/fisiopatologia , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/fisiopatologia , Hepatopatias/metabolismo , Hepatopatias/fisiopatologia
10.
Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 13(8): 785-796, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31282770

RESUMO

Introduction: Short bowel syndrome represents the leading etiology that causes intestinal failure both in children and adults. Total parenteral nutrition support has dramatically improved the prognosis for these patients but, if related irreversible complications occur, the alternative is represented by surgery and/or transplantation. Areas covered: Autologous gastrointestinal reconstructive procedures are a feasible, alternative approach with good long-term outcome data inexperienced surgical centers. Expert opinion: Ongoing innovative efforts have driven the surgical options for successful autologous reconstructive surgery: bowel elongation/tapering techniques (LILT, STEP, and the new SILT) together with the 'reversed bowel segment' procedure are now recognized procedures and all must be tailored to the individual patient needs to obtain the optimal result in terms of enteral autonomy. Background laboratory experimentation with new procedures e.g. options for bowel dilation techniques and distraction-induced enterogenesis, may provide additional management and treatment modalities.


Assuntos
Intestino Delgado/fisiopatologia , Intestino Delgado/transplante , Intestinos/fisiopatologia , Intestinos/transplante , Síndrome do Intestino Curto/fisiopatologia , Síndrome do Intestino Curto/cirurgia , Tecnologia Biomédica , Humanos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Reconstrutivos , Transferência de Tecnologia , Transplante Autólogo
11.
Vopr Pitan ; 88(3): 13-22, 2019.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31265771

RESUMO

Disturbance of the bronchopulmonary system are among the most common and socially significant diseases, so, the prevention and treatment of these disorders are the priority tasks of practical health care. Being based on the accumulated literature data on the interaction of the intestinal microflora and respiratory tract, the role of symbiotic bacteria of the intestinal biotope has been discussed in the respiratory diseases' pathogenesis. The aim of the work was to analyze the results of experimental and clinical studies confirming the effect of intestinal microflora on the development and progression of respiratory diseases. The analysis of the available data on the risk reducing of occurrence, duration and severity of symptoms of bronchial asthma when taking probiotics, both in childhood and in the adult population, has been carried out. The effectiveness of the probiotic microorganisms' intake for the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, pneumonia, viral infection, cystic fibrosis, and lung cancer has been analyzed. The main possible molecular mechanisms of the symbiotic bacteria prevention of the bronchopulmonary diseases development have been discussed in the article. Conclusion. The probiotics usage in the complex treatment of bronchopulmonary diseases demonstrates encouraging results. Its potential may be useful in the treatment of various lung diseases. However, a number of questions have been related to the individual selection of specific strains, the dosage and duration of use to achieve sustained remission for a patient.


Assuntos
Asma , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Intestinos , Nutrientes , Probióticos/uso terapêutico , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Asma/microbiologia , Asma/fisiopatologia , Asma/terapia , Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Humanos , Intestinos/microbiologia , Intestinos/fisiopatologia , Pulmão/microbiologia , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/microbiologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/fisiopatologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/terapia
12.
Inflamm Res ; 68(9): 723-726, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31154460

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intestinal epithelial injury in septic patients predicts subsequent development of multiple organ failure, but its regulation by host factors remains unclear. Sphingosine kinase 1 is an enzyme-regulating inflammatory response. METHODS: Cecal ligation and puncture was used to induce sepsis in C57BL/6 mice with and without N,N-dimethylsphingosine, a SphK1 inhibitor. Symptom severity was monitored by murine sepsis severity score. The intestinal barrier function was determined using 4KDa fluorescein-dextran. Bacterial load in the bloodstream was determined by 16S rRNA gene amplification. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Our preliminary experimental data showed that expression of sphingosine kinase 1 in ileum was increased by sixfold in septic mice. Pharmacological blockade of sphingosine kinase 1 alleviated septic symptoms. The intestinal permeability and bacterial load in the bloodstream were also reduced in these animals. We hypothesized that inhibition of sphingosine kinase 1 may reduce pro-inflammatory cytokine production, and alleviate intestinal epithelial injury during sepsis. Further mechanistic studies and clinical specimen analyses are warranted.


Assuntos
Epitélio/enzimologia , Intestinos/fisiopatologia , Fosfotransferases (Aceptor do Grupo Álcool)/antagonistas & inibidores , Fosfotransferases (Aceptor do Grupo Álcool)/metabolismo , Sepse/microbiologia , Sepse/fisiopatologia , Animais , Apoptose , Carga Bacteriana , Epitélio/fisiopatologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Inflamação , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Permeabilidade , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Esfingosina/análogos & derivados , Esfingosina/farmacologia
13.
Vet Res ; 50(1): 46, 2019 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31215487

RESUMO

Intestinal health problems are a major issue in the poultry industry. Quantifiable easy-to-measure biomarkers for intestinal health would be of great value to monitor subclinical intestinal entities that cause performance problems and to evaluate control methods for intestinal health. The aim of the study was to identify host protein biomarkers for intestinal inflammation and intestinal barrier damage. Proteomic analysis was conducted on ileal and colonic content samples of broilers under an experimental gut damage and inflammation model. Effects of the challenge treatment resulted in a worse gut condition based on macroscopic gut appearance (p < 0.0001). Also microscopic changes such as shortening of the villi and increased crypt depth (p < 0.0001) as well as higher infiltration of T-lymphocytes (p < 0.0001) were seen in the duodenal tissue of challenged animals. Several candidate proteins associated with inflammation, serum leakage and/or tissue damage were identified with an increased abundance in intestinal content of challenged animals (p < 0.05). Conversely, brush border enzymes were less abundant in intestinal content of challenged animals (p < 0.05). These candidate biomarkers have potential to be used in the field for detection of gut barrier failure in broilers.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Inflamação/veterinária , Enteropatias/veterinária , Intestinos/fisiopatologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/fisiopatologia , Animais , Biomarcadores , Inflamação/metabolismo , Inflamação/fisiopatologia , Enteropatias/metabolismo , Enteropatias/fisiopatologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/metabolismo , Proteômica
14.
Nutrients ; 11(5)2019 May 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31126027

RESUMO

Understanding how the gut responds to food has always been limited by the available investigatory techniques. Previous methods involving intubation and aspiration are largely limited to liquid-only meals. The aim of this review is to describe how MRI has allowed analysis of the processing of complex multiphase meals. This has demonstrated the role of physical factors such as viscosity, fat and fibre content in controlling gastric secretion and motility. It has also allowed the description of changes induced in small bowel water content and the role of osmotic effects of poorly absorbed carbohydrates such as fructose, sorbitol and mannitol. Intestinal secretions can be shown to be stimulated by a range of fruit and vegetables and the effect of this on colonic water content can also be measured. This has been used to demonstrate the mode of action of commonly used laxatives including bran and psyllium. The wealth of data which can be obtained together with its non-invasive nature and safety makes the technique ideal for the serial evaluation of the impact of different nutrients and drugs in both health and disease.


Assuntos
Dieta , Ingestão de Alimentos , Gastroenteropatias/diagnóstico por imagem , Intestinos/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Estômago/diagnóstico por imagem , Animais , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Absorção Gastrointestinal , Gastroenteropatias/tratamento farmacológico , Gastroenteropatias/fisiopatologia , Motilidade Gastrointestinal , Humanos , Intestinos/efeitos dos fármacos , Intestinos/fisiopatologia , Estado Nutricional , Valor Nutritivo , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estômago/efeitos dos fármacos , Estômago/fisiopatologia
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31142251

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Grape phytochemicals prevent intestine-related and subsequent other inflammatory diseases. Phytochemicals and vitamin D are useful for the regulation of inflammatory responses. Phytochemicals is the generic name for terpenoids, carotenoids, and flavonoids that consist of a variety of chemicals contained in vegetables and fruits. There are a variety of grape cultivars that contain many kinds of phytochemicals in their skin and seeds. Grape phytochemicals including Grape Seed Extracts (GSE) have already been used to maintain healthy condition through manipulating inflammatory responses by decreasing the expression of inflammation-related factors. DISCUSSION: Grape phytochemicals mainly consist of a variety of chemicals that include terpenoid (oleanolic acid), carotenoids (ß-carotene, lutein), and flavonoids: flavon-3-ols (quercetin), flavan-3-ols (catechins), anthocyanins, oligomers and polymers (tannins and proanthocyanidins), and resveratrol. Phytochemicals improve the dysbiosis (gut microbiota complication) induced by metabolic syndrome and regulate inflammatory diseases induced by TNF-α production. Once absorbed, flavonoids change into glucuronide-form, move into the bloodstream and reach the inflammatory sites including liver, lung, and sites of arteriosclerosis, where they become active. Furthermore, oleanolic acid acts on TGR5 - the cholic acid receptor, as an agonist of cholic acid. These anti-inflammatory effects of phytochemicals have been proven by the experimental animal studies and the clinical trials. CONCLUSION: It is expected the new health food products will be created from grape skins and seeds since grape phytochemicals participate in the prevention of inflammatory diseases like intestine-related inflammatory diseases.


Assuntos
Inflamação/prevenção & controle , Enteropatias/prevenção & controle , Intestinos/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostos Fitoquímicos/uso terapêutico , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Vitis/química , Animais , Frutas/química , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Intestinos/microbiologia , Intestinos/fisiopatologia , Sementes/química
16.
BMC Biol ; 17(1): 33, 2019 04 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30975131

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Large animal models, such as the dog, are increasingly being used for studying diseases including gastrointestinal (GI) disorders. Dogs share similar environmental, genomic, anatomical, and intestinal physiologic features with humans. To bridge the gap between commonly used animal models, such as rodents, and humans, and expand the translational potential of the dog model, we developed a three-dimensional (3D) canine GI organoid (enteroid and colonoid) system. Organoids have recently gained interest in translational research as this model system better recapitulates the physiological and molecular features of the tissue environment in comparison with two-dimensional cultures. RESULTS: Organoids were derived from tissue of more than 40 healthy dogs and dogs with GI conditions, including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and intestinal carcinomas. Adult intestinal stem cells (ISC) were isolated from whole jejunal tissue as well as endoscopically obtained duodenal, ileal, and colonic biopsy samples using an optimized culture protocol. Intestinal organoids were comprehensively characterized using histology, immunohistochemistry, RNA in situ hybridization, and transmission electron microscopy, to determine the extent to which they recapitulated the in vivo tissue characteristics. Physiological relevance of the enteroid system was defined using functional assays such as optical metabolic imaging (OMI), the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) function assay, and Exosome-Like Vesicles (EV) uptake assay, as a basis for wider applications of this technology in basic, preclinical and translational GI research. We have furthermore created a collection of cryopreserved organoids to facilitate future research. CONCLUSIONS: We establish the canine GI organoid systems as a model to study naturally occurring intestinal diseases in dogs and humans, and that can be used for toxicology studies, for analysis of host-pathogen interactions, and for other translational applications.


Assuntos
Intestinos/fisiologia , Organoides/fisiologia , Animais , Doenças do Cão/fisiopatologia , Cães , Gastroenterologia , Intestinos/fisiopatologia , Organoides/fisiopatologia , Células-Tronco/citologia , Pesquisa Médica Translacional
17.
Pediatr Surg Int ; 35(6): 657-663, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30937511

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There are no in vivo methods to measure adaptation in neonatal short bowel syndrome (SBS). We evaluated citrulline (Cit) levels in neonatal piglet surgical models of SBS. METHODS: Piglets underwent 75% mid-intestinal resection with jejunoileal anastomosis (JI), 75% distal resection of ileum with jejunocolic anastomosis (JC) or sham surgery. Jugular and gastric catheters were inserted for parenteral and enteral nutrition. On D7, small intestine length and weight were measured, jejunum collected for histopathology and Cit level determined. RESULTS: JI (n = 5) compared to JC (n = 5) had increased small intestinal length (JC - 17.5 cm; JI +22.0 cm; p = 0.02) and mass (JC 43.1 mg/cm/kg; JI 51.3 mg/cm/kg; p = 0.02), while Cit did not differ (JI 801.0 µM; JC 677.7 µM; p = 0.90). Including non-resected shams (n = 4), Cit correlated with length (R2 = 0.48; p = 0.006), but not for SBS alone (R2 = 0.11; p = 0.4), mass (R2 = 0.05; p = 0.5). A second experiment compared change in Cit levels from baseline to D7. Levels declined in sham (n = 8) and JC (n = 10) (sham - 110.1 µM; JC - 56.6 µM; p = 0.17), regardless of intestinal lengthening (sham 29.9 cm; JC - 10.4 cm; p = 0.002). CONCLUSION: Citrulline levels predict large differences in intestinal length and 'identify' SBS. However, citrulline cannot discriminate between adaptation in JI and JC, nor predict intestinal lengthening.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica , Citrulina/sangue , Intestinos/fisiopatologia , Síndrome do Intestino Curto/cirurgia , Anastomose Cirúrgica , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Biomarcadores/sangue , Colo/cirurgia , Íleo/cirurgia , Intestino Delgado/patologia , Jejuno/cirurgia , Modelos Animais , Síndrome do Intestino Curto/fisiopatologia , Suínos
18.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(8)2019 Apr 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31003422

RESUMO

Intestinal inflammatory diseases, such as Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, and necrotizing enterocolitis, are becoming increasingly prevalent. While knowledge of the pathogenesis of these related diseases is currently incomplete, each of these conditions is thought to involve a dysfunctional, or overstated, host immunological response to both bacteria and dietary antigens, resulting in unchecked intestinal inflammation and, often, alterations in the intestinal microbiome. This inflammation can result in an impaired intestinal barrier allowing for bacterial translocation, potentially resulting in systemic inflammation and, in severe cases, sepsis. Chronic inflammation of this nature, in the case of inflammatory bowel disease, can even spur cancer growth in the longer-term. Recent research has indicated certain natural products with anti-inflammatory properties, such as curcumin, can help tame the inflammation involved in intestinal inflammatory diseases, thus improving intestinal barrier function, and potentially, clinical outcomes. In this review, we explore the potential therapeutic properties of curcumin on intestinal inflammatory diseases, including its antimicrobial and immunomodulatory properties, as well as its potential to alter the intestinal microbiome. Curcumin may play a significant role in intestinal inflammatory disease treatment in the future, particularly as an adjuvant therapy.


Assuntos
Colite Ulcerativa/tratamento farmacológico , Doença de Crohn/tratamento farmacológico , Curcumina/uso terapêutico , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Produtos Biológicos/uso terapêutico , Colite Ulcerativa/microbiologia , Colite Ulcerativa/fisiopatologia , Doença de Crohn/microbiologia , Doença de Crohn/fisiopatologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Humanos , Inflamação/microbiologia , Inflamação/fisiopatologia , Mucosa Intestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Mucosa Intestinal/microbiologia , Intestinos/efeitos dos fármacos , Intestinos/microbiologia , Intestinos/fisiopatologia
19.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(8)2019 Apr 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31003453

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) eradication therapy may improve gastric atrophy and intestinal metaplasia, but the results of previous studies have not always been consistent. The aim of this study was to compare the histological changes of intestinal metaplasia and gastric atrophy among the use of acid-suppressing drugs after H. pylori eradication. METHODS: A cohort of 242 patients who underwent successful eradication therapy for H. pylori gastritis and surveillance endoscopy examination from 1996 to 2015 was analyzed. Changes in the histological scores of intestinal metaplasia and atrophy according to drug use (proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs), H2 receptor antagonists (H2RAs), and non-acid suppressant use) were evaluated in biopsies of the antrum and corpus using a generalized linear mixed model in all patients. RESULTS: The mean follow-up period and number of biopsies were 5.48 ± 4.69 years and 2.62 ± 1.67 times, respectively. Improvement in the atrophy scores of both the antrum (p = 0.042) and corpus (p = 0.020) were significantly superior in patients with non-acid suppressant drug use compared with those of PPI and H2RA use. Metaplasia scores in both the antrum and corpus did not improve in all groups, and no significant differences were observed among groups in the antrum (p = 0.271) and corpus (p = 0.077). CONCLUSIONS: Prolonged acid suppression by PPIs or H2RAs may limit the recovery of gastric atrophy following H. pylori eradication.


Assuntos
Atrofia/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Helicobacter/tratamento farmacológico , Helicobacter pylori/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores da Bomba de Prótons/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Atrofia/microbiologia , Atrofia/fisiopatologia , Atrofia/prevenção & controle , Endoscopia , Feminino , Ácido Gástrico/metabolismo , Mucosa Gástrica/efeitos dos fármacos , Mucosa Gástrica/microbiologia , Mucosa Gástrica/fisiopatologia , Gastrite/tratamento farmacológico , Gastrite/microbiologia , Gastrite/fisiopatologia , Infecções por Helicobacter/microbiologia , Infecções por Helicobacter/fisiopatologia , Helicobacter pylori/metabolismo , Helicobacter pylori/patogenicidade , Humanos , Intestinos/efeitos dos fármacos , Intestinos/microbiologia , Intestinos/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Metaplasia/tratamento farmacológico , Metaplasia/microbiologia , Metaplasia/fisiopatologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
20.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(11): e14861, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30882686

RESUMO

The aim of the study was to observe the curative effect of long intestinal tube (LT) in the treatment of phytobezoar intestinal obstruction.We performed a retrospective study of patients with phytobezoar intestinal obstruction who underwent decompression with different tube insertion method. A total of 80 patients were collected and divided into nasogastric tube (NGT) group (n = 36) and LT group (n = 44) between August 2015 and August 2018 at our hospital. Univariate analysis was used to assess the clinical efficacy of 2 groups of patients.There were no significant differences in the mean age, sex ratio, and previous surgical history between the 2 groups. There were statistically significant differences between the 2 groups in terms of improvement time of clinical indications (4.2 ±â€Š1.4 vs 2.5 ±â€Š0.6 days; P = .008), liquid decompression amount on the first day of catheterization (870.4 ±â€Š400.8 vs 1738.4 ±â€Š460.2 mL; P = .000), transit operation rate (4/36 vs 0/44; P = .023), clinical cure rate (25/36 vs 40/44; P = .014), total treatment efficiency (32/36 vs 44/44; P = .023), and total hospitalization cost (3.25 ±â€Š0.39 vs 2.07 ±â€Š0.41 ¥ ten thousand; P = .000).The curative effect of LT in the treatment of phytobezoar intestinal obstruction is accurate and reliable, which can effectively improve the clinical symptoms of patients, comprehensively improve the non-surgical rate of intestinal obstruction treatment, reduce the total cost of hospitalization, and is worthy of promotion in clinical application.


Assuntos
Obstrução Intestinal/cirurgia , Intestinos/patologia , Idoso , Bezoares/complicações , Bezoares/fisiopatologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Descompressão Cirúrgica/métodos , Descompressão Cirúrgica/normas , Feminino , Humanos , Obstrução Intestinal/epidemiologia , Intestinos/fisiopatologia , Intubação Gastrointestinal/métodos , Intubação Gastrointestinal/normas , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
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