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1.
Food Microbiol ; 85: 103305, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31500717

RESUMO

The practices of preparing traditional foods in the Arctic are rapidly disappearing. Traditional foods of the Arctic represent a rarity among food studies in that they are meat-sourced and prepared in non-industrial settings. These foods, generally consumed without any heating step prior to consumption, harbor an insofar undescribed microbiome. The food-associated microbiomes have implications not only with respect to disease risk, but might also positively influence host health by transferring a yet unknown diversity of live microbes to the human gastrointestinal tract. Here we report the first study of the microbial composition of traditionally dried fish prepared according to Greenlandic traditions and their industrial counterparts. We show that dried capelin prepared according to traditional methods have microbiomes clearly different from industrially prepared capelin, which also have more homogenous microbiomes than traditionally prepared capelin. Interestingly, the locally preferred type of traditionally dried capelin, described to be tastier than other traditionally dried capelin, contains bacteria that potentially confer distinct taste. Finally, we show that dried cod have comparably more homogenous microbiomes when compared to capelin and that in general, the environment of drying is a major determinant of the microbial composition of these indigenous food products.


Assuntos
Dessecação , Peixes/microbiologia , Indústria Alimentícia/métodos , Alimentos em Conserva/microbiologia , Microbiota , Alimentos Marinhos/microbiologia , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Groenlândia , Humanos , Inuítes , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
3.
mSphere ; 4(5)2019 09 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31533999

RESUMO

Dr. Kathryn Milligan-Myhre works in the field of host-microbe interactions. In this mSphere of Influence article, she reflects on the people and scientific ideas that influenced her journey from a small town in Alaska to a faculty position at the University of Alaska Anchorage.


Assuntos
Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos , Inuítes , Pesquisadores , Alaska , Escolha da Profissão , Humanos , Universidades
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31323968

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Canadian Inuit have transited from a physically active hunter-gatherer subsistence lifestyle into sedentary ways of life. The purpose of the current study was to measure physical activity levels among Nunavut Inuit adults, and explore the socio-cognitive and environmental factors influencing the number of steps taken per day. METHOD: Inuit and non-Inuit adults (N = 272) in Nunavut participated in a seven-day pedometer study during summer and winter seasons. Participants were asked to complete the Neighbourhood Environmental Walkability Scale (NEWS) and Behavioral Regulation in Exercise Questionnaire (BREQ-3). Data analyses included descriptive statistics, hierarchical linear regression, and tests of mediation effects. RESULTS: Participants had limited to low activity at a rate of 5027 ± 1799 and 4186 ± 1446 steps per day, during summer and winter, respectively. There were no seasonal and age effects on the number of steps. Gender effects and community differences were observed. Perceived infrastructure and safety as well as land use mix diversity were found to be positive environmental correlates of steps taken, which were partially mediated by identified motivational regulation. CONCLUSION: Physical activity levels among Nunavut adults are generally low, but can be promoted by improving the external physical environment and internal motivational regulation.


Assuntos
Dieta/psicologia , Exercício/psicologia , Inuítes/psicologia , Estilo de Vida , Motivação , Estações do Ano , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Regiões Árticas , Canadá , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Inuítes/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nunavut , Características de Residência/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários
5.
Lancet ; 394(10195): 300-301, 2019 07 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31354140
6.
Hum Immunol ; 80(9): 631-632, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31350052

RESUMO

HLA-A, -B, -C and -DRB1 alleles and haplotypes have been studied in a group of Aleuts from Bering Island (Commander Islands, Russia). Many of their ancestors were original from other Aleutian Islands, like Attu and Atka Islands (USA) and may have had a low degree of admixture with Russians. HLA haplotypes are found to be specific and quite different from other First North America Inhabitants (including Amerindians, Na-Dene and Eskimo), as it was previously shown in a less numerous Aleut population. HLA-A*24:02 is found in a very high frequency; this character is shared by Pacific and Amerindian populations. In conclusion, HLA, other genetic markers, anthropological and linguistic traits make Aleuts to be different from First America Inhabitants and closer to Europeans and Asians: specifically Aleut relatedness has been found with Scandinavian Saami (Lapps) and Finns and Baikal Lake area Buryats, where all of them may have initialing being originated.


Assuntos
Antígenos HLA/genética , Inuítes/genética , Humanos , Ilhas do Pacífico/etnologia , Federação Russa
8.
Int J Circumpolar Health ; 78(1): 1630234, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31232676

RESUMO

A better knowledge of the social determinants of health (SDH) promoting healthy ageing in Inuit communities is needed to adapt health and social policies and programs. This study aims to identify SDH associated with healthy ageing. Using the 2006 Aboriginal Peoples Survey (n = 850 Inuit aged ≥50 years), we created a holistic indicator including multiple dimensions of health and identified three groups of participants: those in 1) good 2) intermediate and 3) poor health. Sex and age-adjusted multinomial regression models were applied to assess the associations between this indicator and SDH measured at the individual, household and community scales. In comparison to APS respondents in the "Poor health" profile, those in the "Good health" profile were more likely to have a higher individual income, to participate in social activities, and to have stronger family ties in the community ; those in the "Intermediate health" profile were less likely be in a relationship, more likely to live in better housing conditions, and in better-off communities. Results indicate that SDH associated with the "Good health" profile related more to social relationships and participation, those associated with the "Intermediate health" profile related more to economic and material conditions.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento Saudável/etnologia , Inuítes/psicologia , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde/etnologia , Regiões Árticas , Canadá , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores Socioeconômicos
9.
Early Interv Psychiatry ; 13 Suppl 1: 35-41, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31243916

RESUMO

AIM: To describe a community-specific and culturally coherent approach to youth mental health services in a small and remote northern Indigenous community in Canada's Northwest Territories, under the framework of ACCESS Open Minds (ACCESS OM), a pan-Canadian youth mental health research and evaluation network. METHODS: As 1 of the 14 Canadian communities participating in a 5-year, federally funded service transformation and evaluation project, the arctic Inuit community of Ulukhaktok has undertaken culturally relevant adjustments in their delivery of youth mental wellness services and related community wellness initiatives. These enhancement activities highlight connections to culture and traditional skills, honour youth- and community-expressed desires to incorporate Inuvialuit-specific approaches to wellness, and strengthen the support systems to improve access to mainstream mental healthcare, when needed. The adaptation of a Lay Health Worker model from Global Mental Health to the local circumstances resulting in creation of lay community health workers is central to this approach in meeting contextual needs. RESULTS: Community leaders identified key activities for sustainable change, including human capital development, authentic collaboration and diversified engagement strategies. Building around five ACCESS OM objectives, the local site team in Ulukhaktok has identified its youth programming and mental wellness service gaps through an ongoing process of community mapping. CONCLUSIONS: Information from service providers, youth and other community members demonstrates attuning of the ACCESS OM framework to Inuit paradigms in Ulukhaktok. It could prove to be a sustainable prototype for delivering youth mental health services in other communities in the Inuvialuit Settlement Region and possibly across the entire Inuit Nunangat. It needs, however, to be further supported by easier access to specialized mental health services when needed.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde do Adolescente/organização & administração , Serviços Comunitários de Saúde Mental/organização & administração , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/organização & administração , Serviços de Saúde do Indígena/organização & administração , Inuítes/psicologia , Melhoria de Qualidade/organização & administração , Adolescente , Criança , Continuidade da Assistência ao Paciente/organização & administração , Assistência à Saúde Culturalmente Competente/organização & administração , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Territórios do Noroeste , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente/organização & administração , Adulto Jovem
10.
Nature ; 570(7760): 236-240, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31168094

RESUMO

Much of the American Arctic was first settled 5,000 years ago, by groups of people known as Palaeo-Eskimos. They were subsequently joined and largely displaced around 1,000 years ago by ancestors of the present-day Inuit and Yup'ik1-3. The genetic relationship between Palaeo-Eskimos and Native American, Inuit, Yup'ik and Aleut populations remains uncertain4-6. Here we present genomic data for 48 ancient individuals from Chukotka, East Siberia, the Aleutian Islands, Alaska, and the Canadian Arctic. We co-analyse these data with data from present-day Alaskan Iñupiat and West Siberian populations and published genomes. Using methods based on rare-allele and haplotype sharing, as well as established techniques4,7-9, we show that Palaeo-Eskimo-related ancestry is ubiquitous among people who speak Na-Dene and Eskimo-Aleut languages. We develop a comprehensive model for the Holocene peopling events of Chukotka and North America, and show that Na-Dene-speaking peoples, people of the Aleutian Islands, and Yup'ik and Inuit across the Arctic region all share ancestry from a single Palaeo-Eskimo-related Siberian source.


Assuntos
Migração Humana/história , Inuítes/classificação , Inuítes/genética , Filogenia , Filogeografia , África , Alaska , Alelos , Regiões Árticas , Ásia Sudeste , Canadá , Europa (Continente) , Genoma Humano/genética , Haplótipos , História Antiga , Humanos , Análise de Componente Principal , Sibéria/etnologia
11.
Int J Circumpolar Health ; 78(1): 1629783, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31219779

RESUMO

The impacts of colonization have had significant impacts on the mental health and community wellness Indigenous peoples in the Northwest Territories (NWT). It is important that all communities in the NWT have access to key services in a culturally relevant way in achieving mental and community wellness. A scoping review was conducted to identify mental health services available in the NWT. To guide the understanding of the landscape of mental health services in the NWT, the information on health services gathered was organized using the First Nations Mental Wellness Continuum (FNMWC) Model's Continuum of Essential Services. Documents accessed included grey literature, consisting of government documents, practice guidelines, education materials, community wellness reports, internet searches and expert consult interviews to collect data on mental health and wellness services in the NWT. 68 mental health services were included in this review, from 23 different sources. Results were summarized and described the Continuum of Essential Services from the FNMWC Model. This guided approach was found to be useful for mapping mental health services for communities in the NWT. The findings highlight and catagorize existing mental health services and gaps in relation to a First Nation's perspective using the FNMWC Model. Specific areas examined included the Continuum of Essential Services, Key Partners, Culture as a Foundation, and Indigenous Social Determinants of Health. Findings can guide communities and health authorities in planning, implementing and coordinating a full range of optimized mental health services in the NWT.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo/terapia , Competência Cultural/organização & administração , Serviços de Saúde do Indígena/organização & administração , Serviços de Saúde Mental/organização & administração , Saúde Mental/etnologia , Regiões Árticas , Comportamento Aditivo/etnologia , Comportamento Aditivo/reabilitação , Promoção da Saúde/organização & administração , Serviços de Saúde do Indígena/normas , Humanos , Inuítes , Territórios do Noroeste , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Saúde Pública , Resiliência Psicológica , Serviços de Saúde Rural
12.
Int J Circumpolar Health ; 78(1): 1617019, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31084408

RESUMO

Ten percent of all deaths in Greenland are caused by suicide. The aim of this study was to explore if applicable risk factors could be identified among the suicide victims within the health care system up to 6 months prior to the suicide. The study was performed as an age- and gender-matched case control study including all suicides in Greenland from 2012 to 2015, based on review of medical records for risk factors including suicide ideation, suicide attempts, incidence of alcohol intoxication, incidence of violence and treatment for psychiatric illness within the 6 month period leading up to the suicide. In total, 160 cases and 160 controls were included. Presence of any risk factors were observed in around a third of all suicide cases compared a tenth among the controls. The highest odds ratios for suicide were observed for suicide ideation and suicide attempts. However, no contact with the health care system was observed for two thirds of the suicides victims. Thus, focus on suicide ideation and suicide attempts among patients could help health care professionals to assess suicide risk and initiate prevention. Additional preventive strategies targeting the majority without contact to the health care system need to be explored.


Assuntos
Inuítes/estatística & dados numéricos , Suicídio/etnologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Intoxicação Alcoólica/etnologia , Regiões Árticas/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Groenlândia/epidemiologia , Administração de Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/etnologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Fatores de Risco , Distribuição por Sexo , Ideação Suicida , Tentativa de Suicídio/etnologia , Violência/etnologia , Adulto Jovem
13.
Int J Circumpolar Health ; 78(2): 1556558, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31066648

RESUMO

Some of the world's most southern Inuit populations live along central and the southeastern coast of Labrador in the territory of NunatuKavut and are represented by the NunatuKavut Community Council (NCC). Southern Inuit and NCC staff have been actively collaborating with researchers and research ethics boards since 2006 on research ethics and the governance of research in NunatuKavut. As self-determining peoples, Southern Inuit, like many Indigenous communities, are reclaiming control of research through a number of highly effective community consent contracts and ethical review processes and protocols. These community-driven research agreements have both shaped, and been shaped by, academic writings on the issue of collective consent to research. This case report describes the evolution of NCC research governance from 2006 to 2018, emphasising the ethics and engagement that is required to conduct research with Southern Inuit or within the territory of NunatuKavut.


Assuntos
Participação da Comunidade/estatística & dados numéricos , Pesquisa Participativa Baseada na Comunidade/organização & administração , Inuítes/estatística & dados numéricos , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde/organização & administração , Serviços de Saúde do Indígena/organização & administração , Humanos , Terra Nova e Labrador
14.
Int J Circumpolar Health ; 78(2): 1517581, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31066653

RESUMO

In Northern Canada, climate change has led to many acute and interrelated health and environmental impacts experienced among Inuit populations. Community-based monitoring, in which community members participate in monitoring initiatives using various forms of technology, is a key strategy increasingly used to detect, monitor and respond to climate change impacts. To better understand the landscape of existing environmental and health monitoring programmes mobilising different technologies and operating in the North we conducted a review that used environmental scan methodologies to explore and contextualise these programmes. We consulted with academic researchers with experience in community-led monitoring, conducted systematic searches of grey and peer-reviewed literature, and conducted a secondary search for environment-health mobile-phone applications. Following specific criteria, we identified 18 monitoring programmes using information and communication technologies in the North, and three global monitoring mobile-phone applications, which cumulatively monitored 74 environment and health indicators. Several themes emerged, including the need for: (1) community leadership, (2) indicators of environment and/or human health and (3) innovative technology. This synthesis supports the development of community-led, environment-health monitoring programmes that use innovative technology to monitor and share information related to the health implications of climate change in and around Indigenous communities throughout the Circumpolar North.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Inuítes , Regiões Árticas , Canadá , Geografia Médica , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos
15.
Int J Circumpolar Health ; 78(2): 1508321, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31066655

RESUMO

Death by suicide and attempted suicide among Inuit youth is now considered a public health emergency of epidemic proportion, with rates among the highest worldwide. A strong sense of cultural identity and pride, as well as social capital, has been identified as being protective against suicide. The Canadian Institute for Health Research (CIHR) Guidelines for Health Research Involving Aboriginal People call for communities to be included in the conception, planning and implementation of research. The authors took first steps towards sharing the responsibility of designing a community initiative with the youth of Naujaat, Nunavut, a community located directly on the Arctic Circle. With the objectives of promoting open listening and exploration of community needs and enhancing self-determination and sustainability, we postulated a youth resiliency project that will be co-authored by the community. This paper describes the joint work process. We recount how Inuit youth take ownership of the project with the guidance of Ms. Elizabeth Haqpi, a Naujaat Elder. The article will particularly reflect on the process of balancing the different perspectives and expectations while enjoying the richness of mutual learning through keeping each other accountable.


Assuntos
Inuítes/psicologia , Apoio Social , Suicídio/etnologia , Suicídio/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Regiões Árticas , Canadá , Promoção da Saúde/organização & administração , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Nunavut , Adulto Jovem
16.
Chemosphere ; 229: 549-558, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31100626

RESUMO

Nunavimmiut (Inuit of Nunavik, Northern Quebec, Canada) exhibit a high selenium (Se) status because of their frequent consumption of marine mammal foods. Indirect evidence from our previous studies had suggested that selenoneine - a novel selenocompound - may be accumulating in the blood of Nunavimmiut. We used a liquid-chromatography/inductively coupled tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ICP-MS/MS) method to measure concentrations of selenoneine and its methylated metabolite Se-methylselenoneine in archived red blood cells (RBC) obtained from 210 Nunavimmiut living in communities along the Hudson Strait, where marine mammal hunting and consumption are most frequent in Nunavik. This method was adapted to quantify selenoneine and its methylated metabolite in beluga mattaaq, an Inuit delicacy consisting of the skin with the underlying layer of fat and the major dietary source of Se for Nunavimmiut. Total selenium concentration was also measured in RBC and beluga mattaaq samples by isotope dilution ICP-MS/MS. The median selenoneine concentration in RBC was 413 µg Se/L (range = 3.20-3230 µg Se/L), representing 54% (median) of total Se content (range = 1.6-91%). Quantification of selenoneine in five beluga mattaaq samples (skin layer) from Nunavik revealed a median concentration of 1.8 µg Se/g wet wt (range = 1.2-7.4 µg Se/g), constituting 54% (median) of the total Se content (range = 44-74%). Se-methylselenoneine was also detected in Inuit RBC but not in beluga mattaaq, suggesting that selenoneine undergoes methylation in humans. Selenoneine may protect Nunavimmiut from methylmecury toxicity by increasing its demethylation in RBC and in turn decreasing its distribution to target organs.


Assuntos
Beluga , Eritrócitos/química , Histidina/análogos & derivados , Inuítes , Compostos Organosselênicos/análise , Pele/metabolismo , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida , Contagem de Eritrócitos , Comportamento Alimentar , Histidina/análise , Histidina/metabolismo , Histidina/farmacocinética , Humanos , Metilação , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Compostos Organosselênicos/metabolismo , Compostos Organosselênicos/farmacocinética , Quebeque , Selênio/análise , Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
17.
Can J Public Health ; 110(4): 414-421, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31062338

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Binge drinking has been identified as a public health concern among several Indigenous communities in Canada. Drinking motives have been shown to significantly influence drinking patterns among youth, but no research has been conducted among Inuit populations. This article assesses whether specific drinking motives are related to the number of binge drinking episodes among Inuit adolescents from Nunavik. METHODS: The data are drawn from the Nunavik Child Development Study, a longitudinal study conducted in the Canadian Arctic. Questions on alcohol use, binge drinking and drinking motives were asked to 174 adolescents (mean age of 18.5 years). Analyses of variance were used to test the relation between drinking motives and number of binge drinking episodes over the last year. RESULTS: Most Inuit participants mentioned drinking for enhancement reasons. A higher number of binge drinking episodes were reported among both adolescent males and adolescent females who frequently endorse enhancement motives, while social and coping motives have been exclusively related to binge drinking episodes among males. CONCLUSION: Findings highlight that motivational aspects supporting binge drinking among Inuit adolescents vary across sex and slightly contrast with studies conducted in non-Indigenous populations. Culturally relevant preventive interventions that target motivational aspects and take into account sex differences are needed.


Assuntos
Bebedeira/etnologia , Bebedeira/psicologia , Inuítes/psicologia , Motivação , Adolescente , Canadá , Feminino , Humanos , Inuítes/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino
18.
Eur. j. anat ; 23(3): 187-199, mayo 2019. mapas, graf, tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-182980

RESUMO

This study continues a series of studies by Stewart and Merbs on vertebral column variations in Eskimo groups. The focus is on so called cranio-caudal shifts in spine patterning. The study is performed on a skeletal sample of ancient Eskimos from Siberia (Ekven site, Chukotka) and comparative samples representing population groups of European and African ancestry. In addition to these, literature data are used for comparative analysis to assess the pattern of cranio-caudal border shifts on intra-specific level. The result confirms the presence of significantly increased predisposition of the Eskimos to caudal shifts in spine patterning, expressed both as increased frequencies of complete caudal shifts of thoraco-lumbar and lumbo-sacral borders, as well as minor variations in vertebrae morphology, including variation in the type of articular processes (thoracic/lumbar types) and the position of costo-central articulation at T9 level. Hypotheses explaining this specific character of the Eskimo/Inuit groups are proposed and explored, including gene drift, influence of environmental factors and association with morphological characteristics adaptive to survival in the Arctic. One of the explanations may be the association with characteristic form and size of the thoracic cage that distinguishes the Arctic groups such as Eskimos and Chukchi from groups leaving in more southern areas. This needs to be tested on other groups, living in similar conditions


No disponible


Assuntos
Humanos , Inuítes , Esqueleto/anatomia & histologia , Crânio/anatomia & histologia , Vértebras Cervicais/anatomia & histologia , Nativos do Alasca , Antropologia
19.
Int J Circumpolar Health ; 78(1): 1607502, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31023174

RESUMO

The North faces significant health disparities, especially among its many Indigenous peoples. In this article we discuss historical, environmental, and cultural variables that contribute to these disparities and propose a One Health approach to address them in a holistic and culturally appropriate manner. The One Health paradigm recognizes the interdependence among the health and well-being of people, animals and the environment. As such, the framework aligns well with many Indigenous world views. This proactive, interdisciplinary, constructivist, and collaborative approach promise earlier detection of risks and threats, as well as more effective responses, in part by engaging community level stakeholders in all stages of the process. In the far North, humans, especially Indigenous peoples, continue to live closely connected to their environment, in settings that exert significant impacts on health. In recent decades, rapid warming and elevated contaminant levels have heightened environmental risks and increased uncertainty, both of which threaten individual and community health and well-being. Under these circumstances especially, One Health's comprehensive approach may provide mitigating and adaptive strategies to enhance resilience. While many of the examples used in this manuscript focus on Alaska and Canada, the authors believe similar conditions exist among the indigenous and rural residents across the entire Circumpolar North.


Assuntos
Nativos do Alasca , Características Culturais , Meio Ambiente , Inuítes , Saúde Única , Alaska , Animais , Regiões Árticas , Canadá , Mudança Climática , Comportamento Cooperativo , Humanos , Saúde Mental/etnologia , Fatores de Risco , Meio Social , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Zoonoses/epidemiologia
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