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1.
PLoS One ; 14(6): e0218489, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31220134

RESUMO

Blooms of the toxic microalga Karenia brevis occur seasonally in Florida, Texas and other portions of the Gulf of Mexico. Brevetoxins produced during Karenia blooms can cause neurotoxic shellfish poisoning in humans, massive fish kills, and the death of marine mammals and birds. Brevetoxin-containing aerosols are an additional problem, having a severe impact on beachgoers, triggering coughing, eye and throat irritation in healthy individuals, and more serious respiratory distress in those with asthma or other breathing disorders. The blooms and associated aerosol impacts are patchy in nature, often affecting one beach but having no impact on an adjacent beach. To provide timely information to visitors about which beaches are low-risk, we developed HABscope; a low cost (~$400) microscope system that can be used in the field by citizen scientists with cell phones to enumerate K. brevis cell concentrations in the water along each beach. The HABscope system operates by capturing short videos of collected water samples and uploading them to a central server for rapid enumeration of K. brevis cells using calibrated recognition software. The HABscope has a detection threshold of about 100,000 cells, which is the point when respiratory risk becomes evident. Higher concentrations are reliably estimated up to 10 million cells L-1. When deployed by volunteer citizen scientists, the HABscope consistently distinguished low, medium, and high concentrations of cells in the water. The volunteers were able to collect data on most days during a severe bloom. This indicates that the HABscope can provide an effective capability to significantly increase the sampling coverage during Karenia brevis blooms.


Assuntos
Asma/prevenção & controle , Proliferação Nociva de Algas , Toxinas Marinhas/efeitos adversos , Oxocinas/efeitos adversos , Intoxicação por Frutos do Mar/epidemiologia , Aerossóis/efeitos adversos , Asma/epidemiologia , Dinoflagelados , Florida/epidemiologia , Golfo do México/epidemiologia , Humanos , Microalgas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Microalgas/patogenicidade , Intoxicação por Frutos do Mar/prevenção & controle , Texas/epidemiologia
2.
Sci Total Environ ; 651(Pt 2): 3222-3229, 2019 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30463170

RESUMO

Paralytic shellfish Toxins (PSTs) or saxitoxins are neurotoxins that block the neural transmission by binding to the voltage-gated sodium channels in the nerve cells. There are >50 analogues described, which could be biotransformed into a molecular form of greater or lesser toxicity. The Alagados Reservoir is used for water supply, and persistent cyanobacterial blooms as well as PSTs concentrations have been found in this water body since 2002. The aims of this study were to quantify the concentrations of PSTs in the water and fish samples from the Alagados Reservoir. In addition, we evaluated the elimination of PSTs for 90 days in fish and estimated the potential risk to human health. Water and fish samples were collected from the reservoir. For the water samples the phytoplankton and chemical analyses were carried out. Fish were divided into two sample times: Field Samples (FS) and Elimination Experiment Samples (EES), which were maintained for 90 days in filtered and dechlorinated water. For chemical analysis, the muscles of FS were collected on the fish sampling day and the muscles and feces of EES were collected at 7, 15, 30, 45, 60, 75 and 90 days. PSTs concentrations were present in water and fish samples, and they were estimated as a potential risk to humans; mainly for children. In addition, toxins were accumulated, biotransformed to other analogues and excreted by the fish. However, after 90 days, the toxins were still present in the water and fish muscle. Therefore, PSTs can remain for a long period in water, and fish can be a carrier of these neurotoxins. New approaches of monitoring and management are necessary in the actual global context of cyanobacteria and cyanotoxins.


Assuntos
Toxinas Marinhas/análise , Intoxicação por Frutos do Mar/epidemiologia , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluição da Água/estatística & dados numéricos , Abastecimento de Água/estatística & dados numéricos , Cianobactérias , Humanos , Fitoplâncton , Medição de Risco
3.
Clin Toxicol (Phila) ; 57(5): 331-337, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30451016

RESUMO

CONTEXT: This paper reports a detailed epidemiological investigation of a large Haff disease outbreak in Nanjing, China, including laboratory analysis of water, river sediment, and fish. METHODS: Structured questionnaires were administered to all case-patients. An unmatched case-control study was conducted to identify the factors affecting the incidence of Haff disease. Thirteen samples of crayfish, together with four samples of water and four samples of sediment were collected and sent for laboratory analysis. RESULTS: The disease onset of 494 patients occurred between 2 am on 30 June 2016 and 3 am on 29 August 2016. The median incubation time for onset of symptoms after crayfish ingestion was 7.1 hours (range: 1-20 hours). All patients presented with or developed local or diffuse myalgia. However, no kidney injury was observed. Serum creatinine kinase was elevated in all patients (mean: 4614 U/L, median: 2000 U/L, range: 81-55200 U/L). The average number of crayfish consumed by patients on the day of illness was 20 (2-80). The case-control study revealed that eating a large quantity of crayfish, drinking alcohol, and eating the crayfish head and/or intestines were associated with an increased risk of disease. Chemical analysis of crayfish, river water and sediment did not identify known or novel toxins including anticoccidiosis drugs, niclosamide, organophosphorus pesticides, and microcystins. CONCLUSION: An outbreak of Haff Disease was associated with consumption of crayfish from the Yangtze River and its surrounding water system. Eating a large quantity of crayfish, eating the head and/or intestines, and consuming alcohol with the crayfish were associated with the development of Haff Disease.


Assuntos
Astacoidea , Surtos de Doenças , Contaminação de Alimentos , Rabdomiólise/epidemiologia , Alimentos Marinhos/efeitos adversos , Intoxicação por Frutos do Mar/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Animais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tamanho da Porção , Rabdomiólise/diagnóstico , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Intoxicação por Frutos do Mar/diagnóstico , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
4.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 133: 911-919, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30041395

RESUMO

The occurrence of okadaic acid (OA) group toxins in bivalve mollusk collected from Vietnamese coastal areas was investigated from April 2016 to April 2017. OA group toxins were detected in mollusk by UPLC-MS/MS with the highest level of 11.3 ng/g and detection frequency of 11.8%. Toxins were detected more frequently in dry season (14.4% of analyzed samples) than in wet season (7.9%). Toxins were also detected more frequently at sampling locations in the northern parts (≥10.4%) than in the southern part (≤8.3%) of Vietnamese coastline. Results of this study were similar to those obtained in long-term studies in regions geographically close to Vietnam, confirming decisive influence of geographic location on the accumulation of toxins in mollusks. Within the scope of the study, toxin levels in all contaminated samples were below the regulation limit (160 ng/g), but the presence of OA group toxins in bivalve mollusk suggests the need of a more stringent control of toxins in bivalve mollusk in Vietnam.


Assuntos
Bivalves/química , Toxinas Marinhas/química , Intoxicação por Frutos do Mar/etiologia , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Humanos , Toxinas Marinhas/toxicidade , Ácido Okadáico/análise , Ácido Okadáico/toxicidade , Estações do Ano , Intoxicação por Frutos do Mar/epidemiologia , Análise Espacial , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Vietnã/epidemiologia
5.
Mar Drugs ; 16(6)2018 May 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29844286

RESUMO

Massive phytoplankton proliferation, and the consequent release of toxic metabolites, can be responsible for seafood poisoning outbreaks: filter-feeding mollusks, such as shellfish, mussels, oysters or clams, can accumulate these toxins throughout the food chain and present a threat for consumers' health. Particular environmental and climatic conditions favor this natural phenomenon, called harmful algal blooms (HABs); the phytoplankton species mostly involved in these toxic events are dinoflagellates or diatoms belonging to the genera Alexandrium, Gymnodinium, Dinophysis, and Pseudo-nitzschia. Substantial economic losses ensue after HABs occurrence: the sectors mainly affected include commercial fisheries, tourism, recreational activities, and public health monitoring and management. A wide range of symptoms, from digestive to nervous, are associated to human intoxication by biotoxins, characterizing different and specific syndromes, called paralytic shellfish poisoning, amnesic shellfish poisoning, diarrhetic shellfish poisoning, and neurotoxic shellfish poisoning. This review provides a complete and updated survey of phycotoxins usually found in marine invertebrate organisms and their relevant properties, gathering information about the origin, the species where they were found, as well as their mechanism of action and main effects on humans.


Assuntos
Toxinas Marinhas/toxicidade , Fitoplâncton/química , Intoxicação por Frutos do Mar/etiologia , Frutos do Mar/toxicidade , Animais , Bivalves/parasitologia , Cadeia Alimentar , Proliferação Nociva de Algas , Humanos , Ostreidae/parasitologia , Água do Mar , Intoxicação por Frutos do Mar/epidemiologia , Intoxicação por Frutos do Mar/prevenção & controle
6.
Toxins (Basel) ; 10(3)2018 02 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29495579

RESUMO

Ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) is the most prevalent non-bacterial food-borne form of poisoning in French Polynesia, which results from the consumption of coral reef fish naturally contaminated with ciguatoxins produced by dinoflagellates in the genus Gambierdiscus. Since the early 2000s, this French territory has also witnessed the emergence of atypical forms of ciguatera, known as ciguatera shellfish poisoning (CSP), associated with the consumption of marine invertebrates. In June 2014, nine tourists simultaneously developed a major and persistent poisoning syndrome following the consumption of the gastropod Tectus niloticus collected in Anaho, a secluded bay of Nuku Hiva Island (Marquesas Archipelago, French Polynesia). The unusual nature and severity of this event prompted a multidisciplinary investigation in order to characterize the etiology and document the short/long-term health consequences of this mass-poisoning event. This paper presents the results of clinical investigations based on hospital medical records, medical follow-up conducted six and 20 months post-poisoning, including a case description. This study is the first to describe the medical signature of T. niloticus poisoning in French Polynesia and contributed to alerting local authorities about the potential health hazards associated with the consumption of this gastropod, which is highly prized by local communities in Pacific island countries and territories.


Assuntos
Intoxicação por Ciguatera/epidemiologia , Gastrópodes , Intoxicação por Frutos do Mar/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Ciguatoxinas/análise , Surtos de Doenças , Feminino , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Gastrópodes/química , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polinésia/epidemiologia
7.
Toxins (Basel) ; 10(3)2018 02 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29495583

RESUMO

Domoic Acid (DA) is a marine-based neurotoxin. Dietary exposure to high levels of DA via shellfish consumption has been associated with Amnesic Shellfish Poisoning, with milder memory decrements found in Native Americans (NAs) with repetitive, lower level exposures. Despite its importance for protective action, the clinical relevance of these milder memory problems remains unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine whether repeated, lower-level exposures to DA impact everyday memory (EM), i.e., the frequency of memory failures in everyday life. A cross-sectional sample of 60 NA men and women from the Pacific NW was studied with measures of dietary exposure to DA via razor clam (RC) consumption and EM. Findings indicated an association between problems with EM and elevated consumption of RCs with low levels of DA throughout the previous week and past year after controlling for age, sex, and education. NAs who eat a lot of RCs with presumably safe levels of DA are at risk for clinically significant memory problems. Public health outreach to minimize repetitive exposures are now in place and were facilitated by the use of community-based participatory research methods, with active involvement of state regulatory agencies, tribe leaders, and local physicians.


Assuntos
Bivalves , Exposição Dietética/efeitos adversos , Ácido Caínico/análogos & derivados , Toxinas Marinhas/toxicidade , Memória/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurotoxinas/toxicidade , Intoxicação por Frutos do Mar/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Exposição Dietética/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Contaminação de Alimentos , Humanos , Ácido Caínico/toxicidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Saúde Pública , Pesquisa , Intoxicação por Frutos do Mar/etiologia , Adulto Jovem
8.
Pan Afr Med J ; 30(Suppl 1): 7, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30858911

RESUMO

The investigation of foodborne outbreaks requires a multi-disciplinary set of skills. Frequently, foodborne-related outbreaks are poorly investigated due to lack of all required skills on the part of the investigators. This case study, based on a shellfish poisoning outbreak investigation conducted in Wete, Zanzibar in July 2015 by the Tanzania Field Epidemiology Training Program (TFETP), seeks to reinforce principles and skills in foodborne outbreak investigation. It is primarily intended for training public health practitioners in a classroom setting. Facilitating this case study should take approximately 3 hours.


Assuntos
Epidemiologia/educação , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/epidemiologia , Saúde Pública/educação , Intoxicação por Frutos do Mar/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Humanos , Competência Profissional , Tanzânia/epidemiologia
9.
Harmful Algae ; 68: 31-39, 2017 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28962988

RESUMO

Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) caused the deaths of four people in coastal area of Korea, mainly Jinhae-Masan Bay and adjacent areas, in April 1986 and in 1996. The PSP outbreaks were caused by the consumption of mussels, Mytilus edulis. The organism that caused PSP was identified, from morphological data only, as Alexandrium tamarense which is recently renamed as A. catenella, however recent studies have shown that the morphological diagnostic characteristics used to identify Alexandrium species have uncertainties and molecular tools and other criteria should be considered as well. The organism that caused past PSP outbreaks and incidents in Korea therefore need to be carefully reconsidered. The aim of this study was to re-evaluate the species really responsible for past outbreaks of PSP in Jinhae-Masan Bay, Korea. The temporal production and fluxes of the resting cysts of Alexandrium species were investigated for one year (from March 2011 to February 2012) using a sediment trap, and the morphology and phylogeny of vegetative cells germinated from the resting cysts were analysed. The production of Alexandrium species peaked in August and November, when temporal discrepancies were found in the water temperature (22.4 and 22.7°C in August, 19.1 and 19.6°C in November) and salinity (29.5 and 26.1 psu in August, 30.5 and 31.8 psu in November). The morphological data revealed that Alexandrium species germinated from resting cysts collected in August have a ventral pore on the 1' plate, whereas the 1' plate in Alexandrium species germinated from resting cysts collected in November lacks a ventral pore. Molecular phylogenetic data for the vegetative cells from the germination experiments allowed the August and November peaks to be assigned to Alexandrium catenella (Group I) and A. pacificum (Group IV), respectively. This indicates that the production of resting cysts of A. catenella can be enhanced by relatively high water temperature. This result is not consistent with those of previous studies that A. catenella responsible for PSP outbreaks was found at relatively low water temperature. In addition, large subunit ribosomal sequences data revealed that A. pacificum isolates from Korea were closely related to those from Australia, Japan and New Zealand where the PSP toxicity of shellfish and blooms occurred in the 1990s, indicating that the introduction of toxic dinoflagellates were related to ballast water from bulk-cargo shipping. Based on these results, we concluded that past PSP outbreaks in Jinhae-Masan Bay of Korea could have been caused by A. pacificum rather than by A. catenella.


Assuntos
Dinoflagelados/fisiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Paralisia/epidemiologia , Intoxicação por Frutos do Mar/epidemiologia , Dinoflagelados/ultraestrutura , Geografia , Humanos , Funções Verossimilhança , Filogenia , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Estações do Ano , Especificidade da Espécie , Temperatura
10.
Harmful Algae ; 57(Pt B): 9-19, 2016 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28918893

RESUMO

The CoASTAL cohort represents the first community cohort assembled to study a HAB-related illness. It is comprised of three Native American tribes in the Pacific NW for the purpose of studying the health impacts of chronic, low level domoic acid (DA) exposure through razor clam consumption. This cohort is at risk of DA toxicity by virtue of their geographic location (access to beaches with a history of elevated DA levels in razor clams) and the cultural and traditional significance of razor clams in their diet. In this prospective, longitudinal study, Wave 1 of the cohort was comprised of 678 members across the human lifespan, with both sexes represented within child, adult, and geriatric age groups. All participants were followed annually with standard measures of medical and social history; neuropsychological functions, psychological status, and dietary exposure. DA concentrations were measured at both public and reservation beaches where razor clams are acquired. Multiple metrics were piloted to further determine exposure. Baseline data indicated that all cognitive and psychological functions were within normal limits. In addition, there was considerable variability in razor clam exposure. Therefore, the CoASTAL cohort offers a unique opportunity to investigate the potential health effects of chronic, low level exposure to DA over time.


Assuntos
Dieta , Exposição Ambiental , Índios Norte-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Bivalves , Criança , Intoxicação por Ciguatera/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Ácido Caínico/análogos & derivados , Ácido Caínico/análise , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Noroeste dos Estados Unidos , Estudos Prospectivos , Água do Mar/química , Intoxicação por Frutos do Mar/epidemiologia , Poluentes Químicos da Água
11.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 12(8): 9154-68, 2015 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26258783

RESUMO

To investigate the association of the hygiene index values of live fresh aquatic products and food-borne diarrhea in the population of the Ningbo area in China. Volatile basic nitrogen (VBN), histamine (HIS), indole, tetrodotoxin (TTX), and paralytic, neurotoxic, amnesic and diarrhetic shellfish poisons (PSP, NSP, ASP, and DSP, respectively) in the samples of live fresh aquatic products and food-borne diarrhea cases in six studied districts were analyzed. Results indicate that the incidence rate of food-borne diarrhea is related to the hygiene index values. Aside from VBN, the main risk factors related to food-borne diarrhea in edible aquatic products include DSP (in marine fish, shrimp, and other shellfishes), NSP, and ASP (in marine shrimp and crab). Hygiene index values among different species were significantly different. No significant difference in the monitoring index values was found among the six different studied districts. The reported cases of food-borne diarrhea were positively associated with VBN and DSP in aquatic products in Haishu, Jiangbei, Zhenhai, and Beilun, as well as VBN and NSP in aquatic products in Jiangdong and Yinzhou. In conclusion, VBN, DSP, NSP, and ASP are important risk factors for the occurring of food-borne diarrhea in the population of the Ningbo area in China.


Assuntos
Diarreia/epidemiologia , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Alimentos Marinhos/análise , Intoxicação por Frutos do Mar/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , Cidades , Diarreia/etiologia , Humanos , Intoxicação por Frutos do Mar/etiologia
12.
BMC Res Notes ; 8: 74, 2015 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25890043

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: During an October 2005 algal bloom (i.e., a rapid increase or accumulation in the population of algae) off the coast of Nicaragua, 45 people developed symptoms of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) and one person died. PSP in humans is caused by ingestion of saxitoxin, which is a neurotoxin often associated with shellfish contaminated by algal blooms. To explore the relationship between the algal bloom and human illnesses, we performed a case-control study of residents living in a coastal island. We administered a standardized clinical questionnaire, sampled locally harvested seafood and algae, and obtained urine samples for saxitoxin testing from symptomatic and asymptomatic persons. PSP case-patients were defined as island residents who developed at least one neurological symptom during the November 4-16 intoxication period. Seafood and algal samples were analyzed for saxitoxins using the receptor-binding assay and high-performance liquid chromatography. Two urine samples were analyzed for saxitoxins using a newly developed immunoassay. FINDINGS: Three shellfish and two algal samples tested positive for saxitoxins. Ten (9%) of 107 participants developed neurological symptoms during the specified time period and five required hospitalization. While 6 (67%) of 9 possible case-patients and 21 (21%) of 98 controls had eaten fish (p=0.008), all case-patients and 17 (17%) of controls had eaten clams (P<0.0001). The saxitoxin concentration in the urine of a hospitalized case-patient was 21 ng saxitoxin/g creatinine compared to 0.16 ng saxitoxin/g creatinine in the single control patient's urine. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that a bloom of saxitoxin-producing algae resulted in saxitoxin accumulation in local clams and was responsible for the PSP intoxication.


Assuntos
Proliferação Nociva de Algas , Intoxicação por Frutos do Mar/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Surtos de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Nicarágua/epidemiologia , Alimentos Marinhos , Intoxicação por Frutos do Mar/etiologia , Adulto Jovem
13.
Foodborne Pathog Dis ; 12(2): 131-8, 2015 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25646967

RESUMO

Vibrio parahaemolyticus carrying the tdh gene, encoding the thermostable direct hemolysin (TDH), or the trh gene, encoding the TDH-related hemolysin (TRH), are both considered virulent strains. There are, however, disproportionally fewer reports of infections caused by seafood contaminated with trh-positive strains than by seafood contaminated with tdh-positive strains. Bivalves such as clams and oysters are the major seafood varieties associated with the infections. In this study, the prevalence of strains possessing the tdh and trh genes was investigated in Japan in 74 samples collected in 2007-2008 and in 177 samples collected in 2010 of domestic bivalves, bloody clams, hen clams, short-neck clams, and rock oysters. The tdh-positive and trh-negative, tdh-negative and trh-positive, and tdh-positive and trh-positive samples represented 5.4%, 12.2%, and 4.1% of all samples collected in 2007-2008, and 5.1%, 18.6%, and 5.6% of all samples collected in 2010, respectively. As determined by polymerase chain reaction, the prevalence of tdh negative and trh positive in all samples was two to four times higher than that of tdh positive and trh negative. In the samples collected in 2010, the tdh-negative and trh-positive V. parahaemolyticus (20 samples) was more often isolated than tdh-positive and trh-negative V. parahaemolyticus (7 samples). The most common serotype of tdh-positive isolates (22 of 24 strains) was pandemic O3:K6. The trh-positive isolates (61 strains) were various serotypes including OUT:KUT. In 330 V. parahaemolyticus outbreaks and sporadic infections in Japan, most outbreaks and sporadic infections were caused by tdh-positive and trh-negative strains (89.4%). The frequencies of infections caused by tdh-negative and trh-positive, and both tdh- and trh-positive strains were 1.2% and 3.0%, respectively. This finding suggests that the virulence of trh might be less than that of tdh, although trh-positive V. parahaemolyticus frequently contaminated bivalves.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/toxicidade , Bivalves/microbiologia , Proteínas Hemolisinas/toxicidade , Intoxicação por Frutos do Mar/etiologia , Frutos do Mar/efeitos adversos , Vibrio parahaemolyticus/patogenicidade , Fatores de Virulência/análise , Animais , Arcidae/microbiologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/análise , Proteínas de Bactérias/química , Toxinas Bacterianas/análise , Toxinas Bacterianas/química , Toxinas Bacterianas/toxicidade , Crassostrea/microbiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Eletroforese em Gel de Campo Pulsado , Proteínas Hemolisinas/análise , Proteínas Hemolisinas/química , Temperatura Alta , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Tipagem Molecular , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Estabilidade Proteica , Frutos do Mar/análise , Frutos do Mar/economia , Frutos do Mar/microbiologia , Intoxicação por Frutos do Mar/epidemiologia , Intoxicação por Frutos do Mar/microbiologia , Vibrioses/epidemiologia , Vibrioses/microbiologia , Vibrio parahaemolyticus/classificação , Vibrio parahaemolyticus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Vibrio parahaemolyticus/isolamento & purificação , Virulência , Fatores de Virulência/química
14.
Epidemiol Infect ; 143(12): 2486-93, 2015 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25567093

RESUMO

The presence of norovirus in shellfish is a public health concern in Europe. Here, we report the results of an investigation into a norovirus gastroenteritis outbreak following a festive lunch which affected 84 (57%) residents and staff members of a nursing home in January 2012 in France. Individuals who had eaten oysters had a significantly higher risk of developing symptoms in the following 2·5 days than those who had not, the risk increasing with the amount eaten [relative risk 2·2 (1·0-4·6) and 3·3 (1·6-6·6) for 3-4 and 5-12 oysters, respectively]. In healthy individuals during those days, 29 (32%) subsequently became ill, most of whom were staff members performing activities in close contact with residents. Genogroup II noroviruses were detected in faecal samples, in a sample of uneaten oysters and in oysters from the production area. Identifying a norovirus's infectious dose may facilitate the health-related management of contaminated shellfish.


Assuntos
Infecções por Caliciviridae/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Pessoal de Saúde , Norovirus , Ostreidae/virologia , Intoxicação por Frutos do Mar/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Infecções por Caliciviridae/transmissão , França/epidemiologia , Gastroenterite/virologia , Humanos , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa do Paciente para o Profissional , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Casas de Saúde , Estudos Retrospectivos , Intoxicação por Frutos do Mar/virologia
15.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 22(2): 1545-53, 2015 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25167824

RESUMO

With the increasing number of outbreaks of food-borne diseases caused by okadaic acid (OA) and its analogue dinophysistoxin-1 (DTX-1), two key diarrhetic shellfish poison (DSP) toxins, OA and DTX-1, have become a serious threat to public health and have attracted significant public attention in China. The aim of our study was to monitor OA and DTX-1 contamination in commercially available seafood and to provide references for tracking these toxins and preventing disease outbreaks. From 2010 to 2012, 40 species were collected from six coastal cities of four inland seas in China. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and a lateral flow immunochromatographic (LFIC) test strip were used to analyse the samples, and the results were further confirmed using a commercially available ELISA kit. The monitoring results indicated that 23 of 40 species were positive for contamination. In addition, 14 of the positive species were determined to be inedible because the content of OA and DTX-1 was above the regulatory limit. Simultaneously, we verified that the digestive glands of shellfish tended to accumulate toxin, in contrast to the flesh. The highest concentrations of OA and DTX-1 were recorded in Scapharca broughtonii, which was collected from Qing Dao, in relation to the other analysed species. Moreover, the Arca family as well as Mytilus galloprovincialis were severely contaminated by OA and its analogue. The above results indicate that some of the commercially available seafood from the coastal cities in China may be inedible due to serious marine toxin contamination. The results of this study might play an important role in protecting consumer health and safety screening of marine products.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Toxinas Marinhas/análise , Intoxicação por Frutos do Mar/epidemiologia , Frutos do Mar/análise , Animais , China/epidemiologia , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/métodos , Oceanos e Mares , Ácido Okadáico/análise , Piranos/análise , Especificidade da Espécie
16.
J Wildl Dis ; 50(4): 933-7, 2014 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25098307

RESUMO

Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) is an acute toxic illness in humans resulting from ingestion of shellfish contaminated with a suite of neurotoxins (saxitoxins) produced by marine dinoflagellates, most commonly in the genus Alexandrium. Poisoning also has been sporadically suspected and, less often, documented in marine wildlife, often in association with an outbreak in humans. Kittlitz's Murrelet (Brachyramphus brevirostris) is a small, rare seabird of the Northern Pacific with a declining population. From 2008 to 2012, as part of a breeding ecology study, multiple Kittlitz's Murrelet nests on Kodiak Island, Alaska, were monitored by remote cameras. During the 2011 and 2012 breeding seasons, nestlings from several sites died during mild weather conditions. Remote camera observations revealed that the nestlings died shortly after consuming sand lance (Ammodytes hexapterus), a fish species known to biomagnify saxitoxin. High levels of saxitoxin were subsequently documented in crop content in 87% of nestling carcasses. Marine bird deaths from PSP may be underreported.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves/mortalidade , Charadriiformes , Intoxicação por Frutos do Mar/veterinária , Alaska/epidemiologia , Animais , Doenças das Aves/epidemiologia , Monitoramento Ambiental , Peixes , Contaminação de Alimentos , Intoxicação por Frutos do Mar/epidemiologia , Fatores de Tempo
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24974651

RESUMO

Occurrence, population density and virulence of Vibrio parahaemolyticus and V. vulnificus in 240 retail raw oysters collected monthly between March 2010 and February 2011 from Ang Sila coast, Chon Buri Province, Thailand were determined using most probable number (MPN) multiplex PCR. Multiplex PCR detected V. parahaemolyticus in 219 raw oyster samples, of which 29 samples contained the virulence tdh. MPN values for V. parahaemolyticus and pathogenic strains in most samples ranged from 10 to 10(2) and from 3 to 10 MPN/g, respectively. The presence of V. vulnificus was found in 53 oyster samples in amounts between 10 and 10(2) MPN/g. Of 1,087 V. parahaemolyticus isolates, 14 and 2 isolates carried tdh and virulence trh, respectively but none with both genes. However, none of the presumptive isolates was shown to be V. vulnificus. The detection of pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus and V. vulnificus in raw oysters has rendered high awareness of risk in consumption of raw or undercooked oysters.


Assuntos
Ostreidae/microbiologia , Intoxicação por Frutos do Mar/epidemiologia , Vibrio parahaemolyticus/isolamento & purificação , Vibrio vulnificus/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Técnicas Bacteriológicas , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Qualidade de Produtos para o Consumidor , Contaminação de Alimentos , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos , Medição de Risco , Tailândia/epidemiologia , Vibrio parahaemolyticus/genética , Vibrio parahaemolyticus/patogenicidade , Vibrio vulnificus/genética , Vibrio vulnificus/patogenicidade , Virulência
18.
Toxicon ; 79: 28-36, 2014 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24418175

RESUMO

Toxins known to cause Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning (PSP) syndrome in humans that can have serious economic consequences for aquaculture were determined in ascidians of the genus Microcosmus. Significant concentrations of toxins were confirmed in all tested samples collected from the western coast of Istria Peninsula (Adriatic Sea, Croatia) when six people were poisoned following the consumption of fresh ascidians. Several species of bivalves that were under continuous monitoring had not accumulated PSP toxins although they were exposed to the same environmental conditions over the survey period. In the present study, HPLC-FLD with pre-column oxidation of PSP toxins has been carried out to provide evidence for the first human intoxication due to consumption of PSP toxic ascidians (Microcosmus vulgaris, Heller, 1877) harvested from the Adriatic Sea. Qualitative analysis established the presence of six PSP toxins: saxitoxin (STX), decarbamoylsaxitoxin (dcSTX), gonyautoxins 2 and 3 (GTX2,3), decarbamoylgonyautoxins 2 and 3 (dcGTX2,3), gonyautoxin 5 (GTX5) and N-sulfocarbamoylgonyautoxins 1 and 2 (C1,2), while quantitative analysis suggested STX and GTX2,3 as dominant toxin types and the ones that contribute the most to the overall toxicity of these samples with concentrations near the regulatory limit.


Assuntos
Toxinas Marinhas/análise , Saxitoxina/análogos & derivados , Alimentos Marinhos/efeitos adversos , Intoxicação por Frutos do Mar/epidemiologia , Urocordados/química , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Croácia , Feminino , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Humanos , Masculino , Saxitoxina/análise , Intoxicação por Frutos do Mar/etiologia
19.
Commun Dis Intell Q Rep ; 38(4): E273-8, 2014 Dec 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25631587

RESUMO

In 2013, an outbreak of gastrointestinal illness occurred following a buffet lunch at a restaurant in Canberra. An investigation was conducted to identify the cause of illness and to implement appropriate public health measures to prevent further disease. We conducted a retrospective cohort study via telephone interviews, using a structured questionnaire developed from the restaurant buffet menu. A case was defined as someone who ate the buffet lunch at the restaurant on the implicated date and developed any symptoms of gastrointestinal illness (such as diarrhoea, abdominal pain and nausea) following the consumption of food. A total of 74% (225/303) of known attendees were interviewed, of whom 56% (125/225) had become ill. The median incubation period and duration of illness were 13 and 19 hours respectively. The most commonly reported symptoms were diarrhoea (94%, 118/125) and abdominal pain (82%, 103/125). A toxin-mediated gastrointestinal illness was suspected based on the incubation period, duration of illness and the symptoms. The environmental health investigation identified a lack of designated hand washing facilities in the kitchen, an absence of thermometers for measuring food temperatures and several maintenance and minor cleaning issues. A number of food samples were taken for microbiological analysis. Multivariable analysis showed that illness was significantly associated with consuming curried prawns (OR 18.4, 95% CI 8.6-39.3, P < 0.001) and Caesar salad (OR 3.6, 95% CI 1.8-7.5, P 0.001). Enterotoxin-producing Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus were identified in leftover samples of cooked buffet food, but this food was not epidemiologically implicated. The investigation suggested that a breakdown in cleanliness, temperature control and food handling practices may have resulted in contamination of the buffet food. In order to prevent such outbreaks in the future, caterers and restaurateurs need to ensure they have the appropriate facilities and procedures in place if planning to cater for large groups.


Assuntos
Diarreia/diagnóstico , Surtos de Doenças , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/diagnóstico , Gastroenterite/diagnóstico , Intoxicação por Frutos do Mar/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Adulto , Austrália/epidemiologia , Bacillus cereus/isolamento & purificação , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Diarreia/microbiologia , Feminino , Manipulação de Alimentos/ética , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/microbiologia , Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Gastroenterite/microbiologia , Higiene das Mãos , Humanos , Lactente , Almoço , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Restaurantes , Intoxicação por Frutos do Mar/epidemiologia , Intoxicação por Frutos do Mar/microbiologia , Staphylococcus aureus/isolamento & purificação , Inquéritos e Questionários
20.
Biofizika ; 59(3): 565-78, 2014.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25715602

RESUMO

Accumulation of paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins (PSTs) in bivalves attributed to Gymnodinium catenatum blooms at the NW Portuguese coast was previously associated with periods of low solar activity (measured by the radio flux [R]), or low geomagnetic A(a) index. It was also observed that reduction of R preceded the occurrence of toxin accumulation, while A(a) index increase could be related to its absence during periods of low activity. For modeling toxin accumulation, the monthly decrease in R was studied along the decade 2003-2012. A match that helped explaining the highly toxic years of 2007 and 2008 was obtained by plotting the formula: ΔR = (R(n-1) - R(n))/(R(n) - 65)2, where 65 represented the lowest radio activity known to date. The complex denominator was required to take into account the sunspot cycle. A 1-2 month lag was observed between maximal relative decline and maximal PSTs accumulation. PSTs in bivalves from the Portuguese south coast were related with natural electromagnetic cycles for the first time, and were not statistically associated with low R. A statistically significant association with low A(a) index also was not achieved, due to the low number of occurrences, although the 25-75 percentile was restricted to low Aa indexes in a similar way to that found for the NW coast. PSTs accumulation outside solar minima could be triggered by a steep decline in the A(a) index (ΔA), but no lag was observed in this case. While ΔR amplitude helped explaining the highly toxic years of 2007 and 2008 at the NW coast, the amplitude of ΔA was not related to the severity of the accumulation. Other kind of local electromagnetic signaling was investigated resorting to the occurrence of seismologic phenomena, because these events can trigger electric activities. No statistical association was found between seism number or magnitude and PSTs at the south coast, located near the boundary between the African and Eurasian plates, and marked by moderate seismicity.


Assuntos
Dinoflagelados/metabolismo , Surtos de Doenças , Proliferação Nociva de Algas/efeitos da radiação , Toxinas Marinhas/metabolismo , Modelos Biológicos , Intoxicação por Frutos do Mar , Luz Solar , Animais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Portugal/epidemiologia , Intoxicação por Frutos do Mar/epidemiologia , Intoxicação por Frutos do Mar/etiologia
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