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G Ital Nefrol ; 37(2)2020 Apr 09.
Artigo em Italiano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32281758


Rhabdomyolysis (R) is a complex condition involving the rapid dissolution of damaged or injured skeletal muscle. This leads to the direct release of intracellular components, including myoglobin, creatine kinase, aldolase, and lactate dehydrogenase, as well as electrolytes, into the bloodstream and extracellular space. Clinically, R shows a triad of symptoms: myalgia, limb weakness, and myoglobinuria without hematuria, while myoglobin has been recognized as playing a part in the development of acute kidney injury. Coturnism is a relatively rare disease, mostly found in the European countries bordering the Mediterranean Sea, characterized by acute R. It follows the consumption of Coturnix coturnix, a species of quails common in Europe, that have ingested the toxic substances (and especially coniine) present in the herbaceous plant called hemlock (Conium maculatum). Coniine may be lethal at a dose of 150 mg but it has neurotoxic effects at smaller doses, with acute R and acute kidney injury. Freezing and cooking the meat does not inactivate the alkaloids present in the birds' flesh and digestive tract. The clinical course of coturnism includes neurotoxicosis, tremor, vomiting, muscle paralysis, respiratory paralysis/failure, R and acute kidney injury. In appropriate geographical and temporal settings, it should be considered when diagnosing patients with acute R. The genetic, biochemical and epidemiological characteristics of coturnism are not yet fully known, while we wait reliable data from experimental studies.

Alcaloides/envenenamento , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/complicações , Piperidinas/envenenamento , Codorniz , Rabdomiólise/etiologia , Lesão Renal Aguda/diagnóstico , Lesão Renal Aguda/etiologia , Animais , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/diagnóstico , Humanos , Músculo Esquelético/lesões , Intoxicação por Plantas , Codorniz/metabolismo , Rabdomiólise/diagnóstico
Toxicon ; 177: 52-88, 2020 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32217234


Datura stramonium, Atropa belladonna, Hyoscyamus niger, and Scopolia carniolica are all temperate plants from the family Solanaceae, which as a result of their anticholinergic tropane alkaloids, hyoscyamine/atropine and scopolamine, have caused many cases of poisoning around the world. Despite the danger these nightshade plants represent, the literature often presents incomplete cases lacking in details and filled with ambiguity, and reviews on the topic tend to be limited in scope. Many also point to a gap in knowledge of these plants among physicians. To address this, the following review focuses on intoxications involving these plants as reported in the literature between 1966 and 2018, with brief mention to pertinent related plants to contextualise and provide a fuller picture of the situation surrounding the presently discussed temperate plants. Analysis of the literature displays that D. stramonium is largely associated with drug use among teens while A. belladonna is primarily ingested as a result of the berries being mistaken for edible fruits. H. niger was found to be largely ingested when mistaken for other plants, and S. carniolica was the cause of incredibly few intoxications.

Antagonistas Colinérgicos/toxicidade , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade , Intoxicação por Plantas/epidemiologia , Solanaceae , Alcaloides de Solanáceas/toxicidade , Alcaloides , Atropa belladonna , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Hyoscyamus , Escopolamina , Scopolia , Tropanos
Toxicon ; 176: 55-58, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32103796


Water hemlock (Cicuta douglasii) is one of the most toxic plants to livestock and humans. Little is known regarding the amount of plant required to cause death. The objective of this study was to determine a lethal dose of water hemlock in a goat model. Plants were dosed to goats via oral gavage of freeze-dried ground plant material. The results from this study suggest that 1-2 fresh tubers would be lethal to goats.

Cicuta/toxicidade , Testes de Toxicidade Aguda , Animais , Cabras , Gado , Modelos Animais , Intoxicação por Plantas/veterinária , Plantas Tóxicas/toxicidade
Toxicon ; 176: 21-29, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31965970


Larkspurs, lupines, and death camas can be acutely toxic to livestock and are serious poisonous plant problems in western North America. The toxicity of these plants depends on the composition and concentrations of the toxic alkaloids in the plants. In this study, goats and cows were dosed sub-lethal doses of larkspur, lupine, and death camas. Rumen contents and ocular fluid samples were collected, and simple extraction, sample preparation, and analytical methods were developed for the detection of toxic alkaloids in the rumen contents and ocular fluid samples. Toxic alkaloids were detected in the rumen contents and ocular fluid samples from the goats and cows dosed larkspur, lupine, and death camas. In addition, results from a case report where rumen contents were analyzed from a steer that was suspected to have died due to larkspur are reported. This demonstrates the utility of the methods described for the diagnosis of acute plant poisonings.

Alcaloides/toxicidade , Delphinium , Lupinus , Plantas Tóxicas/toxicidade , Rúmen , Zigadenus , Animais , Bovinos , Olho/química , Cabras , Intoxicação por Plantas/veterinária
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 40(1): 1-6, Jan. 2020. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1091656


The aim of this work was to describe the epidemiological, clinical and pathological aspects of two outbreaks of spontaneous poisoning caused by Froelichia humboldtiana in cattle in Pernambuco, northeastern Brazil and reproduce experimentally this poisoning in cattle. Spontaneous poisonings of primary photosensitization occurred in two farms at the municipalities of Cachoeirinha and São Caetano and affected twenty-two adult bovines and two suckling calves after the rainy season. All bovines have recovered 21 days after they were removed from the pasture. To reproduce experimental poisoning, three cows and a calf were maintained in a pasture with 1ha composed by F. humboldtiana during 14 days. Clinical signs and skin lesions were similar in both spontaneous and experimental poisoning and consisted of cutaneous itching and hyperemia of non-pigmented areas of skin that evolved into edema, exudative dermatitis and extensive areas of skin necrosis. Serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), gamma glutamyltransferase (GGT), total, direct and indirect bilirubin were normal in all cattle examined. Histologically, lesions consisted of epidermal necrosis, hyperkeratosis with large amounts of degenerate neutrophils and acanthosis. In the dermis, edema and inflammatory infiltrate composed of eosinophils, lymphocytes and plasma cells mainly around the blood vessels were observed. In the experimental group, clinical signs of photosensitization were observed after the third day of F. humboldtiana consumption. The suckling calf displayed mild clinical signs of photodermatitis on the 8th day of the experiment. It was estimated that the average consumption of F. humboldtiana necessary to initiate clinical signs in each adult bovine was 78kg.(AU)

Os objetivos deste trabalho foram descrever os aspectos epidemiológicos, clínicos e patológicos de dois surtos de intoxicação por Froelichia humboldtiana em bovinos em Pernambuco e reproduzir experimentalmente essa intoxicação em bovinos. Intoxicações espontâneas foram observadas após o início do período chuvoso nos municípios de Cachoerinha e São Caetano. Vinte e dois bovinos apresentaram sinais clínicos e lesões cutâneas compatíveis com fotossensibilização primária, dentre os quais, dois bezerros lactentes. Todos os bovinos se recuperaram totalmente cerca de 21 dias após serem retirados da pastagem. Para reproduzir experimentalmente a intoxicação, três vacas, uma delas com bezerro ao pé, foram mantidas em um piquete de 1ha composto por F. humboldtiana por 14 dias consecutivos. O quadro clínico e as lesões tegumentares, tanto nos bovinos intoxicados nos surtos espontâneos, quanto nos bovinos do experimento consistiram em prurido e hiperemia em áreas despigmentadas de pele, que evoluíam para edema, dermatite exsudativa e necrose de áreas extensas de pele. Em todos os bovinos examinados, os níveis séricos de aspartato aminotransferase (AST), gamaglutamiltransferase (GGT), bilirrubina total, direta e indireta estavam normais. Histologicamente, as lesões consistiram em necrose da epiderme, hiperqueratose com grande quantidade de neutrófilos degenerados e acantose. Na derme havia edema e infiltrado inflamatório composto por eosinófilos, linfócitos e plasmócitos principalmente ao redor dos vasos sanguíneos. Nos bovinos do experimento, sinais clínicos de fotossensibilização foram observados após o terceiro dia de consumo de F. humboldtiana. O bezerro lactente apresentou sinais clínicos leves de fotodermatite no 8º dia do experimento. Estimou-se que o consumo médio de matéria seca de F. humboldtiana necessário para iniciar os sinais clínicos em cada bovino adulto foi de 78kg.(AU)

Animais , Bovinos , Intoxicação por Plantas/veterinária , Dermatite Fotoalérgica/etiologia , Cicer/envenenamento , Cicer/toxicidade , Dermatite Fotoalérgica/veterinária , Dermatite/etiologia , Dermatite/veterinária
Toxicon ; 174: 26-31, 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31989927


Brachiaria decumbens (signal grass) is a highly productive tropical grass that is widespread in some tropical countries due to its adaptation to a wide range of environments and soil types. However, a limiting factor for the use of this grass is its toxicity from steroidal saponins. Sporadic outbreaks of hepatogenous photosensitization in ruminants grazing on this grass have been reported. Sheep are more susceptible than other animal species and the young are more susceptible than adults. This review article will critically shed light on the B. decumbens profile, its toxic compounds, mechanisms, clinical responses, blood profile alterations, pathological changes, and acute phase responses related to signal grass intoxication. Further research is needed to integrate new findings on B. decumbens intoxication with previous preventive and therapeutic trials to minimize or remove its deleterious toxic effect.

Brachiaria , Intoxicação por Plantas , Doenças dos Ovinos , Ovinos , Animais , Fígado , Transtornos de Fotossensibilidade , Ruminantes , Saponinas
Toxicon ; 173: 68-74, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31785285


The genus Senecio is distributed worldwide, being responsible of poisoning in livestock and humans. Many species of Senecio have high invasion and expansion capacity, highly competitive with agricultural and native plant species, causing ecological damage. Particularly in Uruguay, poisoning by Senecio have grown exponentially to reach epidemic proportions. Herein we describe Seneciosis as a re-emerging and expanding epidemic disease affecting cattle, by describing clinico-pathological, epidemiological and genetic variation of species involved, as well as an experimental intoxication with Senecio oxyphyllus. For this, a study was carried out on 28 cattle farms in Eastern Uruguay, with history of seneciosis from 2010 to 2016. Plants of fifty populations of Senecio were sampled, in 2015 and 2016, for identification, analysis of alkaloids and study of genetic variation. In turn, post-mortem examination was performed in cattle of natural and an experimental case to confirm the intoxication, showing microscopic characteristic lesions (hepatomegalocytosis, diffuse fibrosis and ductal reaction). Four species of Senecio were identified: S. oxyphyllus, S. madagascariensis, S. selloi and S. brasiliensis. In the genetic study, 489 molecular markers of amplified sequence-related polymorphisms (SRAP), associated with species and pasture, were used for genetic variation analysis. There was no statistically significant association between genetic variation determined by molecular markers and population (specimens of same species collected from the same farm), botanically determined species, or geographical origin. The increase of seneciosis in cattle in the last years, the presence of species not identified to the moment with implication in the poisoning outbreaks and expansion of these plants shows that the disease is in an epidemic growing active stage. In turn, the experimental poisoning with S. oxyphyllus confirms its chronic hepatotoxic effect, being an emergent species for the region, of high distribution and toxic risk. This latter turned out the main Senecio species involved. This case of expansion of harmful plant for animal production and desirable plant species, can be useful as a model of ecopathological characterization, which is likely to occur with other toxic plants in different geographical ranges globally.

Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Intoxicação por Plantas/veterinária , Senécio , Alcaloides , Animais , Bovinos , Nível de Saúde , Espécies Introduzidas , Fígado , Intoxicação por Plantas/epidemiologia , Plantas Tóxicas , Inquéritos e Questionários , Uruguai/epidemiologia
J Anim Sci ; 98(1)2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31850497


Fescue toxicosis is problematic for growing steers, causing lower DMI and productivity when fed endophyte-infected (E+) tall fescue. A complete understanding of underlying mechanisms of how fescue toxicosis affects growing steers is lacking. Therefore, the overall objective of this multiexperiment study was to determine whether ruminally dosed ergovaline (ERV) affects rumen motility, rumen contents, and eating patterns. In Exp. 1, an 8-h period to assess ruminal motility began 4 h after feeding by monitoring pressure changes using a wireless system for 21 d. Eight ruminally cannulated steers (283 kg BW) were pair fed with alfalfa cubes (1.5 × NEm) and assigned to endophyte free (E-; 0 µg ERV/kg BW/d) or E+ treatment (20 µg ERV/kg BW/d). Overall, E+ steers had more frequent rumen contractions (Seed P = 0.05 and day of feeding P = 0.02). On days 7 to 9, both treatments showed lower frequencies and E- steers had greater amplitude of contractions (P < 0.001) that corresponded with decreased DMI. In Exp. 2, steers remained in pairs assigned in Exp. 1 (322 kg BW), but reversed seed treatments while increasing ERV levels (titrated 0, 5, 10, 15, and 20 µg ERV/kg BW/d over 57 d). There were no differences between E- and E+ for frequency (P = 0.137) or amplitude of contractions (P = 0.951), but increasing ERV dosage, decreased frequency (P = 0.018) and amplitude (P = 0.005), coinciding with lower DMI. In Exp. 3, 8 steers (589 kg) were pair fed and ruminally dosed 15 µg ERV/kg BW/d, and rumen motility data were collected for 21 d. E- steers showed higher amplitude and lower frequency of contractions than E+ steers with seed (P < 0.001), day (P < 0.001), and seed × day (P < 0.04) effects, but rumen fill was not different between E- and E+ (P > 0.29). Serum prolactin concentrations were lower in E+ steers in Exp. 1 to 3. Eating patterns of pair-fed E- and E+ steers were relatively slower in E+ than E- (Exp. 4) by measuring every 2 h across 24 h. Number of meals were higher in E+ than E- steers, but meal duration and meal size were not different between treatments. Rumen content (DM%) tended to be higher in E+ than in E- when steers were fed once a day (P = 0.07), but there was no difference for rumen content (DM%) when E- and E+ steers were fed 12 times a day (P = 0.13). These results suggest the changes in rumen fill associated with fescue toxicosis may be driven more by changes in feeding behavior and eating pattern rather than by changes in motility.

Ergotaminas/efeitos adversos , Comportamento Alimentar/efeitos dos fármacos , Festuca/química , Intoxicação por Plantas/veterinária , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Bovinos , Digestão , Ingestão de Alimentos , Endófitos , Masculino , Medicago sativa/microbiologia , Prolactina , Distribuição Aleatória , Sementes/microbiologia
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 39(12): 978-982, Dec. 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1056926


The study evaluate the frequency of poisoning by Brachiaria spp. at the rearing, growth and termination stages in various lamb breeds at increasing supplementation levels. Forty-five lambs were used in the growth phase in pastures of Brachiaria spp. with a history of having induced poisoning. The lambs were distributed in nutritional treatments: lambs receiving mineral supplementation (MS), energy/protein supplementation (EPS) at 0.8% of body weight (bw), EPS at 1.6% bw and EPS at 2.4% bw. The lambs were allotted two flocks (F1 and F2) of 21 and 24 lambs each. Clinical signs of poisoning were observed in all treatments. All MS lambs died. The frequency of poisoning were highest in the 0.8% EPS and 1.6% EPS treatments. All lambs in the 2.4% EPS treatment recovered. F1 lambs had a higher frequency of poisoning than F2 lambs regardless of nutritional treatment. Morbidity rates for the F1 and F2 lambs were 52.3 and 16.7%, respectively. Supplementation was not sufficient to decrease the frequency of poisoning in lambs at the termination stage, which was dependent on the genetic origin of the lambs. EPS of 2.4% bw treatment, was an efficient nutritional strategy to minimize the effects of poisoning in lambs fed on Brachiaria spp.(AU)

O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a frequência da intoxicação por Brachiaria spp. nas fases de recria, crescimento e terminação em várias raças de cordeiros em níveis crescentes de suplementação. Quarenta e cinco cordeiros foram utilizados na fase de crescimento em pastagens de Brachiaria spp. com história de intoxicação, distribuídos em diferents tratamentos nutricionais: cordeiros recebendo suplementação mineral (SM), suplementação energética/protéica (SEP) a 0,8% do peso vivo (pv), SEP a 1,6% pv e SEP a 2,4% pv. Vinte e um cordeiros vieram do lote F1 e 24 cordeiros foram do lote F2. Sinais clínicos de intoxicação foram observados em todos os tratamentos. Todos os cordeiros com MS morreram. As frequências de intoxicação foram maiores nos tratamentos com 0,8% e 1,6% de SEP. Todos os cordeiros no tratamento com 2,4% de SEP se recuperaram. Cordeiros F1 apresentaram maior frequência de intoxicação que os cordeiros F2, independentemente do tratamento nutricional. As taxas de morbidade para os cordeiros F1 e F2 foram de 52,3 e 16,7%, respectivamente. A suplementação não foi suficiente para diminuir a freqüência de intoxicação em cordeiros na fase de terminação, dependente da origem genética dos cordeiros. O SEP de 2,4% pv, no entanto, foi eficiente para minimizar os efeitos da intoxicação em cordeiros alimentados com Brachiaria spp.(AU)

Animais , Recém-Nascido , Lactente , Intoxicação por Plantas/veterinária , Plantas Tóxicas/toxicidade , Ovinos , Brachiaria/toxicidade
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 39(12): 949-953, Dec. 2019. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1056927


Talisia esculenta, commonly known as pitombeira, is a tree which fruits are widely consumed by human beings in northeastern Brazil. The aim of this work is to describe the epidemiological, clinical and pathological aspects of two outbreaks of spontaneous poisoning by T. esculenta in cattle in the dry region of Pernambuco, northeastern Brazil. The cases occurred in the municipalities of São Bento do Una and Belo Jardim. From a total of 25 adult cattle, eight become sick after ingest T. esculenta leaves and fruits. Four cattle died until 72 hours after the first clinical signs; which consisted in ataxia, reluctance to walk, tottering, head tremors muscle spasms in the limbs, rigidity of the pelvic limbs with wide base stance position, ruminal atony and, when stressed, presented falls and remained in abnormal positions. Two cattle were necropsied; the only significant finding was the presence of partially digested leaves, barks and seeds of T. esculenta in ruminal contents. Microscopically no lesions were observed. There is no specific therapy for poisoning by T. esculenta leaves. Prophylaxis consists in preventing cattle from gaining access to pasture areas containing the plant.(AU)

Talisia esculenta, popularmente conhecida como pitombeira, é uma árvore cujos frutos são amplamente consumidos por seres humanos no nordeste do Brasil. O objetivo deste trabalho é descrever os aspectos epidemiológicos, clínicos e patológicos de dois surtos de intoxicação espontânea por T. esculenta em bovinos no Agreste de Pernambuco, Nordeste do Brasil. Os casos ocorreram nos municípios de São Bento do Una e Belo Jardim De um total de 25 bovinos adultos, oito adoeceram após consumirem as folhas e frutos de T. esculenta. Quatro morreram em até 72 horas após a observação dos primeiros sinais clínicos; que consistiam em ataxia, relutância em caminhar, andar cambaleante, tremores de cabeça, espasmos musculares nos membros, rigidez dos membros pélvicos com posição de ampla base, atonia ruminal e, quando excitados, apresentavam quedas e permaneciam em posições anormais. Dois bovinos foram necropsiados e o único achado significante foi a presença de folhas, cascas e sementes parcialmente digeridas de T. esculenta no conteúdo ruminal. Microscopicamente não foram observadas lesões. Não existe terapia específica para a intoxicação pelas folhas de T. esculenta. A profilaxia consiste em evitar que bovinos tenham acesso às áreas de pastagem contendo a planta.(AU)

Animais , Bovinos , Intoxicação por Plantas/veterinária , Ataxia/etiologia , Sapindaceae/envenenamento
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 39(11): 863-869, Nov. 2019. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1056919


Crotalaria lanceolata E. Mey. and Crotalaria pallida Aiton. are leguminous plants of family Fabaceae found in most of the Brazilian territory. They were initially used as green manure and due their easy spread they are currently considered weeds in crops. Soybean and corn contamination can occur through the mechanical harvesting of these grains along with seeds of the Crotalaria species, which end up in the formulation of feed for production animals. Crotalaria spp. genus has toxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PA). Most plant species belonging to this genus can cause acute or chronic liver injury. In a first stage, one-day old broilers were divided into three groups: Group A (C. pallida seeds), Group B (C. lanceolata seeds), and Group C (Control). Groups A and B were divided into five subgroups, each with eight broilers, which received the following doses of the respective seeds in feed as of the 7th day of age: daily doses of 0.4%, 0.8% and 2.5%, and single doses of 15% and 25%. Four broilers in each study group were euthanized at 28 days of age - completing 21 days of seed consumption, and the four remaining broilers were euthanized at 42 days of age - completing 35 days of seed consumption. In a second stage, experiments were conducted using seeds of both the aforementioned plants with 28-day old broilers. These were divided into three groups of four animals each: Group D (C. pallida seeds) and Group E (C. lanceolata seeds), which received the respective seeds at daily doses of 1% and 2% in feed for 20 days, and Group F (Control). These broilers were euthanized when they were 80 days old. C. lanceolata seeds showed higher toxicity to broilers than C. pallida seeds, both supplied as of the 7th day of life. Clinical signs included inappetence, ruffled feathers, and brown diarrhea. The following gross lesions were observed: subcutaneous edema, ascites, hydropericardium, yellowish liver with hypertrophy or atrophy and enhanced lobular pattern, and distended gallbladder. Histologic lesions present in all birds in varying degrees were characterized by tumefaction and vacuolar degeneration of hepatocytes. The following clinical conditions and gross lesions were observed in the broilers: hepatocyte megalocytosis and karyomegaly, slight biliary epithelial hyperplasia, eosinophilic spheroids, and nuclear invagination with loss of hepatocyte cord architecture.(AU)

Crotalaria lanceolata E. Mey. e Crotalaria pallida Aiton. são leguminosas da família Fabaceae presentes na maioria do território brasileiro. Inicialmente foram utilizadas como adubação verde e devido sua fácil disseminação são consideradas invasoras de culturas. Através da colheita mecanizada da soja e milho pode ocorrer a contaminação destes grãos com sementes dessas espécies e entrar na formulação de ração para animais de produção. O gênero Crotalaria spp. possui alcaloides pirrolizidínicos de ação tóxica. A maioria das espécies desse gênero causam lesões hepáticas, com evolução aguda, ou, crônica. Frangos de corte de um dia de vida foram divididos em três grupos: Grupo A (sementes de C. pallida - doses diárias de 0,4%, 0,8%, 2,5% e doses únicas de 15% e 25%), Grupo B (sementes de C. lanceolata - doses diárias de 0,4%, 0,8%, 2,5% e doses únicas de 15% e 25%) e Grupo C (Controle). Os Grupos A e B foram divididos em cinco subgrupos, com oito frangos cada, que a partir do sétimo dia de vida, receberam as doses estabelecidas. Quatro frangos de cada grupo foram sacrificados aos 28 dias, e os quatro restantes aos 42 dias de vida. Também foram conduzidos experimentos com as sementes dessas duas plantas com aves de 28 dias, as quais foram divididas em três grupos: Grupo D (C. pallida - doses de 1% e 2% diariamente, durante vinte dias), Grupo E (C. lanceolata - doses de 1% e 2% diariamente, durante vinte dias) e Grupo F (Controle). Cada grupo composto por quatro aves. Estas aves foram sacrificadas ao completarem 80 dias de vida. Sementes de C. lanceolata demonstraram maior toxicidade para frangos de corte do que sementes de C. pallida. Os sinais clínicos foram inapetência, penas arrepiadas e diarreia acastanhada. Na macroscopia observou-se edema subcutâneo, ascite, hidropericárdio, fígado de coloração amarelada com hipertrofia e, ou, atrofia, evidenciação do padrão lobular e vesícula biliar distendida. As lesões histológicas presentes em todas as aves, em diferentes graus caracterizaram-se por tumefação e degeneração vacuolar de hepatócitos. Nas aves que manifestaram alterações clínicas e lesões macroscópicas, havia megalocitose, cariomegalia, hiperplasia do epitélio biliar, leve, esferoides eosinofílicos e invaginação nuclear com perda da arquitetura dos cordões de hepatócitos.(AU)

Animais , Intoxicação por Plantas/veterinária , Galinhas , Crotalaria/toxicidade , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/veterinária
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31642941


BACKGROUND: Plant poisoning in small children (from 0.5 to <6 years of age) is the third most frequent cause for phone contact with a poison center. For prevention of poisonings, a list of poisonous plants that should not be planted close to playgrounds or other places frequently visited by children was published in 2000 by the Bundesanzeiger. This list has been reevaluated and updated by the "Toxicity of Plants" working group of the Committee of the Assessment of Intoxications at the Federal Institute of Risk Assessment (BfR). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Relevant plants were taken from a recent publication. A literature search was conducted in PubMed concerning all plant poisonings in children and the toxic ingredients of plants. Also, monographs and the database POISINDEX were integrated in the evaluation. A classification was made for plants that after oral, dermal, or ocular contact of small quantities could cause severe, moderate, mild, or no intoxications in small children. RESULTS: Based on data of exposure and potentially toxic ingredients of the involved plants, a risk assessment was executed, which diverges from other publications because it concerns the actual basic risk of an intoxication. In total, 251 plants were reevaluated. For 11 plants, there was a high risk, for 32 a moderate, for 115 a mild, and for 93 plants no risk of intoxication could be determined. CONCLUSION: The new assessment of evaluating a toxicity risk for small children on the basis of exposure data and including the toxicity of ingredients allows for a more realistic assessment of the risk of poisoning with outdoor plants. In this way, infant exposure carrying a high risk of intoxication can be identified.

Intoxicação por Plantas , Envenenamento , Pré-Escolar , Bases de Dados Factuais , Alemanha , Humanos , Lactente , Plantas Tóxicas , Medição de Risco
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 39(10): 802-806, Oct. 2019. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1056904


Herbaspirillum seropedicae is a nitrogen-fixing bacterium capable of using toxic compounds as a source of carbon. Bacteria with this capacity can be used to make animals resistant to plant poisoning containing monofluoroacetate (MFA), such as Amorimia septentrionalis. The aim of this study was to evaluate if H. seropedicae is efficient in the degradation of MFA present in A. septentrionalis and if the inoculation of this bacterium in goats confers protection to A. septentrionalis intoxication. Two experiments were performed: in the first experiment 12 goats were divided into 2 groups. Goats in Group 1 were orally administered a solution containing the H. seropedicae bacterium for 10 days. From day 10 onwards, they received a daily dose of 5g/kg of A. septentrionalis with the bacteriauntil clinical signs of intoxication were observed. Group 2 goats received only the plant at the same dose, also until the observation of clinical signs of intoxication. The amount of MFA found in A. septentrionalis used in the experiment with goats was 1.6±0.058μg/mg. The total plant dose ingested by all goats in Group 1 was 80.83±12.81g/kg (129.33±20.50mg/kg MFA), which were significantly greater ​​(p<0.05) than those of Group 2 goats (39.16±19.08g/kg plant and 62.66±30.53mg/kg MFA). Group 1 goats took an average of 16.16±2.56 days to develop clinical signs of intoxication, significantly longer (p=0.0012) than Group 2 goats (7.83±3.81 days). Two Group 2 goats died on the same day that they developed clinical signs of intoxication. At necropsy of these two animals, no significant changes were observed. In the second experiment, samples of A. septentrionalis were sprayed with a solution containing H. seropedicae. Before and eight days after spraying, the samples were pressed and dried for quantitation of MFA. The amount of MFA present in samples of A. septentrionalis 8 days after spraying with H. seropedicae was significantly lower (p=0.017) than that found prior to spraying. It can be concluded that administration of H. seropedicae in goats is capable of causing greater resistance to A. septentrionalis intoxication, and spraying the plant with this bacterium significantly reduces the amount of MFA in the plant.(AU)

Herbaspirillum seropedicae é uma bactéria fixadora de nitrogênio, capaz de utilizar compostos tóxicos como fonte de carbono. Bactérias com essa capacidade podem ser utilizadas para tornar os animais resistentes à intoxicação por plantas que contém monofluoroacetato (MFA), como Amorimia septentrionalis. O objetivo do presente estudo é avaliar se H. seropedicae é eficiente na degradação do MFA presente em A. septentrionalis e se a inoculação dessa bactéria, em caprinos, confere proteção à intoxicação por A. septentrionalis. Foram realizados dois experimentos: no primeiro experimento foram utilizados 12 caprinos, divididos em dois grupos. Os caprinos do Grupo 1 receberam diariamente, oralmente, uma solução contendo a bactéria H. seropedicae durante 10 dias. A partir do décimo dia passaram a receber, diariamente, além da solução com a bactéria 5g/kg de A. septentrionalis até a observação de sinal clínico de intoxicação. Os caprinos do Grupo 2 receberam apenas a planta na mesma dose, também até que a observação de sinais clínicos de intoxicação. A quantidade de MFA encontrada em A. septentrionalis utilizada no experimento com caprinos foi de 1,6± 0,058µg/mg de planta em média. A dose total de planta ingerida por todos os caprinos do Grupo 1 foi de 80,83±12,81g/kg (129,33±20,50mg/kg de MFA), valores significativamente maiores (p<0,05) do que os dos caprinos do Grupo 2 (39,16±19,08g/kg de planta e 62,66± 30,53mg/Kg de MFA). Os caprinos do Grupo 1 demoraram em média 16,16 ±2,56 dias para desenvolver sinais clínicos da intoxicação, período significativamente maior (p=0,0012) que os caprinos do Grupo 2 (7,83±3,81dias). Dois caprinos do Grupo 2 morreram no mesmo dia que desenvolveram sinais clínicos da intoxicação. Na necropsia desses dois animais não foram observadas alterações significativas. No segundo experimento, amostras de A. septentrionalis foram pulverizadas com uma solução contendo a bactéria H. seropedicae. Antes e oito dias após a pulverização, as amostras foram prensadas e secas para posterior quantificação do MFA. A quantidade de MFA presente nas amostras de A. septentrionalis oito dias após a pulverização com H. seropedicae foi significativamente menor (p=0,017) do que a encontrada antes da pulverização. Pode-se concluir que a administração de H. seropedicae em caprinos é capaz de causar uma maior resistência à intoxicação por A. septentrionalis, e a pulverização da planta com esta bactéria reduz significativamente a quantidade de MFA na planta.(AU)

Animais , Cabras , Malpighiaceae/envenenamento , Herbaspirillum , Fluoracetatos/envenenamento , Intoxicação por Plantas/terapia
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 39(10): 771-779, Oct. 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1056908


Monofluoroacetate (MFA)-containing plants cause sudden death associated with exercise in ruminants, and are responsible for significant losses in Brazilian livestock, estimated at 500,000 bovine deaths annually. Most of the times, the control and treatment of this type of poisoning are not efficient, because disease evolution is superacute, usually causing the death of the animal. Due to the difficulty in controlling this intoxication, several studies have suggested alternatives to prevent it, mainly by making animals resistant to the MFA present in these plants or by avoiding their consumption. This literature review addresses the techniques used experimentally to control the poisoning of ruminants by plants containing MFA. The first studies carried out in Brazil demonstrated that goats and sheep that continuously receive non-toxic doses of plant containing MFA show greater resistance to poisoning than untreated animals, and that this resistance can be transmitted by ruminal fluid transfaunation, suggesting that poisoning occurs due to the presence of bacteria that hydrolyze MFA in the rumen. Based on this hypothesis, several MFA-hydrolyzing bacteria were isolated (Enterococcus faecalis, Bacillus sp., Paenibacillus sp., Burkholderia sp., Cupriavidus sp., Staphylococcus sp., Ancylobacter sp., Ralstonia sp., Stenotrophomonas sp., Pigmentiphaga kullae, and Ancylobacter dichloromethanicus). When some of these bacteria were administered intraruminally, they provided the animal with a different level of protection against poisoning. However, it was observed that protection is gradually lost when the bacterium administration is interrupted. Consequently, to obtain more efficient protection, these bacteria should be administered continuously, probably in the form of probiotics. In another assay, MFA was administered to sheep at non-toxic doses to test the hypothesis that this substance could induce the multiplication of bacteria that hydrolyze it in the rumen. There was no increase in resistance to poisoning after administration of MFA; however, no signs of poisoning were observed when animals received trifluoroacetate and no clinical signs were verified when they were challenged with toxic doses of MFA; in contrast, all control animals presented clinical signs. These results suggest that trifluoroacetate induces the proliferation of MFA-degrading bacteria, and can be used in intoxication prophylaxis. The conditioned food aversion technique, using lithium chloride, has been successfully used experimentally to prevent ruminants from ingesting plants that contain MFA. Another alternative tested was the spraying of Amorimia septentrionalis with the endophytic bacterium Herbaspirillum seropedicae, which degrades MFA, resulting in decreased concentration of this compound in the plants. In conclusion, several experimental techniques have been proved efficient in the control and prophylaxis of MFA-containing plant poisoning; however, none of these techniques are available commercially. Further experiments, mainly in the field, should be carried out to adapt some of these techniques to the conditions of extensive breeding in the numerous areas where MFA-containing plants occur.(AU)

As plantas que contém monofluoroacetato (MFA) causam morte súbita associada ao exercício em ruminantes, e são responsáveis por grandes perdas na pecuária brasileira, estimadas em 500.000 mortes de bovinos anualmente. O controle e tratamento desse tipo de intoxicação, na maioria das vezes, não apresenta eficiência, visto que a evolução da doença é superaguda, e geralmente ocasiona a morte do animal. Devido à dificuldade no controle dessa intoxicação, diversos estudos sugerem alternativas para preveni-la, principalmente tornando os animais resistentes ao MFA presente nessas plantas ou evitando seu consumo. O objetivo do presente trabalho é fazer uma revisão bibliográfica das técnicas utilizadas experimentalmente para controlar a intoxicação de ruminantes por plantas que contém MFA. Nos primeiros trabalhos realizados no Brasil, foi determinado que caprinos e ovinos que recebem continuadamente doses não tóxicas de planta que contém MFA apresentam maior resistência a intoxicação que animais não tratados e que essa resistência pode ser transmitida por transfaunação de fluído ruminal, sugerindo que a mesma ocorre devido a presença de bactérias que hidrolisam MFA no rúmen. Com base nessa hipótese foram isoladas diversas bactérias que hidrolisam MFA (Enterococcus faecalis, Bacillus sp., Paenibacillus sp., Burkholderia sp., Cupriavidus sp., Staphylococcus sp., Ancylobactersp., Ralstoniasp., Stenotrophomonas sp., Pigmentiphaga kullae e Ancylobacter dichloromethanicus). Quando algumas dessas bactérias foram administradas intraruminalmente conferiram diferentes graus de proteção contra a intoxicação. No entanto foi observado que a proteção se perde gradualmente quando se deixa de administrar a(s) bactéria(s). Em consequência, para obter uma proteção mais eficiente essas bactérias deveriam ser administradas continuadamente, provavelmente na forma de probiótico. Em outro ensaio administrou-se MFA a ovinos em doses não tóxicas para testar a hipótese de que esta substância poderia induzir a multiplicação de bactérias que hidrolisam o mesmo no rúmen. Não houve um aumento da resistência a intoxicação após a administração de MFA; no entanto quando foi administrado trifluoroacetato, os animais não desenvolveram nenhum sinal de intoxicação e quando desafiados com doses tóxicas de MFA não apresentaram sinais clínicos, pelo contrário todos os animais controles apresentaram sinais clínicos. Esses resultados sugerem que o trifluoroacetato induz a proliferação de bactérias que degradam MFA e pode ser utilizado para a profilaxia da intoxicação. A técnica da aversão alimentar condicionada, utilizando cloreto de lítio, tem sido empregada experimentalmente, com sucesso, para evitar que ruminantes ingiram plantas que contém MFA. Outra alternativa testada foi a pulverização de Amorimia septentrionalis com a bactéria endofítica Herbaspirullum seropedicae, que degrada MFA, resultando na diminuição da concentração deste composto na planta. Conclui-se que há diversas técnicas que experimentalmente tem demonstrado eficiência no controle e profilaxia das intoxicações por plantas que contém MFA; no entanto, nenhuma dessas técnicas está disponível comercialmente. Futuros experimentos, principalmente, a campo, deverão ser realizados para adaptar alguma(s) dessas técnicas as condições de criação extensiva nas numerosas áreas onde ocorrem plantas que contém MFA.(AU)

Animais , Bovinos , Intoxicação por Plantas/prevenção & controle , Intoxicação por Plantas/veterinária , Cabras , Ovinos , Probióticos/uso terapêutico , Fluoracetatos/envenenamento
Toxicon ; 171: 20-28, 2019 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31542469


The indolizidine alkaloid swainsonine, found in some Astragalus and Oxytropis (i.e., locoweed) species, is a potent cellular glycosidase inhibitor that often poisons livestock. Other toxic genera such as some Ipomoea species also contain swainsonine as well as calystegines which are similar polyhydroxy alkaloids. The toxicity of calystegines is poorly characterized; however, they are also potent glycoside inhibitors capable of intestinal and cellular glycoside dysfunction. The objective of this study was to directly compare A. lentiginosus and I. carnea poisoning in goats to better characterize the role of the calystegines. Three groups of four goats each were treated with ground alfalfa (control), I. carnea or A. lentiginosus to obtain daily doses of 0.0, 1.5, and 1.5 mg swainsonine/kg bw per day, respectively, for 45 days. Animals were observed daily and weekly body weights, serum enzyme activities, and serum swainsonine concentrations were determined. At day 45 all animals were euthanized and necropsied. Goats treated with A. lentiginosus and I. carnea developed clinical disease characterized by mild intention tremors and proprioceptive deficits. Goats treated with A. lentiginosus developed clinical disease sooner and with greater consistency. No differences in body weight, serum swainsonine concentrations and serum enzyme activity were observed between goats treated with A. lentiginosus and I. carnea. Additionally, there were no differences in the microscopic and histochemical studies of the visceral and neurologic lesions observed between goats treated with A. lentiginosus and I. carnea. These findings suggest that I. carnea-induced clinical signs and lesions are due to swainsonine and that calystegines contribute little or nothing to toxicity in goats in the presence of swainsonine.

Astrágalo (Planta)/envenenamento , Doenças das Cabras/etiologia , Ipomoea/envenenamento , Intoxicação por Plantas/veterinária , Swainsonina/envenenamento , Animais , Doenças das Cabras/enzimologia , Doenças das Cabras/patologia , Cabras , Masculino , Propriocepção/efeitos dos fármacos , Swainsonina/sangue , Tremor/veterinária , Tropanos/envenenamento
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 39(8): 561-563, Aug. 2019. tab, graf, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1040729


This study identified the different forms of ingestion of Senecio brasiliensis in cattle, diagnosed by the Animal Pathology Laboratory at CAV-UDESC, in the state of Santa Catarina, Brazil. A retrospective evaluation from 1987 to 2016 showed that ingestion has occurred voluntarily due to the presence of the adult plant in native field and/or involuntary, due to the presence of the plant in hay and silage, provided in the trough together with other pastures or by contamination in grain residues. These different forms of ingestion demonstrate the importance of epidemiologic investigation in the diagnosis of seneciosis.(AU)

Esse estudo identificou as diferentes formas de ingestão de Senecio brasiliensis em bovinos, diagnosticados pelo laboratório de Patologia Animal do CAV-UDESC, no estado de Santa Catarina. Através de avaliação retrospectiva referente aos anos de 1987 a 2016, foi possível observar que as formas de ingestão da planta ocorreram de forma voluntária, pela presença da planta adulta em campo nativo, e/ou involuntária, pela presença da planta em fenos, silagens, fornecidas no cocho junto à outras pastagens ou por contaminação em resíduos de grãos. Essas diferentes formas de ingestão demonstram a importância da investigação epidemiológica no diagnóstico da seneciose.(AU)

Animais , Bovinos , Intoxicação por Plantas/etiologia , Intoxicação por Plantas/veterinária , Senécio/toxicidade , Brasil , Consumo de Alimentos
Toxicon ; 168: 122-125, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31330192


An outbreak of acute poisoning of horses by Enterolobium contortisiliquum pods is reported in the state of Goiás, Brazil. Three horses presented apathy, hyporexia, prostration, jaundice, recumbency and died in 24-48 hours. The main pathological findings were a yellowish liver with an enhanced lobular pattern, multifocal hepatic necrosis mostly in the midzones of lobules and sometimes with a random distribution across the hepatic lobes and swelling of hepatocytes. E. contortisiliquum trees has a wide distribution in South America and cases of poisoning have not been reported in horses.

Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/veterinária , Fabaceae/envenenamento , Doenças dos Cavalos/induzido quimicamente , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Evolução Fatal , Frutas , Doenças dos Cavalos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Cavalos/patologia , Cavalos , Intoxicação por Plantas/epidemiologia , Intoxicação por Plantas/patologia , Intoxicação por Plantas/veterinária
J Anim Sci ; 97(9): 3776-3785, 2019 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31359059


Fescue toxicosis is a multifaceted syndrome common in cattle grazing endophyte-infected tall fescue and is detrimental to growth and performance. Recent research has shown that supplementing protein has the potential to enhance growth performance in weaned steers. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of supplemental CP on physiological parameters in stocker steers experiencing fescue toxicosis. Thirty-six weaned Angus steers (6 mo of age) stratified by weight (196.1 ± 3.6 kg) were assigned to a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement for 56 d: endophyte-free (EF) seed and 14% CP (EF-14; n = 9), EF seed and 18% CP (EF-18; n = 9), endophyte-infected (EI) seed and 14% CP (EI-14; n = 9), and EI seed and 18% CP (EI-18; n = 9). Steer growth and hemodynamic responses were collected weekly during ergot alkaloid exposure. On day 14 of the trial, iButton temperature data loggers were subcutaneously inserted in the lateral neck region to record hourly body temperature for 42 d. Data were analyzed using PROC MIXED of SAS with repeated measures. No differences were observed in DMI, BW, ADG, F:G, or BCS during the treatment period (P > 0.05). Hair shedding scores, rectal temperatures, surface temperatures, and respiration rates were greater in EI steers compared to EF steers regardless of supplemental CP (P < 0.05). However, subcutaneous body temperature was greater in EI-14 steers (37.94 °C) compared to other steer groups (37.60, 37.68, 37.72 ± 0.04 °C for EF-14, EF-18, and EI-18, respectively; P < 0.05). Prolactin concentrations tended to be greater in EF steers when compared to EI steers (P = 0.07). Heart rate and hematocrit were reduced for EI-18 steers compared to other steer groups (P < 0.05). Caudal artery diameter was reduced in EI-18 steers compared to EI-14 steers (2.60 vs. 2.75 ± 0.05 mm, respectively; P < 0.05) and caudal vein diameter was reduced in EI-18 steers (3.20 mm) compared to all other steer groups (3.36, 3.39, 3.50 mm for EF-14, EF-18, and EI-14, respectively; P < 0.05). However, there was no difference observed in systolic or diastolic blood pressure during the treatment period (P > 0.05). Based on the data, exposure to low to moderate levels of ergot alkaloids during the stocker phase had a negative impact on hemodynamic responses and supplemental CP had minimal impact to alleviate symptoms. Therefore, feeding additional protein above established requirements is not expected to help alleviate fescue toxicosis.

Doenças dos Bovinos/prevenção & controle , Bovinos/fisiologia , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Endófitos/fisiologia , Lolium/microbiologia , Intoxicação por Plantas/veterinária , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Peso Corporal , Bovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Dieta/veterinária , Alcaloides de Claviceps/efeitos adversos , Hemodinâmica , Lolium/química , Masculino , Intoxicação por Plantas/prevenção & controle , Prolactina/sangue , Proteínas/análise , Distribuição Aleatória , Sementes/química , Sementes/microbiologia