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1.
Clin Toxicol (Phila) ; 57(4): 246-253, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30522351

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Datura and Brugmansia plants, especially Datura species, have been used for their hallucinogenic effects in the United States and Europe; whereas Datura plants have been used as a traditional medicine in many Asian countries. This study was conducted to better understand the pattern and outcome of Datura/Brugmansia plant related poisoning in Taiwan. METHODS: This is a retrospective case series study of all cases with Datura/Brugmansia exposure reported to the Taiwan Poison Control Center between 1986 and 2015. Data for patients with relevant poisoning were reviewed and abstracted. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify potential predictors of the severity of poisoning; bivariate analysis was employed to assess the effectiveness of physostigmine in the treatment of Datura/Brugmansia poisoning. RESULTS: A total of 203 cases involving 114 Datura exposures and 89 Brugmansia suaveolens exposures were eligible for analysis. Using Datura/Brugmansia for a medicinal purpose by the patients without consulting Chinese medicine practitioners was the most common reason of poisoning (81.2%); whereas only 2% of the patients were poisoned after medicinal use associated with the prescription from Chinese medicine practitioners. None of the 203 patients had used Datura/Brugmansia plant for recreational purpose. Most frequently observed clinical effect was mydriasis (53.2%), followed by confusion (40%), tachycardia (35.5%), dry mouth (35.5%), dizziness (34%), dry skin (32.5%), and delirium (31%). Seventy-three cases (36%) had severe effects; none of them died. Misidentification of the plants and ingestion of plant parts other than flowers were positively associated with the severity of poisoning. Forty patients (19.7%) received physostigmine therapy and patients receiving physostigmine had an earlier resolution of central nervous system toxicity than those who did not. CONCLUSIONS: Medicinal use without consulting Chinese medicine practitioners is the main reason for Datura/Brugmansia poisoning in Taiwan. Consumption of parts other than flowers and misidentification of the plants predicted the severity of poisoning in this study. Patients who received physostigmine appear to have earlier improvement in the central nervous system effects. No adverse events were reported from physostigmine administration.


Assuntos
Brugmansia/envenenamento , Datura/envenenamento , Intoxicação por Plantas/epidemiologia , Adulto , Inibidores da Colinesterase/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Antagonistas Muscarínicos/toxicidade , Fisostigmina/uso terapêutico , Intoxicação por Plantas/tratamento farmacológico , Intoxicação por Plantas/etiologia , Plantas Medicinais/efeitos adversos , Plantas Medicinais/envenenamento , Centros de Controle de Intoxicações/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taiwan/epidemiologia
2.
Clin Toxicol (Phila) ; 56(9): 841-845, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29490507

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Steroidal alkaloids are found in plants of the genus Veratrum. Their toxicity manifests as gastrointestinal symptoms followed by a Bezold-Jarisch reflex: hypopnea, hypotension, and bradycardia. Some Veratrum steroidal alkaloids are also teratogens interfering with the hedgehog-2 signaling pathway, which causes cyclopsia and holoprosencephaly. We present a case of accidental poisoning from Veratrum parviflorum mistaken for the edible Allium tricoccum (ramps, wild leek). CASE HISTORY: A 27-year-old man and his 25-year-old wife presented to the emergency department with nausea, vomiting, hypotension, and bradycardia after foraging and ingesting plants that they believed to be a local native species of wild leek. METHODS: We collected and analyzed the implicated fresh plant material and both patients' serum/plasma. We used liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy and high-resolution electrospray ionization time of flight tandem mass spectrometry to extract and characterize steroidal alkaloids from the foraged plant and patients' serum. RESULTS: Our V. parviflorum samples contained verazine, veratramine, veratridine, and cyclopamine. DISCUSSION: Steroidal alkaloids have been previously isolated from Veratrum viride and Veratrum album and toxicity has been reported mainly from V. album species. CONCLUSION: V. parviflorum toxicity manifests with gastrointestinal and cardiac symptoms. Treatment is symptomatic and supportive as with previous case reports of toxicity with other Veratrum species.


Assuntos
Antieméticos/uso terapêutico , Gastroenteropatias/tratamento farmacológico , Intoxicação por Plantas/tratamento farmacológico , Intoxicação por Plantas/fisiopatologia , Alcaloides de Veratrum/envenenamento , Veratrum/envenenamento , Vômito/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Feminino , Gastroenteropatias/etiologia , Georgia , Humanos , Masculino , Resultado do Tratamento , Vômito/etiologia
5.
Med J Malaysia ; 73(6): 453-454, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30647232

RESUMO

Datura plants contain anticholinergic properties. Consumers may present with a spectrum of anticholinergic symptoms, including hallucination, agitation, tachycardia, delirium, hyperthermia, and dilated pupils. Prompt identification of the symptoms with appropriate treatment can be life-saving. Some patients might not be able to provide history and therefore recognition of toxidromes is imperative. Awareness should be built among the public who may be exposed to such fruits or plants.


Assuntos
Datura/envenenamento , Frutas/envenenamento , Intoxicação por Plantas/diagnóstico , Adulto , Inibidores da Colinesterase/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fisostigmina/uso terapêutico , Intoxicação por Plantas/tratamento farmacológico , Intoxicação por Plantas/etiologia
6.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28886613

RESUMO

We report about an acute monkshood intoxication requiring acute resuscitation in suicidal intent in a 56-year-old patient. The Blue Monkshood (Aconitum napellus) is considered to be the most toxic plant in Europe. All plant parts contain the highly toxic alkonoid aconitin. The lethal dose in adults is 2 - 6 mg. Intoxications are often fatal. Asymptomatic patients with suspected monkshood intoxication should also be monitored on an ICU. First signs of intoxication are paraesthesia in the mouth and throat area, abdominal cramps, nausea, vomiting and severe pain in skeletal muscle. Affected patients die within hours after ingestion due to respiratory distress and/or cardiac arrhythmia.The most important measure after oral ingestion is to achieve a rapid primary poison elimination clearance (in the case of awareness clear patients, trigger vomiting, otherwise gastric lavage under protective intubation) and the subsequent carbonation. A specific antidote is not available. The management of an intoxication consists primarily of the therapy of the rhythm disturbances in the form of magnesium and amiodarone.Strict adherence to protective measures (gloves, masks) must be strictly observed. A direct skin contact with plant parts is to be avoided as well as the potential contact with vomit or aspirate.


Assuntos
Aconitina/envenenamento , Aconitum/envenenamento , Intoxicação por Plantas/tratamento farmacológico , Ressuscitação/métodos , Amiodarona/uso terapêutico , Antiarrítmicos/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Escala de Coma de Glasgow , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tentativa de Suicídio , Taquicardia/induzido quimicamente , Taquicardia/tratamento farmacológico , Irrigação Terapêutica
7.
J Vet Emerg Crit Care (San Antonio) ; 27(5): 596-604, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28755414

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe a case in which digoxin-specific immune Fab was used successfully in a dog with severe oleander toxicosis secondary to ingesting plant material. CASE SUMMARY: A 6-year-old intact female Rhodesian Ridgeback mixed breed dog was presented for severe oleander toxicosis and was refractory to all antiarrhythmic therapies and supportive care. Digoxin-specific immune Fab was successful in treating this dog. The dog recovered but suffered ischemic injuries, the long-term effects of which are unknown. NEW OR UNIQUE INFORMATION PROVIDED: This report describes the successful use of digoxin-specific immune Fab in the treatment of oleander toxicosis in a dog, which has not previously been published in veterinary literature. Oleander poisoning can be associated with permanent cardiac arrhythmias due to the ischemic damage.


Assuntos
Antiarrítmicos/uso terapêutico , Arritmias Cardíacas/veterinária , Fragmentos Fab das Imunoglobulinas/imunologia , Nerium/toxicidade , Intoxicação por Plantas/veterinária , Animais , Anticorpos Bloqueadores , Arritmias Cardíacas/induzido quimicamente , Arritmias Cardíacas/complicações , Digoxina/imunologia , Cães , Feminino , Intoxicação por Plantas/tratamento farmacológico
8.
Toxicon ; 137: 54-57, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28716647

RESUMO

An innovative method was developed to detect fluoroacetate poisoning in cattle by headspace/gas chromatographic analysis of earwax samples of intoxicated cattle. Samples were collected from 2 groups of cattle subjected to induced fluoroacetate intoxication, each group receiving a different dose of acetamide (antidote). Monofluoroacetic acid was detected in samples of intoxicated cattle in concentrations inversely proportional to the dose of acetamide. Thus, earwax analysis represents a successful approach for detection and monitoring of fluoroacetate poisoning.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/diagnóstico , Cerume/química , Fluoracetatos/envenenamento , Intoxicação por Plantas/veterinária , Rubiaceae/envenenamento , Acetamidas/administração & dosagem , Animais , Antídotos/administração & dosagem , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/tratamento farmacológico , Cromatografia Gasosa , Masculino , Intoxicação por Plantas/diagnóstico , Intoxicação por Plantas/tratamento farmacológico , Rubiaceae/química
9.
Clin Toxicol (Phila) ; 55(8): 914-918, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28535126

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Poisoning with Gloriosa superba, a plant containing colchicine, is common in Sri Lanka. OBJECTIVES: This study was to estimate release of colchicine from 5 g of different parts of Gloriosa superba in simulated gastric and intestinal media, and examine the binding efficacy of activated charcoal (AC) to colchicine within this model. METHODS: A USP dissolution apparatus-II was used to prepare samples for analysis of colchicine using HPLC. RESULTS: Cumulative colchicine release from tuber in gastric media at 120 minutes was significantly higher (2883 µg/g) than in intestinal media (1015 µg/g) (p < .001). Mean ± SD cumulative colchicine concentration over 2 hours from tuber, leaves and trunk in gastric medium was 2883.15 ± 1295.63, 578.25 ± 366.26 and 345.60 ± 200.08 µg/g respectively and the release in intestinal media was 1014.75 ± 268.16, 347.40 ± 262.61 and 251.55 ± 285.72 µg/g respectively. Introduction of 50 g of AC into both media made colchicine undetectable (<0.1 µg/ml). CONCLUSIONS: The tuber released the highest quantity of colchicine. The colchicine release and elapse time to achieve saturated, equilibrium dissolution mainly depends on physicochemical properties of plant part. Significant in vitro binding of colchicine to AC suggests that AC has a role in decontamination of patients presenting to hospital after ingestion of Gloriosa superba.


Assuntos
Antídotos/farmacologia , Carvão Vegetal/farmacologia , Colchicina/envenenamento , Suco Gástrico/química , Secreções Intestinais/química , Liliaceae/envenenamento , Intoxicação por Plantas/tratamento farmacológico , Colchicina/química , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Cinética , Liliaceae/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/envenenamento , Intoxicação por Plantas/etiologia , Caules de Planta/química , Caules de Planta/envenenamento , Tubérculos/química , Tubérculos/envenenamento , Solubilidade
10.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 205: 138-146, 2017 Jun 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28456577

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Aconite root is very poisonous; causes cardiac arrhythmias, ventricular fibrillation and ventricular tachycardia. There is no specific antidote for aconite poisoning. In Ayurveda, dehydrated borax is mentioned for management of aconite poisoning. AIM OF THE STUDY: The investigation evaluated antidotal effect of processed borax against acute and sub-acute toxicity, cardiac toxicity and neuro-muscular toxicity caused by raw aconite. MATERIALS AND METHODS: For acute protection Study, single dose of toxicant (35mg/kg) and test drug (22.5mg/kg and 112.5mg/kg) was administered orally, and then 24h survival of animals was observed. The schedule was continued for 30 days in sub-acute protection Study with daily doses of toxicant (6.25mg/kg), test drug (22.5mg/kg and 112.5mg/kg) and vehicle. Hematological and biochemical tests of blood and serum, histopathology of vital organs were carried out. The cardiac activity Study was continued for 30 days with daily doses of toxicant (6.25mg/kg), test drug (22.5mg/kg), processed borax solution (22.5mg/kg) and vehicle; ECG was taken after 1h of drug administration on 1TB, 15th and on 30th day. For neuro-muscular activity Study, the leech dorsal muscle response to 2.5µg of acetylcholine followed by response of toxicant at 25µg and 50µg doses and then response of test drug at 25µg dose were recorded. RESULTS: Protection index indicates that treated borax gave protection to 50% rats exposed to the lethal dose of toxicant in acute protection Study. Most of the changes in hematological, biochemical parameters and histopathological Study induced by the toxicant in sub-acute protection Study were reversed significantly by the test drug treatment. The ventricular premature beat and ventricular tachyarrhythmia caused by the toxicant were reversed by the test drug indicate reversal of toxicant induced cardio-toxicity. The acetylcholine induced contractions in leech muscle were inhibited by toxicant and it was reversed by test drug treatment. CONCLUSION: The processed borax solution is found as an effective protective agent to acute and sub-acute aconite poisoning, and aconite induced cardiac and neuro-muscular toxicity. Processed borax at therapeutic dose (22.5mg/kg) has shown better antidotal activity profile than five times more than therapeutic dose (112.5mg/kg).


Assuntos
Aconitum/toxicidade , Antídotos/uso terapêutico , Boratos/uso terapêutico , Intoxicação por Plantas/tratamento farmacológico , Acetilcolina/farmacologia , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Distribuição Aleatória , Ratos
11.
BMJ Case Rep ; 20162016 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27908913

RESUMO

A previously well woman aged 63 years presents to the emergency department with vomiting, palpitations and 3 presyncopal episodes. She had no previous medical or cardiac history, with the patient stating that she tried a herbal remedy of boiled comfrey leaves for insomnia 18 hours before arrival to the department. Her ECG showed multiple abnormalities, including bradycardia, second-degree atrioventricular node block, Mobitz Type 2, a shortened QT interval, downsloping ST depression and presence of U waves. After viewing the images of comfrey and foxglove, it highlighted the possibility of mistaken ingestion of Digitalis, containing the organic forms of cardiac glycosides, such as digoxin and digitoxin. Raised serum digoxin levels confirmed this. The patient was haemodynamically stable, and given digoxin-binding antibodies. After 5 days of cardiac monitoring, her ECG returned to normal rhythm, and she was discharged home.


Assuntos
Acidentes , Anticorpos Heterófilos/uso terapêutico , Bloqueio Atrioventricular/induzido quimicamente , Confrei , Digitalis/envenenamento , Digoxina/envenenamento , Intoxicação por Plantas/diagnóstico , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/tratamento farmacológico , Anticorpos Heterófilos/imunologia , Bradicardia/etiologia , Digitalis/imunologia , Digoxina/imunologia , Eletrocardiografia , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Folhas de Planta/envenenamento , Intoxicação por Plantas/complicações , Intoxicação por Plantas/tratamento farmacológico , Plantas Medicinais , Resultado do Tratamento , Vômito/etiologia
12.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 179: 27-37, 2016 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26719282

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Aconitum brachypodum Diels (Family Ranunculaceae) is well known for both its good therapy and high toxicity in Yunnan and Sichuan provinces in China. Noticeably, Veratrilla baillonii Franch (Family Gentianaceae), an ethnodrug used by Naxi and Lisu nationalities in Yunnan Province, has been widely considered to possess antitoxic effects on Aconitum plants in herbal therapy and folklore medicines. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The present study was conducted to determine the detoxic activities of the water decoction of Veratrilla baillonii Franch (WVBF) on the the chloroform fraction of Aconitum brachypodum Diels (CFA) induced acute toxicity in mice. The physiological (symptoms, body weight, etc.) as well as pathological and clinical biochemistry parameters were assessed and used as the markers for the toxicity. (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) based metabolic approach was adopted to further discuss the mechanism. RESULTS: The acute poisoning effects of CFA on mice were observed at doses of 20-62.5mgkg(-1), resulting in an oral median lethal dose (LD50) of 41.3mgkg(-1). Histologically, distinct degenerative changes of the heart, liver and kidney were observed. The biochemistry parameters in the serum as well as metabolites in heart and brain were also altered. However, WVBF (25-200mg/kg) attenuated all the acute toxicity and pathological changes, properly regulated the biochemistry parameters, and reversed the concentration alterations for some metabolites in the heart and brain of mice induced by 40mg/kg of CFA to a certain extent. CONCLUSIONS: WVBF significantly reduced the onset of the CFA toxicity. This study may contribute to further understanding of the toxicological and pharmacological profiles of Aconitum brachypodum and the detoxic property of Veratrilla baillonii.


Assuntos
Aconitum/envenenamento , Gentianaceae/química , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Intoxicação por Plantas/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/patologia , Química Encefálica/efeitos dos fármacos , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Dose Letal Mediana , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Camundongos , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Miocárdio/patologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Intoxicação por Plantas/patologia , Raízes de Plantas/química
13.
Can Vet J ; 56(12): 1283-6, 2015 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26663926

RESUMO

A 10-week-old intact male Labrador retriever dog was presented for acute onset of weakness, ataxia, and generalized muscle tremors. The puppy was suffering respiratory and central nervous system (CNS) depression, was mildly pyrexic, and vomited plant material that was identified as creeping nightshade (Solanum dulcamara). He responded well to supportive care and was discharged successfully. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of Solanum dulcamara toxicity occurring in a dog.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/etiologia , Intoxicação por Plantas/veterinária , Solanum/envenenamento , Animais , Doenças do Cão/tratamento farmacológico , Cães , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/farmacologia , Masculino , Metocarbamol/uso terapêutico , Relaxantes Musculares Centrais/uso terapêutico , Oxigênio , Fenobarbital/uso terapêutico , Intoxicação por Plantas/tratamento farmacológico , Intoxicação por Plantas/patologia , Propofol/uso terapêutico , Respiração Artificial , Tremor/induzido quimicamente , Tremor/tratamento farmacológico , Tremor/veterinária
14.
J Vet Intern Med ; 29(1): 294-8, 2015 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25594329

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Caley Pea (Lathyrus hirsutus) is potentially toxic to horses, but large case series are not reported. OBJECTIVES: To describe the clinical signs of horses intoxicated with Lathyrus hirsutus and speculate on the neuroanatomical lesion localization and pathogenesis based upon the observed clinical signs. ANIMALS: Twenty-two of 25 horses ranging in age from 6 to 34 months were affected. Five affected horses were presented to the OSUCHVS for evaluation and treatment after having been attended at the ranch by a local veterinarian (ALA). An additional horse that had been euthanized was also presented for necropsy. METHODS: A case series is presented. Diagnostic evaluation included: physical examination, complete blood count, serum biochemistry, CSF analysis, EMG, ERG, upper airway endoscopy, muscle biopsy, and serum vitamin E analysis. The grain ration consumed by the affected horses was analyzed for ionophores and cultured for fungi: the hay was examined for toxic plants. RESULTS: Bermuda grass hay consumed by the horses contained large quantities of mature Lathyrus hirsutus. Acute clinical signs conform to earlier descriptions of Lathyrus hirsutus intoxication in cattle. Residual neurologic signs were characterized by incoordination in the rhythmicity of multiple gaits. Evidence of mild neurogenic muscle atrophy was recognized in 1 of 5 horses biopsied. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL IMPORTANCE: Caley Pea intoxication may occur within days of seed pod consumption. The neurologic signs are unique and suggest involvement of the upper motor neuron system and regions of the spinal cord influencing voluntary motor movement. Drought conditions during plant growth may increase the risk of toxicosis.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos , Doenças dos Cavalos/etiologia , Lathyrus/química , Síndromes Neurotóxicas/veterinária , Intoxicação por Plantas/veterinária , Envelhecimento , Animais , Suplementos Nutricionais , Feminino , Doenças dos Cavalos/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças dos Cavalos/patologia , Cavalos , Masculino , Síndromes Neurotóxicas/tratamento farmacológico , Síndromes Neurotóxicas/etiologia , Síndromes Neurotóxicas/patologia , Intoxicação por Plantas/tratamento farmacológico , Intoxicação por Plantas/etiologia , Intoxicação por Plantas/patologia , Plantas Tóxicas/toxicidade , Vitamina E/administração & dosagem , Vitamina E/uso terapêutico
15.
J Med Toxicol ; 10(4): 411-4, 2014 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25193885

RESUMO

Seven goats and one ram presented with clinical signs including regurgitation, obtundation, anorexia, apparent pain, and bloat. The animals had escaped from their barn, and it was discovered that they had ingested leaves of Pieris japonica, Japanese pieris, a grayanotoxin-containing plant. Animals were treated with antibiotics, calcium borogluconate, B vitamins, and activated charcoal within the first 24-h postexposure, which was followed by the recovery of the ram and two goats and the death of two goats. Approximately 36 h after Japanese pieris ingestion, one of the three remaining anorectic goats was dosed with intravenous lipid emulsion (ILE). This goat recovered within a few hours. The remaining two goats were given ILE the next day and appeared to recover, but one died a week later of aspiration pneumonia.


Assuntos
Diterpenos/envenenamento , Ericaceae , Emulsões Gordurosas Intravenosas/uso terapêutico , Doenças das Cabras/tratamento farmacológico , Intoxicação por Plantas/veterinária , Animais , Cabras , Intoxicação por Plantas/tratamento farmacológico
16.
BMJ Case Rep ; 20142014 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24898992

RESUMO

A 25-year-old woman was evaluated and treated for ingestion of Thevetia peruviana seeds and flower petals-a natural digoxin cross reacting cardinolide-with intent to cause self-harm. The following case report provides the clinical presentation, treatment and management of acute yellow oleander poisoning.


Assuntos
Antídotos/uso terapêutico , Nerium/envenenamento , Intoxicação por Plantas/etiologia , Doença Aguda , Adulto , Eletrocardiografia , Feminino , Humanos , Intoxicação por Plantas/tratamento farmacológico , Sementes/envenenamento
17.
J Sci Food Agric ; 94(3): 453-8, 2014 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23775422

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz), a plant used as food and an ingredient in industry, contains cyanogenic glycosides. The cassava root contains wastewater, popularly known as manipueira, which is a toxic substance. Its ingestion by animals causes poisoning although they react positively to treatment with sodium thiosulfate. The present research evaluates the cytotoxicity and the mutagenicity of liquid waste produced in the process of industrialization of the bitter cassava, olho-junto variety. The liquid wastes are characterized as press water, which is obtained when the cassava roots are pressed; pond water, which is press water stored in impounded ponds; and a solution of sodium thiosulfate, pure and with other waste. RESULTS: The system tests comprised root meristematic cells of Allium cepa L. and bone marrow cells of Rattus norvegicus. Treatment with saline solution was cytotoxic for Allium cepa L. and significantly reduced cell division rate. Although no treatment was cytotoxic in any of the tests with rats, the thiosulfate solution was clastogenic for the chromosomal aberrations test. CONCLUSION: Since it is harmful to the genetic material submitted within the conditions of current research, sodium thiosulfate should only be used in emergency conditions in which the benefits exceed the risks.


Assuntos
Aberrações Cromossômicas/induzido quimicamente , Glicosídeos/envenenamento , Manihot/envenenamento , Mutagênicos , Intoxicação por Plantas/tratamento farmacológico , Tiossulfatos/toxicidade , Águas Residuárias/química , Animais , Células da Medula Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Divisão Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Farinha , Resíduos Industriais , Masculino , Manihot/química , Meristema , Cebolas/efeitos dos fármacos , Raízes de Plantas/química , Tanques , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Tiossulfatos/uso terapêutico , Água/química
18.
Clin Toxicol (Phila) ; 51(8): 737-47, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23944745

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Oleander is a potent cardiotoxic plant and is a common cause of poisoning in human and animals. There is no affordable and cost-effective treatment for oleander poisoning. Objective. To evaluate the prophylactic and therapeutic effects of garlic extract (Allium sativum) on Nerium oleander (a potent cardiotoxic plant) intoxication in sheep. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eight sheep were intravenously infused with an unsterilized hydro-ethanol extract of garlic (50 mg/kg) before or after receiving a lethal dose of dried leaves (as a powder) of oleander (100 mg/kg, orally). The cardiac rhythm was continuously monitored using biopotential wireless transmitters and telemetry system. For evaluation of therapeutic effects, six sheep received the lethal dose of oleander and were administered with garlic extract after development of cardiac arrhythmias. Subsequently, the survived animals from the therapeutic study (four sheep) were administered with oleander without receiving any medication. Some blood constituents, including total antioxidant capacity, malondialdehyde, and troponin I, were compared between treated and untreated animals. RESULTS: Pretreatment with garlic extract reversed the arrhythmia caused by oleander to its previous normal rhythm in seven sheep, but, one sheep died of ventricular fibrillation. On therapeutic treatment, four sheep survived while two died of ventricular fibrillation. Dosing with oleander without receiving garlic extract resulted in death of all sheep due to ventricular fibrillation. Blood constituents did not show any significant changes between treated and untreated sheep, and before and after intoxication. CONCLUSIONS: Garlic extract reduced the case fatality from 100% to 12.5% and 33.3% as a prophylactic or therapeutic agent, respectively. Additionally, garlic extract delayed the time of onset of arrhythmias and prolonged the interval between intoxication and death of the animals. Garlic extract could be considered to be a potential and affordable antidote in oleander poisoning. However additional studies with a larger sample size and in other species need to be performed to confirm the results in this study.


Assuntos
Antiarrítmicos/farmacologia , Arritmias Cardíacas/tratamento farmacológico , Alho/química , Nerium/envenenamento , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Animais , Antiarrítmicos/isolamento & purificação , Antídotos/isolamento & purificação , Antídotos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Arritmias Cardíacas/induzido quimicamente , Arritmias Cardíacas/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta , Intoxicação por Plantas/tratamento farmacológico , Intoxicação por Plantas/prevenção & controle , Ovinos , Taxa de Sobrevida , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Troponina I/metabolismo
19.
Ugeskr Laeger ; 175(24): 1701-2, 2013 Jun 10.
Artigo em Dinamarquês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23763926

RESUMO

Plant poisonings are rare in Denmark, but can have fatal consequences. We present a case in which a woman went into cardiac arrest after having ingested leaves from the foxglove plant. Sinus rhythm was not restored until Digibind was administered. Literature in this field is sparse, but we conclude that the following advice can be given: 1) assessment of the degree of poisoning should be based on clinical features and changes of the electrocardiogram; 2) activated charcoal should be given; 3) in case of malignant arrhythmia or cardiac arrest, the use of Digibind should be considered.


Assuntos
Digitalis/envenenamento , Parada Cardíaca , Fragmentos Fab das Imunoglobulinas/uso terapêutico , Fatores Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Intoxicação por Plantas/tratamento farmacológico , Eletrocardiografia , Feminino , Parada Cardíaca/induzido quimicamente , Parada Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Intoxicação por Plantas/complicações , Tentativa de Suicídio , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Ugeskr Laeger ; 175(24): 1707-8, 2013 Jun 10.
Artigo em Dinamarquês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23763930

RESUMO

Fatal exposure to poisonous plants in northern Europe is a rare condition. In this case report we describe an intended poisoning with Aconitum napellus (monkshood), which contains the toxin aconitine. The lethal dose in adults is 3-6 mg. The toxin affects excitable cells such as neurons and myocytes causing degrees of unconsciousness, hypotension and cardiac arrhythmias. There is no antidote and treatment is symptomatic. We describe a patient who had eaten monkshood. She was treated with infusion of lidocaine and survived. After 24 hours of treatment and monitoring she was discharged from the intensive care unit.


Assuntos
Aconitum/envenenamento , Intoxicação por Plantas/tratamento farmacológico , Aconitina/envenenamento , Antiarrítmicos/uso terapêutico , Estado Terminal/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Lidocaína/uso terapêutico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Intoxicação por Plantas/complicações , Tentativa de Suicídio , Resultado do Tratamento
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