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1.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(11): 689, 2020 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33030599

RESUMO

Flooding in urban basins is a major natural catastrophe that leads to many causalities of life and property. The semi-urbanized Koraiyar River basin in Tamil Nadu has important cities like Tiruchirappalli and many towns located in it. The basin unfailingly experiences a flood event in almost every decade. It is anticipated that the basin will undergo rapid unplanned urbanization in the years to come. Such fast and erratic urban developments will only increase the risk of urban floods ultimately resulting in loss of human lives and extensive damages to property and infrastructure. The effects of urbanization can be quantified in the form of land use land cover (LULC) changes. The LULC change and its impacts on urban runoff are studied for the continuous 30-year present time period of (1986-2016) to reliably predict the anticipated impact in the future time period of (2026-2036). The analysis of land cover patterns over the years shows that urbanization is more prevalent in the northern part of the basin of the chosen study area when compared with the other regions. The extreme rainfall events that occurred in the past, and the probable future LULC changes, as well as their influence on urban runoff, are studied together in the current study. In order to minimize flood damages due to these changing land use conditions, certain preventive and protective measures have to be adopted at the earliest. There are some inevitable limitations while applying traditional measures in flood modeling studies. This investigative work considers a case study on the ungauged Koraiyar floodplains. The spatial scale risk assessment is assessed by coupling geographic information systems, remote sensing, hydrologic, and hydraulic modeling, to estimate the flood hazard probabilities in the Koraiyar basin. The maximum flood flow is generated from the Hydrologic Engineering Centre-Hydrologic Modeling System (HEC-HMS), the hydrologic model adopted in the present study. The maximum flood flow is given as input to the Hydrologic Engineering Centre-River Analysis System (HEC-RAS), an effective hydraulic model that generates water depth and flood spread area in the basin. The flood depth and hazard maps are derived for 2, 5, 10, 50, and 100-year return periods. From the analysis, it is observed that the minimum flood depth is less than 1.2 m to a maximum of 4.7 m for the 100-year return period of past to predicted future years. The simulated results show that the maximum flood depth of 4.7 m with flood hazard area of 4.32% is identified as high hazard zones from the years 1986-2036, located in the center of the basin in Tiruchirappalli city. The very high hazard flood-affected zone in the Koraiyar basin during this period is about 198.85 km2. It is noticed that the very low hazard zone occupies more area in the basin for the present and future simulations of flood hazard maps. The results show that the increase in peak runoff and runoff volume is marginally varied.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Inundações , Cidades , Hidrologia , Índia
2.
Water Sci Technol ; 82(5): 918-926, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33031070

RESUMO

The appearance of extreme weather causes frequent airport flooding, which has a serious impact on the normal operation of an airport. In this study, three simulation scenarios are set in order to study the effect of low impact development (LID) facilities (green roof and vegetative swale) on the water depth of overflow junctions and total inflow to the study area outlet in an airport at different rainfall return periods (2 a, 5 a, 20 a and 50 a). Vegetative swale has better reduction effect on water depth of overflow junctions than has green roof. The reduction rate of vegetative swale is about 25-52% at different rainfall return periods, but the effect of green roof is not obvious. For the double peak rainstorm, the reduction effect on the water depth of overflow junctions after setting vegetative swale for the first rain peak is better than that for the second rain peak. Under the condition of 2 a, 5 a, and 20 a, the total inflow reduction rates of study area outlet after applied green roof and vegetative swale are 16.85%, 20% and 22.17% respectively, and the effect is poor (only 2.26%) at low-frequency return period (50 a). This study can provide theoretical guidance for the design of LID facilities of a sponge airport.


Assuntos
Aeroportos , Chuva , Inundações , Água , Movimentos da Água
3.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(9): 608, 2020 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32865639

RESUMO

Population growth, which is the main source of the biggest problems of the world today, combined with migration from rural areas to urban centers, causes the urban centers to be even more concentrated. This necessitates the opening of new residential areas in many city centers, but new residential areas are mostly determined by the decisions of local authorities, who may not base their decisions on scientific data. With the wrong area selection, ordinary natural events can be potentially catastrophic. Such events can result in large numbers of casualties and material damage every year. In this study, an example of applying a method for location selection using various parameters has been realized. The study focuses on Bafra, Turkey (the study area). Risk maps were created in terms of floods and overflows; maps of regions and high-voltage power transmission lines that enjoy a protected area status; and maps of regions in terms of biocomfort suitability. As a result of the evaluation made according to these criteria, it is calculated that only 1.96% of the total working area is suitable for use as a residential area. In relevant literature studies, it was observed that the studies related to the selection of residential areas were carried out only depending on a single standard or criterion. Some suggested biocomfort, and others used vulnerability to risks such as landslide, flood, and earthquakes as their main principle. Studies based on multi-criteria were generally used for purposes such as solid waste site selection and determination of the road routes. The study aims to shed light on the multi-criteria method in an attempt to standardize it in regional planning studies and to inspire similar studies in which different criteria can be used to achieve the maximum efficiency.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Crescimento Demográfico , Resíduos Sólidos , Cidades , Inundações , Turquia
4.
Sci Total Environ ; 744: 140973, 2020 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32947761

RESUMO

This work turns the social resilience concept into a practical and tangible set of dimensions and indicators for social resilience assessment. It further provides an analysis of the social resilience concept in the context of flood risk governance. Floods are a worldwide recurring phenomenon that causes severe social, economic and environmental losses. In the context of global change, it is very difficult to accurately predict extreme events that may increase disaster frequency; hence the implementation of social resilience is essential to lessen the losses. Indeed, the right balance between natural and social factors and indicators is yet to be found. Social resilience has been debated extensively for decades, both in scientific and political contexts. It has been a concern in disaster risk reduction and risk governance fields, both of which have strived to implement it. The enlarged conceptual discussion regarding this topic has resulted in some indicator-based assessments that hardly reflect the conceptual discussion developed so far. These indicator-based approaches still lack accurate inclusion of social dynamics and the capacity to learn from experience. In order to contribute to a comprehensive approach (concept and methods) for assessing social resilience to floods, the evolutionary resilience concept (Davoudi, Simin; Shaw, Keith; Haider, L. Jamila; Quilnlan, Allyson E; Petterson, Garry D.; Wilkinson, Cathy; Fünfgeld, Hartmut; McEvoy, Darryn; Porter, 2012) was considered as a reference in this work, as it can include dimensions that are difficult to evaluate (non-static time and learning-capacity in multi-dimensional systems). This work addresses the challenge of a conceptual overview of social resilience to include key factors and indicators. Our methodology uses text mining, experts' surveys and bibliography reviews to generate an indicators database. The contribution of this article to the scientific debate on social resilience assessment is twofold. First, the key-concepts, words and expressions in this field are identified, which provides the basis to build a comprehensive and coherent analytical framework. Secondly, an original indicators database is proposed in line with that framework. The results of a text mining-based methodology and an online survey, involving experts from different countries, show that four of the six dimensions of the indicators database refer to social aspects of risks (Individuals, Society, Governance, and Built Environment), while the remaining two refer to the Environment and Disaster. The results obtained so far suggest the need for a next step aiming to validate the dimensions and the indicators of this database through its application to real case studies.


Assuntos
Desastres , Inundações , Mineração de Dados , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários
5.
J Environ Manage ; 275: 111173, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32866923

RESUMO

The necessity of incorporating a resilience-informed approach into urban planning and its decision-making is felt now more than any time previously, particularly in low and middle income countries. In order to achieve a successful transition to sustainable, resilient and cost-effective cities, there is a growing attention given to more effective integration of nature-based solutions, such as Sustainable Drainage Systems (SuDS), with other urban components. The experience of SuDS integration with urban planning, in developed cities, has proven to be an effective strategy with a wide range of advantages and lower costs. The effective design and implementation of SuDS requires a multi-objective approach by which all four pillars of SuDS design (i.e., water quality, water quantity, amenity and biodiversity) are considered in connection to other urban, social, and economic aspects and constraints. This study develops a resilience-driven multi-objective optimisation model aiming to provide a Pareto-front of optimised solutions for effective incorporation of SuDS into (peri)urban planning, applied to a case study in Brazil. This model adopts the SuDS's two pillars of water quality and water quantity as the optimisation objectives with its level of spatial distribution as decision variables. Also, an improved quality of life index (iQoL) is developed to re-evaluate the optimal engineering solutions to encompass the amenity and biodiversity pillars of SuDS. Rain barrels, green roofs, bio-retention tanks, vegetation grass swales and permeable pavements are the suitable SuDS options identified in this study. The findings show that the most resilient solutions are costly but this does not guarantee higher iQoL values. Bio-retention tanks and grass swales play effective roles in promotion of water quality resilience but this comes with considerable increase in costs. Permeable pavements and green roofs are effective strategies when flood resilience is a priority. Rain barrel is a preferred solution due to the dominance of residential areas in the study area and the lower cost of this option.


Assuntos
Qualidade de Vida , Chuva , Brasil , Cidades , Inundações
7.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(10): 659, 2020 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32975657

RESUMO

Following the 2019 Karun River's flood, this study was conducted to evaluate the impact on the physicochemical characteristics and potentially toxic elements (PTEs) concentrations in the sediments as compared to 2015 pre-flood study. Surficial and core samples were collected from the river bed stretching through Ahvaz city for analysis and evaluation. The physicochemical properties of the sediments and the concentrations of PTEs (Mn, Fe, Cr, Ni, As, Zn, Pb, and Cu) in samples were determined by standard methodology. The PTEs contamination in sediments was assessed by calculating the contamination factor and the contamination degree. The potential ecological risk index (RI) was used to assess the contamination degree and ecological effects of PTEs in sediments. The comparative results showed that the flood reduced the concentration of PTEs and organic carbon in the sediments. The flood also decreased the silt and clay content and increased the acidity and sand content compared to pre-flood samples. The post-flood ecological risk assessment revealed that the sediments remained as low risk as compared to pre-flood state. Reduction of post flood PTEs concentration in the sediments as compared to pre-flood concentrations is probably due to long-term exposure to pollutants in the pre-flood sediments. It appears the reduction in the amount of clay particles and organic carbon (as important adsorbents for pollutants) has resulted in reduction of pollutants in the sediments. Statistical analysis of PTEs in the post-flood sediments showed that the major source of metals is geogenic. It seems that despite being destructive for the inhabitants, the flood, has reduced the amount of pollutants and the ecological risk, in the study area, at least for a while.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Cidades , Monitoramento Ambiental , Inundações , Sedimentos Geológicos , Irã (Geográfico) , Medição de Risco , Rios
8.
Bull Environ Contam Toxicol ; 105(4): 572-581, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32960333

RESUMO

In order to assess the environmental impacts caused by flood to the paddy field, 940 semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) were screened in paddy soil samples taken in central Vietnam before and after flooding. The concentration of 166 SVOCs in soil samples ranged from 0.031 to 2241 (mean 89.1) µg kg-1 dry wt. Chemicals originating from household sources showed the highest level, followed by chemicals originating from agriculture. Since untreated domestic wastewater used for agricultural irrigation, organic micro-pollutants in domestic wastewater is the main source of pollutants in paddy soil. However, contamination levels of pollutants in paddy soil after flooding were lower than those before flooding, possibly due to the removal of pollutants by floodwater. As a result, pollution characteristic of pollutants at sampling locations were different before flooding while they became similar after flooding due to the dispersion and elution of organic pollutants from soil into floodwaters.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Inundações , Compostos Orgânicos/análise , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Oryza/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Solo/química , Vietnã
9.
J Environ Manage ; 271: 111025, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32778305

RESUMO

It has been argued that learning from flood experience contributes to flood resilience. However, it is unclear what such a learning process involves, and it is debatable whether flood experience always leads to flood resilience. To bridge this research gap, we develop the Learning from Floods (LFF) model to articulate the process of learning from flood experience and how it affects flood resilience. The LFF model suggests that flood experience prompts individual and social learning to give rise to flood-related knowledge, which is subject to learning opportunity, learning motivation, and prior knowledge. Flood-related knowledge could inform flood management and/or other action, which however can be limited by barriers, including information and resource availability, attitude, social capital, and policy barriers. Together, flood-related knowledge and its resulting action are considered the lesson learned, which then affects flood resilience through changing floodability, recoverability, adaptability, and/or transformability. We apply the LFF model to discuss the different learning processes and their respective effects on flood resilience in two environments. It suggests that an environment that is well-protected by flood control infrastructure is not conducive to learning about flood mitigation. Subsequently, we call for learning-based flood mitigation to nurture flood resilience in the face of climate change.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Inundações
10.
Am J Disaster Med ; 15(1): 7-22, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32804382

RESUMO

Hospitals, which care for some of the most vulnerable individuals, have been impacted by disasters in the past and are likely to be affected by future disasters. Yet data on hospital evacuations are infrequent and outdated, at best. This goal of this study was to determine the characteristics and frequency of disasters in the United States that have resulted in hospital evacuations by an appraisal of the literature from 2000 to 2017. There were 158 hospital evacuations in the United States over 18 years. The states with the highest number of evacuations were Florida (N = 39), California (N = 30), and. Texas (N = 15). The reason for the evacuation was "natura" in 114 (72.2 percent), made-man "intentional" 14 (8.9 percent), and man-made "unintentional" or technological related to internal hospital infrastructure 30 (19 percent).The most common natural threats were hurricanes (N = 65) (57 percent), wildfires (N = 21) (18.4 percent), floods (N = 10) (8.8 percent), and storms (N = 8) (7 percent). Bombs/bomb threats were the most common reason (N = 8) (57.1 percent) for a hospital evacuation result-ing from a man-made intentional disaster, followed by armed gunman (N = 4) (28.6 percent). The most frequent infrastruc-ture problems included hospital fires/smoke (N = 9) (30 percent), and chemical fumes (N = 7) (23.3 percent). Of those that reported the duration and number of evacuees, 30 percent of evacuations lasted over 24 h and the number of evacuees was >100 in over half (55.2 percent) the evacuations. This information regarding hospital evacuations should allow hospital administrators, disaster planners, and others to better prepare for disasters that result in the need for hospital evacuation.


Assuntos
Planejamento em Desastres/organização & administração , Desastres/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitais , Transferência de Pacientes/estatística & dados numéricos , Transporte de Pacientes/estatística & dados numéricos , Tempestades Ciclônicas , Fogo , Inundações , Administração Hospitalar , Humanos , Estados Unidos
11.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 158: 111388, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32753175

RESUMO

Great Barrier Reef (GBR) catchment management has been constrained by knowledge gaps regarding streambank erosion processes in grazing lands. To help reduce these uncertainties a remote sensing study using high-resolution imagery estimated sediment contributions from cattle traffic on streambanks of a GBR river basin. Results suggest cattle ramps and ramp trails may contribute up to 50% of the modelled streambank sediment supply. Once a suitable delivery ratio is applied, this estimated supply may contribute up to 30% of the modelled fine sediment exported from the Fitzroy River Basin. These findings may also offer a plausible explanation for the first-flush of high sediment concentration observed early in flood hydrographs. Overall, the results could help identify what proportion of currently modelled subsoil erosion is generated by riparian cattle traffic. Future studies applying similar methods could provide useful initial estimates of streambank ramp erosion from grazing land use in other GBR river basins.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Rios , Animais , Bovinos , Inundações , Sedimentos Geológicos
12.
J Environ Manage ; 275: 111075, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32861905

RESUMO

We investigate a new framework for estimating the frequency and severity of losses associated with catastrophic risks such as bushfires, storms and floods. We explore generalized additive models for location, scale and shape (GAMLSS) for the quantification of regional risk factors - geographical, weather and climate variables - with the aim of better quantifying the frequency and severity of catastrophic losses from natural perils. Due to the flexibility of the GAMLSS approach, we find a superior fit to empirical loss data for the applied models in comparison to generalized linear regression models typically applied in the literature. In particular the generalized beta distribution of the second kind (GB2) provides a good fit to the severity of losses. Including covariates in the calibration of the scale parameter, we obtain vastly differently shaped distributions for the predicted individual losses at different levels of the covariates. Testing the GAMLSS approach in an out-of-sample validation exercise, we also find support for a correct specification of the estimated models. More accurate models for the losses from natural hazards will help state and local government policy development, in particular for risk management and scenario planning for emergency services with respect to these perils.


Assuntos
Clima , Tempo (Meteorologia) , Inundações , Modelos Lineares , Fatores de Risco
13.
J Bus Contin Emer Plan ; 14(1): 55-64, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32847654

RESUMO

Climate change is posing a significant threat to the coastal counties of Georgia. The Georgia Department of Natural Resources and Hagerty Consulting have recognised this threat and are facilitating a nine-year project aimed at developing a disaster recovery and redevelopment plan for the state's coastal communities, and providing state-wide technical assistance. This paper provides an overview of this planning initiative and summarises the many insights into the pre-disaster recovery and resilience planning process gained from this project.


Assuntos
Planejamento em Desastres , Inundações , Cidades , Mudança Climática , Georgia , Oceanos e Mares
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32764245

RESUMO

Humans are living in an uncertain world, with daily risks confronting them from various low to high hazard events, and the COVID-19 pandemic has created its own set of unique risks. Not only has it caused a significant number of fatalities, but in combination with other hazard sources, it may pose a considerably higher multi-risk. In this paper, three hazardous events are studied through the lens of a concurring pandemic. Several low-probability high-risk scenarios are developed by the combination of a pandemic situation with a natural hazard (e.g., earthquakes or floods) or a complex emergency situation (e.g., mass protests or military movements). The hybrid impacts of these multi-hazard situations are then qualitatively studied on the healthcare systems, and their functionality loss. The paper also discusses the impact of pandemic's (long-term) temporal effects on the type and recovery duration from these adverse events. Finally, the concept of escape from a hazard, evacuation, sheltering and their potential conflict during a pandemic and a natural hazard is briefly reviewed. The findings show the cascading effects of these multi-hazard scenarios, which are unseen nearly in all risk legislation. This paper is an attempt to urge funding agencies to provide additional grants for multi-hazard risk research.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Planejamento em Desastres/organização & administração , Incidentes com Feridos em Massa , Desastres Naturais , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus , Planejamento em Desastres/economia , Terremotos , Emergências , Inundações , Humanos , Pandemias , Fatores de Tempo
15.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237324, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32813701

RESUMO

Flood inundation maps provide valuable information towards flood risk preparedness, management, communication, response, and mitigation at the time of disaster, and can be developed by harnessing the power of satellite imagery. In the present study, Sentinel-1 Synthetic Aperture RADAR (SAR) data and Otsu method were utilized to map flood inundation areas. Google Earth Engine (GEE) was used for implementing Otsu algorithm and processing Sentinel-1 SAR data. The results were assessed by (i) calculating a confusion matrix; (ii) comparing the submerge water areas of flooded (Aug 2018), non-flooded (Jan 2018) and previous year's flooded season (Aug 2016, Aug 2017), and (iii) analyzing historical rainfall patterns to understand the flood event. The overall accuracy for the Sentinel-1 SAR flood inundation maps of 9th and 21st August 2018 was observed as 94.3% and 94.1% respectively. The submerged area (region under water) classified significant flooding as compared to the non-flooded (January 2018) and previous year's same season (August 2015-2017) classified outputs. Summing up, observations from Sentinel-1 SAR data using Otsu algorithm in GEE can act as a powerful tool for mapping flood inundation areas at the time of disaster, and enhance existing efforts towards saving lives and livelihoods of communities, and safeguarding infrastructure and businesses.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Inundações/estatística & dados numéricos , Imagens de Satélites , Navegador , Monitoramento Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Índia , Rios
18.
J Environ Manage ; 270: 110809, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32721293

RESUMO

Understanding how households make use of adaptive and resilient coping strategies are steps in the right direction of dealing with disaster risks and extreme weather and climate events. In the recent past, safety nets programs have been quickly scaled up to respond to some of these climate-related and other types of shocks in a bid to improve resilience and restore the productive capacity of households. In Ghana for instance, there has been the flagship Livelihood Empowerment Against Poverty (LEAP) program from which stemmed an ad-hoc cash grant program, Emergency LEAP which is rolled out to victims of natural disasters like floods, storms, and droughts. Based on the above, this paper analyzes the role of the Emergency LEAP in building the adaptive and resilient nature of households against floods. With insights from an extended version of the Protection Motivation Theory (PMT), the paper hypothesizes that relief assistance has a negative impact on the adoption of risk mitigation measures against floods. The study employs both binary and count data models like the Probit, the Poisson, and the Negative Binomial models respectively to establish the impact of such relief assistance on the adaptive behavior of households.The findings reject the null hypothesis; thus, strengthening the argument that relief assistance has a negative influence on the use of resilient coping strategies. Furthermore, the study establishes that experience in floods increases the resilient nature of households. The study concludes that social safety net programs like the emergency LEAP could perform better if given a renewed focus that transcends beyond just cash benefit to including much better long-term interventions like the integration of community-driven development (CDD) programs as well as inducing behavioral change through information access and education.


Assuntos
Inundações , Pobreza , Adaptação Psicológica , Empoderamento , Gana
19.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0233888, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32603333

RESUMO

Urban development relies on many factors to remain viable, including infrastructure, services, and government provisions and subsidies. However, in situations involving federal or state level policy, development responds not just to one regulatory signal, but also to multiple signals from overlapping and competing jurisdictions. The 1982 U.S. Coastal Barrier Resources Act (CoBRA) offers an opportunity to study when and how development restrictions and economic disincentives protect natural resources by stopping or slowing urban development in management regimes with distributed authority and responsibility. CoBRA prohibits federal financial assistance for infrastructure, post-storm disaster relief, and flood insurance in designated sections (CoBRA units) of coastal barriers. How has CoBRA's removal of these subsidies affected rates and types of urban development? Using building footprint and real estate data (n = 1,385,552 parcels), we compare density of built structures, land use types, residential house size, and land values within and outside of CoBRA units in eight Southeast and Gulf Coast states. We show that CoBRA is associated with reduced development rates in designated coastal barriers. We also demonstrate how local responses may counteract withdrawal of federal subsidies. As attention increases towards improving urban resilience in high hazard areas, this work contributes to understanding how limitations on infrastructure and insurance subsidies can affect outcomes where overlapping jurisdictions have competing goals.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Política Ambiental , Financiamento Governamental , Reforma Urbana/economia , Desastres , Inundações , Humanos , Seguro , Sudeste dos Estados Unidos
20.
Waste Manag ; 114: 215-224, 2020 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32679479

RESUMO

Flood waste management is important for reducing the damage and secondary environmental pollution caused by delays in disaster recovery. One key issue related to flood waste management concerns estimating the precise quantity of waste to plan recovery strategies and policies. In this study, an advanced flood waste estimation technique was devised using data stratification. In total 90 flood cases in South Korea were sorted by three strata characteristics: administrative region (AR; equivalent to special city or province), urbanization rate (UR), and disaster type and coastal accessibility (DC). According to the results, such data stratification led to flood waste prediction improvement not only by the single-stage stratification but also by successive stratifications. Data stratification was effective both for identifying groups with similar contexts and for eliminating disparities in the dataset that impede accurate waste prediction. Among the stratification sequences tested, the order resulted in the most improvement in flood waste prediction was UR, AR, and DC. This stratification order yielded enhanced waste prediction in 74 cases. Since this study deals with a strategy to resolve gaps in disaster data, which is a crucial issue in many countries, it is envisaged that this strategy can be transferred to other countries.


Assuntos
Desastres , Gerenciamento de Resíduos , Cidades , Inundações , República da Coreia
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