Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 71
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
Am J Law Med ; 45(2-3): 130-170, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31722626

RESUMO

In many areas of innovation, the United States is a leader, but this characterization does not apply to the United States' position in assisted reproductive technology innovation and clinical use. This article uses a political science concept, the idea of the "democratic deficit" to examine the lack of American public discourse on innovations in ART. In doing so, the article focuses on America's missing public consultation in health care innovation. This missing discourse is significant, as political and ethical considerations may impact regulatory decisions. Thus, to the extent that these considerations are influencing the decisions of federal agency employees, namely those who work within the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, the public is unable to participate in the decision-making process. This lack of a public discourse undermines the goals of the administrative state, which include democratic participation, transparency, and accountability. The United Kingdom, on the other hand, has had a markedly divergent experience with assisted reproductive technology innovation. Instead of ignoring the various ethical, social, and legal issues surrounding assisted reproductive technology innovation, the United Kingdom engaged in a five-strand public consultation on the topic of mitochondrial transfer, a form of assisted reproductive technology that uses genetic modification in order to prevent disease transmission. This article argues that after a multi-decade standstill in terms of the public discourse related to ethical issues associated with assisted reproductive technology and germline modification, it is time for the United States to institute a more democratic inquiry into the scientific, ethical, and social implications of new forms of assisted reproductive technology and ultimately, forthcoming medical innovations that involve genetic modification.


Assuntos
Democracia , Invenções/legislação & jurisprudência , Formulação de Políticas , Técnicas de Reprodução Assistida/legislação & jurisprudência , Participação da Comunidade , Governo Federal , Fertilização In Vitro/ética , Fertilização In Vitro/legislação & jurisprudência , Política de Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Humanos , Invenções/ética , Técnicas de Reprodução Assistida/ética , Responsabilidade Social , Participação dos Interessados , Governo Estadual , Inquéritos e Questionários , Reino Unido , Estados Unidos , United States Food and Drug Administration/legislação & jurisprudência
3.
BMC Med ; 17(1): 137, 2019 07 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31311535

RESUMO

The digital revolution is disrupting the ways in which health research is conducted, and subsequently, changing healthcare. Direct-to-consumer wellness products and mobile apps, pervasive sensor technologies and access to social network data offer exciting opportunities for researchers to passively observe and/or track patients 'in the wild' and 24/7. The volume of granular personal health data gathered using these technologies is unprecedented, and is increasingly leveraged to inform personalized health promotion and disease treatment interventions. The use of artificial intelligence in the health sector is also increasing. Although rich with potential, the digital health ecosystem presents new ethical challenges for those making decisions about the selection, testing, implementation and evaluation of technologies for use in healthcare. As the 'Wild West' of digital health research unfolds, it is important to recognize who is involved, and identify how each party can and should take responsibility to advance the ethical practices of this work. While not a comprehensive review, we describe the landscape, identify gaps to be addressed, and offer recommendations as to how stakeholders can and should take responsibility to advance socially responsible digital health research.


Assuntos
Inteligência Artificial/ética , Assistência à Saúde/ética , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde/ética , Prática Profissional/ética , Assistência à Saúde/métodos , Assistência à Saúde/tendências , Promoção da Saúde/ética , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Promoção da Saúde/tendências , Humanos , Invenções/ética , Invenções/tendências , Aplicativos Móveis/ética , Medicina de Precisão/ética , Medicina de Precisão/métodos , Medicina de Precisão/tendências
4.
Med Sci (Paris) ; 35(3): 266-270, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30931913

RESUMO

Analysing the data recently presented by Jiankui He and assuming that it is authentic shows that the goal of abolishing the expression of CCR5 may have been reached for one of the resulting twins, although this remains to be proven. However, the canonical delta32 mutation has not been achieved. The various preliminary experiments and controls give some confidence that major off-target modifications have not occurred; again, this is difficult to exclude. Clearly, the requirements of perfect technical mastery of the process have not been met, to say nothing of the requirements for complete transparency and full societal approval.


Assuntos
Bioética , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas/genética , Pesquisas com Embriões , Edição de Genes/ética , Má Conduta Científica , Bioética/tendências , China , Clonagem de Organismos/ética , Clonagem de Organismos/métodos , Congressos como Assunto , Resistência à Doença/genética , Pesquisas com Embriões/ética , Deleção de Genes , HIV , Infecções por HIV/genética , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Invenções/ética , Mutação , Receptores CCR5/genética , Má Conduta Científica/ética
6.
Hastings Cent Rep ; 49(1): 2, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30790312

RESUMO

I was recently asked to report on editorial trends in the Hastings Center Report, past and future. What I reported is that HCR has been going in two seemingly contrasting directions. One has to do with moral decision-making in clinical ethics-the core theme in bioethics for fifty years, but still developing. A second editorial trend is treatment of larger social and political issues that bear on health, such as public health interventions and access to health care. I could also have noted a continuing stream of pieces on emerging technologies, from whole-genome screening for newborns to artificial intelligence in clinical diagnoses to the so-called de-extinction of extinct animals and plants through various genetic and reproductive tricks. This January-February 2019 issue of HCR reflects all these trends.


Assuntos
Bioética/tendências , Tomada de Decisão Clínica/ética , Políticas Editoriais , Invenções/ética , Humanos
7.
Sci Eng Ethics ; 25(2): 597-615, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29417391

RESUMO

Across the European research area and beyond, efforts are being mobilized to align research and innovation processes and products with societal values and needs, and to create mechanisms for inclusive priority setting and knowledge production. A central concern is how to foster a culture of "Responsible Research and Innovation" (RRI) among scientists and engineers. This paper focuses on RRI teaching at higher education institutions. On the basis of interviews and reviews of academic and policy documents, it highlights the generic aspects of teaching aimed at invoking a sense of care and societal obligation, and provides a set of exemplary cases of RRI-related teaching. It argues that the Aristotelian concept of phronesis can capture core properties of the objectives of RRI-related teaching activities. Teaching should nurture the students' capacity in terms of practical wisdom, practical ethics, or administrative ability in order to enable them to act virtuously and responsibly in contexts which are often characterized by uncertainty, contention, and controversy.


Assuntos
Engenharia/ética , Ética em Pesquisa/educação , Ciência/ética , Responsabilidade Social , Ensino , Documentação , Educação Profissionalizante , Empatia , Engenharia/educação , Europa (Continente) , Metas , Grécia Antiga , Humanos , Invenções/ética , Conhecimento , Políticas , Pesquisa , Ciência/educação , Estudantes , Universidades , Virtudes
8.
Sci Eng Ethics ; 25(1): 33-52, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29255953

RESUMO

Advances at the interface between the biological sciences and engineering are giving rise to emerging research fields such as synthetic biology. Harnessing the potential of synthetic biology requires timely and adequate translation into clinical practice. However, the translational research enterprise is currently facing fundamental obstacles that slow down the transition of scientific discoveries from the laboratory to the patient bedside. These obstacles including scarce financial resources and deficiency of organizational and logistic settings are widely discussed as primary impediments to translational research. In addition, a number of socio-ethical considerations inherent in translational research need to be addressed. As the translational capacity of synthetic biology is tightly linked to its social acceptance and ethical approval, ethical limitations may-together with financial and organizational problems-be co-determinants of suboptimal translation. Therefore, an early assessment of such limitations will contribute to proactively favor successful translation and prevent the promising potential of synthetic biology from remaining under-expressed. Through the discussion of two case-specific inventions in synthetic biology and their associated ethical implications, we illustrate the socio-ethical challenges ahead in the process of implementing synthetic biology into clinical practice. Since reducing the translational lag is essential for delivering the benefits of basic biomedical research to society at large and promoting global health, we advocate a moral obligation to accelerating translational research: the "translational imperative."


Assuntos
Invenções/ética , Biologia Sintética/ética , Pesquisa Médica Translacional/ética , Bioética , Humanos
9.
Hastings Cent Rep ; 48 Suppl 4: S67-S69, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30584862

RESUMO

Xenotransplantation, or the grafting of organs from one species to another, may seem at first a far cry from brain death, but there is rising hope in some quarters of the biomedical community that such transplants may reduce, even obviate, the need to harvest human organs-and hence eliminate the primary reason for needing an unambiguous definition of brain death. As with all research on the frontiers of biomedicine, xenotransplantation raises its own ethical quandaries. One concern that has long occupied ethical thought is the degree to which advances in science and technology should control the boundaries between the human and the nonhuman. Might the dimming of a previously entrenched bright line between species entail negative consequences for concepts, such as human dignity and bodily integrity, that historically anchored the protection of both human and animal subjects in biomedical treatment and research? To date, ethical thinking about xenotransplantation, and about gene editing, has largely been left in the hands of scientists, subject only to loose supervision by institutional review boards and animal welfare committees whose remit may be too narrow to address age-old moral concerns.


Assuntos
Experimentação Animal/ética , Direitos dos Animais/normas , Bem-Estar do Animal , Transplante Heterólogo , Animais , Pesquisa Biomédica/ética , Pesquisa Biomédica/tendências , Humanos , Invenções/ética , Invenções/tendências , Princípios Morais , Transplante Heterólogo/ética , Transplante Heterólogo/métodos , Transplante Heterólogo/tendências
11.
Hastings Cent Rep ; 48(3): inside back cover, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29806902

RESUMO

Following a boom in investment and overinflated expectations in the 1980s, artificial intelligence entered a period of retrenchment known as the "AI winter." With advances in the field of machine learning and the availability of large datasets for training various types of artificial neural networks, AI is in another cycle of halcyon days. Although medicine is particularly recalcitrant to change, applications of AI in health care have professionals in fields like radiology worried about the future of their careers and have the public tittering about the prospect of soulless machines making life-and-death decisions. Medicine thus appears to be at an inflection point-a kind of Groundhog Day on which either AI will bring a springtime of improved diagnostic and predictive practices or the shadow of public and professional fear will lead to six more metaphorical weeks of winter in medical AI.


Assuntos
Inteligência Artificial/ética , Invenções/ética , Medicina/tendências , Humanos , Aprendizado de Máquina , Filosofia Médica
13.
Rev. bras. cir. plást ; 33(1): 115-118, jan.-mar. 2018. ilus
Artigo em Inglês, Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-883647

RESUMO

Os princípios para uma rinoplastia bem-sucedida incluem consulta e planejamento pré-operatório e uma análise clínica abrangente que defina as metas da cirurgia. Mais recentemente, a digitalização e a impressão doméstica em 3 dimensões tornaram-se disponíveis. O objetivo deste estudo é descrever um método de digitalização em 3 dimensões e de impressão doméstica da anatomia real do paciente para ser usada como ajuda intraoperatória. Nós apresentamos uma forma de uso desta tecnologia no transoperatório, auxiliando o cirurgião a comparar os resultados obtidos após suas manobras, verificar a sua adesão ao plano cirúrgico previamente estabelecido e melhorar a sua tomada de decisão durante a cirurgia. Em conclusão, a aplicação da impressão doméstica em 3 dimensões demonstra um efeito positivo sobre o tratamento de alterações estéticas do nariz.


The principles for a successful rhinoplasty include preoperative consultation and planning, as well as a comprehensive clinical analysis and defining rhinoplasty goals. Three-dimensional domestic scanning and printing have recently become available. We sought to objectively describe this method as an intraoperative aid in patients' anatomy. This method can be used trans-operatively to help surgeons compare the results of his or her technique, check adherence to the surgical plan, and improve his or her surgical decision-making. We found that the application of 3-dimensional printing had a positive effect on the treatment of patients with aesthetic nose disorders.


Assuntos
Humanos , História do Século XXI , Rinoplastia , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Interpretação de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Reconstrutivos , Imagem Tridimensional , Bioimpressão , Invenções , Rinoplastia/instrumentação , Rinoplastia/métodos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/instrumentação , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Interpretação de Imagem Assistida por Computador/instrumentação , Interpretação de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Reconstrutivos/métodos , Imagem Tridimensional/instrumentação , Imagem Tridimensional/métodos , Bioimpressão/instrumentação , Bioimpressão/métodos , Invenções/normas , Invenções/ética
15.
Neuron ; 97(2): 269-274, 2018 01 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29346750

RESUMO

Recent advances in military-funded neurotechnology and novel opportunities for misusing neurodevices show that the problem of dual use is inherent to neuroscience. This paper discusses how the neuroscience community should respond to these dilemmas and delineates a neuroscience-specific biosecurity framework. This neurosecurity framework involves calibrated regulation, (neuro)ethical guidelines, and awareness-raising activities within the scientific community.


Assuntos
Tecnologia Biomédica/ética , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Neurológico/ética , Pesquisa de Uso Dual/ética , Invenções/ética , Medicina Militar/ética , Neurociências/ética , Conflitos Armados , Tecnologia Biomédica/legislação & jurisprudência , Interfaces Cérebro-Computador , Segurança Computacional , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Neurológico/efeitos adversos , Pesquisa de Uso Dual/legislação & jurisprudência , Humanos , Invenções/legislação & jurisprudência , Detecção de Mentiras , Medicina Militar/legislação & jurisprudência , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/reabilitação , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/terapia , Neurociências/legislação & jurisprudência , Equipamentos de Autoajuda/efeitos adversos , Equipamentos de Autoajuda/ética , Terrorismo , Tortura
16.
OMICS ; 21(11): 658-664, 2017 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29083982

RESUMO

Science and its practice always had a subtext, subject to influence by scientists', funders', and other innovation actors' values and assumptions. The recent emergence of post-truth, authoritarian and populist penchants, in both developed and developing countries, has further blurred the already fluid boundaries between material scientific facts and their social construction/shaping by scientific subtext, human values, powers, and hegemony. While there are certain checks, balances, and oversight mechanisms for publication ethics, other pillars of science communication, most notably, scientific conferences and their governance, are ill prepared for post-truth science. Worrisomely, the proliferation of spam conferences is a major cause for concern for integrative biology and postgenomic science. The current gaps in conference ethics are important beyond science communication because conferences help build legitimacy of emerging technologies and frontiers of science and, thus, bestows upon the organizers, funders, enlisted scientific advisors, speakers, among others, power, which in turn needs to be checked. Denis Diderot (1713-1784), a prominent intellectual during the Enlightenment period, has aptly observed that the very act of organizing brings about power, influence, and control. If the subtext of conference practices is left unchecked, it can pave the way for hegemony, and yet more volatile and violent authoritarian governance systems in science and society. This begs for innovative solutions to increase accountability, resilience, and capacity of technology experts and scientists to discern and decode the subtext in science and its communication in the current post-truth world. We propose that the existing undergraduate and graduate programs in life and physical sciences and medicine could be redesigned to include a rotation for exposure to and training in political science. Such innovative PhD+ programs straddling technical and political science scholarship would best equip future students and citizens to grasp and respond to subtext and embedded opaque value and power systems in scientific practices in an increasingly post-truth world. Political science scholarship unpacks the inner workings, subtext, and power dynamics in science and society. Thus, knowledge of political science competency is akin to molecular biology in life sciences. Both make the invisible (e.g., cell biology versus subtext of knowledge) visible. The ability to read subtext in science and claims of post-truth knowledge is a new and essential form of societal literacy in 21st century science and integrative biology.


Assuntos
Congressos como Assunto/ética , Ciência/ética , Educação/tendências , Prova Pericial/ética , Humanos , Invenções/ética
18.
ANZ J Surg ; 87(11): 898-902, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28640984

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Increasingly complex, technically demanding surgical procedures utilizing emerging technologies have developed over recent decades and are recognized as having long 'learning curves'. This raises significant new issues. Ethically and scientifically, the outcome of a patient in the learning curve is as important as the outcome of a patient outside the learning curve. The aim of this study is to highlight just one aspect of our approach to learning-curve patients that should change. METHODS: The protocols of multicentre, prospective, randomized trials of patients undergoing either traditional open or laparoscopic surgery for colorectal cancer were reviewed. The number of patients excluded from the published trial results because they were in surgeons' learning curves was calculated. The seven editorials accompanying these publications were also examined for any mention of these patients. RESULTS: The eight studies identified had similar designs. All patients in the surgeons' laparoscopic learning curves, which were often several years long, were excluded from the actual trials. The total number of patients included in the trial publications was 5680. The number of patients excluded because they were in the surgeons' laparoscopic learning curves was >10 605. In none of the studies or accompanying editorials is there any mention of the total number of patients in the surgeons' learning curves, these patients' outcomes or how inclusion of their outcomes might have affected the overall results. CONCLUSION: Learning curves are inescapable in modern medicine. Our recognition of patients in these curves should evolve, with more data about them included in trial publications.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/cirurgia , Laparoscopia/métodos , Curva de Aprendizado , Cirurgiões/ética , Educação Médica Continuada , Humanos , Invenções/ética , Aprendizagem , Estudos Prospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
J Med Ethics ; 43(12): 819-823, 2017 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28473627

RESUMO

The ease and applicability of CRISPR/Cas9--a new and precise gene editing and reproductive technology--have garnered hype and heightened concern about its potential 'unprecedented and horrific consequences' and have led many scientific leaders to call for a moratorium on its research and use. CRISPR appears distinctly more controversial than previous technological innovations (genetic or otherwise), with a greater reach and speed of human treatment and enhancement; however, we have seen similarly inflated hopes and fears in response to other medical innovations for well over a century. One intervention that has both historically and recently incited alarm--vaccines--serves as a pertinent example of what could go wrong if a technology's reach is shortened due to inflated fears. By comparing the vaccine controversy and the CRISPR debate, we can help separate the hype from the realistic potential of these technologies. How our society grapples with such innovations will determine the extent to which their impact on our individual and collective health will be beneficial. We must recognise the need for a tempered approach to CRISPR conversation leading to regulation and ethical application. Although CRISPR's reach will continue expanding with ongoing research, thus requiring continuous evaluation, the lessons we have learned from the vaccine controversy demonstrate that our approach must not be to shut down regulation and application now, but to thoughtfully conjoin productive debate and action so that therapeutic gene editing can alleviate suffering as soon as possible without precipitating social outcomes we would belatedly deplore.


Assuntos
Repetições Palindrômicas Curtas Agrupadas e Regularmente Espaçadas , Dissidências e Disputas , Edição de Genes/ética , Melhoramento Genético/ética , Terapia Genética/ética , Opinião Pública , Vacinação/ética , Ética Médica , Medo , Edição de Genes/legislação & jurisprudência , Edição de Genes/métodos , Melhoramento Genético/legislação & jurisprudência , Melhoramento Genético/métodos , Terapia Genética/legislação & jurisprudência , Terapia Genética/métodos , Humanos , Invenções/ética , Invenções/legislação & jurisprudência , Controle Social Formal , Vacinação/legislação & jurisprudência , Vacinação/psicologia , Vacinas
20.
Psychiatr Danub ; 29 Suppl 1: 58-63, 2017 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28468022

RESUMO

Sociologists of the 19th and the 20th centuries were tackling the relation between science and religion. A few models of these relations were offered, by which the monopoly over the truth by any one of those is crashed. Therefore, there are a few models but each is with lots of limitations. None is sufficient to explain the relation between the science and religion, but each contributes to certain extent to better understanding of those relations. Almost every one of the interpretations was under the influence of the social (particularly ideological and political) conditions in which they were emerging. One of those could be named as "Riding on an old horse: there is no reconciliation between faith and reason". Is the enlightenment theory the source of a conflict between "faith" and "reason"? What is it that leads to the conflict of the science and religion? From rejection to acceptance - a view on Darwin's theory then and now. do creationist theories lead to exacerbation of relations between the science and religion? Postmodernism on the relation of science and religion. Stand views of religious communities - science and religion are not in conflict. Examples that confirm such opinion. Many priests and Islamic teachers have given their contributions to the development of science (technology, medicine, geography, architecture, urbanism, music etc.). Isn't it that the calendars, past (Egyptian, Chinese, Aztec etc.) and present (Hindu, Jewish, Islamic, Gregorian etc.) have come from the umbrella of religions. Are conflicts between science and religion the matter of the past? Disputes over use of drugs in rituals exist even today. Religion and science are autonomous fields - but where is the border between them? Technology and religions. How religions refer to technology. Examples of applications of technical achievements in religious activities. An ecological theory that is being developed within sociology of religion focuses on the relation of religions and religious communities toward nature. Contemporary dilemmas (ethic discussions within the field of biomedicine - euthanasia, abortion, organ donation, aesthetic surgery etc.).


Assuntos
Atitude , Compreensão , Religião e Ciência , Evolução Biológica , Compreensão/ética , Comparação Transcultural , Fenômenos Ecológicos e Ambientais , Humanos , Invenções/ética , Política
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA