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1.
Aquat Toxicol ; 221: 105427, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32044545

RESUMO

Local population frequently consumes moray eels and dusky groupers from the Canary Islands. These species are top predators and the interactions between them include predation but also, in some cases, collaborative hunting. These fish are well known to cause ciguatera (CFP) outbreaks in several marine areas such as Japan, Hawaii, French Polynesia and Caribe. Groupers have been involved in CFP events in the Canary Islands, however, moray eels have not yet been well studied in this regard. The present research seeks to describe the finding of a black moray in the stomach of a positive dusky grouper during its necropsy, and to clarify the implication of groupers and moray eels in the food webs, accumulating CTXs in the Canarian environment. The study also updates statistics on the presence of toxic groupers in this archipelago. For these purposes, 248 grouper samples from the CFP official control in the Canary Islands (2018-2019) were analysed and 36 moray eels (5 species) were collected under the EuroCigua project and one was obtained during a dusky grouper necropsy. All samples were analysed with the Neuro-2a cell-based assay (CBA) to evidence CTX-like toxicity. Regarding the necropsied grouper and the moray eel found in its stomach content, the LCMS/MS method allowed the identification and quantification of CCTX1 in both fish at similar levels while none of the P-CTXs for which standards were available were detected. Among groupers, 25.4 % displayed CTX-like toxicity with differences between islands. For moray eels 38.9 % showed toxicity, involving 4 species. Black moray exhibited a high proportion of positives (9/12) and a positive correlation was found between CTX-like toxicity quantification and the black moray weight. Regarding the grouper, and the moray eel found in its stomach, the LCMS/MS method allowed the identification and quantification of C-CTX1 in both fish at similar levels. This found suggests a trophic interaction between these species and their role in maintaining CTXs in the Canary waters where local population commonly demand those species for consumption. The island of El Hierro stands out above all the other Canary Islands with the concerning percentage of positive grouper samples and the high CTX toxicity levels obtained in moray eel specimens analysed in this marine area. This is the first report of CTX-like toxicity in flesh of moray eels fished in the Canary archipelago and the confirmation of the presence of C-CTX1 by LCMS/MS in a black moray from this marine area.


Assuntos
Ciguatoxinas/análise , Enguias/metabolismo , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Cromatografia Líquida , Intoxicação por Ciguatera/epidemiologia , Intoxicação por Ciguatera/etiologia , Ciguatoxinas/toxicidade , Cadeia Alimentar , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Conteúdo Gastrointestinal/química , Músculos/química , Alimentos Marinhos/análise , Espanha , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
2.
Sci Total Environ ; 717: 137184, 2020 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32084685

RESUMO

Gambierdiscus spp. can produce the polyketide compound, ciguatoxin (CTX), and are hence responsible for ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP). Studying the molecular mechanism that regulates CTX production is crucial for understanding the environmental trigger of CTX as well as for better informing fishery management. Commonly, polyketide synthases are important for polyketide synthesis; however, no gene has been confirmatively assigned to CTX production. Here, suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) and transcriptome sequencing (RNA-Seq) were used to compare a CTX-producing strain with a non-CTX-producing strain. Using both methods, a total of 52 polyketide synthase (PKS) genes were identified to be up-regulated in the CTX-producing G. balechii, including transcripts encoding single-domain PKSs as well as transcripts encoding multi-domain PKSs. Using reverse transcription quantitative PCR, the expression of these genes in the CTX-producing strain and in nitrogen-limited cultures of the strain was further documented. These data suggest that PKSs are likely involved in polyketide synthesis and potentially in CTX synthesis in this dinoflagellate species. Our study provides the candidate biomarkers for the detection of CTXs or CFP in waters or any other organisms as well as a valuable genomic resource for the research on Gambierdiscus and other dinoflagellates.


Assuntos
Dinoflagelados , Animais , Intoxicação por Ciguatera , Ciguatoxinas , Policetídeo Sintases , Transcriptoma
3.
Harmful Algae ; 89: 101671, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31672230

RESUMO

Species of the benthic dinoflagellate Gambierdiscus produce polyether neurotoxins that caused ciguatera fish/shellfish poisoning in human. The toxins enter marine food webs by foraging of herbivores on the biotic substrates like macroalgae that host the toxic dinoflagellates. Interaction of Gambierdiscus and their macroalgal substrate hosts is believed to shape the tendency of substrate preferences and habitat specialization. This was supported by studies that manifested epiphytic preferences and behaviors in Gambierdiscus species toward different macroalgal hosts. To further examine the supposition, a laboratory-based experimental study was conducted to examine the growth, epiphytic behaviors and host preferences of three Gambierdiscus species towards four macroalgal hosts over a culture period of 40 days. The dinoflagellates Gambierdiscus balechii, G. caribaeus, and a new ribotype, herein designated as Gambierdiscus type 7 were initially identified based on the thecal morphology and molecular characterization. Our results showed that Gambierdiscus species tested in this study exhibited higher growth rates in the presence of macroalgal hosts. Growth responses and attachment behaviors, however, differed among different species and strains of Gambierdiscus over different macroalgal substrate hosts. Cells of Gambierdiscus mostly attached to substrate hosts at the beginning of the experiments but detached at the later time. Localized Gambierdiscus-host interactions, as demonstrated in this study, could help to better inform efforts of sampling and monitoring of this benthic toxic dinoflagellate.


Assuntos
Intoxicação por Ciguatera , Dinoflagelados , Alga Marinha , Animais , Ecossistema , Filogenia
4.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31562539

RESUMO

Reports on adverse effects of chemical substances and mixtures (poisonings in the broader sense) are of great importance both for the improvement of medical care as well as for substance and product safety and for medical education and training. Case reports are the basis of toxicovigilance, i.e. the detection and assessment of poisoning risks in a community arising from clinical cases. Reports on poisonings are created mainly by medical doctors, but also by toxicologically trained nurses and non-medical scientists of poison centres and toxicology labs.In this article, basic terms of clinical toxicology are explained and the important roles of reporting on poisoning are described.Standards for poisoning reporting are partly developed. Reports differ in structure, information content and the degree of assignment of evaluation categories (administrative, clinical, product safety, e.g. agent group, degree of poisoning severity, causality). Methodologically, a distinction is made between detailed individual case reports and aggregated case series with little clinical information.As a result, case reports have recently been used to describe novel intoxications (e.g. new psychoactive substances [NPSs]). Case series facilitated the detection of poisoning outbreaks (sealant spray, ciguatera fish poisoning) and novel products with increased risk of poisoning (e.g. liquid laundry detergent capsules). Systematic toxicovigilance at the national level in Germany will be considerably improved by a national register of poisoning planned at German Federal Institute for Risk Assessment (BfR). For a European toxicovigilance scheme, the recently developed EuPCS product category system forms an important basis.


Assuntos
Intoxicação por Ciguatera , Documentação , Envenenamento , Animais , Surtos de Doenças , Peixes , Alemanha , Humanos , Medição de Risco
5.
Braz J Infect Dis ; 23(3): 200-202, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31301279

RESUMO

Ciguatera poisoning is the most common form of non-bacterial food-poisoning from fish worldwide. The incidence among Brazilians returning from high-risk regions is unclear because it is not a mandatory reportable disease. We describe a previously healthy 53-year-old Brazilian woman developed Ciguatera fish poisoning while traveling to Havana, Cuba. Physicians and health care professionals should advise travelers to avoid eating ciguatoxic fish species and potentially toxic fish species in the Caribbean islands. Despite the prognosis for most cases is good with a short duration of self-limited symptoms, early recognition of the identifying clinical features of ciguatera can result in improved patient care.


Assuntos
Intoxicação por Ciguatera/diagnóstico , Viagem , Animais , Brasil , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Índias Ocidentais
6.
Harmful Algae ; 86: 119-127, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31358271

RESUMO

Ciguatera poisoning is caused by the consumption of reef fish or shellfish that have accumulated ciguatoxins, neurotoxins produced by benthic dinoflagellates of the genera Gambierdiscus or Fukuyoa. Although ciguatera constitutes the primary cause of seafood intoxication in Cuba, very little information is available on the occurrence of ciguatoxins in the marine food web and the causative benthic dinoflagellate species. This study conducted on the south-central coast of Cuba reports the occurrence of Gambierdiscus and Fukuyoa genera and the associated benthic genera Ostreopsis and Prorocentrum. Gambierdiscus/Fukuyoa cells were present at low to moderate abundances depending on the site and month of sampling. This genus was notably higher on Dictyotaceae than on other macrophytes. PCR analysis of field-collected samples revealed the presence of six different Gambierdiscus and one Fukuyoa species, including G. caribaeus, G. carolinianus, G. carpenteri, G. belizeanus, F. ruetzleri, G. silvae, and Gambierdiscus sp. ribotype 2. Only Gambierdiscus excentricus was absent from the eight Gambierdiscus/Fukuyoa species known in the wider Caribbean region. Eleven clonal cultures were established and confirmed by PCR and SEM as being either G. carolinianus or G. caribaeus. Toxin production in each isolate was assessed by a radioligand receptor binding assay and found to be below the assay quantification limit. These novel findings augment the knowledge of the ciguatoxin-source dinoflagellates that are present in Cuba, however further studies are needed to better understand the correlation between their abundance, species-specific toxin production in the environment, and the risk for fish contamination, in order to develop better informed ciguatera risk management strategies.


Assuntos
Intoxicação por Ciguatera , Dinoflagelados , Animais , Região do Caribe , Cuba , Medição de Risco
7.
BMJ Case Rep ; 12(5)2019 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31151977

RESUMO

Ciguatera is a common but underreported tropical disease caused by the consumption of coral reef fish contaminated by ciguatoxins. Gastrointestinal and neurological symptoms predominate, but may be accompanied by cardiovascular features such as hypotension and sinus bradycardia. Here, we report an unusual case of junctional bradycardia caused by ciguatera in the Caribbean; to our knowledge, the first such report from the region. An increase in global sea temperatures is predicted to lead to the spread of ciguatera beyond traditional endemic areas, and the globalisation of trade in coral reef fish has resulted in sporadic cases occurring in developed countries far away from endemic areas. This case serves as a reminder to consider environmental intoxications such as ciguatera within the differential diagnosis of bradycardias.


Assuntos
Bradicardia/etiologia , Intoxicação por Ciguatera/complicações , Animais , Bradicardia/terapia , Região do Caribe , Intoxicação por Ciguatera/terapia , Soluções Cristaloides/administração & dosagem , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Eletrocardiografia , Peixes , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Potássio/administração & dosagem
8.
Sci Total Environ ; 673: 576-584, 2019 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30999098

RESUMO

This research identifies factors associated with the contamination by ciguatoxins (CTXs) in a population of fish and proposes a predictive score of the presence of CTX-like toxicity in amberjack samples from the official control program of ciguatera in the Canary Islands of the Directorate-General (DG) Fisheries (Canary Government). Out of the 970 samples of fish studied, 177 (18.2%) samples showed CTX-like toxicity. The fish were classified according to the species, amberjack (Seriola dumerili and S. rivoliana) (n = 793), dusky grouper (Epinephelus marginatus) (n = 145) and wahoo (Acanthocybium solandri) (n = 32). The data were separated by species category and statistically examined, resulting in 137 (17.3%) amberjack and 39 (26.9%) grouper samples showing CTX-like toxicity; regarding wahoo species, only 1 toxic sample (3.1%) was found. According to fishing location the contamination rates suggested grouping the islands in four clusters; namely: {El Hierro: HI; La Gomera: LG; La Palma: LP}, {Gran Canaria: GC; Tenerife: TF}, {Fuerteventura: FU} and {Lanzarote: LZ}. For the amberjack species, the multivariate logistic regression showed the factors that maintained independent association with the outcome, which were the warm season (OR = 3.617; 95% CI = 1.249-10.474), the weight (per kg, 1.102; 95% CI = 1.069-1.136) and the island of fish catching. A prediction score was obtained for the probability of contamination by CTX in amberjack fish samples. The area under de curve (AUC) obtained using the validation data was 0.747 (95% CI = 0.662-0.833). Regarding grouper species, the island of fishing was the only factor that showed significant differences associated with the presence of CTX-like toxicity. We provide herein data for a better management and prediction of ciguatera in the Canary Islands, suggesting a review of the minimum limits of fish weight established by the Canary Government for the control program.


Assuntos
Intoxicação por Ciguatera/epidemiologia , Ciguatoxinas/análise , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Peixes/parasitologia , Alimentos Marinhos/parasitologia , Animais , Ciguatoxinas/toxicidade , Ilhas , Alimentos Marinhos/estatística & dados numéricos , Espanha/epidemiologia
9.
Toxins (Basel) ; 11(4)2019 04 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31013948

RESUMO

Ciguatera Fish Poisoning is a worldwide concern caused by the consumption of fish contaminated with ciguatoxins not only in endemic regions in the Pacific Ocean or the Caribbean Sea but also in emerging areas of Macaronesia on the eastern Atlantic. The recent emergence of these toxins in other coastal areas worldwide, prompted the need for the characterization of the risk in these areas. This Ciguatera Fish Poisoning risk has been recently identified as a potential threat in subtropical areas of the Atlantic coast and scientific efforts are being focused in the identification and confirmation of the toxins involved in this potential risk. Neuroblastoma cell assay has been widely used for the evaluation of the toxicity in several marine biotoxin groups, and found to be a very useful tool for toxicity screening. LC-MS/MS has been also used for confirmatory purposes although the main limitation of the advances on LC-MS/MS development is due to commercial unavailability of reference materials and hampers method implementation and validation or even confirmation of the ciguatoxins (CTXs) responsible for the toxic profiles. While neuroblastoma cell assay (N2a) is typically used for toxicity screening as mentioned above, being necessary to confirm this N2a toxicity by LC-MS/MS, this study is designed using N2a as a tool to confirm the toxicity of the fractions obtained corresponding to potential CTXs analogues according to the analysis by LC-MS/MS. With this aim, an amberjack sample (Seriola fasciata) from Selvagen Islads (Portugal) and implicated in Ciguatera Fish Poisoning was analyzed by LC-MS/MS and Caribbean Ciguatoxins were found to be mainly responsible for the toxicity. N2a was used in this work as a tool to help in the confirmation of the toxicity of fractions obtained by HPLC. Caribbean Ciguatoxin-1 was found as the main analogue responsible for the N2a toxicity while three Caribbean Ciguatoxin-1 (C-CTX1) metabolites which contribute to the total toxicity were also identified.


Assuntos
Intoxicação por Ciguatera , Ciguatoxinas/análise , Perciformes , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Ciguatoxinas/toxicidade , Camundongos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
10.
J Phycol ; 55(3): 730-732, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30817008

RESUMO

The two most toxic Gambierdiscus species identified from the Caribbean are G. excentricus and G. silvae. These species are the primary causes of ciguatera fish poisoning and likely contribute disproportionately to the toxicity of marine food webs. While Gambierdiscus species are difficult to distinguish using light or scanning electron microscopy, reliable species-specific molecular identification methods have been developed and used successfully to identify a number of other Gambierdiscus species. Corresponding species-specific assays are not yet available for G. excentricus and G. silvae, which imposes limitations on species identification and related ecological studies. The following note describes species-specific polymerase chain reaction assays for G. excentricus and G. silvae that can be used for these purposes.


Assuntos
Intoxicação por Ciguatera , Ciguatoxinas , Dinoflagelados , Animais , Região do Caribe , Filogenia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase
11.
Infect Dis Clin North Am ; 33(1): 17-38, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30712761

RESUMO

This article discusses the epidemiology, prevention, clinical features, and treatment of venomous bites by snakes, lizards, and spiders; stings by fish, jellyfish, echinoderms, insects, and scorpions; and poisoning by ingestion of fish, turtles, and shellfish. Invertebrate stings cause fatalities by anaphylaxis, secondary to acquired hypersensitivity (Hymenoptera, such as bees, wasps, and ants; and jellyfish), and by direct envenoming (scorpions, spiders, jellyfish, and echinoderms). Simple preventive techniques, such as wearing protective clothing, using a flashlight at night, and excluding venomous animals from sleeping quarters, are of paramount importance to reduce the risk of venomous bites and stings.


Assuntos
Mordeduras e Picadas/epidemiologia , Mordeduras e Picadas/prevenção & controle , Mordeduras e Picadas/terapia , Animais , Antivenenos/uso terapêutico , Ásia/epidemiologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , Intoxicação por Ciguatera , Hemorragia/etiologia , Humanos , Intoxicação por Frutos do Mar
12.
Harmful Algae ; 81: 18-29, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30638495

RESUMO

Epibenthic dinoflagellates were monitored monthly over an 18 month period in Guadeloupe and Martinique (Lesser Antilles, Caribbean Sea). These islands are located in the second most affected ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) region of the world. Guadeloupe presented five times more total epibenthic dinoflagellates and two times less abundant Gambierdiscus spp. compared to Martinique, although the area of frequent CFP outbreaks covers Guadeloupe and not Martinique. Results did not show any clear seasonal variations of benthic dinoflagellates abundances. Temperature and salinity were not driving parameters in the evolution of total benthic dinoflagellate abundances. Preferential associations were found between macrophyte species and epibenthic dinoflagellates. The Phaeophyceae Dictyota spp. hosted the highest abundances of total epibenthic dinoflagellates, composed mainly of Ostrepsis and Prorocentrum genera. The seagrass Halophila stipulacea hosted the highest abundances of Gambierdiscus spp. and Sinophysis spp. whilst the highest abundance of Coolia was determined on Galaxaura spp. The pelagic Sargassum spp. hosted the lowest abundances of benthic dinoflagellates including the genus Gambierdiscus.


Assuntos
Intoxicação por Ciguatera , Dinoflagelados , Animais , Região do Caribe , Salinidade , Temperatura
13.
Food Chem ; 280: 8-14, 2019 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30642510

RESUMO

The increased emergence of Ciguatera Fish Poisoning in the Canary Islands and Madeira demanded the development of confirmatory methods by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry to characterize the risk. Efforts were particularly focused on the optimization of sample pretreatment, especially in the sample cleanup step, to efficiently remove matrix interferences as a critical factor to consider in mass spectrometry detection. Two different LC-MS/MS approaches have been used for confirmation purposes, the first one using the sodium adduct as precursor and product ion to allow an increased sensitivity in the detection, whereas additional fragments were also monitored for further confirmation. The optimized conditions above mentioned allowed the confirmation of Caribbean Ciguatoxin-1 as the main responsible for the samples analyzed from these geographical areas, while the presence of a new hydroxyl metabolite of C-CTX1 was also confirmed in one sample analyzed in this study.


Assuntos
Ciguatoxinas/análise , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Intoxicação por Ciguatera , Ciguatoxinas/isolamento & purificação , Peixes/metabolismo , Limite de Detecção , Alimentos Marinhos/análise , Extração em Fase Sólida , Espanha
15.
Toxins (Basel) ; 10(10)2018 10 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30347818

RESUMO

Ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) is a type of food poisoning caused by the consumption of a variety of toxic ciguatera fish species in the tropical and subtropical waters. Although there have been a large number of suspected CFP cases in the Southeast Asian countries, few were confirmed with causative ciguatoxins (CTXs), and reliable information on the symptoms still remains rather limited. In the present study, CTXs in red snapper Lutjanus bohar, implicated in two suspected CFP cases in Vietnam in 2014 and 2016, were determined by use of the single-quadrupole selected ion monitoring (SIM) liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS). Ciguatoxin-1B (CTX-1B), 54-deoxyCTX-1B, and 52-epi-54-deoxyCTX-1B were detected in the red snapper by our LC/MS method. Moreover, CTX-1B, 54-deoxyCTX-1B, and 52-epi-54-deoxyCTX-1B were further identified by the time of flight (TOF) LC/MS with the exact mass spectrum. The CTX profile of the red snapper in Vietnam is similar to those of ciguatera fish from Australia, Okinawa Islands in Japan, Kiribati, and Hong Kong. This is the first comprehensive report unambiguously identifying the causative toxins in fish implicated with reliable information on the poisoning symptoms in CFP in Vietnam and/or Southeast Asian countries.


Assuntos
Intoxicação por Ciguatera , Ciguatoxinas/análise , Peixes , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Animais , Monitoramento Ambiental , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Vietnã
16.
J Chromatogr A ; 1571: 16-28, 2018 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30100527

RESUMO

Ciguatera Fish Poisoning (CFP) is primarily caused by consumption of tropical and sub-tropical fish contaminated by Ciguatoxins (CTXs). These lipid-soluble, polyether neurotoxins are produced by dinoflagellates in the genera Gambierdiscus and Fukuyoa. While there is no regulatory level in Europe for CTXs, the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) adopted the United States guidance level of 0.01 µg P-CTX1B eq.kg-1 of fish. This limit is extremely low and requires significant improvement in the detection of CTXs. In this study, we compared analytical protocols based on liquid chromatography coupled to tandem low or high resolution mass spectrometry (LC-LRMS or HRMS) to find the best conditions for sensitivity and/or selectivity. Different approaches such as LC conditions, ion choice and acquisition modes, were evaluated to detect the Pacific-ciguatoxins (P-CTXs) on a triple quadrupole (API4000 Qtrap, Sciex) or a quadrupole time of flight (QTOF 6550, Agilent Technologies) spectrometer. Moreover, matrix effects were calculated using matrix-matched calibration solutions of P-CTX1B and P-CTX3C prepared in purified fish extract. Subsequently, the method performance was assessed on naturally contaminated samples of seafood and phytoplankton. With LRMS, the ammoniated adduct ion used as a precursor ion showed an advantage for selectivity through confirmatory transitions, without affecting signal-to-noise ratios, and hence limits of detection (LODs). As also reported by some studies in the literature, methanol-based mobile phase gave better selectivity and sensitivity for the detection of P-CTXs. While the LOD for P-CTX1B and P-CTX3C met the EFSA recommendation level when using LRMS, the findings suggested careful evaluation of instrumental parameters for determination of CTXs. LODs were significantly higher for HRMS, which currently results in the need for a significantly higher sample intake. Nevertheless, HRMS allowed for the identification of artefacts and may allow for improved confirmation of the identity of P-CTXs analogues. Consequently, LRMS and HRMS are considered complementary to ensure adequate quantitation and identification of P-CTXs.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida , Intoxicação por Ciguatera/diagnóstico , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Animais , Ciguatoxinas , Dinoflagelados/química , Europa (Continente) , Peixes , Limite de Detecção , Alimentos Marinhos/análise
17.
Harmful Algae ; 76: 58-65, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29887205

RESUMO

The occurrence of the ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) causative Gambierdiscus spp. was confirmed in the Sea of Japan for the first time in 2009. This paper reports seasonal distribution of Gambierdiscus spp. and epiphytic diatoms in the Sea of Japan. Monitoring results suggested an antagonistic interaction in abundances between epiphytic diatoms and the dinoflagellate Gambierdiscus spp. Allelopathic effects of diatoms were considered to be involved in the competitive phenomenon. Therefore it is hypothesized that cell densities of epiphytic pennate diatoms on macroalgae are a novel determinant affecting the abundance of Gambierdiscus spp. other than sea water temperature, salinity and nutrients. Monitorings of the abundance of epiphytic diatoms would lead us to predict the occurrences of Gambierdiscus spp. blooms in the CFP area, and thereby the CFP risk assessments would be developed. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that Gambierdiscus spp. in the Sea of Japan belonged to Gambierdiscus sp. type 2 which was reported to be non-toxic. Nevertheless, based on morphological characteristics, at least two types of Gambierdiscus spp. were found in the Sea of Japan. It is needed to test the toxicity of the both types of Gambierdiscus recognized in the present study for evaluation of the probability of CFP outbreak risks in the Sea of Japan in the future.


Assuntos
Diatomáceas/fisiologia , Dinoflagelados/fisiologia , Monitoramento Ambiental , Proliferação Nociva de Algas , Alelopatia , Intoxicação por Ciguatera , DNA Ribossômico/análise , Dinoflagelados/classificação , Dinoflagelados/citologia , Japão , Oceanos e Mares , Filogenia , Dinâmica Populacional , Água do Mar , Alga Marinha/fisiologia
18.
PLoS One ; 13(6): e0198358, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29924826

RESUMO

Lionfish, native to reef ecosystems of the tropical and sub-tropical Indo-Pacific, were introduced to Florida waters in the 1980s, and have spread rapidly throughout the northwestern Atlantic, Caribbean Sea and the Gulf of Mexico. These invasive, carnivorous fish significantly reduce other fish and benthic invertebrate biomass, fish recruitment, and species richness in reef ecosystems. Fisheries resource managers have proposed the establishment of a commercial fishery to reduce lionfish populations and mitigate adverse effects on reef communities. The potential for a commercial fishery for lionfish is the primary reason to identify locations where lionfish accumulate sufficient amounts of ciguatoxin (CTX) to cause ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP), the leading cause of non-bacterial seafood poisoning associated with fish consumption. To address this issue, an initial geographic assessment of CTX toxicity in lionfish from the Caribbean and Gulf of Mexico was conducted. Lionfish samples (n = 293) were collected by spearfishing from 13 locations (74 sampling sites) around the Caribbean and Gulf of Mexico between 2012 and 2015. The highest frequencies of lionfish containing measurable CTX occurred in areas known to be high-risk regions for CFP in the central to eastern Caribbean (e.g., 53% British Virgin Islands and 5% Florida Keys). Though measurable CTX was found in some locations, the majority of the samples (99.3%) contained CTX concentrations below the United States Food and Drug Administration guidance level of 0.1 ppb Caribbean ciguatoxin-1 (C-CTX-1) equivalents (eq.). Only 0.7% of lionfish tested contained more than 0.1 ppb C-CTX-1 eq. As of 2018, there has been one suspected case of CFP from eating lionfish. Given this finding, current risk reduction techniques used to manage CTX accumulating fish are discussed.


Assuntos
Ciguatoxinas/análise , Ciguatoxinas/toxicidade , Perciformes/metabolismo , Animais , Região do Caribe/epidemiologia , Linhagem Celular , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Intoxicação por Ciguatera/epidemiologia , Pesqueiros , Golfo do México/epidemiologia , Humanos , Espécies Introduzidas , Perciformes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Filogeografia
19.
Acta pediatr. esp ; 76(5/6): 68-71, mayo-jun. 2018. ilus, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-177400

RESUMO

En este artículo se describen las características del organismo productor de la ciguatera, su agente tóxico y su distribución en el mundo. Se comentan los síntomas de la enfermedad y los posibles tratamientos. Se incide en el hecho de que es una enfermedad rara en nuestro medio, pero se empieza a generalizar debido a los viajes internacionales a países endémicos, el comercio internacional e incluso el cambio climático


It describes the characteristics of the organism producing the ciguatera, the toxic and its distribution in the world. Symptoms of the disease and possible treatments are discussed. It is affected by the fact that it is a rare disease in our environment but is beginning to generalize due to international travel to endemic countries, international trade and even climate change


Assuntos
Humanos , Intoxicação por Ciguatera/epidemiologia , Intoxicação por Ciguatera/etiologia , Doenças Raras/epidemiologia , Gastroenteropatias/complicações , Dinoflagelados/isolamento & purificação , Intoxicação por Ciguatera/transmissão , Descontaminação , Antagonistas dos Receptores Histamínicos , Manitol , Intoxicação por Ciguatera/prevenção & controle
20.
Anal Chem ; 90(12): 7318-7324, 2018 06 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29770692

RESUMO

Ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) caused by the consumption of fish that have accumulated ciguatoxins (CTXs) affects more than 50000 people annually. The spread of CFP causes enormous damage to public health, fishery resources, and the economies of tropical and subtropical endemic regions. The difficulty in avoiding CFP arises from the lack of sensitive and reliable analytical methods for the detection and quantification of CTXs in contaminated fish, along with the normal appearance, smell, and taste of fish contaminated with the causative toxins. Thus, an accurate, sensitive, routine, and portable detection method for CTXs is urgently required. We have successfully developed a highly sensitive fluorescent sandwich ELISA, which can detect, differentiate, and quantify four major CTX congeners (CTX1B, CTX3C, 51-hydroxyCTX3C, and 54-deoxyCTX1B) with a detection limit of less than 1 pg/mL. The ELISA protocol, using one microtiter plate coated with two mAbs (10C9 and 3G8), and ALP-linked 8H4, can detect any of the four CTX congeners in a single operation. CTX1B spiked into fish at the FDA guidance level of 0.01 ppb CTX1B equivalent toxicity in fish from Pacific regions was also proven to be reliably detected by this ELISA. Furthermore, the efficiency of extraction/purification procedures and the matrix effect of contaminants in fish were evaluated in detail, since pretreatment and matrix effects are critical for ELISA analysis.


Assuntos
Intoxicação por Ciguatera/prevenção & controle , Ciguatoxinas/análise , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/métodos , Animais , Anticorpos Monoclonais , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/normas , Peixes , Humanos , Limite de Detecção , Alimentos Marinhos/envenenamento
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