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1.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 1725, 2022 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35365634

RESUMO

Whipworms are large metazoan parasites that inhabit multi-intracellular epithelial tunnels in the large intestine of their hosts, causing chronic disease in humans and other mammals. How first-stage larvae invade host epithelia and establish infection remains unclear. Here we investigate early infection events using both Trichuris muris infections of mice and murine caecaloids, the first in-vitro system for whipworm infection and organoid model for live helminths. We show that larvae degrade mucus layers to access epithelial cells. In early syncytial tunnels, larvae are completely intracellular, woven through multiple live dividing cells. Using single-cell RNA sequencing of infected mouse caecum, we reveal that progression of infection results in cell damage and an expansion of enterocytes expressing of Isg15, potentially instigating the host immune response to the whipworm and tissue repair. Our results unravel intestinal epithelium invasion by whipworms and reveal specific host-parasite interactions that allow the whipworm to establish its multi-intracellular niche.


Assuntos
Helmintos , Tricuríase , Animais , Mucosa Intestinal , Intestinos/parasitologia , Mamíferos , Camundongos , Trichuris/fisiologia
2.
Dis Aquat Organ ; 148: 43-56, 2022 Feb 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35200158

RESUMO

As part of a study on parasitic infection in the African sharptooth catfish Clarias gariepinus, we found cysts of varying sizes in the stomach and intestine that contained myxospores with morphological features resembling those of the genus Henneguya. The present investigation was carried out with data on spore morphology and histopathology. Additionally, the myxozoan was identified using a molecular-based approach with 18S small subunit rDNA sequences. Based on the morphological characterization and tissue specificity of Myxozoa, 2 species of Henneguya were identified in the catfish stomach and intestine. Several histopathological changes were observed in the intestine which may affect fish performance and survival. The phylogenetic position of nucleotide sequences of the Henneguya species identified here were clustered with other fish-infecting Henneguya species. These sequences were deposited in GenBank. It appears that they potentially represent 2 species, denominated Henneguya sp. 1 and Henneguya sp. 2 according to the samples originating from the stomach and intestine, respectively. Although future investigations are needed for detailed morphological and molecular descriptions, this study documents the likely occurrence of infection with Henneguya noted for the first time, to our knowledge, in the digestive system of C. gariepinus in Egypt.


Assuntos
Peixes-Gato , Doenças dos Peixes , Myxozoa , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais , Animais , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Brânquias/parasitologia , Intestinos/parasitologia , Myxozoa/genética , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/parasitologia , Filogenia , Rios
3.
Parasit Vectors ; 15(1): 24, 2022 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35022078

RESUMO

Baylisascaris procyonis is a nematode parasite of the raccoon (Procyon lotor), and it can be responsible for a severe form of larva migrans in humans. This parasite has been reported from many countries all over the world, after translocation of its natural host outside its native geographic range, North America. In the period between January and August 2021, 21 raccoons were cage-trapped and euthanized in Tuscany (Central Italy), in the context of a plan aimed at eradicating a reproductive population of this non-native species. All the animals were submitted for necroscopic examination. Adult ascariids were found in the small intestine of seven raccoons (prevalence 33.3%). Parasites have been identified as B. procyonis based on both morphometric and molecular approaches. The aim of the present article is to report the first finding of this zoonotic parasite from Italy, highlighting the sanitary risks linked to the introduction of alien vertebrate species in new areas.


Assuntos
Infecções por Ascaridida/veterinária , Ascaridoidea/isolamento & purificação , Guaxinins/parasitologia , Zoonoses/parasitologia , Animais , Infecções por Ascaridida/epidemiologia , Infecções por Ascaridida/parasitologia , Feminino , Intestinos/parasitologia , Espécies Introduzidas , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Zoonoses/epidemiologia
4.
Parasitol Int ; 87: 102521, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34856387

RESUMO

We examined the effects of Eimeria pragensis infection on intestinal peristalsis, goblet cell proliferation and intestinal flora in C57BL/6 mice. Intestinal peristalsis was evaluated by radiography using barium at 7 days post-infection (p.i.). The intestinal peristalsis of E. pragensis-infected mice was significantly suppressed compared with uninfected control mice. Twenty-three mice were divided into 5 groups of 4 or 5 mice each; 2 groups of mice were infected with E. pragensis and the others were kept uninfected. At 7 days p.i., E. pragensis-infected and -uninfected mice were sacrificed to examine goblet cell numbers in the intestines, and significant decreases were observed only in the infected mice. Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O157:H7 was inoculated orally in mice both infected and uninfected with E. pragensis at 7 days p.i., with the remaining mice used as uninoculated controls. When mice were sacrificed at 2 days after STEC inoculation, STEC was only detected in the intestines of E. pragensis-infected mice. Colonization of STEC was also confirmed by immunohistochemistry on the surface of epithelial cells in concurrently infected/inoculated mice. Also, an overgrowth of residential E. coli was observed only in E. pragensis-infected mice. These results suggest that E. pragensis induces the suppression of intestinal peristalsis and modifies the intestinal environment to facilitate artificially introduced STEC colonization and multiplication, in addition to residential E. coli overgrowth.


Assuntos
Coccidiose/complicações , Eimeria/fisiologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/complicações , Intestinos/microbiologia , Intestinos/parasitologia , Escherichia coli Shiga Toxigênica/fisiologia , Animais , Infecções por Escherichia coli/microbiologia , Motilidade Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Escherichia coli Shiga Toxigênica/crescimento & desenvolvimento
5.
Trends Parasitol ; 38(2): 101-103, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34953724

RESUMO

Animal models for studying immune responses to Cryptosporidium, a parasite that causes gastrointestinal disease, have been a challenge due to the parasite's poor infectivity in mice. Russler-Germain et al. discovered a 'commensal' strain of Cryptosporidium, capable of stable infection and vertical transmission, that elicits a T helper type 1 (Th1) response to promote intestinal homeostasis.


Assuntos
Criptosporidiose , Cryptosporidium , Animais , Criptosporidiose/parasitologia , Células Dendríticas/imunologia , Homeostase , Intestinos/parasitologia , Camundongos
6.
Cytokine ; 149: 155701, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34741881

RESUMO

The severity of chronic schistosomiasis has been mainly associated with the intensity and extension of the inflammatory response induced by egg-secreted antigens in the host tissue, especially in the liver and intestine. During acute schistosomiasis, eosinophils account for approximately 50% of the cells that compose the liver granulomas; however, the role of this cell-type in the pathology of schistosomiasis remains controversial. In the current study, we compared the parasite burden and liver immunopathological changes during experimental schistosomiasis in wild-type (WT) BALB/c mice and BALB/c mice selectively deficient for the differentiation of eosinophils (ΔdblGATA). Our data demonstrated that the absence of eosinophil differentiation did not alter the S. mansoni load or the liver retention of parasite eggs; however, there were significant changes in the liver immune response profile and tissue damage. S. mansoni infection in ΔdblGATA mice resulted in significantly lower liver concentrations of IL-5, IL-13, IL-33, IL-17, IL-10, and TGF-ß and higher concentrations of IFN-γ and TNF-α, as compared to WT mice. The changes in liver immune response observed in infected ΔdblGATA mice were accompanied by lower collagen deposition, but higher liver damage and larger granulomas. Moreover, the absence of eosinophils resulted in a higher mortality rate in mice infected with a high parasite load. Therefore, the data indicated that eosinophils participate in the establishment and/or amplification of liver Th-2 and regulatory response induced by S. mansoni, which is necessary for the balance between liver damage and fibrosis, which in turn is essential for modulating disease severity.


Assuntos
Eosinófilos/imunologia , Imunidade/imunologia , Hepatopatias/imunologia , Fígado/imunologia , Doenças Negligenciadas/imunologia , Esquistossomose mansoni/imunologia , Animais , Citocinas/imunologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Eosinófilos/parasitologia , Feminino , Fibrose/imunologia , Fibrose/parasitologia , Granuloma/imunologia , Granuloma/parasitologia , Intestinos/imunologia , Intestinos/parasitologia , Fígado/parasitologia , Hepatopatias/parasitologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Doenças Negligenciadas/parasitologia
7.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 23884, 2021 12 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34903840

RESUMO

Chagas disease is a neglected tropical disease caused by Trypanosoma cruzi parasite with an estimated 70 million people at risk. Traditionally, parasite presence in triatomine vectors is detected through optical microscopy which can be low in sensitivity or molecular techniques which can be costly in endemic countries. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of a reagent-free technique, the Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) for rapid and non-invasive detection of T. cruzi in Triatoma infestans body parts and in wet/dry excreta samples of the insect. NIRS was 100% accurate for predicting the presence of T. cruzi infection Dm28c strain (TcI) in either the midgut or the rectum and models developed from either body part could predict infection in the other part. Models developed to predict infection in excreta samples were 100% accurate for predicting infection in both wet and dry samples. However, models developed using dry excreta could not predict infection in wet samples and vice versa. This is the first study to report on the potential application of NIRS for rapid and non-invasive detection of T. cruzi infection in T. infestans in the laboratory. Future work should demonstrate the capacity of NIRS to detect T. cruzi in triatomines originating from the field.


Assuntos
Insetos Vetores/parasitologia , Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho/métodos , Triatoma/parasitologia , Trypanosoma cruzi/patogenicidade , Animais , Fezes/parasitologia , Intestinos/parasitologia , Limite de Detecção , Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho/normas , Trypanosoma cruzi/isolamento & purificação
8.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 6729, 2021 11 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34795270

RESUMO

Supplementation with micronutrients, including vitamins, iron and zinc, is a key strategy to alleviate child malnutrition. However, association of gastrointestinal disorders with iron has led to ongoing debate over their administration. To better understand their impact on gut microbiota, we analyse the bacterial, protozoal, fungal and helminth communities of stool samples collected from a subset of 80 children at 12 and 24 months of age, previously enrolled into a large cluster randomized controlled trial of micronutrient supplementation in Pakistan (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT00705445). We show that while bacterial diversity is reduced in supplemented children, vitamins and iron (as well as residence in a rural setting) may promote colonization with distinct protozoa and mucormycetes, whereas the addition of zinc appears to ameliorate this effect. We suggest that the risks and benefits of micronutrient interventions may depend on eukaryotic communities, potentially exacerbated by exposure to a rural setting. Larger studies are needed to evaluate the clinical significance of these findings and their impact on health outcomes.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais , Intestinos/efeitos dos fármacos , Micronutrientes/administração & dosagem , Micobioma/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/genética , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Fungos/classificação , Fungos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fungos/genética , Humanos , Lactente , Intestinos/microbiologia , Intestinos/parasitologia , Ferro/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Micobioma/genética , Parasitos/classificação , Parasitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Parasitos/genética , Filogenia , Estudos Prospectivos , Vitaminas/administração & dosagem , Zinco/administração & dosagem
9.
Nature ; 599(7883): 125-130, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34671159

RESUMO

Tissue maintenance and repair depend on the integrated activity of multiple cell types1. Whereas the contributions of epithelial2,3, immune4,5 and stromal cells6,7 in intestinal tissue integrity are well understood, the role of intrinsic neuroglia networks remains largely unknown. Here we uncover important roles of enteric glial cells (EGCs) in intestinal homeostasis, immunity and tissue repair. We demonstrate that infection of mice with Heligmosomoides polygyrus leads to enteric gliosis and the upregulation of an interferon gamma (IFNγ) gene signature. IFNγ-dependent gene modules were also induced in EGCs from patients with inflammatory bowel disease8. Single-cell transcriptomics analysis of the tunica muscularis showed that glia-specific abrogation of IFNγ signalling leads to tissue-wide activation of pro-inflammatory transcriptional programs. Furthermore, disruption of the IFNγ-EGC signalling axis enhanced the inflammatory and granulomatous response of the tunica muscularis to helminths. Mechanistically, we show that the upregulation of Cxcl10 is an early immediate response of EGCs to IFNγ signalling and provide evidence that this chemokine and the downstream amplification of IFNγ signalling in the tunica muscularis are required for a measured inflammatory response to helminths and resolution of the granulomatous pathology. Our study demonstrates that IFNγ signalling in enteric glia is central to intestinal homeostasis and reveals critical roles of the IFNγ-EGC-CXCL10 axis in immune response and tissue repair after infectious challenge.


Assuntos
Homeostase , Intestinos/imunologia , Intestinos/fisiologia , Neuroglia/imunologia , Neuroglia/fisiologia , Regeneração , Túnica Adventícia/imunologia , Túnica Adventícia/parasitologia , Animais , Quimiocina CXCL10/imunologia , Duodeno/imunologia , Duodeno/parasitologia , Duodeno/patologia , Duodeno/fisiologia , Feminino , Gliose , Homeostase/imunologia , Humanos , Inflamação/imunologia , Inflamação/patologia , Interferon gama/imunologia , Intestinos/parasitologia , Intestinos/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Nematospiroides dubius/imunologia , Nematospiroides dubius/patogenicidade , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia , Infecções por Strongylida/imunologia , Infecções por Strongylida/parasitologia , Infecções por Strongylida/patologia
10.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 15(10): e0009866, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34644290

RESUMO

Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are protein-loaded nano-scaled particles that are extracellularly released by eukaryotes and prokaryotes. Parasite's EVs manipulate the immune system, making them probable next-generation vaccines. Schistosomal EVs carry different proteins of promising immunizing potentials. For evaluating the immune-protective role of Schistosoma mansoni (S. mansoni) egg-derived EVs against murine schistosomiasis, EVs were isolated from cultured S. mansoni eggs by progressive sequential cooling ultra-centrifugation technique. Isolated EVs were structurally identified using transmission electron microscope and their protein was quantified by Lowry's technique. Experimental mice were subcutaneously immunized with three doses of 20 µg EVs (with or without alum adjuvant); every two weeks, then were challenged with S. mansoni cercariae two weeks after the last immunizing dose. Six weeks post infection, mice were sacrificed for vaccine candidate assessment. EVs protective efficacy was evaluated through parasitological, histopathological, and immunological parameters. Results showed significant reduction of tegumentally deranged adult worms, hepatic and intestinal egg counts reduction by 46.58%, 93.14% and 93.17% respectively, accompanied by remarkable amelioration of sizes, numbers and histopathology of hepatic granulomata mediated by high interferon gamma (IFN γ) and antibody level. Using sera from vaccinated mice, the molecular weight of EVs' protein components targeted by the antibody produced was recognized by western immunoblot. Results revealed two bands of ~ 14 KDa and ~ 21 KDa, proving that EVs are able to stimulate specific antibodies response. In conclusion, the present study highlighted the role of S. mansoni-egg derived EVs as a potential vaccine candidate against murine schistosomiasis mansoni.


Assuntos
Vesículas Extracelulares/imunologia , Óvulo/imunologia , Schistosoma mansoni/imunologia , Vacinas/imunologia , Animais , Anticorpos Anti-Helmínticos/imunologia , Vesículas Extracelulares/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Imunização , Intestinos/imunologia , Intestinos/parasitologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas , Schistosoma mansoni/genética , Esquistossomose mansoni/imunologia , Esquistossomose mansoni/parasitologia , Esquistossomose mansoni/prevenção & controle , Vacinas/administração & dosagem
11.
J Invertebr Pathol ; 186: 107665, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34520799

RESUMO

Penaeus vannamei is the most economically important species of shrimp cultured worldwide. Enterocytozoon hepatopenaei (EHP) is an emerging pathogen that severely affects the growth and development of shrimps. In this study, the transcriptome differences between EHP-infected and uninfected shrimp were investigated through next-generation sequencing. The unigenes were assembled with the reads from all the four libraries. The differentially expressed genes (DEGs) of intestines and hepatopancreas were analyzed. There were 2,884 DEGs in the intestines and 2,096 DEGs in the hepatopancreas. The GO and KEGG enrichment analysis indicated that DEGs were significantly enriched in signaling pathways associated with nutritional energy metabolism and mobilizing autoimmunity. Moreover, the results suggested the downregulation of key genes in energy synthesis pathways contributed greatly to shrimp growth retardation; the upregulation of immune-related genes enhanced the resistance of shrimp against EHP infection. This study provided identified genes and pathways associated with EHP infection revealing the molecular mechanisms of growth retardation.


Assuntos
Enterocytozoon/fisiologia , Penaeidae/genética , Transcriptoma , Animais , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Hepatopâncreas/parasitologia , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Intestinos/parasitologia , Penaeidae/parasitologia
12.
Vet Immunol Immunopathol ; 240: 110321, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34520968

RESUMO

The major clinical signs of coccidiosis in chickens due to Eimeria parasite are diarrhea and bloody feces. Previous studies showed that the impairment of the intestinal epithelial barrier and the elevation of the intestinal permeability are causes of clinical signs associated with coccidia challenges. Nevertheless, the information about molecular changes of the epithelial barrier at the early stage of the infection with a specific Eimeria species has not been mentioned. Hence, this study aims to elucidate the temporal relationships between epithelial barrier conditions and clinical signs in chickens infected with Eimeria tenella over the time from the earliest stages of infection. White Leghorn chickens were inoculated with 1 × 104 oocysts of E. tenella. Thereafter the chickens were monitored for their daily clinical signs through observation, and between 5 dpi to 10 dpi, feces were collected for oocysts counting. Chickens were then administrated with fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran (FITC-d) for gastrointestinal permeability test and tissues were collected each day for histopathological observation and total RNA extraction. Finally, the mRNA expression levels of the tight and adherens junction genes and cytokine genes were evaluated using the quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). In this study, clinical signs such as diarrhea and bloody feces were observed concurrently from 3 to 8 dpi. Histopathology changes such as severe inflammation, hemorrhage, and epithelial desquamation were identified in the cecum specimens. The FITC-d level in the E. tenella-infected group was significantly higher than in the control group. In the infected group, the expression of claudin-2 gene was also upregulated, whereas the expressions of claudin-3 and E-cadherin genes were decreased as compared to the control group. These results implied that clinical signs of avian coccidiosis were associated with the intestinal barrier disruption via changes in expression levels of claudins and E-cadherin at the intestine.


Assuntos
Coccidiose , Eimeria tenella , Intestinos/fisiopatologia , Animais , Caderinas , Galinhas , Coccidiose/veterinária , Diarreia/veterinária , Fluoresceína-5-Isotiocianato , Intestinos/parasitologia
14.
Folia Parasitol (Praha) ; 682021 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34232126

RESUMO

Myxobolus allami sp. n. is described from the intestinal wall of the silvery black porgy, Sparidentex hasta (Valenciennes), off Saudi Arabian coast of Arabian Gulf. Two of 20 examined fish were found to be infected with irregular-shaped plasmodia 3-8 mm long × 2-3 mm wide. Mature myxospores are subspherical to elliptical in the valvular view and oval in the sutural view, and are 11-13 (12) µm long, 7-8 (7.5) µm wide and 10-12 (10.8) µm thick. Spores have relatively thin valves and mostly (~ 72%) end with short caudal appendages of ~3 µm long. The spores also have two polar capsules, which are oval to elliptical and measure 5-7 (5.7) µm in length and 2-3 (2.7) µm in width. Polar filaments are coiled, with three turns. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that caudal appendages originated from the sutural edge at the posterior pole of the myxospore with density similar to that of its valves. The SSU rRNAgene sequence of the present species does not match any available sequences in GenBank. Phylogenetically, this species is sister to Myxobolus khaliji Zhang, Al-Qurausihy et Abdel-Baki, 2014 within a well-supported clade of Myxobolus-Henneguya with species infecting marine fishes. The combination of molecular data and morphological differences between this and other species of Myxobolus Bütschli, 1882 lead us to propose that the present form be established as a new species, M. allami. The present study also provides more evidence for the idea that caudal appendages cannot be reliably used to distinguish the species of the genera Myxobolus and Henneguya Thélohan, 1892.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Intestinos/parasitologia , Myxobolus/classificação , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/parasitologia , Perciformes , Animais , Intestinos/patologia , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão/veterinária , Myxobolus/anatomia & histologia , Myxobolus/genética , Myxobolus/ultraestrutura , Filogenia , Arábia Saudita
15.
J Parasitol ; 107(3): 431-445, 2021 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34077518

RESUMO

Herein we describe a new species and propose a new genus, Posthovitellinum psiloterminae n. gen., n. sp. (Lissorchiidae: Asymphylodorinae), based on specimens that infect the intestine of Cyclocheilos enoplos (Bleeker, 1849) (Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae), a migratory riverine carp from the Mekong River (Dong Thap province, Vietnam). The new species is assigned to Lissorchiidae by having a combination of features: spinous tegument, subterminal oral sucker, pre-equatorial ventral sucker, median and pretesticular ovary, submarginal genital pore at level of the ventral sucker, follicular vitellarium distributing in 2 lateral fields, and lacking eyespot pigment in the adult. It cannot be assigned to any existing asymphylodorine genus because it has the combination of a well-developed cirrus-sac, an unarmed ejaculatory duct and metraterm, a follicular vitellarium distributing in 2 lateral fields located between the posterior margin of the ventral sucker and the mid-level of the testis, and a sinistral, submarginal genital pore. The new species has an elongate, claviform cirrus-sac, a single, large, elongate-oval testis at the posterior extremity of the body, operculate eggs, and an I-shaped excretory bladder with secondary branches at the level of the testis and extending anteriad to the level of the pharynx. Bayesian inference analysis of the partial large subunit ribosomal DNA gene (28S rDNA) recovered the new species sister to Asaccotrema vietnamienseSokolov and Gordeev, 2019; these species differed by 118 nucleotides (12%; 983 bp fragment). This is the first lissorchiid reported from the Mekong River; only the second from southern Vietnam; and the fourth reported from a cyprinid fish in Vietnam. The aforementioned phylogenetic analysis included previously unpublished sequences representing lissorchiids infecting the intestine of North American suckers (Cypriniformes: Catostomidae): Lissorchis cf. nelsoni from spotted sucker; Minytrema melanops (Rafinesque, 1820) and Lissorchis cf. gullaris (immature) from smallmouth buffalo, Ictiobus bubalus (Rafinesque, 1818). Asymphylodora atherinopsidisAnnereaux, 1947, herein is treated as a species incertae sedis. The 28S tree topology suggests that Lissorchiinae may comprise more than 1 lineage, but additional species are needed to confidently assert this.


Assuntos
Cyprinidae/parasitologia , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/veterinária , Trematódeos/classificação , Infecções por Trematódeos/veterinária , Migração Animal , Animais , Cyprinidae/fisiologia , DNA Ribossômico/química , Enteropatias Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/parasitologia , Intestinos/parasitologia , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 28S/genética , Rios/parasitologia , Alinhamento de Sequência/veterinária , Trematódeos/anatomia & histologia , Trematódeos/genética , Trematódeos/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Trematódeos/epidemiologia , Infecções por Trematódeos/parasitologia , Vietnã/epidemiologia
16.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 3371, 2021 06 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34099671

RESUMO

The role of p53 in tumor suppression has been extensively studied and well-established. However, the role of p53 in parasitic infections and the intestinal type 2 immunity is unclear. Here, we report that p53 is crucial for intestinal type 2 immunity in response to the infection of parasites, such as Tritrichomonas muris and Nippostrongylus brasiliensis. Mechanistically, p53 plays a critical role in the activation of the tuft cell-IL-25-type 2 innate lymphoid cell circuit, partly via transcriptional regulation of Lrmp in tuft cells. Lrmp modulates Ca2+ influx and IL-25 release, which are critical triggers of type 2 innate lymphoid cell response. Our results thus reveal a previously unrecognized function of p53 in regulating intestinal type 2 immunity to protect against parasitic infections, highlighting the role of p53 as a guardian of immune integrity.


Assuntos
Imunidade Inata/imunologia , Intestinos/imunologia , Nippostrongylus/imunologia , Doenças Parasitárias/imunologia , Tritrichomonas/imunologia , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/imunologia , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Eosinófilos/imunologia , Eosinófilos/parasitologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Células Caliciformes/imunologia , Células Caliciformes/parasitologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita/imunologia , Humanos , Intestino Delgado/imunologia , Intestino Delgado/metabolismo , Intestino Delgado/parasitologia , Intestinos/parasitologia , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/imunologia , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Nippostrongylus/fisiologia , Doenças Parasitárias/metabolismo , Doenças Parasitárias/parasitologia , Tritrichomonas/fisiologia , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/metabolismo
17.
Parasitol Res ; 120(7): 2505-2521, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34170388

RESUMO

The present paper describes Filisoma argusum n. sp. (Cavisomatidae), an acanthocephalan parasite infecting the intestine of the spotted scat, Scatophagus argus (Linnaeus, 1766), in the south-west coast of India. The prevalence is 18% (mean intensity: 1.61 and abundance: 1-4 worms/host). Filisoma argusum n. sp. is morphologically characterized by a creamy-white, cylindrical, elongate, aspinose, and robust trunk; a collar-like neck; and a cylindrical proboscis with 18-20 longitudinal rows of hooks, with 19-22 hooks/row. Proboscis receptacle long, double-walled. Lemnisci digitiform, equal, longer than proboscis receptacle. Females 79.14 ± 33.69 × 0.593 ± 0.19 mm; males 32.62 ± 2.98 × 0.46 ± 0.071 mm. Males with four cement glands; bulbous muscular copulatory bursa with six digitiform rays. SEM studies revealed smooth hooks, sensory pits, and epidermal micropores. Histopathological changes at the site of parasite attachment included inflammation, hemorrhage, sloughing of epithelium, and detachment of mucosal layer of the intestine. In molecular and phylogenetic analyses, the parasite occupied an independent position within the Cavisomatidae clade with high bootstrap values for both ITS1-5.8S and ITS2, and mt-CO1 regions. Considering the morphologic and morphometric differences with previously described species of Filisoma along with its phylogenetic positioning, the present acanthocephalan is treated as a new species and the name Filisoma argusum n. sp. is proposed.


Assuntos
Acantocéfalos/classificação , Peixes/parasitologia , Acantocéfalos/anatomia & histologia , Acantocéfalos/genética , Animais , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Feminino , Doenças dos Peixes/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Helmintíase Animal/epidemiologia , Helmintíase Animal/parasitologia , Índia , Intestinos/parasitologia , Masculino , Filogenia , Especificidade da Espécie
18.
Biochimie ; 189: 108-119, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34186126

RESUMO

Human gut is in permanent contact with microorganisms that play an important role in many physiological processes including metabolism and immunologic activity. These microorganisms communicate and manage themself by the quorum sensing system (QS) that helps to coordinate optimal growth and subsistence by activating signaling pathways that regulate bacterial gene expression. Diverse QS molecules produced by pathogenic as well as resident microbiota have been found throughout the human gut. However, even a host can by affected by these molecules. Intestinal and immune cells possess a range of molecular targets for QS. Our present knowledge on bacteria-cell communication encompasses G-protein-coupled receptors, nuclear receptors and receptors for bacterial cell-wall components. The QS of commensal bacteria has been approved as a protective factor with favourable effects on intestinal homeostasis and immunity. Signaling molecules of QS interacting with above-mentioned receptors thus parcipitate on maintaining of barrier functions, control of inflammation processes and increase of resistance to pathogen colonization in host organisms. Pathogens QS molecules can have a dual function. Host cells are able to detect the ongoing infection by monitoring the presence and changes in concentrations of QS molecules. Such information can help to set the most effective immune defence to prevent or overcome the infection. Contrary, pathogens QS signals can target the host receptors to deceive the immune system to get the best conditions for growth. However, our knowledge about communication mediated by QS is still limited and detailed understanding of molecular mechanisms of QS signaling is desired.


Assuntos
Bactérias/metabolismo , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Intestinos/parasitologia , Percepção de Quorum , Transdução de Sinais , Humanos
19.
Exp Parasitol ; 226-227: 108124, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34139241

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is a necessity to develop or discover an alternative drug to combat the drug resistance by Giardia duodenalis and minimize the multiple doses and frequency of the conventional drug administration. Progressive repositioning or 'repurposing' of drugs has become widespread due to economic circumstances and medical emergency needs. Daflon 500 mg (DFL) is a natural product used safely as a nutrient supplement and an antidiabetic drug in many European countries and the US. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed at investigating the efficiency of DFL, in vivo, in a murine model as a safe alternative or co-drug for giardiasis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Swiss Albino mice (n = 32) were inoculated with 1X104Giardia cysts and assigned to four groups: One group was the infected non-treated control mice and three experimental groups that were treated differently, either with Metronidazole (MTZ), DFL, or combined therapy of DFL/MTZ. Also, eight normal mice served as a control group. All mice were sacrificed 13 days post-infection for the parasitic, histopathological, and oxidative stress analysis. RESULTS: MTZ, DFL, and the combined therapy significantly reduced the number of trophozoites and cysts compared to their counterparts of the infected mice. The histopathological analysis of the small intestines of the mice treated with the combined therapy retained typical intestinal architecture and normal levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione. CONCLUSION: This study indicated promising actions of Daflon 500 as an anti-giardial drug, and the results demonstrated its potential effect in improving the intestinal epithelial tissue and disturbing the Giardia stages when it was taken collectively with Metronidazole.


Assuntos
Antiprotozoários/uso terapêutico , Diosmina/uso terapêutico , Giardíase/tratamento farmacológico , Metronidazol/uso terapêutico , Animais , Antiprotozoários/farmacologia , Diosmina/farmacologia , Combinação de Medicamentos , Fezes/parasitologia , Humanos , Intestinos/parasitologia , Intestinos/patologia , Metronidazol/farmacologia , Camundongos , Trofozoítos/efeitos dos fármacos
20.
J Fish Dis ; 44(9): 1475-1479, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34181270

RESUMO

Enteromyxum leei is a causative agent of enteromyxosis, with a wide range of marine fish hosts. Recently, massive morbidity and mortality were caused by E. leei infection in cultured olive flounders in Korea. To reveal a relationship between E. leei abundance in culture water and the occurrence of parasite infection in host fish, we used a quantitative PCR assay targeting the 28S rDNA of E. leei in three fish farms (two where enteromyxosis had occurred and one where it did not) from April to November 2018. The gene of E. leei was detected at levels greater than 10 cells/L in the culture water where enteromyxosis occurred from July to September. Furthermore, 2 months after the detection in the water, the parasite gene (with more than 5,000 cells per 100 mg) was detected in fish intestine samples. However, in the fish farms where enteromyxosis had not occurred, the E. leei gene was detected at <10 cells in culture water (1 L) and fish intestine samples (100 mg). The quantification method used in this research provides a baseline of the infection timeline in olive flounder to develop effective management practices.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Myxozoa/fisiologia , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais , Água/parasitologia , Animais , DNA Ribossômico , Pesqueiros , Linguado , Intestinos/parasitologia , Myxozoa/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , República da Coreia
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