Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 8.335
Filtrar
1.
Rev Med Suisse ; 17(724): 271-277, 2021 Feb 03.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33538142

RESUMO

Intubation is a frequent procedure in the intensive care unit, often performed in an emergency. Because of patients' clinical condition with little physiological reserve, intubation in the critically ill patients is associated with increased risk of complications. A systematic patient's assessment and a codified and rigorous preparation of the team and equipment significantly reduce the risks of intubation. The purpose of this article is to summarize the different strategies that allow maximizing safety of intubation in the critically ill.


Assuntos
Intubação Intratraqueal , Medicina , Cuidados Críticos , Estado Terminal/terapia , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Intubação Intratraqueal/efeitos adversos
5.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(1): e24240, 2021 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33429827

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Negative pressure pulmonary edema (NPPE) is associated with serious postoperative complications. Compact nasal packing is always done after an open rhinoplasty procedure which makes it difficult to achieve positive pressure ventilation via a mask if NPPE arises. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 21-year-old healthy man got an open rhinoplasty, septal perforation repair, and revisional septal reconstruction. After surgery, he became so agitated that it was difficult to calm him. We decided to remove the endotracheal tube. On arrival at the post-anesthesia care unit, he was cyanotic and his SpO2 had decreased to about 2%. We attempted positive pressure ventilation using mask bagging; however, it was ineffective due to the nasal packing. DIAGNOSES: Negative pressure pulmonary edema. INTERVENTIONS: Emergent reintubation was immediately done and Ambu bagging was commenced. A considerable pinkish secretion came out of the tube. A T-piece was applied to him using 15 L/min of oxygen supply. The patient was eventually transferred to the intensive care unit of our hospital. OUTCOMES: On postoperative day (POD) 1, a decision was made to extubate, and the oxygen supply was shifted to 3L/min using a venturi-mask. On POD 2, a chest posteroanterior radiograph was taken and indicated no active lung lesion. The patient was subsequently discharged without any complications. He had no symptoms on POD 6, 11, and 18 at follow-up visits to our outpatient clinic. LESSONS: Anesthesiologists should be alert to the possibility of NPPE and its treatment because of its rapid onset but positive clinical outcome if there is a proper intervention. In nasal surgery cases in particular, early re-intubation should be conducted and extubation should be done to fully awaken the patients.


Assuntos
Extubação/efeitos adversos , Intubação Intratraqueal/efeitos adversos , Edema Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Rinoplastia , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Humanos , Masculino , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/diagnóstico , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Edema Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem , Edema Pulmonar/etiologia , Adulto Jovem
8.
Intern Med ; 60(3): 473-477, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33328406

RESUMO

We experienced two cases of post-intubation laryngotracheal stenosis (PILS) occurring in patients after acute coronavirus disease (COVID)-19 in a relatively narrow time period. The patients required mechanical ventilation for 9 days in one and 28 days in the other. In both cases, the patients were discharged but later developed symptoms of cough and dyspnea, which were later diagnosed as PILS. Persistent cough and dyspnea are common symptoms in both PILS and the recovery phase of severe COVID-19. For this reason, PILS should be considered in the differential diagnosis post-COVID-19 patients. In addition, the prevalence of PILS may be greater than that of other critical diseases in severe COVID-19 patients.


Assuntos
/complicações , Intubação Intratraqueal/efeitos adversos , Estenose Traqueal/etiologia , Adulto , Tosse/etiologia , Dispneia/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Laringoscopia , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Pulmão/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Radiografia Torácica , Respiração Artificial , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Traqueia/diagnóstico por imagem , Estenose Traqueal/diagnóstico , Estenose Traqueal/diagnóstico por imagem
9.
Anesth Analg ; 132(1): 38-45, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33315602

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Numerous barrier devices have recently been developed and rapidly deployed worldwide in an effort to protect health care workers (HCWs) from exposure to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) during high-risk procedures. However, only a few studies have examined their impact on the dispersion of droplets and aerosols, which are both thought to be significant contributors to the spread of COVID-19. METHODS: Two commonly used barrier devices, an intubation box and a clear plastic intubation sheet, were evaluated using a physiologically accurate cough simulator. Aerosols were modeled using a commercially available fog machine, and droplets were modeled with fluorescein dye. Both particles were propelled by the cough simulator in a simulated intubation environment. Data were captured by high-speed flash photography, and aerosol and droplet dispersion were assessed qualitatively with and without a barrier in place. RESULTS: Droplet contamination after a simulated cough was seemingly contained by both barrier devices. Simulated aerosol escaped the barriers and flowed toward the head of the bed. During barrier removal, simulated aerosol trapped underneath was released and propelled toward the HCW at the head of the bed. Usage of the intubation sheet concentrated droplets onto a smaller area. If no barrier was used, positioning the patient in slight reverse Trendelenburg directed aerosols away from the HCW located at the head of the bed. CONCLUSIONS: Our observations imply that intubation boxes and sheets may reduce HCW exposure to droplets, but they both may merely redirect aerosolized particles, potentially resulting in increased exposure to aerosols in certain circumstances. Aerosols may remain within the barrier device after a cough, and manipulation of the box may release them. Patients should be positioned to facilitate intubation, but slight reverse Trendelenburg may direct infectious aerosols away from the HCW. Novel barrier devices should be used with caution, and further validation studies are necessary.


Assuntos
/terapia , Controle de Infecções/instrumentação , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa do Paciente para o Profissional/prevenção & controle , Exposição por Inalação/prevenção & controle , Intubação Intratraqueal , Exposição Ocupacional/prevenção & controle , Equipamento de Proteção Individual , Aerossóis , Humanos , Exposição por Inalação/efeitos adversos , Intubação Intratraqueal/efeitos adversos , Manequins , Teste de Materiais , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Saúde do Trabalhador
10.
Anesthesiology ; 134(1): 61-71, 2021 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33125457

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Disease severity in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) may be associated with inoculation dose. This has triggered interest in intubation barrier devices to block droplet exposure; however, aerosol protection with these devices is not known. This study hypothesized that barrier devices reduce aerosol outside of the barrier. METHODS: Aerosol containment in closed, semiclosed, semiopen, and open barrier devices was investigated: (1) "glove box" sealed with gloves and caudal drape, (2) "drape tent" with a drape placed over a frame, (3) "slit box" with armholes and caudal end covered by vinyl slit diaphragms, (4) original "aerosol box," (5) collapsible "interlocking box," (6) "simple drape" over the patient, and (7) "no barrier." Containment was investigated by (1) vapor instillation at manikin's right arm with video-assisted visual evaluation and (2) submicrometer ammonium sulfate aerosol particles ejected through the manikin's mouth with ventilation and coughs. Samples were taken from standardized locations inside and around the barriers using a particle counter and a mass spectrometer. Aerosol evacuation from the devices was measured using standard hospital suction, a surgical smoke evacuator, and a Shop-Vac. RESULTS: Vapor experiments demonstrated leakage via arm holes and edges. Only closed and semiclosed devices and the aerosol box reduced aerosol particle counts (median [25th, 75th percentile]) at the operator's mouth compared to no barrier (combined median 29 [-11, 56], n = 5 vs. 157 [151, 166], n = 5). The other barrier devices provided less reduction in particle counts (133 [128, 137], n = 5). Aerosol evacuation to baseline required 15 min with standard suction and the Shop-Vac and 5 min with a smoke evacuator. CONCLUSIONS: Barrier devices may reduce exposure to droplets and aerosol. With meticulous tucking, the glove box and drape tent can retain aerosol during airway management. Devices that are not fully enclosed may direct aerosol toward the laryngoscopist. Aerosol evacuation reduces aerosol content inside fully enclosed devices. Barrier devices must be used in conjunction with body-worn personal protective equipment.


Assuntos
Aerossóis/análise , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Exposição Ocupacional/prevenção & controle , Equipamento de Proteção Individual , Aerossóis/efeitos adversos , Tosse/prevenção & controle , Tosse/virologia , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Intubação Intratraqueal/efeitos adversos
11.
BMJ Case Rep ; 13(12)2020 Dec 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33318277

RESUMO

A 59-year-old man presented to the emergency department with recent onset biphasic stridor, dyspnoea and increased work of breathing on the background of prolonged intubation for the novel COVID-19 2 months previously. Flexible laryngoscopy revealed bilateral vocal fold immobility with a soft tissue mass in the interarytenoid region. The patient's symptoms improved with oxygen therapy, nebulised epinephrine (5 mL; 1:10 000) and intravenous dexamethasone (3.3 mg). The following morning, the patient was taken to theatre, underwent suspension microlaryngoscopy and found to have bilateral fixation of the cricoarytenoid joints and a large granuloma in the interarytenoid area. He underwent cold steel resection of the granuloma and balloon dilatation between the arytenoids, with the hope of mobilising the joints. This failed and CO2 laser arytenoidectomy was performed on the left side. The stridor had resolved postoperatively, with normalisation of work of breathing and the patient was discharged home on the first postoperative day.


Assuntos
/terapia , Granuloma/cirurgia , Intubação Intratraqueal/efeitos adversos , Doenças da Laringe/cirurgia , Constrição Patológica/etiologia , Constrição Patológica/cirurgia , Dispneia/etiologia , Emergências , Granuloma/etiologia , Humanos , Doenças da Laringe/etiologia , Laringe/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sons Respiratórios , Trabalho Respiratório
12.
BMJ Case Rep ; 13(12)2020 Dec 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33370965

RESUMO

Tracheal tear after endotracheal intubation is extremely rare. The role of silicone Y-stent in the management of tracheal injury has been documented in the previous studies. However, none of the studies have mentioned the deployment of silicone Y-stent via rigid bronchoscope with the patient solely supported by extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) without general anaesthesia delivered via the side port of the rigid bronchoscope. We report a patient who had a tracheal tear due to endotracheal tube migration following a routine video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery sympathectomy, which was successfully managed with silicone Y-stent insertion. Procedure was done while she was undergoing ECMO; hence, no ventilator connection to the side port of the rigid scope was required. This was our first experience in performing Y-stent insertion fully under ECMO, and the patient had a successful recovery.


Assuntos
Oxigenação por Membrana Extracorpórea , Complicações Intraoperatórias/terapia , Intubação Intratraqueal/efeitos adversos , Lacerações/terapia , Traqueia/lesões , Broncoscopia , Falha de Equipamento , Feminino , Humanos , Doença Iatrogênica , Complicações Intraoperatórias/diagnóstico , Complicações Intraoperatórias/etiologia , Intubação Intratraqueal/instrumentação , Lacerações/diagnóstico , Lacerações/etiologia , Enfisema Mediastínico/etiologia , Enfisema Mediastínico/terapia , Ventilação Monopulmonar/instrumentação , Stents , Simpatectomia/efeitos adversos , Simpatectomia/métodos , Cirurgia Torácica Vídeoassistida/efeitos adversos , Cirurgia Torácica Vídeoassistida/métodos , Traqueia/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto Jovem
13.
BMJ Case Rep ; 13(12)2020 Dec 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33370971

RESUMO

A 12-year-old patient of thalassaemia major developed autoimmune cytopaenia after undergoing haematopoietic stem cell transplantation. She was started on cyclosporine (CsA) in view of poor response to steroids. She developed CsA toxicity manifesting as gum hyperplasia with multiple episodes of gum bleed. During endotracheal intubation for an elective splenectomy, she developed significant bleeding from gums requiring massive transfusion. Postoperatively the gum bleed persisted even after embolisation of facial artery and multiple transfusions. The catastrophic sequelae include transfusion-related lung injury, acute circulatory failure with subsequent cardiac arrest and death. Gum hyperplasia is a commonly reported toxic effect of CsA. Lethal presentations of this toxicity with such severity are limited in the medical literature. Evaluation of the patient's medical and laboratory records, along with a review of literature, was very helpful in understanding more about the toxicity of CsA.


Assuntos
Ciclosporina/efeitos adversos , Hemorragia Gengival/diagnóstico , Hiperplasia Gengival/induzido quimicamente , Parada Cardíaca/etiologia , Imunossupressores/efeitos adversos , Lesão Pulmonar Aguda Relacionada à Transfusão/etiologia , Transfusão de Sangue , Criança , Evolução Fatal , Feminino , Hemorragia Gengival/etiologia , Hemorragia Gengival/terapia , Hiperplasia Gengival/complicações , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Intubação Intratraqueal/efeitos adversos , Pancitopenia/tratamento farmacológico , Pancitopenia/imunologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Choque , Talassemia/terapia
16.
Anesth Analg ; 131(5): 1342-1354, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33079853

RESUMO

Many health care systems around the world continue to struggle with large numbers of SARS-CoV-2-infected patients, while others have diminishing numbers of cases following an initial surge. There will most likely be significant oscillations in numbers of cases for the foreseeable future, based on the regional epidemiology of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Less affected hospitals and facilities will attempt to progressively resume elective procedures and surgery. Ramping up elective care in hospitals that deliberately curtailed elective care to focus on SARS-CoV-2-infected patients will present unique and serious challenges. Among the challenges will be protecting patients and providers from recurrent outbreaks of disease while increasing procedure throughput. Anesthesia providers will inevitably be exposed to SARS-CoV-2 by patients who have not been diagnosed with infection. This is particularly concerning in consideration that aerosols produced during airway management may be infective. In this article, we recommend an approach to routine anesthesia care in the setting of persistent but variable prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infection. We make specific recommendations for personal protective equipment and for the conduct of anesthesia procedures and workflow based on evidence and expert opinion. We propose practical, relatively inexpensive precautions that can be applied to all patients undergoing anesthesia. Because the SARS-CoV-2 virus is spread primarily by respiratory droplets and aerosols, effective masking of anesthesia providers is of paramount importance. Hospitals should follow the recommendations of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention for universal masking of all providers and patients within their facilities. Anesthesia providers should perform anesthetic care in respirator masks (such as N-95 and FFP-2) whenever possible, even when the SARS-CoV-2 test status of patients is negative. Attempting to screen patients for infection with SARS-CoV-2, while valuable, is not a substitute for respiratory protection of providers, as false-negative tests are possible and infected persons can be asymptomatic or presymptomatic. Provision of adequate supplies of respirator masks and other respiratory protection equipment such as powered air purifying respirators (PAPRs) should be a high priority for health care facilities and for government agencies. Eye protection is also necessary because of the possibility of infection from virus coming into contact with the conjunctiva. Because SARS-CoV-2 persists on surfaces and may cause infection by contact with fomites, hand hygiene and surface cleaning are also of paramount importance.


Assuntos
Anestesia , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecção Hospitalar/prevenção & controle , Controle de Infecções , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa do Paciente para o Profissional/prevenção & controle , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa do Profissional para o Paciente/prevenção & controle , Exposição por Inalação/prevenção & controle , Intubação Intratraqueal , Exposição Ocupacional/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Aerossóis , Anestesia/efeitos adversos , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Infecção Hospitalar/diagnóstico , Infecção Hospitalar/transmissão , Infecção Hospitalar/virologia , Contaminação de Equipamentos/prevenção & controle , Dispositivos de Proteção dos Olhos , Higiene das Mãos , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Humanos , Exposição por Inalação/efeitos adversos , Intubação Intratraqueal/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Saúde do Trabalhador , Segurança do Paciente , Equipamento de Proteção Individual , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Fatores de Proteção , Dispositivos de Proteção Respiratória , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Vestimenta Cirúrgica
17.
Anesth Analg ; 131(5): 1485-1490, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33079871

RESUMO

The double-lumen tubes (DLTs) are the most widely used devices to provide perioperative lung isolation. Airway rupture is a rare but life-threatening complication of DLTs. The primary aim of this review was to collect all cases reported in the literature about airway rupture caused by DLTs and to describe the reported possible contributors, diagnosis, treatment, and outcomes of this complication. Another aim of this review was to assess the possible factors associated with mortality after airway rupture by DLTs. A comprehensive literature search for all cases of airway rupture caused by DLTs was performed in the PubMed, EMBASE, Ovid, Wanfang Database, and CNKI. The extracted data included age, sex, height, weight, type of operation, type and size of DLT, site of airway rupture, possible contributors, clinical presentation, diagnosis timing, treatment, and outcome. We included 105 single case reports and 22 case series with a total number of 187 patients. Most of the ruptures were in the trachea (n = 98, 52.4%) and left main bronchus (n = 70, 37.4%). The common possible contributors include use of a stylet, cuff overdistention, multiple attempts to adjust the position of a DLT, difficult intubation, and use of an oversized DLT. Most of the airway ruptures were diagnosed intraoperatively (n = 138, 82.7%). Pneumomediastinum, air leakage, hypoxemia, and subcutaneous emphysema were the common clinical manifestations. Most patients were treated with surgical repair (n = 147, 78.6%). The mortality of the patients with airway rupture by DLTs was 8.8%. Age, sex, site of rupture, diagnosis timing, and method of treatment were not found to be associated with mortality.


Assuntos
Manuseio das Vias Aéreas/efeitos adversos , Complicações Intraoperatórias/epidemiologia , Complicações Intraoperatórias/terapia , Intubação Intratraqueal/efeitos adversos , Sistema Respiratório/lesões , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Complicações Intraoperatórias/etiologia , Intubação Intratraqueal/instrumentação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ruptura
18.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(40): e22458, 2020 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33019434

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Endo-bronchial ultrasound guided trans-bronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) has been widely accepted as a safe and efficient technique for diagnosing patients with mediastinal/hilar lymphadenopathy and suspected cases of lung cancer. An effective anesthetic technique should provide comfort and quick recovery of patients while allowing the clinicians to obtain adequate tissue sample. Therefore we combined mask ventilation support (SIMV), BIS monitoring, and short-acting medication to achieve the effect mentioned above. PATIENT CONCERNS: In this report, both patients had lung mass accompanied by cough that lasted for >2 weeks, and were admitted to hospital for further diagnosis and treatment to clarify the nature of the mass. To make a definite diagnosis, EBUS-TBNA examination was performed under general anesthesia. Both patients had no salient past history. DIAGNOSIS: Case 1 was diagnosed as tumor or pneumonia based on the right lung shadow. Case 2 was diagnosed with squamous cell carcinoma of the right lung with right hilar lymph node metastasis. The diagnostic results of both patients were based on pathological examination of tissues obtained by EBUS-TBNA, of which case 1 required further confirmation by lung biopsy. INTERVENTION: Both the patients received antibiotic treatment before EBUS-TBNA. We used the mask ventilation supported by SIMV mode without using muscle relaxant, thus providing a guarantee for rapid and high-quality recovery of patients. OUTCOMES: During EBUS-TBNA, the vital signs of the 2 patients were stable. Both patients recovered within 5 minutes after we stopped pumping general anesthetics. None of the patient complained of any discomfort and felt comfortable. No complications occurred during and 3 months after EBUS-TBNA examination. LESSONS: The obtained results showed that this anesthesia scheme can provide appropriate depth of anesthesia for patients undergoing EBUS-TBNA examination, while ensuring rapid and high-quality recovery of patients.


Assuntos
Anestesia Geral/métodos , Biópsia por Agulha Fina/métodos , Biópsia Guiada por Imagem , Administração Intravenosa , Feminino , Humanos , Intubação Intratraqueal/efeitos adversos , Máscaras Laríngeas , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Pulmão/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
19.
Crit Care ; 24(1): 597, 2020 10 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33023669

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Awake prone positioning (awake-PP) in non-intubated coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients could avoid endotracheal intubation, reduce the use of critical care resources, and improve survival. We aimed to examine whether the combination of high-flow nasal oxygen therapy (HFNO) with awake-PP prevents the need for intubation when compared to HFNO alone. METHODS: Prospective, multicenter, adjusted observational cohort study in consecutive COVID-19 patients with acute respiratory failure (ARF) receiving respiratory support with HFNO from 12 March to 9 June 2020. Patients were classified as HFNO with or without awake-PP. Logistic models were fitted to predict treatment at baseline using the following variables: age, sex, obesity, non-respiratory Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score, APACHE-II, C-reactive protein, days from symptoms onset to HFNO initiation, respiratory rate, and peripheral oxyhemoglobin saturation. We compared data on demographics, vital signs, laboratory markers, need for invasive mechanical ventilation, days to intubation, ICU length of stay, and ICU mortality between HFNO patients with and without awake-PP. RESULTS: A total of 1076 patients with COVID-19 ARF were admitted, of which 199 patients received HFNO and were analyzed. Fifty-five (27.6%) were pronated during HFNO; 60 (41%) and 22 (40%) patients from the HFNO and HFNO + awake-PP groups were intubated. The use of awake-PP as an adjunctive therapy to HFNO did not reduce the risk of intubation [RR 0.87 (95% CI 0.53-1.43), p = 0.60]. Patients treated with HFNO + awake-PP showed a trend for delay in intubation compared to HFNO alone [median 1 (interquartile range, IQR 1.0-2.5) vs 2 IQR 1.0-3.0] days (p = 0.055), but awake-PP did not affect 28-day mortality [RR 1.04 (95% CI 0.40-2.72), p = 0.92]. CONCLUSION: In patients with COVID-19 ARF treated with HFNO, the use of awake-PP did not reduce the need for intubation or affect mortality.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Intubação Intratraqueal/efeitos adversos , Oxigenoterapia/métodos , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Decúbito Ventral , Vigília , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Medição de Risco
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA