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1.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 39(8): 561-563, Aug. 2019. tab, graf, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1040729

RESUMO

This study identified the different forms of ingestion of Senecio brasiliensis in cattle, diagnosed by the Animal Pathology Laboratory at CAV-UDESC, in the state of Santa Catarina, Brazil. A retrospective evaluation from 1987 to 2016 showed that ingestion has occurred voluntarily due to the presence of the adult plant in native field and/or involuntary, due to the presence of the plant in hay and silage, provided in the trough together with other pastures or by contamination in grain residues. These different forms of ingestion demonstrate the importance of epidemiologic investigation in the diagnosis of seneciosis.(AU)


Esse estudo identificou as diferentes formas de ingestão de Senecio brasiliensis em bovinos, diagnosticados pelo laboratório de Patologia Animal do CAV-UDESC, no estado de Santa Catarina. Através de avaliação retrospectiva referente aos anos de 1987 a 2016, foi possível observar que as formas de ingestão da planta ocorreram de forma voluntária, pela presença da planta adulta em campo nativo, e/ou involuntária, pela presença da planta em fenos, silagens, fornecidas no cocho junto à outras pastagens ou por contaminação em resíduos de grãos. Essas diferentes formas de ingestão demonstram a importância da investigação epidemiológica no diagnóstico da seneciose.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Bovinos , Intoxicação por Plantas/etiologia , Intoxicação por Plantas/veterinária , Senécio/toxicidade , Brasil , Consumo de Alimentos
2.
Toxicon ; 161: 28-32, 2019 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30826471

RESUMO

In this retrospective series of 97 cases of manchineel fruit ingestion reported to French Poison Control Centers between 2009 and 2017, we investigated cases of poisoning due to manchineel fruit (from the Hippomane mancinella tree). This fruit is known to be responsible for oropharyngeal and gastrointestinal tract lesions and possibly hypotension and bradycardia (previously attributed to the presence of physostigmine). The most commonly observed clinical signs were oropharyngeal pain, abdominal pain, diarrhea and oropharyngeal irritation. No major gastrointestinal tract lesions were observed in the five cases in which upper gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy was performed. One case of laryngeal edema and one case of bradycardia were observed, but analysis of the harvested fruits did not confirm the presence of physostigmine. Ingestion of manchineel fruit can cause mild abdominal pain and digestive irritation, requiring medical attention. Rarely, when several fruits have been ingested, severe oropharyngeal injury or hemodynamic disorders may require otorhinolaryngological consultation or cardiac monitoring for several hours, respectively.


Assuntos
Frutas/envenenamento , Hippomane/envenenamento , Intoxicação por Plantas/etiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Hippomane/química , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fisostigmina/análise , Intoxicação por Plantas/diagnóstico , Centros de Controle de Intoxicações , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
3.
PLoS One ; 14(2): e0211698, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30721263

RESUMO

Atypical myopathy (AM) in horses is caused by ingestion of seeds of the Acer species (Sapindaceae family). Methylenecyclopropylacetyl-CoA (MCPA-CoA), derived from hypoglycin A (HGA), is currently the only active toxin in Acer pseudoplatanus or Acer negundo seeds related to AM outbreaks. However, seeds or arils of various Sapindaceae (e.g., ackee, lychee, mamoncillo, longan fruit) also contain methylenecyclopropylglycine (MCPG), which is a structural analogue of HGA that can cause hypoglycaemic encephalopathy in humans. The active poison formed from MCPG is methylenecyclopropylformyl-CoA (MCPF-CoA). MCPF-CoA and MCPA-CoA strongly inhibit enzymes that participate in ß-oxidation and energy production from fat. The aim of our study was to investigate if MCPG is involved in Acer seed poisoning in horses. MCPG, as well as glycine and carnitine conjugates (MCPF-glycine, MCPF-carnitine), were quantified using high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry of serum and urine from horses that had ingested Acer pseudoplatanus seeds and developed typical AM symptoms. The results were compared to those of healthy control horses. For comparison, HGA and its glycine and carnitine derivatives were also measured. Additionally, to assess the degree of enzyme inhibition of ß-oxidation, several acyl glycines and acyl carnitines were included in the analysis. In addition to HGA and the specific toxic metabolites (MCPA-carnitine and MCPA-glycine), MCPG, MCPF-glycine and MCPF-carnitine were detected in the serum and urine of affected horses. Strong inhibition of ß-oxidation was demonstrated by elevated concentrations of all acyl glycines and carnitines, but the highest correlations were observed between MCPF-carnitine and isobutyryl-carnitine (r = 0.93) as well as between MCPA- (and MCPF-) glycine and valeryl-glycine with r = 0.96 (and r = 0.87). As shown here, for biochemical analysis of atypical myopathy of horses, it is necessary to take MCPG and the corresponding metabolites into consideration.


Assuntos
Acer/efeitos adversos , Ciclopropanos/metabolismo , Glicina/análogos & derivados , Doenças dos Cavalos/metabolismo , Doenças Musculares/veterinária , Intoxicação por Plantas/veterinária , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Ciclopropanos/sangue , Ciclopropanos/urina , Feminino , Glicina/sangue , Glicina/metabolismo , Glicina/urina , Doenças dos Cavalos/sangue , Doenças dos Cavalos/etiologia , Doenças dos Cavalos/urina , Cavalos/sangue , Cavalos/urina , Masculino , Redes e Vias Metabólicas , Doenças Musculares/etiologia , Doenças Musculares/metabolismo , Intoxicação por Plantas/etiologia , Intoxicação por Plantas/metabolismo , Sementes/efeitos adversos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
4.
Clin Toxicol (Phila) ; 57(4): 246-253, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30522351

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Datura and Brugmansia plants, especially Datura species, have been used for their hallucinogenic effects in the United States and Europe; whereas Datura plants have been used as a traditional medicine in many Asian countries. This study was conducted to better understand the pattern and outcome of Datura/Brugmansia plant related poisoning in Taiwan. METHODS: This is a retrospective case series study of all cases with Datura/Brugmansia exposure reported to the Taiwan Poison Control Center between 1986 and 2015. Data for patients with relevant poisoning were reviewed and abstracted. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify potential predictors of the severity of poisoning; bivariate analysis was employed to assess the effectiveness of physostigmine in the treatment of Datura/Brugmansia poisoning. RESULTS: A total of 203 cases involving 114 Datura exposures and 89 Brugmansia suaveolens exposures were eligible for analysis. Using Datura/Brugmansia for a medicinal purpose by the patients without consulting Chinese medicine practitioners was the most common reason of poisoning (81.2%); whereas only 2% of the patients were poisoned after medicinal use associated with the prescription from Chinese medicine practitioners. None of the 203 patients had used Datura/Brugmansia plant for recreational purpose. Most frequently observed clinical effect was mydriasis (53.2%), followed by confusion (40%), tachycardia (35.5%), dry mouth (35.5%), dizziness (34%), dry skin (32.5%), and delirium (31%). Seventy-three cases (36%) had severe effects; none of them died. Misidentification of the plants and ingestion of plant parts other than flowers were positively associated with the severity of poisoning. Forty patients (19.7%) received physostigmine therapy and patients receiving physostigmine had an earlier resolution of central nervous system toxicity than those who did not. CONCLUSIONS: Medicinal use without consulting Chinese medicine practitioners is the main reason for Datura/Brugmansia poisoning in Taiwan. Consumption of parts other than flowers and misidentification of the plants predicted the severity of poisoning in this study. Patients who received physostigmine appear to have earlier improvement in the central nervous system effects. No adverse events were reported from physostigmine administration.


Assuntos
Brugmansia/envenenamento , Datura/envenenamento , Intoxicação por Plantas/epidemiologia , Adulto , Inibidores da Colinesterase/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Antagonistas Muscarínicos/toxicidade , Fisostigmina/uso terapêutico , Intoxicação por Plantas/tratamento farmacológico , Intoxicação por Plantas/etiologia , Plantas Medicinais/efeitos adversos , Plantas Medicinais/envenenamento , Centros de Controle de Intoxicações/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taiwan/epidemiologia
5.
J Vet Diagn Invest ; 31(1): 90-93, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30565513

RESUMO

Consumption of certain grasses belonging to the genus Panicum has been found to cause hepatogenous photosensitization and crystal-associated cholangiohepatopathy in small ruminants, and liver disease in horses, in many areas of the world. We describe herein the clinical findings, microscopic lesions, and steroidal saponin analysis of Panicum dichotomiflorum associated with fatal toxicosis in 3 juvenile goats in Nebraska. The disease presentation in our case was fulminant, with anorexia, marked icterus, and death for all affected animals in less than a week. Photosensitization was not observed. The microscopic lesions consisted of severe crystal-associated cholangiohepatopathy and nephropathy, with aggregates of clear or refractile and birefringent, acicular crystals present within bile ducts, macrophages, hepatocytes, and renal tubules. High-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry of the grass samples demonstrated that dichotomin was the major steroidal saponin present (0.89 µg/mg); protodioscin was also present (0.059 µg/mg). The findings were consistent with ingestion of steroidal saponins, and P. dichotomiflorum was identified as the predominant forage available.


Assuntos
Doenças das Cabras/diagnóstico , Panicum/envenenamento , Intoxicação por Plantas/veterinária , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Doenças das Cabras/etiologia , Doenças das Cabras/patologia , Cabras , Nebraska , Panicum/classificação , Intoxicação por Plantas/diagnóstico , Intoxicação por Plantas/etiologia , Intoxicação por Plantas/patologia , Saponinas/metabolismo
6.
Clin Toxicol (Phila) ; 57(2): 104-111, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30073854

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Consumption of yellow oleander (Cascabela thevetia) is a popular method of intentional self-harm in South India. OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to identify the cardiac arrhythmias and electrolyte abnormalities in yellow oleander poisoning and to identify the association between electrolyte abnormalities, cardiac glycoside concentrations at admission and the severity of cardiotoxicity. This study was also designed to identify clinical and biochemical parameters at presentation which predict serious arrhythmias and determinants of mortality. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a prospective study among 192 patients who attended our Emergency department after consuming yellow oleander seeds. Patients were monitored with serial ECGs. Serious cardiac arrhythmias included sinus bradycardia <40/min, sinus arrest/exit block, second or third degree AV block, atrial tachyarrhythmias and ventricular tachyarrhythmias. Serum sodium, potassium, magnesium, total calcium and cardiac glycoside concentrations were measured at presentation for all 192 patients. Serial estimation of cardiac glycoside concentration was done in 43 patients who presented within 24 hours of consuming at least five seeds. RESULTS: At presentation, 46 patients had serious arrhythmias and on follow-up, 11 developed new-onset serious arrhythmia. Sinus bradycardia (27%) was the most common arrhythmia followed by second-degree AV block (17%); multiple arrhythmias were observed in 18%. Digoxin effect in ECG correlated significantly with hyperkalemia. Mortality rate was 5%. Serum sodium, total calcium and magnesium levels did not correlate with cardiotoxicity. Cardiac glycoside concentration was of relatively modest clinical utility to discriminate patients with serious dysrhythmias (AUC: 0.719, 95% CI: 0.63-0.81). Prolonged PR interval and digoxin effect in ECG were significantly associated with an increased likelihood of serious dysrhythmias. Increase in 0.4 number of seed intake increased the odds of mortality by 1.5 times when all other independent variables were kept constant. CONCLUSION: Cardiac glycoside concentration at the time of presentation predicted the development of new-onset serious arrhythmias. Although serum potassium correlated significantly with cardiac glycoside concentration at admission and overall serious dysrhythmias, it did not predict the development of new-onset serious arrhythmia. On the whole, serious dysrhythmias were significantly associated with higher number of seeds ingested, hypotension at admission, PR interval prolongation, presence of digoxin effect in ECG, hyperkalemia and higher cardiac glycoside concentration. The independent determinants of mortality were larger number of seeds ingested and hypotension at admission. Cardiac glycoside concentration and hyperkalemia failed to be independent markers of serious dysrhythmias as well as mortality.


Assuntos
Arritmias Cardíacas/etiologia , Glicosídeos Cardíacos/sangue , Intoxicação por Plantas/etiologia , Thevetia/envenenamento , Desequilíbrio Hidroeletrolítico/etiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Eletrocardiografia , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Feminino , Humanos , Índia , Masculino , Intoxicação por Plantas/sangue , Intoxicação por Plantas/fisiopatologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Sementes/envenenamento , Adulto Jovem
7.
Toxicon ; 157: 80-83, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30468757

RESUMO

The aim of this paper was to present the first report of Prosopis nigra poisoning of cattle in Argentina. Outbreaks occurred in five farms located in Salta and Santiago del Estero provinces. All animals were examined, euthanized and necropsied. Clinical signs included tongue protrusion, twitches and tremors of muscles of mastication, weight loss and lethargy. Severe atrophy of the masseter, buccinator and lingual muscles was observed, along with neuronal vacuolation in the nuclei of the trigeminal, facial, and hypoglossus nerves. These findings and the clinical signs are consistent with results obtained in animals, spontaneously and experimentally intoxicated with Prosopis juliflora in previous studies. Several species of this genus are native to Argentina. Farmers should be warned about the suspected toxicity by Prosopis nigra, since this species has wide geographical distribution in the country.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/etiologia , Intoxicação por Plantas/veterinária , Prosopis/envenenamento , Animais , Argentina , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/diagnóstico , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Frutas/envenenamento , Intoxicação por Plantas/diagnóstico , Intoxicação por Plantas/etiologia
8.
Toxicon ; 156: 52-60, 2018 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30439441

RESUMO

Ipomoea asarifolia has been associated with a tremorgenic syndrome in livestock. Recently indole diterpene compounds were identified in I. asarifolia, some of which have been shown to cause a tremorgenic syndrome. In this study, the tremorgenic nature of I. asarifolia was assessed using a mouse model. Adult mice were fed rodent chow containing 10, 15, 20 and 25% endophyte infected (E+), or 25% endophyte free (E-), I. asarifolia for 14 days. The mice fed E+ chow developed a tremorgenic syndrome as characterized by visually observed muscle tremors and an inability to traverse a balance beam, whereas the mice fed E- chow did not develop tremors and had similar muscle coordination to control mice. A lactating mouse model was also used to determine if the compounds can be transferred to nursing pups via the milk. Nursing pups were exposed via their mother's milk for 21 days, from post-natal day 0-21. The pups from dams exposed to E+ chow developed a similar tremorgenic syndrome. Data presented in this study demonstrate that the tremorgenic compounds in I. asarifolia are endophyte derived. Additionally, both adult mice and nursing pups are good models for studying the tremorgenic nature of I. asarifolia and related plants.


Assuntos
Diterpenos/toxicidade , Indóis/toxicidade , Ipomoea/química , Animais , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Diterpenos/isolamento & purificação , Diterpenos/farmacocinética , Endófitos/química , Feminino , Indóis/isolamento & purificação , Indóis/farmacocinética , Ipomoea/toxicidade , Lactação , Troca Materno-Fetal/fisiologia , Camundongos , Leite/química , Leite/metabolismo , Modelos Animais , Intoxicação por Plantas/etiologia , Gravidez , Tremor/induzido quimicamente
9.
Vet Pathol ; 55(6): 896-899, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30071802

RESUMO

Contaminated honey is a common cause of grayanotoxin intoxication in humans. Intoxication of animals, especially cattle, is usually due to ingestion of plants of the Ericaceae family, such as Rhododendron. Here, we report the ingestion of Pieris japonica as the cause of grayanotoxin I intoxication in 2 miniature pigs that were kept as pets. The pigs showed sudden onset of pale oral mucosa, tachycardia, tachypnea, hypersalivation, tremor, and ataxia that progressed to lateral recumbency. The pathological examination of one pig revealed no specific indications for intoxication except for the finding of plant material of Pieris japonica in the intestine. Grayanotoxin I was identified in the ingested plant, gastric content, blood, liver, bile, kidney, urine, lung, and skeletal muscle via HPLC-MS/MS. Grayanotoxin I should be considered as a differential etiological diagnosis in pigs with unspecific signs and discovery of ingested plant material as the only indication in the pathologic examination.


Assuntos
Diterpenos/envenenamento , Ericaceae/envenenamento , Intoxicação por Plantas/veterinária , Doenças dos Suínos/etiologia , Porco Miniatura , Animais , Diterpenos/análise , Feminino , Masculino , Intoxicação por Plantas/etiologia , Suínos
11.
J Vet Emerg Crit Care (San Antonio) ; 28(4): 361-365, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29898249

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe the successful management of acute kidney injury (AKI) secondary to oak intoxication using hemodialysis in a miniature zebu. CASE SUMMARY: A 1-year-old male intact miniature zebu was presented for evaluation of a 2-day history of lethargy, anorexia, decreased urine production, and dry, firm stool. Initial diagnostics revealed severe azotemia and the bull was presumptively diagnosed with AKI secondary to oak intoxication due to free access to oak trees in the pasture. Despite conventional management with IV fluids and supportive therapy, the degree of azotemia progressively worsened, and the bull became oliguric and fluid overloaded. Two treatments with hemodialysis resulted in reduction of azotemia and ketonemia, and resolution of fluid overload and oliguria. The zebu was discharged from the hospital after 10 days of hospitalization. NEW OR UNIQUE INFORMATION PROVIDED: To the authors' knowledge, this is the first reported case using hemodialysis for AKI in a bovid. Treatment with hemodialysis was effective in this case resulting in rapid resolution of azotemia, fluid overload, and oliguria. Hemodialysis may hasten the recovery and decrease morbidity and mortality in bovids with AKI.


Assuntos
Lesão Renal Aguda/veterinária , Doenças dos Bovinos/terapia , Intoxicação por Plantas/veterinária , Quercus/envenenamento , Diálise Renal/veterinária , Lesão Renal Aguda/etiologia , Lesão Renal Aguda/terapia , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/etiologia , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Masculino , Intoxicação por Plantas/etiologia
12.
J Chromatogr A ; 1560: 35-44, 2018 Jul 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29779692

RESUMO

Endophyte fungi (e.g. Epichloë ssp. and Neotyphodium ssp.) in symbiosis with pasture grasses (e.g. Festuca arundinacaea and Lolium perenne) can produce toxic alkaloids, which are suspected to be involved in equine diseases such as fescue toxicosis, ryegrass staggers, and equine fescue oedema. The aim of this study was, therefore, to develop and validate a quantification method for these and related alkaloids: ergocristine, ergocryptine, ergotamine, ergovaline, lolitrem B, lysergic acid, N-acetylloline, N-formylloline, peramine, and paxilline in horse serum. Horse serum samples (1.5mL) were worked up by solid-phase extraction (OASIS HLB). The extracts were analyzed by ultra high performance liquid chromatography-high resolution tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-HRMS/MS). Chromatographic separation was achieved by gradient elution with ammonium formate buffer and acetonitrile on a RP18 column (100×2.1mm; 1.7µm). HRMS/MS detection was performed on a QExactive Focus instrument with heated positive electrospray ionization and operated in the parallel reaction monitoring (PRM) mode. Method validation included evaluation of selectivity, matrix effect, recovery, linearity, limit of quantification (LOQ), limit of detection (LOD), accuracy, and stability. With exception of lolitrem B solid phase extraction yielded high recoveries (73.6-104.6%) for all analytes. Chromatographic separation of all analytes was achieved with a run time of 25min. HRMS/MS allowed sensitive detection with LODs ranging from 0.05 to 0.5ng/mL and LOQs from 0.1 to 1.0ng/mL. Selectivity experiments showed no interferences from matrix or IS, but N-acetylloline and N-formylloline were found to be ubiquitous in horse serum. Newborn calf serum was therefore used as surrogate matrix for the validation study. Calibration ranges were analyte-dependent and in total covered concentrations from 0.1 to 50ng/mL. Lolitrem B and paxilline could be sensitively detected, but did not meet quantification requirements. For the other analytes, accuracy and precision were shown for 3 different concentrations (QC low, medium, high) with acceptable bias (-10, 5%-7.9%) and precision (CV 2.6%-12.5%). Matrix effects varied from 55.0% to 121% (RSD 7.8-18.5%) and were adequately compensated by IS. Matrix effects of N-acetylloline and N-formylloline could only be estimated in newborn calf serum (n=1) and ranged from 52.5-88.3%. All analytes were stable under autosampler conditions and over 3 freeze and thaw cycles. Applicability was proven by analyzing authentic horse serum samples (n=24). In conclusion, the presented method allows a sensitive detection of ergocrisitine, ergocryptine, ergotamine, ergovaline, lolitrem B, lysergic acid, N-acetylloline, N-formylloline, peramine, and paxilline in horse serum and reliable quantification of all but lolitrem B and paxilline.


Assuntos
Alcaloides/sangue , Ração Animal/envenenamento , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Endófitos/patogenicidade , Intoxicação por Plantas/veterinária , Poaceae/microbiologia , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Alcaloides/química , Alcaloides/toxicidade , Animais , Bioensaio , Cavalos , Intoxicação por Plantas/etiologia , Poaceae/química
13.
BMC Vet Res ; 14(1): 74, 2018 Mar 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29514628

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Crepis lacera is a plant from the Asteraceae family that is common in the Mediterranean region. Farmers believe that this plant may be deadly to small ruminants in areas of southern Italy. However, scientific evidence is lacking, and no proof exists that C. lacera is toxic to ruminants. Necropsies conducted on four sheep revealed lesions in their livers and kidneys. RESULTS: In the current study, we described sheep poisoning and isolated secondary metabolites from Crepis lacera to assess the metabolites' biological activity both in vitro and in vivo. Phytochemical study of the aerial portions of Crepis lacera led to the isolation of five sesquiterpene lactones and two phenolic compounds. Cellular viability was evaluated in cell cultures of the bovine kidney cell line Madin Darby Bovine Kidney (MDBK) after incubation with phytochemicals. Our results showed that three sesquiterpene lactones, 8-epidesacylcynaropicrin-3-O-ß-glucopyranoside (2), 8-epigrosheimin (3), and 8-ß-hydroxydehydrozaluzanin C (4), were cytotoxic after 48 h of incubation. In addition, in the in vivo study, animals that received 1 mg/kg body weight (bw) of Crepis lacera extract and were then sacrificed after 48 h showed significant lesions in their liver, lungs and kidneys. These lesions were also found in rats that received 2 mg/kg bw of the same extract and sacrificed after 24 and 48 h. CONCLUSIONS: These results validate the hypothesis that C. lacera is potentially dangerous when ingested in large quantities by grazing small domestic ruminants. Further studies are necessary to clarify the molecular mechanisms of Crepis spp. toxicity in animals.


Assuntos
Crepis/toxicidade , Intoxicação por Plantas/veterinária , Doenças dos Ovinos/etiologia , Ração Animal/toxicidade , Animais , Cães , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Rim/patologia , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/patologia , Células Madin Darby de Rim Canino/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade , Intoxicação por Plantas/etiologia , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Ovinos
14.
PLoS One ; 13(3): e0194450, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29566054

RESUMO

By killing cattle and otherwise complicating management, the many species of larkspur (Delphinium spp.) present a serious, intractable, and complex challenge to livestock grazing management in the western United States. Among the many obstacles to improving our understanding of cattle-larkspur dynamics has been the difficulty of testing different grazing management strategies in the field, as the risk of dead animals is too great. Agent-based models (ABMs) provide an effective method of testing alternate management strategies without risk to livestock. ABMs are especially useful for modeling complex systems such as livestock grazing management, and allow for realistic bottom-up encoding of cattle behavior. Here, we introduce a spatially-explicit, behavior-based ABM of cattle grazing in a pasture with a dangerous amount of Geyer's larkspur (D. geyeri). This model tests the role of herd cohesion and stocking density in larkspur intake, finds that both are key drivers of larkspur-induced toxicosis, and indicates that alteration of these factors within realistic bounds can mitigate risk. Crucially, the model points to herd cohesion, which has received little attention in the discipline, as playing an important role in lethal acute toxicosis. As the first ABM to model grazing behavior at realistic scales, this study also demonstrates the tremendous potential of ABMs to illuminate grazing management dynamics, including fundamental aspects of livestock behavior amidst ecological heterogeneity.


Assuntos
Agricultura/métodos , Doenças dos Bovinos/prevenção & controle , Delphinium/toxicidade , Modelos Biológicos , Intoxicação por Plantas/prevenção & controle , Alcaloides/toxicidade , Animais , Comportamento Animal , Variação Biológica da População , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/etiologia , Biologia Computacional , Delphinium/química , Intoxicação por Plantas/etiologia , Intoxicação por Plantas/veterinária , Estados Unidos
15.
J Agric Food Chem ; 66(13): 3308-3314, 2018 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29557651

RESUMO

Poisonous plants have a devastating impact on the livestock industry as well as human health. To fully understand the effects of poisonous plants, multiple scientific disciplines are required. Chemical analysis of plant secondary compounds is key to identifying the responsible toxins, characterizing their metabolism, and understanding their effects on animals and humans. In this review, we highlight some of the successes in studying poisonous plants and mitigating their toxic effects. We also highlight some of the remaining challenges and opportunities with regards to the chemical analysis of poisonous plants.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Gado/metabolismo , Intoxicação por Plantas/veterinária , Plantas Tóxicas/química , Plantas Tóxicas/toxicidade , Toxinas Biológicas/metabolismo , Ração Animal/toxicidade , Animais , Intoxicação por Plantas/etiologia , Toxinas Biológicas/toxicidade
16.
J Vet Med Sci ; 80(3): 485-487, 2018 Mar 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29311434

RESUMO

Lilies are considered nephrotoxic only to domestic cats, which belong to the family Felidae of the suborder Feliformia. However, a 7-month-old female meerkat, belonging to the family Herpestidae of the suborder Feliformia, presented with oliguria, seizure, tachypnea, self-biting, and nystagmus after it ingested lilies. The meerkat died approximately 40 hr after lily ingestion. Gross and histopathologic lesions consistent with acute renal failure were conspicuous in the animal. The renal lesions were acute tubular necrosis, corresponding to the typical pathological changes of lily toxicosis in cats. In addition, massive hepatocyte necrosis and pulmonary congestion/edema were observed. These findings suggest that lily toxicosis in meerkats is characterized by pulmonary and hepatic failure, in addition to the renal failure observed in domestic cats.


Assuntos
Herpestidae/metabolismo , Lilium/envenenamento , Intoxicação por Plantas/veterinária , Animais , Feminino , Nistagmo Patológico/etiologia , Nistagmo Patológico/veterinária , Oligúria/etiologia , Oligúria/veterinária , Intoxicação por Plantas/diagnóstico , Intoxicação por Plantas/etiologia , Convulsões/etiologia , Convulsões/veterinária , Taquipneia/etiologia , Taquipneia/veterinária
17.
Med J Malaysia ; 73(6): 453-454, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30647232

RESUMO

Datura plants contain anticholinergic properties. Consumers may present with a spectrum of anticholinergic symptoms, including hallucination, agitation, tachycardia, delirium, hyperthermia, and dilated pupils. Prompt identification of the symptoms with appropriate treatment can be life-saving. Some patients might not be able to provide history and therefore recognition of toxidromes is imperative. Awareness should be built among the public who may be exposed to such fruits or plants.


Assuntos
Datura/envenenamento , Frutas/envenenamento , Intoxicação por Plantas/diagnóstico , Adulto , Inibidores da Colinesterase/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fisostigmina/uso terapêutico , Intoxicação por Plantas/tratamento farmacológico , Intoxicação por Plantas/etiologia
18.
Toxicon ; 141: 9-14, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29128544

RESUMO

In order to evaluate the susceptibility of sheep to V. rubricaulis and to establish the clinical signs, serum biochemistry, and pathological findings, eight sheep were fed varying doses of V. rubricaulis. The onset of clinical signs occurred 6-48 h after the ingestion of V. rubricaulis. Clinical courses lasted 6-56 h after the ingestion of the plant. Serum activities of aspartate aminotransferase, gamma-glutamyl transferase, and alkaline phosphatase were highly elevated and glucose blood levels were low in affected sheep. Clinical signs consisted of apathy, anorexia, dry muzzle, respiratory distress, abdominal pain, and mushy feces with streaks of blood and mucus. Two sheep had neurological signs including muscle fasciculation, nystagmus, paddling movements, and blindness. Liver necrosis could be detected antemortem through liver biopsy. Five sheep died and three recovered. The liver was affected in all necropsied sheep; it increased in volume and had marked accentuation of the lobular pattern with red, depressed areas intercalated with a pale yellow network. Ascites and hydropericardium were consistent findings. Microscopically, centrilobular to massive coagulative necrosis was observed. Coagulative necrosis was also observed in a few proximal renal tubules. Microscopic lesions were not found in any other organs. The severity of liver lesions was proportional to the dose. Chemical analysis to detect carboxyatractyloside in V. rubricaulis plant material was negative. It is concluded that V. rubricaulis poisoning in sheep is clinically, biochemically, and pathologically characteristic of an acute hepatoxicosis.


Assuntos
Intoxicação por Plantas/veterinária , Doenças dos Ovinos/etiologia , Vernonia/envenenamento , Fosfatase Alcalina/sangue , Animais , Ascite , Aspartato Aminotransferases/sangue , Atractilosídeo/análogos & derivados , Atractilosídeo/análise , Glicemia , Fígado/enzimologia , Fígado/patologia , Necrose , Intoxicação por Plantas/etiologia , Intoxicação por Plantas/mortalidade , Intoxicação por Plantas/patologia , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/mortalidade , Doenças dos Ovinos/patologia , Vernonia/química , gama-Glutamiltransferase/sangue
19.
J Diet Suppl ; 15(3): 352-364, 2018 May 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28956681

RESUMO

The Dietary Supplements and Health Education Act (DSHEA), passed by the United States Congress in October of 1994, defines herbal products as nutritional supplements, not medications. This opened the market for diverse products made from plants, including teas, extracts, essential oils, and syrups. Mexico and the United States share an extensive border, where diverse herbal products are available to the public without a medical prescription. Research undertaken in the neighboring cities of Ciudad Juarez, Mexico, and El Paso, Texas, USA, shows the use of herbs is higher in this border area compared to the rest of the United States. A portion of the population is still under the erroneous impression that "natural" products are completely safe to use and therefore lack side effects. We review the dangers of ingesting the toxic seed of Thevetia spp. (family Apocynaceae), commonly known as "yellow oleander" or "codo de fraile," misleadingly advertised on the Internet as an effective and safe dietary supplement for weight loss. Lack of proper quality control regarding herbs generates a great variability in the quantity and quality of the products' content. Herb-drug interactions occur between some herbal products and certain prescription pharmaceuticals. Certain herbs recently introduced into the U.S. market may not have been previously tested adequately for purity, safety, and efficacy. Due to the lack of reliable clinical data regarding the safe use of various herbal products currently available, the public should be made aware regarding the possible health hazards of using certain herbs for therapeutic purposes. The potentially fatal toxicity of yellow oleander seed is confirmed by cases reported from various countries, while the purported benefits of using it for weight loss have not been evaluated by any known clinical trials. For this reason, the use of yellow oleander seed as a dietary supplement should be avoided.


Assuntos
Fármacos Antiobesidade/toxicidade , Suplementos Nutricionais/toxicidade , Sementes/toxicidade , Thevetia/toxicidade , Animais , Fármacos Antiobesidade/economia , Fármacos Antiobesidade/normas , Suplementos Nutricionais/economia , Suplementos Nutricionais/normas , Contaminação de Alimentos/legislação & jurisprudência , Rotulagem de Alimentos/legislação & jurisprudência , Rotulagem de Alimentos/normas , Fraude , Humanos , Internet , Legislação sobre Alimentos , México , Intoxicação por Plantas/etiologia , Intoxicação por Plantas/prevenção & controle , Intoxicação por Plantas/veterinária , Plantas Medicinais/efeitos adversos , Plantas Medicinais/química , Plantas Medicinais/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plantas Tóxicas/química , Plantas Tóxicas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plantas Tóxicas/toxicidade , Sementes/química , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Texas , Thevetia/química , Thevetia/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Estados Unidos
20.
Clin Toxicol (Phila) ; 55(7): 670-673, 2017 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28463019

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Accidental ingestion of foxglove (Digitalis purpurea) can cause significant cardiac toxicity. We report a patient who ingested foxglove mistaking it for comfrey and developed refractory ventricular arrhythmias. The patient died despite treatment with digoxin-specific antibody fragments (DSFab) and veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VA-ECMO). CASE DETAILS: A 55-year-old woman presented to the emergency department with nausea, vomiting and generalized weakness eight hours after drinking "comfrey" tea. She had bradycardia (54 beats/min) and hyperkalemia (7.6 mEq/L). Electrocardiogram revealed a first-degree atrioventricular conduction block with premature atrial contractions, followed by polymorphic ventricular tachycardia three hours after arrival. A serum digoxin level was 151.2 ng/mL. The patient developed ventricular fibrillation while waiting for Digibind infusion. Resuscitation was performed and an emergent VA-ECMO was set up. A total of eight vials of Digibind were given over the next 16 hours. She temporarily regained consciousness, but remained hemodynamically unstable and subsequently developed lower limb ischemia and multiple organ failure, and she expired on hospital day seven. A botanist confirmed that the plant was foxglove. CONCLUSIONS: The diagnosis of cardiac glycoside plant poisoning can be difficult in the absence of an accurate exposure history. In facilities where DSFab is unavailable or insufficient, early VA-ECMO might be considered in severely cardiotoxic patients unresponsive to conventional therapy.


Assuntos
Acidentes , Glicosídeos Cardíacos/envenenamento , Confrei , Digitalis/envenenamento , Cardiopatias/induzido quimicamente , Intoxicação por Plantas/etiologia , Cardiotoxicidade , Eletrocardiografia , Oxigenação por Membrana Extracorpórea , Evolução Fatal , Feminino , Cardiopatias/diagnóstico , Cardiopatias/terapia , Humanos , Fragmentos Fab das Imunoglobulinas/uso terapêutico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Intoxicação por Plantas/diagnóstico , Intoxicação por Plantas/terapia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Ressuscitação , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
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