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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 769: 144649, 2021 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33493913

RESUMO

The blood lead levels (BLLs) of children in China remain notably high in many areas. We aimed to summarise the relevant regional characteristics, identifying problematic areas and the causes of lead pollution. We searched the databases of PubMed, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), and Wanfang Data, systematically reviewing 219 articles published from January 2010 to September 2020. In doing so, we assessed the BLLs noted in 220 prefectures across China. Data were organised using Geographic Information Systems (GIS) mapping. Out of a total of 629,627 children sampled, we found that the average blood lead level (BLL) of children included in our study is 50.61 ± 13.63 µg/L, which slightly exceeds the 50.00 µg/L US standard. Within the sample, 8.75% had BLLs higher than 100.00 µg/L. Children living in Liaoning, Hebei, Shanxi, Jiangxi, Anhui, Fujian, Guizhou, Yunnan, and Guangxi had notably high BLLs, at more than 60.00 µg/L. A total of 112 municipalities had an average children's BLL above 50.00 µg/L. Furthermore, Chenzhou, Linfen, Yuncheng, and Hechi had the highest children's BLLs, with average values above 100.00 µg/L. The leading contributors to lead pollution are lead mining, lead recovery and the smelting industry. Nonetheless, the lead-acid battery industry needs more attention. Although data suggest that BLLs are decreasing in China, many areas still have high BLLs that need to be monitored. Moreover, national standards must improve to decrease acceptable BLL thresholds for children.


Assuntos
Intoxicação por Chumbo , Chumbo , Criança , China , Cidades , Exposição Ambiental , Humanos , Intoxicação por Chumbo/epidemiologia
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32570851

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Human exposure to lead can occur in a variety of ways, all of which involve exposure to potentially toxic elements as environmental pollutants. Lead enters the body via ingestion and inhalation from sources such as soil, food, lead dust and lead in products of everyday use and in the workplace. The aim of this review is to describe the toxic effects of lead on the human body from conception to adulthood, and to review the situation regarding lead toxicity in Poland. RESULTS: Pb is very dangerous when it is absorbed and accumulates in the main organs of the body, where it can cause a range of symptoms that vary from person to person, the time of exposure and dose. Lead in adults can cause an increase in blood pressure, slow nerve conduction, fatigue, mood swings, drowsiness, impaired concentration, fertility disorders, decreased sex drive, headaches, constipation and, in severe cases, encephalopathy or death. CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to lead in Poland remains an important public health problem. This review will cover the range of lead exposures, from mild to heavy. Public health interventions and policies also are needed to reduce occupational and environmental exposure to this element.


Assuntos
Intoxicação por Chumbo , Chumbo , Adulto , Idoso , Poeira/análise , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Poluição Ambiental , Humanos , Chumbo/análise , Chumbo/toxicidade , Intoxicação por Chumbo/epidemiologia , Polônia/epidemiologia
4.
Environ Res ; 188: 109759, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32554272

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lead (Pb) is a well-known toxic heavy metal which can have serious public health hazards. As of today, there is no safe threshold for Pb exposure, especially for children. Lead exposure has been associated with adverse health outcomes involving epigenetic mechanisms, such as aberrant DNA methylation. The objective of the present study was to elucidate the associations between blood lead levels (BLLs) and gene-specific promoter DNA methylation status in environmental Pb-exposed children from Kabwe, Zambia. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted using 2 to 10-year-old children from high Pb exposed area (N = 102) and low Pb exposed area (N = 38). We measured BLLs using a LeadCare II analyzer and investigated the methylation status of the ALAD and p16 gene promoters by methylation-specific PCR. RESULTS: The mean BLLs were 23.7 µg/dL and 7.9 µg/dL in high Pb exposed and low Pb exposed children, respectively. Pb exposure was correlated with increased methylation of the ALAD and p16 genes. The promoter methylation rates of ALAD and p16 in high Pb exposed children were 84.3% and 67.7%, and 42.1% and 44.7% in low Pb exposed children, respectively. Significantly increased methylation was found in both genes in high Pb exposed children compared with low Pb exposed children (p < 0.05). Children with methylated ALAD and p16 genes showed an increased risk of Pb poisoning (odd ratio >1) compared to the unmethylated status. CONCLUSIONS: This study for the first time tries to correlate promoter methylation status of the ALAD and p16 genes in environmental Pb-exposed children from Kabwe, Zambia as a representative. The result suggests that Pb exposure increases aberrations in ALAD and p16 gene methylation, which may be involved in the mechanism of Pb toxicity.


Assuntos
Intoxicação por Chumbo , Chumbo , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Metilação de DNA , Genes p16 , Humanos , Chumbo/toxicidade , Intoxicação por Chumbo/epidemiologia , Intoxicação por Chumbo/genética , Sintase do Porfobilinogênio/genética , Zâmbia
5.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234995, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32559243

RESUMO

Environmental conditions that contribute to childhood lead exposure are spatially patterned. Socioeconomic and racial inequities in childhood lead exposure have been well documented, however childhood lead exposure in Milwaukee is understudied. As a segregated rustbelt metropolitan area with childhood lead exposure concerns, Milwaukee is uniquely positioned to evaluate the synergistic effects of racial and economic drivers of childhood lead exposure. Using surveillance data from the Wisconsin Department of Health Services, Division of Public Health and the US Census Bureau, this cross-sectional study determined the intersectional effect of poverty, home ownership, and racial/ethnic composition on childhood lead exposure in Milwaukee County neighborhoods using linear regression adjusting for average census tract housing age and number of children. The final analytical sample consisted of 48,393 individual childhood blood lead levels aggregated to 215 Milwaukee County census tracts. Census tracts with mean childhood blood lead levels greater than or equal to 5 µg/dL were predominantly low home ownership, high poverty, and majority non-White census tracts. The effects of low home ownership, high poverty, and majority non-White census tracts were synergistic, producing 1.78 (95% CI: 1.44, 2.11) µg/dL higher mean childhood blood lead level than high home ownership, low poverty, and majority White census tracts (referent). This research reveals that social determinants at the neighborhood level co-occur and interact to produce inequities in childhood lead exposure. Lead prevention efforts should align with equity-focused housing and economic policies that target primary prevention in neighborhoods disproportionately burdened by childhood lead exposure.


Assuntos
Intoxicação por Chumbo/epidemiologia , Chumbo/sangue , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pobreza/estatística & dados numéricos , Características de Residência/estatística & dados numéricos , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos , Wisconsin
6.
Chemosphere ; 243: 125412, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31995873

RESUMO

Childhood lead (Pb) poisoning has devastating effects on neurodevelopment and causes overt clinical signs including convulsions and coma. Health effects including hypertension and various reproductive problems have been reported in adults. Historical Pb mining in Zambia's Kabwe town left a legacy of environmental pollution and childhood Pb poisoning. The current study aimed at establishing the extent of Pb poisoning and exposure differences among family members in Kabwe as well as determining populations at risk and identify children eligible for chelation therapy. Blood samples were collected in July and August 2017 from 1190 household members and Pb was measured using a portable LeadCare-II analyser. Participants included 291 younger children (3-months to 3-years-old), 271 older children (4-9-years-old), 412 mothers and 216 fathers from 13 townships with diverse levels of Pb contamination. The Blood Lead Levels (BLL) ranged from 1.65 to 162  µg/dL, with residents from Kasanda (mean 45.7  µg/dL) recording the highest BLL while Hamududu residents recorded the lowest (mean 3.3  µg/dL). Of the total number of children sampled (n = 562), 23% exceeded the 45  µg/dL, the threshold required for chelation therapy. A few children (5) exceeded the 100  µg/dL whereas none of the parents exceeded the 100  µg/dL value. Children had higher BLL than parents, with peak BLL-recorded at the age of 2-years-old. Lead exposure differences in Kabwe were attributed to distance and direction from the mine, with younger children at highest risk. Exposure levels in parents were equally alarming. For prompt diagnosis and treatment, a portable point-of-care devise such as a LeadCare-II would be preferable in Kabwe.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/análise , Intoxicação por Chumbo/epidemiologia , Chumbo/sangue , Chumbo/toxicidade , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Poluição Ambiental/análise , Pai , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Mineração , Mães , Registros , Reprodução , Manejo de Espécimes , Zâmbia/epidemiologia
7.
Environ Health Perspect ; 128(1): 17012, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31944143

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lead can adversely affect maternal and child health across a wide range of exposures; developing fetuses and breastfeeding infants may be particularly vulnerable. We describe the distribution of blood lead levels (BLLs) in U.S. women of childbearing age and associations with sociodemographic, reproductive, smoking, and housing characteristics over a 40-y period. METHODS: Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) II, NHANES III Phase I and Phase II, and 1999-2016 continuous NHANES were used to describe the distribution of BLLs (given in micrograms per deciliter; 1µg/dL=0.0483µmol/L) in U.S. women 15-49 years of age between 1976 and 2016. For all women with valid BLLs (n=22,408), geometric mean (GM) BLLs and estimated prevalence of BLLs ≥5µg/dL were calculated overall and by selected demographic characteristics. For NHANES II, estimated prevalence of BLLs ≥10 and ≥20µg/dL were also calculated. RESULTS: The most recent GM BLLs (2007-2010 and 2011-2016, respectively) were 0.81µg/dL [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.79, 0.84] and 0.61µg/dL (95% CI: 0.59, 0.64). In comparison, GM BLLs in earlier periods (1976-1980, 1988-1991, and 1991-1994) were 10.37µg/dL (95% CI: 9.95, 10.79), 1.85µg/dL (95% CI: 1.75, 1.94), and 1.53µg/dL (95% CI: 1.45, 1.60), respectively. In 2011-2016, 0.7% of women of childbearing age had BLLs ≥5µg/dL, and higher BLLs were associated with older age, other race/ethnicity, birthplace outside the United States, four or more live births, exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke, and ever pregnant or not currently pregnant. DISCUSSION: Lead exposure in U.S. women of childbearing age is generally low and has substantially decreased over this 40-y period. However, based on these estimates, there are still at least 500,000 U.S. women being exposed to lead at levels that may harm developing fetuses or breastfeeding infants. Identifying high-risk women who are or intend to become pregnant remains an important public health issue. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP5925.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais/sangue , Intoxicação por Chumbo/epidemiologia , Chumbo/sangue , Exposição Materna/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
8.
J Infect Public Health ; 13(4): 527-531, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31786007

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The present investigation of genotoxicity of lead (Pb) among workers exposed to inorganic Pb environment, which appears to be first of its kind in South India, was undertaken to assess the seriousness, the ill effects of health contributed by this serious environmental pollutant. METHODS: A total of 144 samples comprising of exposed (n=72), and control (n=72) subjects were screened. Demographic data and their associated health levels were undertaken by means of a questionnaire. The blood samples collected were subjected to chromosomal analysis, micronuclei assessment and comet assay. RESULTS: A higher level of Pb was quantified in the blood samples of all exposed subjects. An overview of the genotoxic assessment helped us understand parameters such as age do not affect or bring about any difference in the genotoxic potential of the exposed and control subjects. The only signification feature that resulted in an enhanced genotoxic potential was the years of exposure to the Pb environment that accumulated the dosage of Pb over the years. CONCLUSION: The high positivity of genotoxic potential of Pb in a country like India highlights the need for labelling hazardous metals in paint containers as a means to assure strict regulations.


Assuntos
Aberrações Cromossômicas/efeitos dos fármacos , Dano ao DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Intoxicação por Chumbo/genética , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Ensaio Cometa , Humanos , Índia , Chumbo/sangue , Intoxicação por Chumbo/sangue , Intoxicação por Chumbo/epidemiologia , Intoxicação por Chumbo/etiologia , Masculino , Testes para Micronúcleos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutagênicos/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ocupacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários
9.
Arch Environ Occup Health ; 75(1): 60-64, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30676933

RESUMO

Purpose: Lead containing dust may be present on the exterior surfaces of shields used to prevent radiation exposure. We determined whether use of lead shields poses an exposure risk for radiology personnel.Methods: We collected hand dustwipe and blood samples from 58 Radiology Department employees of an academic hospital. Samples were analyzed for lead content by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Results were compared between lead apron users (46) and nonusers (12).Results: Hand dustwipe lead was undetectable (<3 µg/sample) in all cases. Blood lead levels ranged from 0-3 µg/dL.Conclusions: In this study of Radiology Department workers, we did not find an increased risk of lead contamination on their hands or in their blood. Although our sample size is small, we conclude that lead poisoning is unlikely to occur with high frequency in lead shield users.


Assuntos
Poeira/análise , Intoxicação por Chumbo/epidemiologia , Chumbo/análise , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Equipamento de Proteção Individual , Centros Médicos Acadêmicos , Humanos , Chumbo/sangue , Intoxicação por Chumbo/etiologia , Cidade de Nova Iorque/epidemiologia , Serviço Hospitalar de Radiologia , Medição de Risco , Espectrofotometria Atômica
10.
J Environ Public Health ; 2019: 8980604, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31781256

RESUMO

In 1932 and again in 1947, the Scottish Council for Research in Education conducted the Scottish Mental Surveys. Testing two cohorts, one in 1932 and another in 1947, researchers set out to measure-using the same validated test each time-the intelligence of every Scottish child 11 years of age. The stated impetus for the Surveys was a fear that average Scottish intelligence was declining. But when investigators compared the results of the 1947 Survey with those from 1932 their predictions were completely upended. Instead of average intelligence declining, it had risen, substantially. The author argues that based on a study of the relevant ecosystems in place in Scotland at the time the increase in intelligence resulted from a decline in lead body burden. There is no evidence that the children were tested for lead. The decline is thought to have closely followed a fall in occupational lead use, a heightened awareness of the dangers of lead-solvency, improvements in lead plumbing in working-class homes, and a national campaign to improve the nutrition of women and children. Evidence shows that milk consumption in Scotland increased sharply, especially among children, beginning in the mid-1930s, just prior to and following the birth of the second cohort. This provided a source of calcium in a diet that had shown signs of deficiency. Evidence also suggests that lead contamination, from lead water pipes and industrial sources, was widely prevalent in Scotland in the early part of the twentieth century.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais/envenenamento , Inteligência/efeitos dos fármacos , Intoxicação por Chumbo/epidemiologia , Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Carga Corporal (Radioterapia) , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Escócia/epidemiologia
12.
Public Health Rep ; 134(6): 608-616, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31539488

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Refugee children are known to have a high prevalence of elevated blood lead levels (EBLLs). We sought to determine trends in EBLLs among refugee children during an 18-year period and examine relationships between descriptive characteristics and EBLLs by using 10 µg/dL and 5 µg/dL levels of concern. METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated refugee health screening data from Massachusetts for 1998 through 2015 for refugee children aged <7 years. We performed bivariate and multivariate analyses of variables including sex, age, region of origin, anemia, intestinal parasites, tuberculosis test results, and anthropometric measurements and used both 5 µg/dL and 10 µg/dL levels of concern for EBLLs. RESULTS: Of 3421 eligible refugee children, 3054 (88.2%) were tested. Using 5 µg/dL and 10 µg/dL levels of concern, 1279 (41.9%) and 241 (7.9%) children, respectively, had EBLLs. Mean BLLs declined steadily from 7.58 µg/dL in 2004 to 4.03 µg/dL in 2015. African (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 2.49; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.81-3.43), East Asian and Pacific (aOR = 1.98; 95% CI, 1.35-2.91), and South-Central Asian (aOR = 2.47; 95% CI, 1.53-4.01) regions of origin and anemia (aOR = 1.50; 95% CI, 1.14 -1.97) were significantly associated with BLLs ≥5 µg/dL. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of EBLLs among refugees compared with US-born children is high. Because EBBLs increase the risk for neurocognitive impairment in children, public health professionals, policy makers, researchers, refugee resettlement staff members, and health care providers must remain vigilant in screening for lead poisoning and educating refugees about the hazards posed to young children by lead.


Assuntos
Intoxicação por Chumbo/epidemiologia , Chumbo/sangue , Programas de Rastreamento , Refugiados/estatística & dados numéricos , África/etnologia , Ásia/etnologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Chumbo/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Programas de Rastreamento/tendências , Massachusetts/epidemiologia , Oriente Médio/etnologia , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos
13.
Environ Res ; 178: 108643, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31473504

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is consensus that early childhood lead exposure causes adverse cognitive and behavioral effects, even at blood lead levels (BLL) below 5 µg/dL. What has not been established is to what extent the effects of childhood lead exposure persist across grades. OBJECTIVE: To measure the effects of early childhood lead exposure (BLL 1-10 µg/dL) on educational performance from grades 3-8; to determine if effects in lower grades persist as a child progresses through school; and if so, to characterize the pattern of persistence. METHODS: We examine data from 560,624 children living in North Carolina between 2000 and 2012 with a BLL ≤10 µg/dL measured between age 0-5 years. Children are matched to their standardized math and reading scores for grades 3-8, creating an unbalanced panel of 2,344,358 student-year observations. We use socio-economic, demographic, and school information along with matching techniques to control for confounding effects. RESULTS: We find that early childhood exposure to low lead levels caused persistent deficits in educational performance across grades. In each grade (3-8), children with higher blood lead levels had, on average, lower percentile scores in both math and reading than children with lower blood lead levels. In our primary model, we find that children with BLL = 5 µg/dL in early childhood ranked 0.90-1.20 (1.35-1.55) percentiles lower than children with BLL ≤ 1 µg/dL on math (reading) tests during grades 3-8. As children progressed through school, the average percentile deficit in their test scores remained stable. CONCLUSIONS: Our study shows that the adverse effects of early childhood exposure to low lead levels persist through early adolescence, and that the magnitude of the test-score percentile deficit remains steady between grades 3-8.


Assuntos
Desempenho Acadêmico/estatística & dados numéricos , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Intoxicação por Chumbo/epidemiologia , Chumbo , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , North Carolina/epidemiologia , Instituições Acadêmicas , Adulto Jovem
15.
Public Health Nurs ; 36(6): 806-812, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31429129

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to report three representative childhood lead poisoning cases in China from domestic products exposure and to highlight their critical implications for practice, education, and policy in prevention and treatment of childhood lead poisoning by health care providers, especially public health nurses. DESIGN AND SAMPLE: Three representative childhood lead poisoning cases occurring in 2017 were collected and analyzed. RESULTS: The lead exposure sources of three cases were evaluated by experts in the field and determined to be tin pots, home factories for tinfoil, and contamination of folk medicine, respectively. These cases demonstrated that the lack of lead exposure risk assessment, insufficient knowledge of potential lead exposure sources, underdeveloped policy, and regulations were areas for improvement. CONCLUSIONS: The best strategies for preventing lead poisoning include an appropriate risk assessment of lead exposure, implementation of comprehensive parental health education, conduction of further research by public health providers, and the application of policy strategies by the government. It was determined that public health nurses are at the frontline of prevention of lead poisoning in children.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/prevenção & controle , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Educação em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Intoxicação por Chumbo/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Medicina Tradicional , Pais/educação , Políticas , Medição de Risco
16.
BMJ Open ; 9(7): e027628, 2019 07 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31296509

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study is to determine the association between length of time in the USA with blood lead (BPb). DESIGN: Population-based cross-sectional study using data from the 2013-2016 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. SETTING: USA. PARTICIPANTS: 5933 men and women (≥15 years); subgroups of men only (n=2867), women only (n=3064) and women of childbearing age (15-45 years) (n=1580). PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOMES: The primary outcome was BPb concentration. The main exposure variable was self-reported number of years spent in the USA, categorised as: born in the USA; 0-4 years; 5-9 years; 10-19 years and ≥20 years. We used linear regression models adjusted for race/ethnicity, education, blood cotinine, age, sex (as appropriate) and accounted for complex survey design. RESULTS: Women of childbearing age who have lived 0-4 years in the USA have, on average, a 54% (95% CI 36% to 75%) higher BPb compared with women born in the USA. Corresponding results for all women, men and the entire population were 49% (95% CI 34% to 66%), 49% (95% CI 28% to 75%) and 49% (95% CI 33% to 66%), respectively. Similar, statistically significant, results were observed for other time periods (5-9 years, 10-19 years and ≥20 years); the magnitude of the association decreased with increasing time in the USA. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides additional evidence that newcomers to the USA may be a population at higher risk of elevated BPb.


Assuntos
Intoxicação por Chumbo/sangue , Chumbo/sangue , Inquéritos Nutricionais/métodos , Autorrelato , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Intoxicação por Chumbo/epidemiologia , Masculino , Espectrometria de Massas , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Tempo , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
18.
Drug Metab Pers Ther ; 34(2)2019 06 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31188756

RESUMO

Background The aim of the current study was to evaluate the efficacy of D-penicillamine in the treatment of lead poisoning mainly in the outpatient setting. Methods In a case series study performed during the recent epidemic of lead poisoning in Iran, lead-poisoned patients referring to our outpatient clinic were treated with 250-mg D-penicillamine capsules administered every 6 h for 5 or 10 days based on availability of the medication. They were recommended to re-check blood lead level (BLL) 4 weeks after cessation of the treatment and refer to our clinic again. Results In 63 patients with lead poisoning but without signs and symptoms of lead encephalopathy, median BLL was 106 [84, 131] µg/dL on presentation, which declined to a mean of 52.6 ± 28.8 µg/dL after a median treatment period of 7 [5, 10] days (p < 0.001). There was no statistically significant difference between the 5- and 10-day treatment protocols regarding complications and recovery. Treatment had resulted in a median decrease of 54 µg/dL [33, 90] (range: -20 to 231 µg/dL) in the patients' BLLs (33.9% declined in BLL measurements; range: -29.69% to 99.06%). Conclusions D-penicillamine may be an acceptable substitute treatment in adult lead poisoning. Although our sample size was limited, we could not detect any serious adverse effects in our cases showing that D-penicillamine resulted in acceptable recovery rates. This may be helpful especially in epidemics with limitations in antidote access.


Assuntos
Antídotos/uso terapêutico , Intoxicação por Chumbo/tratamento farmacológico , Penicilamina/uso terapêutico , Administração Oral , Adulto , Antídotos/administração & dosagem , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico) , Intoxicação por Chumbo/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Penicilamina/administração & dosagem
19.
Environ Pollut ; 249: 1091-1105, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31146315

RESUMO

Lead (Pb) both in paints and children's Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) toys is a major public health concern which has attracted attention of the international community. Concentrations of Pb both in lead-based paints and children's PVC toys have been assessed through various studies across the globe. Therefore, the purpose of this article was to summarize the results reported in these studies and provide some comprehension on their implications to human health for law enforcement as well as for awareness raising to the general public. Highlights on identified gaps have been provided to pave ways for further research interventions in order to establish comprehensive information on the subject. Regardless of regulatory limits on the content of lead, both in paints and children's PVC toys existing in different countries in the world, some of the reviewed articles have revealed significant levels of lead in these two items far above the permissible limits. High lead levels in paints have been recorded in China (116,200 ppm), Cameroon (500,000 ppm), South Africa (189,000 ppm), Tanzania (120,862.1 ppm), Uganda (150,000 ppm), Thailand (505,716 ppm) and Brazil (170,258.4 ppm) just to mention a few. Lead poisoning cases in children have been reported in several countries including France, Morocco, South Africa and United States. Countries where high levels of lead in children's PVC toys have been recounted include; China (860,000 ppm), South Africa (145,000 ppm), United States (22,550 ppm), Thailand (4,486.11 ppm), Palestine (6,036 ppm) and India (2,104 ppm). Awareness raising among parents is vital to impart them with knowledge on the matter so that they can take strenuous measures to protect their children from lead poisoning emanating from playing with toys and paint dust. Law enforcement on phasing out lead-based paints and control of lead content in children's PVC toys worldwide is also highly recommended.


Assuntos
Intoxicação por Chumbo/etiologia , Chumbo/toxicidade , Pintura/análise , Jogos e Brinquedos , Cloreto de Polivinila/toxicidade , Criança , Humanos , Chumbo/análise , Intoxicação por Chumbo/epidemiologia , Intoxicação por Chumbo/prevenção & controle , Cloreto de Polivinila/análise
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31252687

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of lead poisoning in children under the age of six years living in Lancaster County, Pennsylvania continues to be greater than the state-wide prevalence for this age group. This study aims to determine the factors that contribute to the high lead poisoning rates. METHODS: For this qualitative study, the researchers recruited a convenience sample of professionals providing healthcare and social welfare services in the county. Researchers conducted in-depth interviews with participants. The research team audio recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed each interview using NVivo 12 software. RESULTS: The 16 interviewed participants identified factors that contribute to high lead poisoning rates including knowledge levels, housing status, and competing interests. Specifically, low knowledge levels, renting as opposed to home ownership, and having competing interests seemed to minimize the attention directed towards preventing lead poisoning. The experts offered recommendations to address the high lead poisoning rates including increasing lead knowledge levels of both community members and landlords, through creating and distributing health promotion material, enacting policies to empower renters, and systematically collaborating to streamline lead poisoning related information and services. CONCLUSIONS: Findings provide insights to factors that Lancaster can address to achieve a decrease in lead poisoning rates. This study provides information that can be utilized by public health professionals to develop appropriate interventions.


Assuntos
Estudos Epidemiológicos , Intoxicação por Chumbo/epidemiologia , Saúde Pública/estatística & dados numéricos , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pennsylvania/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Pesquisa Qualitativa
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