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1.
Life Sci ; 242: 117183, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31874167

RESUMO

The kidney is a vital organ responsible for regulating water, electrolyte and acid-base balance as well as eliminating toxic substances from the blood in the body. Exposure of humans to heavy metals in their natural and occupational environments, foods, water, and drugs has serious implications on the kidney's health. The accumulation of heavy metals in the kidney has been linked to acute or chronic renal injury, kidney stones or even renal cancer, at the expense of expensive treatment options. Therefore, unearthing novel biomarkers and potential therapeutic agents or targets against kidney injury for efficient treatment are imperative. The calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR), a G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) is typically expressed in the parathyroid glands and renal tubules. It modulates parathyroid hormone secretion according to the serum calcium (Ca2+) concentration. In the kidney, it modulates electrolyte and water excretion by regulating the function of diverse tubular segments. Notably, CaSR lowers passive and active Ca2+ reabsorption in distal tubules, which facilitates phosphate reabsorption in proximal tubules and stimulates proton and water excretion in collecting ducts. Moreover, at the cellular level, modulation of the CaSR regulates cytosolic Ca2+ levels, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling cascades as well as autophagy and the suppression of apoptosis, an effect predominantly triggered by heavy metals. In this regard, we present a review on the CaSR at the cellular level and its potential as a therapeutic target for the development of new and efficient drugs against heavy metals-induced nephrotoxicity.


Assuntos
Nefropatias/induzido quimicamente , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Receptores de Detecção de Cálcio/metabolismo , Animais , Intoxicação por Metais Pesados/metabolismo , Humanos , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptores de Detecção de Cálcio/fisiologia
2.
Molecules ; 24(18)2019 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31489907

RESUMO

The present article reviews the clinical use of thiol-based metal chelators in intoxications and overexposure with mercury (Hg), cadmium (Cd), and lead (Pb). Currently, very few commercially available pharmaceuticals can successfully reduce or prevent the toxicity of these metals. The metal chelator meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) is considerably less toxic than the classical agent British anti-Lewisite (BAL, 2,3-dimercaptopropanol) and is the recommended agent in poisonings with Pb and organic Hg. Its toxicity is also lower than that of DMPS (dimercaptopropane sulfonate), although DMPS is the recommended agent in acute poisonings with Hg salts. It is suggested that intracellular Cd deposits and cerebral deposits of inorganic Hg, to some extent, can be mobilized by a combination of antidotes, but clinical experience with such combinations are lacking. Alpha-lipoic acid (α-LA) has been suggested for toxic metal detoxification but is not considered a drug of choice in clinical practice. The molecular mechanisms and chemical equilibria of complex formation of the chelators with the metal ions Hg2+, Cd2+, and Pb2+ are reviewed since insight into these reactions can provide a basis for further development of therapeutics.


Assuntos
Quelantes/uso terapêutico , Complexos de Coordenação/uso terapêutico , Intoxicação por Metais Pesados/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Intoxicação por Cádmio/tratamento farmacológico , Quelantes/química , Complexos de Coordenação/química , Humanos , Intoxicação por Chumbo/tratamento farmacológico , Intoxicação por Mercúrio/tratamento farmacológico , Estrutura Molecular
3.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(28): 28787-28795, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31385245

RESUMO

The levels of toxic metals (Al, Cd, Pb) and trace metals (B, Ba, Cu, Fe, Mn, Sr, Zn) were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) in the muscle (sirloin and chuck) and liver from a total of 180 samples of steers (less than 2 years old) (Bos taurus) of foreign and local origin slaughtered on the island of La Palma (Canary Islands, Spain). As regards toxic metals, Al was the metal with the highest contents in both tissues of the foreign steers (3.75 mg/kg in the muscle and 55.3 mg/kg in the liver) and the local steers (5.60 mg/kg in the muscle and 8.65 mg/kg in the liver). In conclusion, the present study confirmed that beef is a source of trace elements, mainly Fe and Zn. In addition, the consumption of this type of beef did not show significant intakes of toxic metals (Al, Cd, and Pb) and, therefore, the consumption of the steer muscle and liver does not pose a toxicological risk for Spanish consumers.


Assuntos
Alumínio/análise , Cádmio/análise , Chumbo/análise , Fígado/química , Músculos/química , Oligoelementos/análise , Alumínio/química , Animais , Cádmio/química , Bovinos , Intoxicação por Metais Pesados , Humanos , Chumbo/química , Fígado/metabolismo , Músculos/metabolismo , Medição de Risco , Espanha , Oligoelementos/química
4.
Environ Monit Assess ; 191(9): 530, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31372746

RESUMO

Activities in the Bangladeshi leather industries have the potential to cause chemical pollutions thereby deteriorating the working environments, the surrounding residential areas, or even foodstuffs. Therefore, it is important to determine the chemical exposures among the industry workers and residents of the surrounding areas who may be directly or indirectly impacted by the contaminated environment. This study focused on evaluating the hazard arising from exposure to metals due to industrial contamination. Tissue samples of hair and nails were collected from both the leather industry workers and residents in the vicinity of the industries. Using chromium as an indicator of contamination/exposure from the leather industry, it was the most significant metal contaminant for industry workers ranging from 21.85 to 483 mg/kg and for industry-neighboring residents at 6.01 to 296.16 mg/kg. Both the workers and neighboring residents were found to be excessively exposed (P < 0.05) to chromium compared with the investigated control group of people living in a distant village area which had no industrial establishments.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluição Ambiental , Intoxicação por Metais Pesados , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Exposição Ocupacional , Bangladesh , Cromo/análise , Cabelo/química , Humanos , Indústrias , Metais Pesados/análise , Unhas/química
5.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(29): e16471, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31335706

RESUMO

Thallium is highly toxic and its effects are cumulative. The clinical symptoms of thallium poisoning are non-specific, thereby delaying admission and treatment. This study aimed to summarize the clinical features and treatment experience of patients with delayed admission who experience thallium poisoning.We conducted a retrospective descriptive analysis of patients in our hospital from 2008 to 2018 who had thallium poisoning and experienced a delay in hospital admission. The time from symptom onset to admission was assessed. The patients were divided into 3 groups and descriptive analyses of their clinical characteristics, including basic patient information, symptoms, laboratory test results, examination findings, treatment methods, outcomes, and follow-up information, were conducted.A total of 34 patients with thallium poisoning were included: 8 were admitted to the hospital early or with mild delay, 9 had a moderate delay, and 17 had a severely delayed admission. The time from illness onset to admission was 13 (interquartile range, 7.5-26) days. Some patients with delayed admission had significant symptoms associated with central nervous system damage, and changes in magnetic resonance images and electroencephalograms were also noted. After admission, all patients received Prussian blue treatment, and some patients with relatively high blood concentration received blood purification treatments. Following treatment, the blood and urine thallium concentrations of all patients decreased significantly, and their symptoms were alleviated.Our results show that delayed patient admission in cases of thallium poisoning is associated with greater risk of central nervous system damage. Use of Prussian blue combined with blood purification treatments might improve patients' conditions.


Assuntos
Diagnóstico Tardio , Intoxicação por Metais Pesados/diagnóstico , Intoxicação por Metais Pesados/terapia , Hospitalização , Tálio/envenenamento , Tempo para o Tratamento , Adolescente , Adulto , Antídotos/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Ferrocianetos/uso terapêutico , Intoxicação por Metais Pesados/sangue , Intoxicação por Metais Pesados/urina , Hemoperfusão , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tálio/sangue , Tálio/urina
6.
J Assoc Physicians India ; 67(4): 52-56, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31309799

RESUMO

Background: Chronic aluminum toxicity (CAT) in end stage kidney disease (ESKD) patients is now a rare clinical disorder, unlike in the past, because of improvements in hemodialysis water purification systems and discontinuation of use of aluminum hydroxide as a phosphate binder. The use of aluminum utensils for cooking could be an unrecognised cause of the CAT. Objective: To assess the association between aluminum kitchen utensils used for cooking meals and chronic aluminum toxicity (CAT) in patients on maintenance hemodialysis (MHD). Material and Methods: In this case control study, a total of 31 (cases n=10; controls n=21) patients on MHD for more than one year were included. Cases were defined as patients with clinical manifestations (including laboratory parameters) of CAT and high (>200 mcg/L) serum aluminum levels. Control group was chosen from the same hemodialysis facilities. Association between use of aluminum utensils for cooking and occurrence of CAT was assessed. Results: The mean age of patients in the cases and the control group was 52.90 and 52.95 years respectively with on significant difference (p=0.99). There was no difference in mean duration of dialysis (p=0.78), serum calcium level (p=0.06), serum phosphate level (p=0.19), serum albumin level (p=0.06), history of hypertension (p=1.00) and history of diabetes (n=0.12) between two groups. Mean haemoglobin (p<0.05) and mean iPTH (p<0.05) was significantly lower in the cases as compared to control group. Thirteen patients had history of use of aluminum utensils [cases 10 (76.90%) and control 3 (23.10%); p<0.05]. All cases i.e. 10 (100%) had exposure to aluminum utensils whereas three (14.3%) patients in the control group had exposure to aluminum utensils whereas 18 (85.7%) patients had no exposure. The relative risk of having CAT because of use of aluminum utensils compared to not using was 28.46 (1.81 to 445.3) and the odd's ratio estimated was 120 (5.45 to 2642). Conclusion: Use of aluminum utensils for cooking meals is associated with CAT. Larger studies are required to confirm these findings.


Assuntos
Alumínio/envenenamento , Culinária/instrumentação , Intoxicação por Metais Pesados/epidemiologia , Falência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Diálise Renal , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Humanos
7.
Environ Monit Assess ; 191(7): 419, 2019 Jun 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31177337

RESUMO

Certain five heavy metals viz. arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr)(VI), mercury (Hg), and lead (Pb) are non-threshold toxins and can exert toxic effects at very low concentrations. These heavy metals are known as most problematic heavy metals and as toxic heavy metals (THMs). Several industrial activities and some natural processes are responsible for their high contamination in the environment. In recent years, high concentrations of heavy metals in different natural systems including atmosphere, pedosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere have become a global issue. These THMs have severe deteriorating effects on various microorganisms, plants, and animals. Human exposure to the THMs may evoke serious health injuries and impairments in the body, and even certain extremities can cause death. In all these perspectives, this review provides a comprehensive account of the relative impact of the THMs As, Cd, Cr(VI), Hg, and Pb on our total environment.


Assuntos
Arsênico/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Metais Pesados/análise , Animais , Cádmio/análise , Cromo/análise , Intoxicação por Metais Pesados , Humanos , Chumbo/análise , Mercúrio/análise
8.
Environ Sci Technol ; 53(14): 8398-8404, 2019 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31185163

RESUMO

The glass and enameled decorations of bottles of alcoholic beverages sourced from retailers in the U.K. were analyzed by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry for various heavy metals. In the glass substrate, lead, cadmium, and chromium were present at concentrations up to about 1100, 1100, and 3000 µg g-1, respectively, but their environmental and health risks are deemed to be low significance. Of more concern from an environmental and, potentially, occupational exposure perspective are the concentrations and mobilities of Pb and Cd in the enamels of many bottles. Thus, Pb concentrations up to about 100000 µg g-1 were found on the décor of various wine bottles and a beer bottle, and Cd concentrations of up to 20000 µg g-1 were measured in the decorated regions on a range of spirits, beer, and wine bottles. Moreover, maximum concentrations that leached from enameled glass fragments according to a standard test that simulates water and other liquids percolating through a landfill were about 1200 and 3200 µg L-1 for Pb and Cd, respectively, with several fragments exceeding the U.S. Model Toxins in Packaging Legislation and, therefore, defined as "hazardous". Given that safer decorative alternatives are available and that a precautionary principle should be adopted for toxic heavy metals, the pervasive use of Pb and Cd in the enamels of consumer bottles is brought into question.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Cádmio , Cromo , Monitoramento Ambiental , Vidro , Intoxicação por Metais Pesados , Humanos
9.
Altern Ther Health Med ; 25(4): 20-24, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31202207

RESUMO

Context: Uranium is found in geological deposits around the world. Toxicology of uranium includes nephrotoxicity, carcinogenicity, genotoxicity, diminished bone growth, and developmental defects. Mining and agricultural practices have escalated the regional exposure. Objective: A family of six living in the Phoenix, AZ area had concerns about uranium exposure. For intervention, a dietary supplement of modified citrus pectin: sodium alginate (2:1) was recommended based on research supporting abilities to lower heavy metal toxicity. Methods: Baseline urine and fecal samples were analyzed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The supplement was self-administered at 3 capsules (750 mg/capsule) twice daily. Samples were taken at baseline, 6-days, and 6-weeks, additional fecal samples before stopping supplement and then after a 6-week washout period. Home water system was tested as well for heavy metals. Results: Urine showed no detectable uranium whereas feces had significant change at 6-days, which persisted at 6-weeks. After a post-treatment period of 6-weeks, a decrease in excretion was seen in 5 of the 6 subjects. Home water showed cautionary levels of uranium. Conclusion: The supplement promoted fecal excretion of what is likely ongoing low-level exposure via ingestion. This is the first report of a supplement promoting uranium excretion suggesting it may reduce negative health effects in regions where chronic uranium exposure is known.


Assuntos
Alginatos/administração & dosagem , Suplementos Nutricionais , Intoxicação por Metais Pesados/prevenção & controle , Pectinas/administração & dosagem , Urânio/toxicidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Resultado do Tratamento , Urânio/urina
10.
Res Vet Sci ; 124: 334-337, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31048181

RESUMO

The aims of the current study were to assess the inclusion levels of grape byproduct replacing jiggs hay in lambs diets and to evaluate signs of copper poisoning. Thirty-four Texel and Corriedale crossbred female lambs were used in a randomized block experimental design. The treatments comprised four levels of grape byproduct (0; 100; 200 and 300 g/kg DM) in replacement of jiggs hay. The diets were adjusted to the same ZnCu ratio (6:1) of the basal diet. Grape byproduct consumption at up to 30%, led to similar weight gain in the different treatments (P = .92), which was suitable for growing lambs. Grape byproduct in the diet had linear effect on GGT (P < .001) and AST (P < .0001) enzymes as well as on total bilirubin (P = .05). In addition, the highest grape byproduct addition showed the highest consumption of hay (P < .01). Hay replacement by grape byproduct at up to 300 g/kg in the DM was satisfactory to weight gain and did not negatively affect feed intake and weight gain of growing lambs. Maintaining zinc:copper ratio in sheep diets is not effective in preventing liver damage caused by increased dietary copper concentrations over a period of 70 days.


Assuntos
Cobre/envenenamento , Intoxicação por Metais Pesados/veterinária , Carneiro Doméstico/fisiologia , Vitis/química , Zinco/metabolismo , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Feminino , Intoxicação por Metais Pesados/prevenção & controle , Zinco/administração & dosagem
11.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(18): 18032-18052, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31079302

RESUMO

The global burden of heavy metal especially mercury, arsenic, lead, and cadmium toxicities remains a significant public health challenge. Developing nations are particularly at high risk and carry the highest burden of this hazard. Chelation therapy has been the mainstay for treatment of heavy metal poisoning where the chelating agent binds metal ions to form complex ring-like structures called "chelates" to enhance their elimination from the body. Metal chelators have some drawbacks such as redistribution of some heavy metals from other tissues to the brain thereby increasing its neurotoxicity, causing loss of essential metals such as copper and zinc as well as some serious adverse effects, e.g., hepatotoxicity. The use of natural antidotes, which are easily available, affordable, and with little or no side effects compared to the classic metal chelators, is the focus of this review and suggested as cheaper options for developing nations in the treatment of heavy metal poisoning.


Assuntos
Antídotos/uso terapêutico , Produtos Biológicos/uso terapêutico , Quelantes/uso terapêutico , Terapia por Quelação/métodos , Intoxicação por Metais Pesados/prevenção & controle , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Antídotos/administração & dosagem , Produtos Biológicos/administração & dosagem , Quelantes/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Inativação Metabólica , Metais Pesados/metabolismo
12.
J Trace Elem Med Biol ; 54: 226-231, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31109617

RESUMO

AIM: This review illustrates heavy metals toxicity, currently available therapies and the role and efficacy of chelation therapy for its management. SUMMARY: Heavy metals are necessary for various biological processes, but they become harmful in excess. Specifically, they induce oxidative stress by generating free radicals and reducing antioxidant levels. Heavy metals also alter the confirmation of protein and DNA and inhibit their function. Chelation therapy is commonly used to treat metals toxicity. Chelation is a chemical process that occurs when interaction between a central metal atom/ion and ligand leads to formation of a complex ring-like structure. The ligand has a donor ion/molecule, which has a lone pair of electrons and may be monodentate to polydentate. Each metal has a different reactivity with a ligand, so a specific chelation agent is required for each metal. Combination therapy with a chelating agent and an antioxidant led to improved outcome. CONCLUSION: Heavy metal poisoning is a common health problem because of mining, smelting, industrial, agricultural and sewage waste. Heavy metals can be efficiently excreted from the body following treatment with proper chelation agents.


Assuntos
Quelantes/uso terapêutico , Intoxicação por Metais Pesados/tratamento farmacológico , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Arsênico/sangue , Cádmio/sangue , Cobre/sangue , Humanos , Ferro/sangue , Chumbo/sangue
13.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(16): 16727-16741, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30989610

RESUMO

Cadmium and mercury are non-biodegradable toxic metals that may cause many detrimental effects to the thyroid gland and blood. Vitamin C has been found to be a significant chain-breaking antioxidant and enzyme co-factor against metal toxicity and thus make them less available for animals. The current study was performed to find the effect of individual metals (cadmium and mercury), their co-administration, and the ameliorative effects of vitamin C on some of the parameters that indicate oxidative stress and thyroid dysfunction. Cadmium chloride (1.5 mg/kg), mercuric chloride (1.2 mg/kg), and vitamin C (150 mg/kg of body weight) were orally administered to eight treatment groups of the rabbits (1. control; 2. Vit C; 3. CdCl2; 4. HgCl2; 5. Vit C + CdCl2; 6. Vit C + HgCl2; 7. CdCl2 + HgCl2, and 8. Vit C + CdCl2 + HgCl2). After the biometric measurements of all experimental rabbits, biochemical parameters viz. triidothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), and triglycerides were measured using commercially available kits. The results exhibited significant decline (p < 0.05) in mean hemoglobin, corpuscular hemoglobin, packed cell volume, T3 (0.4 ± 0.0 ng/ml), and T4 (26.3 ± 1.6 ng/ml) concentration. While, TSH (0.23 ± 0.01 nmol/l) and triglyceride (4.42 ± 0.18 nmol/l) were significantly (p < 0.05) increased but chemo-treatment with Vit C reduces the effects of Cd, Hg, and their co-administration but not regained the values similar to those of controls. This indicates that Vit C had a shielding effect on the possible metal toxicity. The Cd and Hg also found to accumulate in vital organs when measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The metal concentration trend was observed as follows: kidney > liver > heart > lungs. It was concluded that Cd and Hg are toxic and tended to bioaccumulate in different organs and their toxic action can be subdued by vitamin C in biological systems.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Ácido Ascórbico/farmacologia , Cádmio/toxicidade , Mercúrio/toxicidade , Glândula Tireoide/efeitos dos fármacos , Hormônios Tireóideos/sangue , Tireotropina/sangue , Animais , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Cádmio/metabolismo , Intoxicação por Metais Pesados , Hemoglobinas/análise , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Rim/metabolismo , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Mercúrio/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Coelhos , Glândula Tireoide/metabolismo
14.
Hip Int ; 29(4): NP1-NP5, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30938191

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Cobalt toxicity in patients with hip arthroplasty is a rare complication, but it should be considered in those patients who, after a ceramic fracture, were implanted with a metal-on-polyethylene prosthesis. The complete removal of ceramic particles during revision surgery can be complicated. If the bearing surface is replaced with a metal-on-polyethylene prosthesis, these residual ceramic particles may wear down the chrome-cobalt head, producing localised metallosis. This can trigger blood metal ion levels to rise, causing systemic toxicity. Visual and auditory alterations, cognitive deterioration, hypothyroidism, neuropathy, cardiomyopathy, anorexia, fatigue, diabetes, polycythemia, and respiratory and cutaneous symptoms are some of the clinical manifestations of prosthetic cobaltism. CASE DESCRIPTION: A young patient presented with multiorgan failure secondary to cobalt toxicity after a ceramic fracture and revision with a metal-on-polyethylene prosthesis; his serum cobalt and chromium levels were 652 µg/L and 270 µg/L, respectively. The patient needed a heart transplant after presenting with cobalt-induced cardiogenic shock. CONCLUSIONS: In a patient with a ceramic fracture who is subjected to revision surgery with a metal-on-polyethylene bearing, it is necessary to rule out the possibility of cobalt intoxication. Serum cobalt levels > 20 µg/L are inadmissible; in these cases, surgical treatment should be considered in the short term. A wide synovectomy and replacement of components should be performed with hard friction options, preferably with a ceramic-on-ceramic prosthesis.


Assuntos
Artroplastia de Quadril , Cobalto , Transplante de Coração , Artroplastia de Quadril/efeitos adversos , Membros Artificiais , Cerâmica , Cromo/sangue , Ligas de Cromo , Cobalto/efeitos adversos , Cobalto/sangue , Feminino , Intoxicação por Metais Pesados , Prótese de Quadril/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polietileno , Falha de Prótese , Reoperação
16.
Biol Trace Elem Res ; 191(2): 363-369, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30895450

RESUMO

Platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) is widely used blood-derived biomaterial which is directly applied to the surgical wounds. Depending on its autologous origin, PRF is thought as a safe material. However, it is not known to what extent the blood-derived toxins can be found in the PRF by considering the systemic exposure rates of the individuals to the toxins. The aim of this pilot study was to test the hypothesis whether PRF contains any blood-origin heavy metals (HMs) and smoking increases their concentrations as an environmental HM source. PRF samples were obtained from systemically healthy 30 non-smoker and 30 smoker volunteers. All liquid and dry fibrin parts of the PRF samples were analyzed in terms of 15 toxic elements using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. All analyzed HMs were detected in all investigated PRF samples within various concentrations in both groups. In addition, significantly high levels of cadmium, arsenic, lead, manganese, nickel, chromium, and vanadium were detected in dry fibrin matrices of PRF samples of smokers comparing with non-smokers (p < 0.05). Only cadmium was at significantly high levels in the liquid part of PRF samples of smokers (p < 0.05). This is the first study evaluating toxic ingredients of PRF. The results revealed that PRF contains various toxic HMs. Additionally, systemic exposure to environmental HM sources such as smoking may significantly increase HM concentrations in PRF. Further studies are required to investigate the transmission potentials of HMs to the applied tissues and biological importance of PRF-origin HMs.


Assuntos
Intoxicação por Metais Pesados/sangue , Metais Pesados/sangue , Fibrina Rica em Plaquetas/química , Adulto , Arsênico/sangue , Cádmio/sangue , Cromo/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Manganês/sangue , Espectrometria de Massas , Níquel/sangue , Projetos Piloto , Tálio/sangue , Vanádio/sangue , Adulto Jovem
17.
World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 35(4): 58, 2019 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30900009

RESUMO

The industrialization and growth of human population has increased the release and accumulation of metals and metalloids in the environment. Bioaccumulation and exposure to these elements have been associated with different types of diseases and cancer, thus looking for alternatives that decrease their bioavailability in the environment is crucial. Microbiologically induced carbonates precipitation (MICP) has been proposed as a potential bioremediation method to immobilize contaminating metals and metalloids. Studies published to date have mainly used ureolytic bacteria, reporting metal(loid)s removal percentages up to 100% for some toxic elements, thus demonstrating the effectiveness of this treatment. Various genera of bacteria, particularly Gram-positive, have been reported with MICP abilities. More recently, fungi have also been proposed as a viable alternative for the removal of these toxic elements by carbonate precipitation. This mini-review presents updated information about the main studies carried out to date using different types of microorganisms that perform MICP to decrease the environmental bioavailability of toxic metals and metalloids through the formation of metallic carbonates.


Assuntos
Carbonatos/metabolismo , Imobilização , Metaloides/metabolismo , Metais Pesados/metabolismo , Arsênico , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/metabolismo , Biodegradação Ambiental , Cádmio/metabolismo , Compostos de Cromo , Fungos/classificação , Fungos/metabolismo , Intoxicação por Metais Pesados , Humanos , Metaloides/toxicidade , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Compostos de Potássio , Solo/química , Microbiologia do Solo , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Sulfatos , Ureia/metabolismo , Urease/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água
18.
Mol Biol Rep ; 46(2): 1585-1592, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30758806

RESUMO

Major development along the Western Arabian Gulf coast has disturbed the marine environment, and led to increased concentrations of heavy metals in the coastal soils. The amount of 13 of these metals (Ag, Al, As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, V and Zn) in Avicennia marina branches and leaves as well as in rhizosphere soil samples from two Bays 70 km apart (Tarut Bay; Saudi Arabia and Tubli Bay; Bahrain) was quantified. Heavy metal concentration in the two bays were similar and higher than those reported in other regions suggesting a generalized heavy metal pollution in the area. These concentrations are much higher than the international permissible limits of soil contaminations except for Iron and Manganese which were within the limits. The results indicate that marine environments in the area need recovery plans and monitoring.


Assuntos
Avicennia/metabolismo , Metais Pesados/análise , Solo/química , Avicennia/genética , Barein , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Intoxicação por Metais Pesados , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Folhas de Planta/química , Raízes de Plantas/química , Arábia Saudita , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Áreas Alagadas
19.
Sci Total Environ ; 653: 748-757, 2019 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30759600

RESUMO

A survey was conducted to investigate the pollution and health risks of copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), arsenic (As), mercury (Hg) and zinc (Zn) in 60 Chinese herbal medicines (CHMs) collected from a market in Kunming City, Yunnan Province, China. Furthermore, eight CHMs (Cyathulae radix, Drynariae rhizoma, Peucedani radix, Homalomenae rhizoma, Dryopteris setosa, Polygonati rhizoma, Lilii bulbus, and Linderae radix) containing high Cd concentrations were selected to further analyse their Cd chemical forms. Additionally, the dissolution rates of six heavy metals in decoction liquid were also analysed for four CHMs (Typhonii rhizoma, Linderae radix, Homalomenae rhizoma, and Cyathulae radix), and the health risks of heavy metals in CHMs were evaluated. The results showed that the Cd, Hg and Cu concentrations in the 60 CHMs exceeded the limiting values of the "Green Trade Standards of Importing & Exporting Medicinal Plants & Preparations" (WM2-2001), with exceedance ratios of 38.8%, 8.3% and 1.7%, respectively. The majority of Cd was integrated with pectates and protein in CHMs, and the other five Cd chemical forms followed the order of water-soluble > insoluble heavy metal phosphates > oxalate > residual > inorganic form, indicating that Cd had relatively low bioactivity and toxicity. The average dissolution rates of Zn, Cu, Cd, Hg, As and Pb in the four CHMs were 47.4%, 33.8%, 20.5%, 6.1%, 5.4% and 4.8%, respectively. The calculation results of hazard quotients (HQs) for Cd and Hg showed that the CHMs did not pose a threat to human health.


Assuntos
Contaminação de Medicamentos/prevenção & controle , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Metais Pesados/análise , China , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/normas , Intoxicação por Metais Pesados/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Medição de Risco
20.
Am J Med Sci ; 357(4): 338-342, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30638603

RESUMO

The mortality rate of cupric sulfate is relatively high in contrast to that of other heavy metals. Cases of orally ingested cupric sulfate poisoning are very rare, with a reported half lethal dose of 10 g. Cupric sulfate poisoning leads to gastrointestinal corrosion, intravascular hemolysis, hemolytic anemia, methemoglobinemia and acute renal and hepatic impairment. Without proper and prompt treatment, multiple organ failure and death occur. Here, we present the first report that removal of the excessive intravascular copper ions by plasmapheresis was accompanied by complete recovery.


Assuntos
Intoxicação por Metais Pesados/terapia , Plasmaferese/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Sulfato de Cobre/envenenamento , Humanos , Masculino
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