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1.
J Chem Ecol ; 45(11-12): 901-913, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31773376

RESUMO

Trail pheromones deposited by ants lead nestmates to food sources. Based on previous evidence that the trail pheromone of the carpenter ant Camponotus modoc originates from the hindgut, our objective in this study was to identify the key component(s) of the pheromone. We collected C. modoc colonies from conifer forests and maintained them in an outdoor enclosure near our laboratory for chemical analyses and behavioral experiments. In gas chromatographic-electroantennographic detection and gas chromatography-mass spectrometric analyses of worker ant hindgut extracts, we identified five candidate components: 2,4-dimethylhexanoic acid, 2,4-dimethyl-5-hexanolide, pentadecane, dodecanoic acid and 3,4-dihydro-8-hydroxy-3,5,7-trimethylisocoumarin. In a series of trail-following experiments, ants followed trails of synthetic 2,4-dimethyl-5-hexanolide, a blend of the five compounds, and hindgut extract over similar distances, indicating that the hexanolide accounted for the entire behavioral activity of the hindgut extract. The hexanolide not only mediated orientation of C. modoc foragers on trails, it also attracted them over distance, indicating a dual function. Further analyses and bioassays with racemic and stereoselectively synthesized hexanolides revealed that the ants produce, and respond to, the (2S,4R,5S)-stereoisomer. The same stereoisomer is a trail pheromone component in several Camponotus congeners, indicating significant overlap in their respective trail pheromone communication systems.


Assuntos
Misturas Complexas/análise , Feromônios/análise , Alcanos/análise , Animais , Formigas , Comportamento Animal , Técnicas Biossensoriais/métodos , Caproatos/análise , Cumarínicos/análise , Glândulas Exócrinas/metabolismo , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Intestinos/química , Ácidos Láuricos/análise , Estereoisomerismo
2.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 55(9)2019 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31480453

RESUMO

Background and Objectives: The morphopathogenesis of adhesions is a complex process, characterized by the accumulation of an extracellular matrix, inflammation and hypoxia. The regulatory role between morphopathogenic factors in adhesions has not yet been defined. The aim was to investigate the appearance of transforming growth factor beta (TGFß), hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2), fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), protein gene product 9.5 (PGP 9.5), chromogranin A (CgA), interleukin-1 alpha (IL-1α), interleukin-4 (IL-4), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-7 (IL-7), interleukin-8 (IL-8), interleukin-10 (IL-10), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), human beta defensine-2 (HBD-2), matrix metaloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and matrix metaloproteinase-2 tissue inhibitor (TIMP-2) in intraabdominal adhesions. Materials and Methods: The study material was obtained from 49 patients under one year of age with total or partial bowel obstruction. All factors were detected using immunohistochemistry methods and their relative distribution was evaluated by means of the semiquantitative counting method. Results: Intraabdominal adhesions are characterized by increased TGFß, FGFR1, VEGF and decreased FGF-2, HGF, PGP 9.5, IL-1, IL-4, IL-8, TIMP-2 findings. The most significant changes observed were the remodulation of the extracellular matrix, promotion of neoangiogenesis and the maintenance of a prolonged inflammation. Conclusions: The increase in TGFß, relative to the decrease of HGF, as well as the disbalance between MMP-2 and TIMP-2 proves an increased fibrosis in intraabdominal adhesions. Less detected FGF-2 and more prominent FGR1 findings points out a compensatory receptor stimulation in response to the lacking same factor. The decrease in PGP 9.5 and the increase in VEGF-positive macrophages indicate hypoxic injury and proves the stimulation of neoangiogenesis. An unpronounced IL-1 and marked IL-10 finding indicate the local tissue protection reaction, the decrease in IL-4 could be the direct cause of giant cells, but the decrease of IL-8 could confirm a delayed chemotaxis of inflammatory cells.


Assuntos
Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intercelular/fisiologia , Obstrução Intestinal/patologia , Aderências Teciduais/patologia , Humanos , Lactente , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intercelular/análise , Obstrução Intestinal/etiologia , Intestinos/química , Intestinos/patologia , Aderências Teciduais/etiologia
3.
Bull Environ Contam Toxicol ; 103(5): 670-675, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31471657

RESUMO

Here we evaluate the potential of heavy metal accumulation of Proteocephalus macrophallus parasitizing the Butterfly Peacock Bass (Cichla ocellaris). A total of 19 fish specimens were collected. From the hosts, samples of intestine, liver, muscle, and parasites were taken. Heavy metal concentrations (Al, As, Ba, Cd, Cr, Fe, Hg, Mg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Ti, and Zn) were obtained using Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. All analyzed elements was found in higher concentrations in the parasites comparing to its host tissues. The bioconcentration factors were higher in the intestine, varying between 5.91 (Ti) to 8.00 (Ba), followed by the muscle, 1.88 (Mg) to 6.39 (Zn), and liver, 1.67 (Al) to 2.02 (Ba). These results show that at the infection site heavy metal concentrations are reduced, since the elements are absorbed directly from the intestinal wall by the parasites. In general, P. macrophallus presents a reasonable capacity of metal accumulation comparing to its hosts.


Assuntos
Cestoides/metabolismo , Ciclídeos/parasitologia , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Intestinos/química , Metais Pesados/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Animais , Brasil , Cestoides/isolamento & purificação , Alimentos Marinhos/análise
4.
J Am Soc Mass Spectrom ; 30(10): 2041-2050, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31385259

RESUMO

This paper reports matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry imaging to investigate systematic effects of a lentil extract treatment to lower cholesterol levels. For this purpose, mass spectrometry imaging was used to spatially investigate modifications in the lipid composition and cholesterol levels in the brain, liver, and intestines as well as bile acids in the liver and intestine of rats treated with lentil extract. Neither the lipid composition nor cholesterol levels in the brain samples were found to be significantly different between the treated and not-treated animal groups. The hypercholesterolemic livers showed signs of steatosis (lipid marker PG 36:4), but no modifications in bile acid, cholesterol, and lipid composition. We found significant differences (AUC > 0.75) in the intestines regarding bile acid and lipid composition after treatment with the lentil extract. The treated rats showed a decreased reabsorption (increased excretion) of ursodeoxycholic acid, deoxycholic acid, and chenodeoxycholic acid and an increased deconjugation of taurine-conjugated bile acids (taurochenodeoxycholic acid, taurodeoxycholic acid, taurocholic acid, and 3-keto-taurocholic acid). This indicates that the lentil extract lowers the total cholesterol level in two synergic ways: (i) it increases the excretion of bile acids; hence, new bile acids are produced in the liver from serum cholesterol and (ii) the prebiotic effect leads to free taurine which upregulates the de novo synthesis of bile acid from cholesterol while activating LDL receptors. We demonstrate here that mass spectrometry imaging is a valuable tool for a better understanding of the effects of treatments such as for the synergistic cholesterol-lowering effect of the lentil extract.


Assuntos
Anticolesterolemiantes/farmacologia , Ácidos e Sais Biliares/análise , Lipídeos/análise , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz/métodos , Animais , Ácidos e Sais Biliares/química , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Química Encefálica/efeitos dos fármacos , Colesterol/análise , Colesterol/química , Intestinos/química , Intestinos/diagnóstico por imagem , Intestinos/efeitos dos fármacos , Lens (Planta) , Lipídeos/química , Fígado/química , Fígado/diagnóstico por imagem , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Imagem Molecular , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
5.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 146: 349-354, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31426167

RESUMO

Between 2012 and 2015, 13 grey seals were recovered from trammel nets targeting monkfish and rays off the south coast of Ireland. Incidence and distribution of microplastics were investigated along the intestines of bycaught seals. No macrodebris items were found, whereas microplastics were detected in all seals. A total of 363 microplastics items were identified (85% fibers, 14% fragments, 1% films). Estimation of microplastic ingestion based on prey ingestion (245 particles) was lower than the observed data. Acantocephala parasites (n = 1543) were found in 12 seals, with an average of 74.5 ±â€¯67.7 parasites per seal. Distribution of microplastics varied between seals, although microplastics tended to accumulate in areas where more parasites were aggregated; however, there was no significant relationship between the number of parasites and microplastics was found. Seals recovered from nets appear to be a good source to monitor the incidence of microplastic pollution within the coastal food webs.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Intestinos , Plásticos/análise , Focas Verdadeiras , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Animais , Cadeia Alimentar , Conteúdo Gastrointestinal/química , Conteúdo Gastrointestinal/parasitologia , Intestinos/química , Intestinos/parasitologia , Irlanda , Parasitos/isolamento & purificação
6.
J Appl Microbiol ; 127(4): 996-1003, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31287945

RESUMO

AIMS: This study aimed to evaluate the impact of immunoglobulin Y (IgY) in a diet on the systemic health and the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of dogs. METHODS AND RESULTS: Sixteen healthy 11-month-old Beagle dogs were distributed at random (eight animals per treatment) in two treatments groups: control (0 g kg-1 IgY) and test (2 g IgY per day). The animals were evaluated on days 0 and 40 for a complete blood count (CBC) and biochemical profiles (ALT, ALP, creatinine and urea). Faecal samples were collected from days 35 to 40 to measure nutrient digestibility, faecal characteristics, sialic acid, intestinal microbiota composition and microbial metabolites. The CBC, biochemical profiles, apparent nutrient digestibility and faecal characteristics did not differ between the two treatment groups (P > 0·05). Dog faeces that received IgY were characterized by lower sialic acid and n-valeric concentration, as well as an increase in n-butyric concentration, in contrast to dogs fed a diet without IgY (P < 0·05). The other microbial faecal metabolites did not differ between the two treatment groups (P > 0·05). There tended to be an increase in the copy number of Clostridium cluster XIVa (Clostridium coccoides group) in the IgY group in contrast to the control group (P = 0·07). The other bacteria analysed did not differ between the treatment groups (P > 0·05). The colonic pH in the IgY group was lower than in control group (P < 0·05). CONCLUSIONS: The addition of IgY in the diet of healthy dogs maintains the microbial balance and has an interesting effect on microbial metabolites. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: The use of IgY, antibodies produced by laying hens, in animal feed is an alternative for the prevention and treatment of intestinal diseases in companion animals.


Assuntos
Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais , Cães , Fermentação/efeitos dos fármacos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Imunoglobulinas/farmacologia , Intestinos/microbiologia , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Fezes/química , Fezes/microbiologia , Imunoglobulinas/administração & dosagem , Intestinos/química , Distribuição Aleatória
7.
Food Chem ; 298: 125011, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31261011

RESUMO

A scallop midgut gland certified reference material, NMIJ CRM 7520-a, was developed for validation and quality assurance during the inspection of shellfish for diarrhetic shellfish toxins. The candidate material was prepared by using naturally-toxic and nontoxic boiled midgut glands spiked with okadaic acid (OA). The homogeneity and stability of the material were found to be appropriate. For the characterization of OA and dinophysistoxin-1 (DTX1), nine participants were involved in a co-laboratory study based on the Japanese Official Testing Method, where the compounds were assayed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry following alkaline hydrolysis. The analytical values were obtained by the standard addition method with a standard spiking solution calibrated using the standard-solution certified reference materials OA and DTX1. The certified concentrations with expanded uncertainties (coverage factor k = 2, approximate 95% confidence interval) were determined to be (0.205 ±â€¯0.061) mg/kg for OA and (0.45 ±â€¯0.11) mg/kg for DTX1.


Assuntos
Diarreia/complicações , Toxinas Marinhas/análise , Pectinidae/química , Piranos/análise , Frutos do Mar/análise , Animais , Calibragem , Cromatografia Líquida , Humanos , Intestinos/química , Toxinas Marinhas/normas , Toxinas Marinhas/toxicidade , Ácido Okadáico/análise , Piranos/normas , Piranos/toxicidade , Padrões de Referência , Intoxicação por Frutos do Mar/complicações , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
8.
J Vet Med Sci ; 81(9): 1249-1258, 2019 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31341112

RESUMO

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a common gastrointestinal disease in dogs. Decreased production of intestinal immunoglobulin A (IgA) has been suggested as a possible pathogenesis in a subset of canine IBD; however, the underlying cause remains unclear. Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is a lipid mediator that regulates intestinal IgA production by controlling lymphocyte trafficking in mice. The objectives of this study were to clarify the role of S1P in IgA production in dogs and to evaluate the expression of S1P-related molecules in dogs with IBD. First, an S1P receptor antagonist was administrated to five healthy dogs. The S1P receptor antagonist significantly decreased the IgA concentration in sera and feces but did not affect the IgG concentration. Moreover, the immunoreactivity of intestinal IgA was significantly decreased by S1P signal blockade. These results indicate that S1P signaling specifically regulates the intestinal IgA production in dogs. Subsequently, the intestinal S1P concentration and the expression of S1P-related molecules were measured in dogs with IBD and healthy dogs. The intestinal concentration of S1P was significantly lower in dogs with IBD than in healthy dogs. In addition, the gene expression levels of S1P receptor (S1P1) and S1P synthase (SK1) were significantly lower in dogs with IBD than in healthy dogs. Taken together, these observations suggest that decreased S1P production, likely caused by a lower expression of S1P synthetase, leads to attenuation of S1P/S1P1 signaling pathway and the production of intestinal IgA in dogs with IBD.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/metabolismo , Imunoglobulina A/metabolismo , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/veterinária , Lisofosfolipídeos/metabolismo , Esfingosina/análogos & derivados , Animais , Doenças do Cão/patologia , Cães , Fezes/química , Cloridrato de Fingolimode/administração & dosagem , Expressão Gênica , Imunoglobulina A/sangue , Imunoglobulina A/imunologia , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/imunologia , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/metabolismo , Intestinos/química , Masculino , Esfingosina/metabolismo , /genética
9.
Curr Microbiol ; 76(7): 896-903, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31115599

RESUMO

The health-promoting effects of the probiotic strain Lactobacillus rhamnosus are based on its adherence and colonization ability. However, little is known about its adhesion and colonization rates. Lactobacillus rhamnosus in mouse intestinal mucosa a mutant of the red fluorescence protein (RFP) DSred2 was used to tag L. rhamnosus to observe the adhesion and distribution of L. rhamnosus in mouse intestinal mucosa. A mutant of the red fluorescence protein (RFP) Dsred2 was used to tag L. rhamnosus to allow us to observe and distinguish it in the mouse intestine. Seven-week-old female BALB/c mice were fed once (at day 0) with an oral administration of the labeled L. rhamnosus, and the number of labeled bacteria was detected in different regions of the intestinal tract at 3 h and at day 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, and 15 after administration. The labeling process changed the morphology of L. rhamnosus, as it appeared after observation under the microscope, but did not change its basic probiotic properties in vitro. In vivo, labeled L. rhamnosus reached the colonization peak at the fourth day after gavage. From the distribution point of view, the number of colonization strains increased from the proximal to the distal small intestine (duodenum < jejunum < ileum) and the number of strains in the colon was less than the distal small intestine (ileum). The labeling protocol actually allowed the detection of the distribution and adhesion of this bacterium to the intestine, thus demonstrating that the health-promoting effects of this probiotic are satisfied. This study provides a scientific basis in the use of probiotics such as L. rhamnosus in functional foods.


Assuntos
Aderência Bacteriana , Intestinos/microbiologia , Lactobacillus rhamnosus/fisiologia , Proteínas Luminescentes/metabolismo , Probióticos , Animais , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Feminino , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Mucosa Intestinal/microbiologia , Intestinos/anatomia & histologia , Intestinos/química , Lactobacillus rhamnosus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Lactobacillus rhamnosus/metabolismo , Proteínas Luminescentes/genética , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Probióticos/administração & dosagem , Probióticos/metabolismo
10.
Mol Cell Biol ; 39(14)2019 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31061092

RESUMO

Intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) are exposed to the low-oxygen environment present in the lumen of the gut. These hypoxic conditions on one hand are fundamental for the survival of the commensal microbiota and, on the other hand, favor the formation of a selective semipermeable barrier, allowing IECs to transport essential nutrients/water while keeping the sterile internal compartments separated from the lumen containing commensals. The hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) complex, which allows cells to respond and adapt to fluctuations in oxygen levels, has been described as a key regulator in maintaining IEC barrier function by regulating their tight junction integrity. In this study, we sought to better evaluate the mechanisms by which low oxygen conditions impact the barrier function of human IECs. By profiling miRNA expression in IECs under hypoxia, we identified microRNA 320a (miRNA-320a) as a novel barrier formation regulator. Using pharmacological inhibitors and short hairpin RNA-mediated silencing, we could demonstrate that expression of this microRNA (miRNA) was HIF dependent. Importantly, using overexpression and knockdown approaches of miRNA-320a, we could confirm its direct role in the regulation of barrier function in human IECs. These results reveal an important link between miRNA expression and barrier integrity, providing a novel insight into mechanisms of hypoxia-driven epithelial homeostasis.


Assuntos
Fator 1 Induzível por Hipóxia/metabolismo , Intestinos/citologia , MicroRNAs/genética , Hipóxia Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Células Epiteliais/química , Células Epiteliais/citologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Células HEK293 , Células HeLa , Humanos , Fator 1 Induzível por Hipóxia/efeitos dos fármacos , Intestinos/química , RNA Interferente Pequeno/farmacologia , Junções Íntimas/metabolismo
11.
Int J Pharm ; 565: 458-471, 2019 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31085255

RESUMO

The majority of NCEs are weakly basic drugs. Consequently, their solubility is highly pH-dependent, with higher solubility in the acidic stomach and poor solubility in the neutral intestinal environment. The gastric emptying of dissolved drug can lead to the intestinal precipitation of the drug. One option of reducing this process is to formulate the drug together with a precipitation inhibitor (PI). The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of different PIs on the intestinal concentrations of ketoconazole and five orally administered kinase inhibitors (i.e. pazopanib, gefitinib, lapatinib, vemurafenib, and a Merck KGaA research compound, MSC-A) with the aid of a predictive small-scale in vitro transfer model. This screening revealed that HPMCAS and Soluplus® were the most effective PIs. Whereas all other drugs precipitated within several minutes, gefitinib expressed highly variable amorphous precipitation which was confirmed by PXRD. During the transfer model experiments, this intermediate supersaturated state was stabilized using HPMCAS and Soluplus®. The PI screening protocol described herein allows to study the effect of PIs for solubility and potential bioavailability improvement of poorly soluble drugs to support formulation development already in early stages.


Assuntos
Precipitação Química , Intestinos/química , Cetoconazol/química , Modelos Biológicos , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/química , Disponibilidade Biológica , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Metilcelulose/análogos & derivados , Metilcelulose/química , Polietilenoglicóis/química , Polivinil/química , Solubilidade
12.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(22): 6423-6431, 2019 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31013075

RESUMO

Deoxynivalenol (DON) is a type of mycotoxin that is disruptive to intestinal and immune systems. To better understand the molecular effects of DON exposure, we performed genome-wide comparisons of DNA methylation and gene expression from porcine intestinal epithelial cell IPEC-J2 upon DON exposure using reduced representation bisulfite sequencing and RNA-seq technologies. We characterized the methylation pattern changes and found 3030 differentially methylated regions. Moreover, 3226 genes showing differential expression were enriched in pathways of protein and nucleic acid synthesis and ribosome biogenesis. Integrative analysis identified 29 genes showing inverse correlations between promoter methylation and expression. Altered DNA methylation and expression of various genes suggested their roles and potential functional interactions upon DON exposure. Our data provided new insights into epigenetic and transcriptomic alterations of intestinal epithelial cells upon DON exposure and may advance the identification of biomarkers and drug targets for predicting and controlling the toxic effects of this common mycotoxin.


Assuntos
Células Epiteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Intestinos/química , Suínos/genética , Tricotecenos/toxicidade , Animais , Metilação de DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Epiteliais/química , Células Epiteliais/citologia , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Genoma , Mucosa Intestinal/química , Mucosa Intestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Suínos/metabolismo
13.
Theriogenology ; 131: 32-40, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30939354

RESUMO

The accumulation of skatole in fat tissue is one of the predominant factors, causing boar taint. The present study was aimed to understand the mechanism whereby active immunization against GnRH (immunocastration) eliminates skatole in boars. Thirty-six boars were assigned within litter into three groups (n = 12): control, surgically castrated, or immunized against GnRH at 10 wk of age (with a booster 8 wk later). Faecal and blood samples (for skatole and skatole-regulatory hormone profiles) were collected at 4-wk intervals until boars were slaughtered (26 weeks). Immunocastration reduced (P < 0.05) serum levels of androstenone, 17ß-estradiol and IGF1 especially after the booster immunization, and down-regulated (P < 0.05) mRNA expressions of both IGF1 and IGF1receptor (IGF1R) in mucosa of ileum as well as colon at slaughter. Compared to intact controls, immunocastration substantially decreased (P < 0.05) faecal skatole contents subsequent to the decrease of serum IGF1 levels, which persisted in boars after surgical castration. In parallel with the decreased formation of skatole in the intestine, levels of skatole in serum and then in fat tissue were also decreased (P < 0.05). On the other hand, deprivation of testicular steroids, especially androstenone and 17ß-estradiol accelerated skatole degradation metabolism in the liver by increasing (P < 0.05) hepatic CYP2E1, CYP2A, CYP2C49 and CYB5A expressions. Collectively, our results suggested that immunocastration decreased skatole formation in the intestine and meanwhile accelerated skatole degradation metabolism in the liver, resultantly eliminating skatole accumulation in male pigs. Decreased intestinal skatole formation by immunocastration appeared to be associated with the attenuated actions of IGF1 on the turnover of both ileal and colon mucosa.


Assuntos
Escatol/metabolismo , Esterilização Reprodutiva/veterinária , Suínos , Animais , Fezes/química , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Intestinos/química , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Carne , Escatol/sangue , Esterilização Reprodutiva/métodos
14.
Mol Cell Proteomics ; 18(6): 1183-1196, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30923042

RESUMO

Diseases cause ethical concerns and economic losses in the Salmonid industry. The mucus layer comprised of highly O-glycosylated mucins is the first contact between pathogens and fish. Mucin glycans govern pathogen adhesion, growth and virulence. The Atlantic salmon O-glycome from a single location has been characterized and the interindividual variation was low. Because interindividual variation is considered a population-based defense, hindering the entire population from being wiped out by a single infection, low interindividual variation among Atlantic salmon may be a concern. Here, we analyzed the O-glycome of 25 Atlantic salmon from six cohorts grown under various conditions from Sweden, Norway and Australia (Tasmania) using mass spectrometry. This expanded the known Atlantic salmon O-glycome by 60% to 169 identified structures. The mucin O-glycosylation was relatively stable over time within a geographical region, but the size of the fish affected skin mucin glycosylation. The skin mucin glycan repertoires from Swedish and Norwegian Atlantic salmon populations were closely related compared with Tasmanian ones, regardless of size and salinity, with differences in glycan size and composition. The internal mucin glycan repertoire also clustered based on geographical origin and into pyloric cecal and distal intestinal groups, regardless of cohort and fish size. Fucosylated structures were more abundant in Tasmanian pyloric caeca and distal intestine mucins compared with Swedish ones. Overall, Tasmanian Atlantic salmon mucins have more O-glycan structures in skin but less in the gastrointestinal tract compared with Swedish fish. Low interindividual variation was confirmed within each cohort. The results can serve as a library for identifying structures of importance for host-pathogen interactions, understanding population differences of salmon mucin glycosylation in resistance to diseases and during breeding and selection of strains. The results could make it possible to predict potential vulnerabilities to diseases and suggest that inter-region breeding may increase the glycan diversity.


Assuntos
Tamanho Corporal , Geografia , Mucinas/química , Polissacarídeos/química , Salmo salar/anatomia & histologia , Salmo salar/metabolismo , Animais , Misturas Complexas , Fucose/metabolismo , Glicosilação , Intestinos/química , Monossacarídeos/química , Mucinas/isolamento & purificação , Salinidade , Pele/metabolismo , Fatores de Tempo
15.
Parasite ; 26: 12, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30838973

RESUMO

Studies on host-parasite systems as bioindicators for monitoring trace metal pollution in marine environments are still scarce. Here, 11, 14 and 17 infrapopulations of Gyliauchen volubilis (Trematoda: Digenea), Procamallanus elatensis (Nematoda) and Sclerocollum rubrimaris (Acanthocephala), respectively, were collected from the fish Siganus rivulatus (Siganidae) in the Red Sea, from a chronically polluted small bay at Sharm El-Sheikh, South Sinai, Egypt. Water and sediment samples from the bay, tissue samples (intestines, liver, and muscle) from each fish, and samples from each parasite were taken for heavy metal analyses of cadmium and lead. Cadmium concentrations in intestines, liver and muscle of non-infected and infected fishes were much lower than those of lead, and both metal concentrations decreased in the order: liver > intestines > muscle. Cadmium and lead concentrations in the tissues of fishes infected with G. volubilis or P. elatensis were slightly lower than those in non-infected ones, while in the tissues of fishes infected with Sc. rubrimaris, they were much lower. Low concentrations of cadmium and lead in G. volubilis and P. elatensis are associated with their limited ability or capacity to accumulate trace metals. Therefore, bioconcentration factors corresponding to these species were relatively low, and both are herein considered as weak bioindicators. By contrast, high concentrations of cadmium and lead in S. rubrimaris are associated with its high ability to accumulate trace metals. Of the present three host-parasite systems, only the Siganus rivulatus-Sclerocollum rubrimaris system seems to be promising for biomonitoring of metal pollution in the Red Sea.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Poluição Ambiental/análise , Peixes/parasitologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/veterinária , Metais Pesados/análise , Animais , Cádmio/análise , Egito , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Peixes/anatomia & histologia , Oceano Índico , Intestinos/química , Intestinos/parasitologia , Chumbo/análise , Fígado/química , Fígado/parasitologia , Músculos/química , Músculos/parasitologia , Alimentos Marinhos , Água/química
16.
Vet Microbiol ; 230: 187-194, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30827387

RESUMO

In the current study, we screened Lactobacillus strains isolated from the colon of clinically healthy weaned piglets for potential probiotic properties and isolated Lactobacillus. johnsonii L531, which produced high levels of beneficial metabolites (butyric, acetic, and lactic acid) in vitro. We also evaluated the efficacy of this metabolites-producing probiotic in treating Salmonella. Infantis infection. Oral administration of L. johnsonii L531 to newly weaned piglets significantly decreased levels of Salmonella colonization in colonic and jejunal contents, accelerated the clearance of Salmonella in feces after infection, and reduced S. Infantis translocation to the spleen. Pretreatment with SCFAs-promoting probiotic L. johnsonii L531 significantly ameliorated the depletion of SCFAs induced by S. Infantis infection and led to significantly greater weight gain and better feed conversion ratios compared to piglets challenged only with S. Infantis. These data provide further evidence that SCFAs-promoting probiotic L. johnsonii L531 treatment could be a suitable nonantibiotic alternative for controlling Salmonella infection and maintaining metabolic homeostasis, thereby enhancing the gut health of piglets during the critical weaning period.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/análise , Intestinos/química , Lactobacillus johnsonii/fisiologia , Interações Microbianas , Probióticos/uso terapêutico , Salmonella enterica/patogenicidade , Administração Oral , Animais , Carga Bacteriana , Translocação Bacteriana , Fezes/microbiologia , Intestinos/microbiologia , Lactobacillus johnsonii/isolamento & purificação , Probióticos/administração & dosagem , Salmonelose Animal/microbiologia , Baço/microbiologia , Suínos/microbiologia , Desmame , Ganho de Peso
17.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 546: 130-138, 2019 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30913487

RESUMO

HYPOTHESIS: The endogenous self-assembly of amorphous magnesium-calcium phosphate (AMCP) nanoparticles in human small intestine is an intriguing and newly-discovered process involved in immune-surveillance mechanisms. The study of nano and microparticles formation in complex media mimicking in vivo conditions contributes to unravel the features of endogenous AMCPs and, from a physico-chemical perspective, to shed light on the effect of biorelevant molecules on the precipitation of AMCPs. EXPERIMENTS: Endogenous-like AMCPs have been synthesized in a commercial simulated intestinal fluid (SIF), which contains biorelevant molecules such as lecithin and taurocholate. The properties of these particles were compared to the features of AMCPs synthesized in water. The stability of the amorphous phase as a function of time, as well as AMCPs' morphology, have been investigated. In particular, the effect of the organic molecules present in the SIF was examined in terms of incorporation in the nano and micro particles and on their nanoscale structure. FINDINGS: Taurocholate and lecithin, present in the SIF, enhance stability of amorphous phase against particles crystallization, and lead to the formation of smaller AMCP aggregates with a rougher surface. They are also incorporated in the inorganic phase, and their self-assembled structure leads to the formation of core-shell nanoparticles.


Assuntos
Líquidos Corporais/química , Intestinos/química , Fosfatos/química , Estrutura Molecular , Tamanho da Partícula , Fosfatos/síntese química , Propriedades de Superfície , Temperatura Ambiente
18.
Molecules ; 24(4)2019 Feb 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30813235

RESUMO

14-O-[(4,6-Diaminopyrimidine-2-yl)thioacetyl] mutilin (DPTM), a novel pleuromutilin candidate with a substituted pyrimidine moiety, has been confirmed to possess excellent antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteria. To illustrate the pharmacokinetic profile after intravenous (i.v.), intramuscular (i.m.) and oral (p.o.) administrations with DPTM, as well as tissue distribution and excretion via urine and feces in vivo, a specific, sensitive and robust HPLC-MS/MS method was first developed to determine DPTM in rat plasma, various tissues, urine and feces. The plasma, tissues, urine and feces samples were treated by protein precipitation with acetonitrile using tiamulin fumarate as an internal standard (IS). This method which was achieved on an HPLC system detector equipped with an ESI interface, was sensitive with 5 ng/mL as the lower limit of detection and exhibited good linearity (R² > 0.9900) in the range of 5⁻4000 ng/mL for plasma, various tissues, urine and feces, as well as intra-day precision, inter-day precision and accuracy. The matrix effects ranged from 94.2 to 109.7% with RSD ≤ 9.4% and the mean extraction recoveries ranged from 95.4 to 109.5% in plasma, tissue homogenates, urine and feces (RSD ≤ 9.9). After i.v., i.m. and p.o. administrations, DPTM was rapidly absorbed and metabolized in rats with the half-life (t1/2) of 1.70⁻1.86, 3.23⁻3.49 and 4.38⁻4.70 for 10, 25 and 75 mg/kg doses, respectively. The tissue distribution showed that DPTM was diffused into all the tested tissues, especially into the intestine and lung. Excretion via urine and feces studies demonstrated that DPTM was mainly excreted by feces after administration.


Assuntos
Líquidos Corporais/química , Fezes/química , Cetonas/administração & dosagem , Cetonas/farmacocinética , Administração Intravenosa , Administração Oral , Animais , Antibacterianos , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Meia-Vida , Injeções Intramusculares , Intestinos/química , Cetonas/urina , Limite de Detecção , Pulmão/química , Masculino , Compostos Policíclicos/administração & dosagem , Compostos Policíclicos/farmacocinética , Compostos Policíclicos/urina , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Distribuição Tecidual
19.
Cell Mol Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 7(2): 313-337, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30704982

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: The small intestine regulates plasma triglyceride (TG) concentration. Within enterocytes, dietary TGs are packaged into chylomicrons (CMs) for secretion or stored temporarily in cytoplasmic lipid droplets (CLDs) until further mobilization. We and others have shown that oral and intravenous glucose enhances CM particle secretion in human beings, however, the mechanisms through which this occurs are incompletely understood. METHODS: Two separate cohorts of participants ingested a high-fat liquid meal and, 5 hours later, were assigned randomly to ingest either a glucose solution or an equivalent volume of water. In 1 group (N = 6), plasma and lipoprotein TG responses were assessed in a randomized cross-over study. In a separate group (N = 24), duodenal biopsy specimens were obtained 1 hour after ingestion of glucose or water. Ultrastructural and proteomic analyses were performed on duodenal biopsy specimens. RESULTS: Compared with water, glucose ingestion increased circulating TGs within 30 minutes, mainly in the CM fraction. It decreased the total number of CLDs and the proportion of large-sized CLDs within enterocytes. We identified 2919 proteins in human duodenal tissue, 270 of which are related to lipid metabolism and 134 of which were differentially present in response to glucose compared with water ingestion. CONCLUSIONS: Oral glucose mobilizes TGs stored within enterocyte CLDs to provide substrate for CM synthesis and secretion. Future studies elucidating the underlying signaling pathways may provide mechanistic insights that lead to the development of novel therapeutics for the treatment of hypertriglyceridemia.


Assuntos
Glucose/administração & dosagem , Intestinos/química , Triglicerídeos/metabolismo , Administração Oral , Adulto , Biópsia , Quilomícrons/metabolismo , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Duodeno/patologia , Enterócitos/metabolismo , Enterócitos/ultraestrutura , Jejum , Feminino , Ontologia Genética , Humanos , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Mucosa Intestinal/ultraestrutura , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/genética , Lipoproteínas VLDL/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Triglicerídeos/sangue
20.
Exp Parasitol ; 198: 79-86, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30769018

RESUMO

Cystic echinococcosis (CE), which is caused during the metacestode larval stage of Echinococcus granulosus, is a life-threatening disease and is very difficult to treat. At present, the FDA-approved antihelmintic drugs are mebendazole (MBZ), albendazole (ABZ) and its principal metabolite ABZ sulfoxide (ABZSO), but as these have a therapeutic efficacy over 50%, underlining the need for new drug delivery systems. The aim of this work was the optimization and characterization of previously developed ABZ lipid nanocapsules (ABZ-LNCs) and evaluate their efficacy in mice infected with E. granulosus. LNCs were prepared by the phase inversion technique and characterized in terms of size, surface charge, drug loading, and in vitro stability followed by an in vivo proof-of-concept using a murine model infected with E. granulosus. Stable particle dispersions with a narrow size distribution and high efficiency of encapsulation (≥90%) were obtained. ABZ-LNCs showed a greater chemoprophylactic efficacy than ABZ suspension administered by the oral route as 4 out of the 10 ABZ-LNCs treated mice did not develop any cysts, whereas the infection progressed in all mice from the ABZ suspension group. Regarding the ultrastructural studies of cysts, mice treated with ABZ-LNCs or ABZ suspension revealed changes in the germinal layer. However, the extent of the damage appeared to be greater after ABZ-LNC administration compared to the suspension treatment. These results suggest that ABZ-LNCs could be a promising novel candidate for ABZ delivery to treat CE.


Assuntos
Albendazol/uso terapêutico , Anticestoides/uso terapêutico , Equinococose/tratamento farmacológico , Echinococcus granulosus/efeitos dos fármacos , Albendazol/administração & dosagem , Albendazol/química , Animais , Anticestoides/administração & dosagem , Anticestoides/química , Bovinos , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Equinococose/prevenção & controle , Echinococcus granulosus/ultraestrutura , Feminino , Intestinos/química , Camundongos , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Nanocápsulas/normas , Nanocápsulas/ultraestrutura , Doenças Negligenciadas/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Negligenciadas/prevenção & controle , Tamanho da Partícula , Pós , Estômago/química
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