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1.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(12)2021 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34204584

RESUMO

Over recent years, the demand for supplies of freshwater is escalating with the increasing food demand of a fast-growing population. The agriculture sector of Pakistan contributes to 26% of its GDP and employs 43% of the entire labor force. However, the currently used traditional farming methods such as flood irrigation and rotating water allocation system (Warabandi) results in excess and untimely water usage, as well as low crop yield. Internet of things (IoT) solutions based on real-time farm sensor data and intelligent decision support systems have led to many smart farming solutions, thus improving water utilization. The objective of this study was to compare and optimize water usage in a 2-acre lemon farm test site in Gadap, Karachi, for a 9-month duration, by deploying an indigenously developed IoT device and an agriculture-based decision support system (DSS). The sensor data are wirelessly collected over the cloud and a mobile application, as well as a web-based information visualization, and a DSS system makes irrigation recommendations. The DSS system is based on weather data (temperature and humidity), real time in situ sensor data from the IoT device deployed in the farm, and crop data (Kc and crop type). These data are supplied to the Penman-Monteith and crop coefficient model to make recommendations for irrigation schedules in the test site. The results show impressive water savings (~50%) combined with increased yield (35%) when compared with water usage and crop yields in a neighboring 2-acre lemon farm where traditional irrigation scheduling was employed and where harsh conditions sometimes resulted in temperatures in excess of 50 °C.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Inundações , Fazendas , Umidade , Água
2.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(8): 464, 2021 Jul 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34218392

RESUMO

The present study is a maiden attempt to assess jute crop lodging due to super cyclone Amphan (20 May 2020) by synergistic use of Sentinel-2 (optical) and Sentinel-1 (SAR) data over part of West Bengal, India. Pre-event Sentinel-2 data (9 April, 14 May) along with the ground information were used to map the jute crop of the affected districts with accuracy of 85%. The cross-polarized backscatter (σ0VH) of Sentinel-1 was found to be sensitive to the sudden change in the canopy structure due to lodging and partial flooding. [Formula: see text](σ0VH_22 May - σ0VH_16 May) indicating post-event damage was > 2.5 dB over the affected jute crop and [Formula: see text] (σ0VH_22 May - σ0VH_28 May) representing post-event recovery showed > 1.5 dB for recovered crop, depending on the crop vigor/height. Decision matrix was prepared combining [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] for NDVI-based crop vigor strata (low, medium, and high) to classify the area into affected, marginally affected and normal. Overall accuracy of the classified map was found to be 84.12% with kappa coefficient of 0.74. Nearly, 12.5% of the jute area, i.e., 38,119 ha was found to be either affected or marginally affected due to Amphan and distributed in the southern part of Murshidabad, north-eastern Nadia, northern 24 Paraganas (N), and middle region of Hooghli district. Geospatial map of block-wise affected jute area was prepared to facilitate informed decision making. The study demonstrated an operational methodology for assessing crop lodging due to natural calamities to support relief management and crop insurance.


Assuntos
Corchorus , Tempestades Ciclônicas , Monitoramento Ambiental , Inundações , Índia
3.
Sci Total Environ ; 788: 147497, 2021 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34134395

RESUMO

River floodplains are spatially diverse ecosystems that respond quickly to flow variations and disturbance. However, it remains unclear how flow alteration and hydrological disturbance impacts the structure and biodiversity of complex microbial communities in these ecosystems. Here, we examined the spatial and seasonal dynamics of microbial communities in aquatic (benthic) and terrestrial habitats of three hydrologically contrasting (natural flow, residual flow, hydropeaking flow) floodplain systems. Microbial communities (alpha and beta diversity) differed more among floodplain habitats than between riverine floodplains. Microbial communities in all systems displayed congruent seasonal effects. In the residual and hydropeaking systems, an experimental flood was released from a reservoir to mimic a natural high flow event causing hydromorphological disturbance. The experimental flood caused a temporary shift in microbial communities by releasing microbes from the reservoir as well as redistributing communities among floodplain habitats. The flood-mediated shift in community structures had only a transient impact as pelagic bacteria did not persist within floodplain habitats over time after the flood. More frequent pulse disturbances might lead to an alternate structure of bacterial communities in floodplains over time.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Microbiota , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Inundações , Hidrologia , Rios
4.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e234018, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34076162

RESUMO

Root deformation (RD) caused by errors in the pricking out process are irreversible and very difficult to detect in container-grown seedlings at the time of planting in the field. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of RD on leaf gas exchange, growth, biomass allocation and mineral nutrition of G. americana seedlings during the recovery phase after soil flooding. Four-months-old seedlings, with and without RD, were flooded for 42 days and their recovery was evaluated 28 days after soil drainage. There were no significant interactions between RD and soil flooding for all leaf gas exchange, growth and mineral nutrition after soil drainage, with the exception of leaf P concentrations. In plants with no RD, the P concentration in leaves of non-flooded plants was significantly higher than that of plants with RD. Soil flooding and RD did not influence leaf or root N concentrations or whole-plant N content. RD increased the K concentration in the roots, but not in the leaves. Changes in the nutrient concentrations in leaves and roots indicate that RD may affect physiological performance of seedlings after planting in the field.


Assuntos
Plântula , Solo , Inundações , Minerais , Folhas de Planta , Raízes de Plantas
5.
West J Emerg Med ; 22(3): 763-768, 2021 May 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34125058

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Natural disasters are increasingly common and devastating. It is essential to understand children's health needs during disasters as they are a particularly vulnerable population. The objective of this study was to evaluate pediatric disease burden after Hurricane Harvey compared to the preceding month and the same period in the previous year to inform pediatric disaster preparedness. METHODS: This was a retrospective cross-sectional study of patients seen at pediatric emergency departments (ED) and urgent care centers (UCC) 30 days before (late summer) and after (early fall) the hurricane and from the same time period in 2016. We collected demographic information and the first five discharge diagnoses from a network of EDs and UCCs affiliated with a quaternary care children's hospital in Houston, Texas. We calculated the odds of disease outcomes during various timeframes using binary logistic regression modeling. RESULTS: There were 20,571 (median age: 3.5 years, 48.1% female) and 18,943 (median age: 3.5 years, 47.3% female) patients in 2016 and 2017, respectively. Inpatient admission rates from the ED a month after Harvey were 20.5%, compared to 25.3% in the same period in 2016 (P<0.001). In both years, asthma and other respiratory illnesses increased from late summer to early fall. After controlling for these seasonal trends, the following diseases were more commonly seen after the hurricane: toxicological emergencies (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 2.61, 95% [confidence interval] CI, 1.35-5.05); trauma (aOR: 1.42, 95% CI, 1.32-1.53); and dermatological complaints (aOR: 1.34, 95% CI, 1.23-1.46). CONCLUSION: We observed increases in rashes, trauma, and toxicological diagnoses in children after a major flood. These findings highlight the need for more medication resources and public health and education measures focused on pediatric disaster preparedness and management.


Assuntos
Assistência Ambulatorial/estatística & dados numéricos , Tempestades Ciclônicas , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Inundações , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Hospitais Pediátricos , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Texas/epidemiologia
6.
Ambio ; 50(8): 1431-1445, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33974215

RESUMO

The strategy of reconnecting rivers with their floodplains currently gains popularity because it not only harnesses natural capacities of floodplains but also increases social co-benefits and biodiversity. In this paper, we present an example of a successfully implemented nature-based solution (NBS) in the Dijle valley in the centre of Belgium. The research objective is to retrospectively assess cost and benefit differences between a technical solution (storm basins) and an alternative NBS, here the restoration of the alluvial floodplain. The method is a comparative social cost-benefit analysis. The case study analysis reveals similar flood security, lower costs, more ecosystem services benefits and higher biodiversity values associated with the NBS option in comparison to the technical alternative. However, the business case for working with NBS depends substantially on the spatial and socio-ecological context. Chances for successful NBS implementation increase in conditions of sufficient space to retain flood water, when flood water is of sufficient quality, and when economic activity and housing in the floodplain is limited.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Inundações , Bélgica , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Rios
7.
Mycorrhiza ; 31(4): 511-517, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33982140

RESUMO

Very little is known about the impact of flooding and ground saturation on ectomycorrhizal fungi (EcM) and increasing flood events are expected with predicted climate change. To explore this, seedlings inoculated with the EcM species Tuber aestivum were exposed to a range of flood durations. Oak seedlings inoculated with T. aestivum were submerged for between 7 and 65 days. After a minimum of 114-day recovery, seedling growth measurements were recorded, and root systems were destructively sampled to measure the number of existing mycorrhizae in different zones. Number of mycorrhizae did not display correlation with seedling growth measurements. Seven days of submersion resulted in a significant reduction in mycorrhizae numbers and numbers reduced most drastically in the upper zones. Increases in duration of submersion further impacted mycorrhizae numbers in the lowest soil zone only. T. aestivum mycorrhizae can survive flood durations of at least 65 days. After flooding, mycorrhizae occur in higher numbers in the lowest soil zone, suggesting a mix of resilience and recovery. The results will aid in furthering our understanding of EcM but also may aid in conservation initiatives as well as providing insight for those whose livelihoods revolve around the collection of EcM fruiting bodies or cropping of the plant partners.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos , Micorrizas , Quercus , Inundações
8.
J Environ Manage ; 292: 112743, 2021 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34022643

RESUMO

The present paper offers a contribution to the research on social acceptance of interventions aimed at water ecosystem improvement and flood risk mitigation through renaturation measures. A CE study has been implemented to assess trade-offs between attributes of alternative projects, including social costs deriving from proposed actions of renaturation of river flows. The aim of our approach is to investigate the role of attitudinal factors in the valuation of costs and benefits generated by renaturation measures. A Hybrid Latent Class (HLC) model is applied to the data, revealing the existence of two distinct groups, characterised by different valuations of the attributes of the project. It is found that class membership depends on latent attitudes toward environmental protection and risk perception. Our study confirms the fruitfulness of the HLC modelling approach in stated preference studies regarding ecosystems valuation, as it provides a richer understanding of public preferences and allows more finely targeted policy indications.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Inundações , Atitude , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Rios
9.
J Plant Physiol ; 261: 153428, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33957505

RESUMO

As a high-yielding forage grass, Phalaris arundinacea widely distributed in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau region of China. To explore physiological and molecular response mechanism of Phalaris arundinacea under waterlogging, we analyzed the biomass and physiological indexes of three locally grown strains under the submerged condition of 10 cm. The material Z0611 showed the strongest waterlogging resistance while the YS showed the weakest performance. Transcriptome sequencing analysis demonstrated that the YS and Z0611 had 17010 and 7566 differently expression genes (DEGs), respectively, which were mainly concentrated in the metabolic process, cell, ribosome, phenylpropanoid biosynthesis pathway in GO and KEGG databases. We also identified a large number of genes involved in carbohydrate metabolism, hormone signaling regulation, transcription factors, antioxidant system, and ethylene signaling. Our research may provide a scientific basis for the restoration of wetland environment on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, and lay a foundation for further exploration of the waterlogging resistance genes of Phalaris arundinacea and breeding of new strains resistant with waterlogging stress.


Assuntos
Biomassa , Inundações , Genes de Plantas , Phalaris/fisiologia , Estresse Fisiológico , Transcriptoma , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Phalaris/genética , Água/efeitos adversos
10.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 33(2): 133-137, 2021 Apr 16.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34008359

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To create a model based on meteorological data to predict the regions at risk of schistosomiasis during the flood season, so as to provide insights into the surveillance and forecast of schistosomiasis. METHODS: An interactive schistosomiasis forecast system was created using the open-access R software. The schistosomiasis risk index was used as a basic parameter, and the species distribution model of Oncomelania hupensis snails was generated according to the cumulative rainfall and temperature to predict the probability of O. hupensis snail distribution, so as to identify the regions at risk of schistosomiasis transmission during the flood season. RESULTS: The framework of the web page was built using the Shiny package in the R program, and an interactive and visualization system was successfully created to predict the distribution of O. hupensis snails, containing O. hupensis snail surveillance site database, meteorological and environmental data. In this system, the snail distribution area may be displayed and the regions at risk of schistosomiasis transmission may be predicted using the species distribution model. This predictive system may rapidly generate the schistosomiasis transmission risk map, which is simple and easy to perform. In addition, the regions at risk of schistosomiasis transmission were predicted to be concentrated in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River during the flood period. CONCLUSIONS: A schistosomiasis forecast system is successfully created, which is accurate and rapid to utilize meteorological data to predict the regions at risk of schistosomiasis transmission during the flood period.


Assuntos
Inundações , Esquistossomose , Animais , China/epidemiologia , Rios , Esquistossomose/epidemiologia , Caramujos
11.
Cad Saude Publica ; 37(5): e00100119, 2021.
Artigo em Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34008697

RESUMO

Leptospirosis is related to problems with environmental sanitation, and the incidence tends to increase during flood periods. Considering issues related to climate change, floods can be expected to increase. Floods do not affect populations homogeneously, and communities with worse socioeconomic conditions tend to be impacted more heavily. In order to determine whether the number of floods increases the incidence of leptospirosis and its relationship to contextual variables, the study used socioeconomic, environmental, and disease occurrence data at the municipal (county) level. Municipalities suffering problems with sewage disposal showed a higher risk of leptospirosis incidence. Total flooding since the municipality's declaration of flood emergency was an important risk marker for leptospirosis incidence. Regression tree modeling proved useful for estimating leptospirosis incidence in Brazil.


Assuntos
Inundações , Leptospirose , Brasil/epidemiologia , Cidades/epidemiologia , Mineração de Dados , Humanos , Leptospirose/epidemiologia
12.
Front Public Health ; 9: 624975, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33968878

RESUMO

Based on the interdisciplinary concept of One Health, EcoHealth, and Planetary Health, this paper focuses on participatory knowledge-to-action approaches by relating one decade of environmental disasters in Brazil with the action of veterinary rescue teams, aiming to give support to future disaster preparedness. This paper will present the historic actions of teams rescuing animal that are victims of environmental disasters, in addition to addressing the need for contingency plans and response management in these types of events. The main events in Brazilian states where veterinary rescue teams participated were, chronologically, as follows: 2011 flood and landslide (Rio de Janeiro); 2012 flood (Acre, Minas Gerais, and Pará); 2015 dam break (Minas Gerais); 2017 flood (Minas Gerais) and forest fire (Minas Gerais and Goiás); 2019 dam break and evacuation (Minas Gerais) and flood (Bahia); 2020 flood (Espírito Santo and Minas Gerais) and forest fires (Mato Grosso and Mato Grosso do Sul). The Brazilian disasters that had a large global repercussion were the ruptures of the ore dams in Marina (2015) and Brumadinho (2019), both in the State of Minas Gerais. The role of veterinarians in these events was recognized by the Federal Council of Veterinary Medicine (CFMV) after their performance in Mariana, Minas Gerais (2015), and in 2020, the CFMV approved the National Mass Disaster Contingency Plan Involving Animals. The work of veterinarians in interaction with other professionals in environmental disasters proved to be effective and necessary for the rescue of animals and for planning and giving support to disaster preparedness in the future.


Assuntos
Desastres , Animais , Brasil , Meio Ambiente , Inundações
13.
J Environ Manage ; 291: 112731, 2021 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33962279

RESUMO

Flooding is a destructive natural phenomenon that causes many casualties and property losses in different parts of the world every year. Efficient flood susceptibility mapping (FSM) can reduce the risk of this hazard, and has become the main approach in flood risk management. In this study, we evaluated the prediction ability of artificial neural network (ANN) algorithms for hard and soft supervised machine learning classification in FSM by using three ANN algorithms (multi-layer perceptron (MLP), fuzzy adaptive resonance theory (FART), self-organizing map (SOM)) with different activation functions (sigmoidal (-S), linear (-L), commitment (-C), typicality (-T)). We used integration of these models for predicting the spatial expansion probability of flood events in the Ajichay river basin, northwest Iran. Inputs to the ANN were spatial data on 10 flood influencing factors (elevation, slope, aspect, curvature, stream power index, topographic wetness index, lithology, land use, rainfall, and distance to the river). The FSMs obtained as model outputs were trained and tested using flood inventory datasets earned based on previous records of flood damage in the region for the Ajichay river basin. Sensitivity analysis using one factor-at-a-time (OFAT) and all factors-at-a-time (AFAT) demonstrated that all influencing factors had a positive impact on modeling to generate FSM, with altitude having the greatest impact and curvature the least. Model validation was carried out using total operating characteristic (TOC) with an area under the curve (AUC). The highest success rate was found for MLP-S (92.1%) and the lowest for FART-T (75.8%). The projection rate in the validation of FSMs produced by MLP-S, MLP-L, FART-C, FART-T, SOM-C, and SOM-T was found to be 90.1%, 89.6%, 71.7%, 70.8%, 83.8%, and 81.1%, respectively. While integration of hard and soft supervised machine learning classification with activation functions of MLP-S and MLP-L showed a strong flood prediction capability for proper planning and management of flood hazards, MLP-S is a promising method for predicting the spatial expansion probability of flood events.


Assuntos
Inundações , Rios , Irã (Geográfico) , Redes Neurais de Computação , Aprendizado de Máquina Supervisionado
14.
J Environ Manage ; 291: 112636, 2021 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33964626

RESUMO

Natural Flood Management (NFM) is now well established as a paradigm for reducing flood risk. It is characterised by adopting a catchment-wide hydrological perspective and implementing solutions that work with natural processes such as wetlands, riparian vegetation and river channel rehabilitation. However, despite substantial attention in the river science literature and growing appreciation for NFM among environmental managers, little research has been conducted on how the public perceives NFM. This study explored preferences for a variety of flood risk management schemes through an online survey of the UK public, and assessed how different characteristics of these schemes contribute to preferences via Q-method utilising an array of photographs. Relationships between survey respondents' underlying transcendental values and their preferences for NFM schemes were also studied. Results revealed that while NFM approaches were appreciated for their appearance and wildlife benefits, traditional grey engineering - particularly dams - was seen as more effective in ameliorating flood risk. Q-sorts of photographs revealed three factors that characterised participants' preferences: (i) "Engineered - Natural", (ii) "Messy - Neat" and (iii) "Grey - Green". Finally, transcendental values were significantly related to flood scheme preferences, with 'Self-Transcendence' values positively correlated with preferences for tree planting and wetlands and negatively with dams and weirs. 'Conservative' values were positively correlated with preferences for dredging and weirs and negatively with wetlands. These findings emphasise the plurality of public perceptions related to NFM and the diverse value orientations within which they are grounded. River and catchment managers seeking to promote NFM solutions should focus on addressing public concerns about the efficacy of NFM for mitigating flood risk, and consider how to communicate solutions in ways that resonate with a diverse set of public values.


Assuntos
Inundações , Opinião Pública , Humanos , Hidrologia , Rios , Áreas Alagadas
15.
J Emerg Manag ; 19(2): 173-188, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33954966

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Armed forces hospitals are often called upon to provide medical aid to civilians during natural calamities. Though children are often the most vulnerable segment of population in these events, research that addresses their unique needs and the role of armed forces hospitals remains sparse. OBJECTIVES: We examined pediatric morbidity and mortality at a flooded armed forces hospital. Factors that affected outcomes were identified. METHODS: 158 patients were evacuated en masse from a children's hospital in northern India that was submerged by flood to an adjacent partially inundated armed forces hospital specializing in military medicine and adult trauma. The children were provided case-based clinical care as per existing disaster management protocol. Geoclimatic vulnerability factors, morbidity/mortality, and medical and logistical challenges for future intervention were investigated. RESULTS: One pediatrician who provided initial triage was joined by two others after 48 hours. A limited load of adult patients permitted more resources for the children, majority (49 percent) of whom were neonates. Intensive care was necessitated for 32 (20.2 percent) cases, with half managed in adult ICU. Overall in-hospital mortality was 5.7 percent. Experienced staff, cross-specialty multitasking, and innovative and noncensorious leadership were identified as assets amidst resources compromised by flooding. Clear delineation of primary caregiver role of pediatrician at outset, pediatric emergency care training, pediatric triage, resource allocation for thermoregulation, oxygen therapy and ventilation, earmarking centers for transfer of cases, and safe transportation to the centers were identified as areas meriting further attention. CONCLUSION: Armed forces hospitals in vulnerable geoclimatic zones must address pediatric concerns in disaster management plans.


Assuntos
Planejamento em Desastres , Desastres , Militares , Criança , Inundações , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Triagem
16.
Sci Total Environ ; 773: 145435, 2021 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33940726

RESUMO

Floods are known to increase the level of allergens such as molds in the environments. Under climate change, the frequency of floods could be increased, which highlights the importance of understanding the impacts of floods on atopic diseases. However, there was a lack of studies. This study examines whether floods induce attacks of childhood atopic dermatitis (AD). A retrospective population-based study was conducted in Taiwan Island using Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database. Emergency room (ER) visits for AD were identified among children aged 0-12 years. Weekly data of flood occurrence, number of flood sites, temperature, and air pollution were obtained for each township of the identified cases. A time-stratified case-crossover design was used. The relationship between ER visits for AD and floods was assessed by conditional logistic regression, adjusting for weekly mean temperature, PM2.5 and NO2. There were a total of 55,488 ER visits due to AD during the study period. Such visits increased when flood occurred, and then declined. The effects of floods at the week of flood remained robust, with OR of 1.14 (95% CI = 1.01-1.28) for flood occurrence and 1.31 (95% CI = 1.10-1.55) for the number of flood sites, after adjusting for covariates. Such effects were slightly higher in boys and children aged 1-12 years. This study demonstrated the impact of floods on flare-up of childhood AD, and the effect was most prominently at the week of flood. Healthcare workers should be alarmed for potential increase of AD flare ups after flood events.


Assuntos
Dermatite Atópica , Inundações , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Dermatite Atópica/epidemiologia , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Ilhas , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taiwan/epidemiologia
17.
J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol ; 31(3): 454-460, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33875771

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hurricane Harvey facilitated exposure to various toxic substances and floodwater throughout the greater Houston metropolitan area. Although disparities exist in this exposure and vulnerable populations can bear a disproportionate impact, no research has integrated disparities in exposure to toxic incidents following Hurricane Harvey. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to analyze the relationship between flooding, socioeconomic status (SES), and toxic site incidents. METHODS: Data on toxic site locations, reported releases, and flood water depths during Hurricane Harvey in the greater Houston area were compiled from multiple sources. A multivariable logistic regression was performed to predict the odds of a toxic site release by flooding at the site, SES and racial composition of the census tract. RESULTS: 83 out of 1403 toxic sites (5.9%) had reported releases during Hurricane Harvey. The proportion of toxic sites with reported incidents across increasing SES index quintiles were 8.35, 7.67, 5.14, 4.55, and 0.51, respectively. The odds of an incident were lower in the highest SES quintile areas (ORadj = 0.06, 95% CI: 0.01-0.42) compared to the lowest SES quintile. Flooding was similar at toxic sites with and without incidents, and was distributed similarly and highest at toxic sites located in lower SES quintiles. SIGNIFICANCE: Despite similar flooding across toxic sites during Hurricane Harvey, areas with lower SES were more likely to have a toxic release during the storm, after accounting for number of toxic sites. Improving quality of maintenance, safety protocols, number of storm-resilient facilities may minimize this disproportionate exposure and its subsequent adverse outcomes among socioeconomically vulnerable populations.


Assuntos
Tempestades Ciclônicas , Inundações , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Classe Social
18.
J Environ Manage ; 290: 112552, 2021 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33892231

RESUMO

Stormwater has immense impacts on urban flooding and water quality, leaving the marginalized and the impoverished disproportionately impacted by and vulnerable to stormwater hazards. However, the environmental health concerns of socially and economically marginalized individuals are largely underestimated. Through regression analysis of data from three longitudinal surveys, this article examines if and how an individual's race, gender, and education level help predict one's concern about and willingness to participate in stormwater management. We found that people of color, women, and less-educated respondents had a greater willingness to participate in stormwater management than White, male, and more-educated respondents, and their concern about local stormwater hazards drove their willingness to participate. Our analysis suggests that physical exposure and high vulnerability to stormwater hazards may shape an individual's concern about and willingness to participate in stormwater management.


Assuntos
Inundações , Qualidade da Água , Escolaridade , Saúde Ambiental , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Chuva
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33921966

RESUMO

Rising global temperatures and seawater temperatures have led to an increase in extreme weather patterns leading to droughts and floods. These natural phenomena, in turn, affect the supply of drinking water in some communities, which causes an increase in the prevalence of diseases related to the supply of drinking water. The objective of this work is to demonstrate the effects of global warming on human health in the population of Monterrey, Mexico after Hurricane Alex. We interpolated data using statistical downscaling of climate projection data for 2050 and 2080 and correlated it with disease occurrence. We found a remarkable rise in the incidence of transmissible infectious disease symptoms. Gastrointestinal symptoms predominated and were associated with drinking of contaminated water like tap water or water from communal mobile water tanks, probably because of the contamination of clean water, the disruption of water sanitation, and the inability to maintain home hygiene practices.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis , Aquecimento Global , Mudança Climática , Doenças Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis/etiologia , Inundações , Humanos , México/epidemiologia , Abastecimento de Água
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33922573

RESUMO

Climate change is negatively impacting the mental health of populations. This scoping review aims to assess the available literature related to climate change and mental health across the World Health Organisation's (WHO) five global research priorities for protecting human health from climate change. We conducted a scoping review to identify original research studies related to mental health and climate change using online academic databases. We assessed the quality of studies where appropriate assessment tools were available. We identified 120 original studies published between 2001 and 2020. Most studies were quantitative (n = 67), cross-sectional (n = 42), conducted in high-income countries (n = 87), and concerned with the first of the WHO global research priorities-assessing the mental health risks associated with climate change (n = 101). Several climate-related exposures, including heat, humidity, rainfall, drought, wildfires, and floods were associated with psychological distress, worsened mental health, and higher mortality among people with pre-existing mental health conditions, increased psychiatric hospitalisations, and heightened suicide rates. Few studies (n = 19) addressed the other four global research priorities of protecting health from climate change (effective interventions (n = 8); mitigation and adaptation (n = 7); improving decision-support (n = 3); and cost estimations (n = 1)). While climate change and mental health represents a rapidly growing area of research, it needs to accelerate and broaden in scope to respond with evidence-based mitigation and adaptation strategies.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Saúde Mental , Estudos Transversais , Inundações , Saúde Global , Humanos
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