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2.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0244083, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33370326

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The answer to this article lies in: Does the financial activities of physical enterprises have an adverse impact on their main business? Is it conducive to the sustainable development of the national economy? However, when most scholars study the impact of environmental regulations on companies performance, they have not classified companies performance. This article will study the relationship between environmental regulations and performance levels based on the classification of companies performance, and then divide the nature of industry pollution, companies location and nature of property for in-depth research. METHODS: First, this article uses a random effect variable-intercept model to measure companies financial performance and non-financial performance. Then, the variables are divided into two variable groups: light pollution and heavy pollution according to the nature of industry pollution. Next, the companies are divided into three variable groups: the eastern region, the central region, and the western region. Finally, the company is divided into two variable groups: state-owned and non-state-owned according to the nature of property. CONCLUSIONS: The study found that: (1) Environmental regulations have inhibited companies financial activities. And the inhibitory effect of environmental regulations on the financial performance of enterprises is more obvious in the heavily polluting industries and enterprises in central and eastern regions. (2) Environmental regulations and companies non-financial performance are also negatively related, environmental regulations have also inhibited the non-financial performance of companies, this effect is more pronounced in heavily polluting industries and enterprises in western regions. (3) Income crowding effect brought by China's environmental regulations is greater than the income compensation effect brought by stimulating technological innovation.


Assuntos
Comércio/legislação & jurisprudência , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/legislação & jurisprudência , Poluição Ambiental/prevenção & controle , Invenções/legislação & jurisprudência , Desenvolvimento Sustentável/legislação & jurisprudência , China , Comércio/economia , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/economia , Humanos , Invenções/economia , Desenvolvimento Sustentável/economia
5.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239265, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32931512

RESUMO

This study empirically examined the impact of financing innovation on technological innovation efficiency of select internet companies, that were affiliated with China between 2008 and 2017. Analysis was based on their patent and annual report data and used multiple input-output SFA model, system GMM, and panel fixed-effect model. The results are as follows. (1) There is significant variation in overall technological innovation efficiency of listed companies in the internet industry, and there is a downward trend. The technological innovation efficiency of business that use financing innovation methods is higher than those that do not. (2) The number of patents and intangible capital investment of internet businesses increase obviously every year, but there is no corresponding increase in the efficiency of technological innovation, and little intangible capital investment of non-financing innovation businesses. Thus, determining how to effectively improve the overall quality of patents and the efficiency of intangible capital investment is essential to improve the efficiency of technological innovation for Chinese internet businesses. (3) There is a term mismatch in the investment and financing of internet businesses in China. The financing structure between the financing innovation and non-financing innovation businesses has different impacts on the efficiency of technological innovation. And nowadays, more financing channels are short-term debt financing channels which invest in projects to improve the efficiency of technological innovation due to the pressure of debt repayment and the need to protect shareholders' interests. (4) In the panel regression, the coefficients of Icd and Roa are significantly negative, suggesting that the investment efficiency of internet businesses needs to be improved.


Assuntos
Financiamento de Capital/economia , Internet/economia , Invenções/economia , China , Comércio/economia , Humanos , Indústrias/economia , Investimentos em Saúde/economia
6.
J Nurs Adm ; 50(9): 462-467, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32826515

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to quantify the impact of electronic health record (EHR) workstation single sign-on (SSO) for nurses. BACKGROUND: SSO was implemented in 19 hospitals for expedited EHR access. METHODS: Login durations before and after SSO implementation were compared, and the financial value of nursing time liberated from keyboard was estimated. Stratified analyses show time liberated and financial value by staffing level and system size. RESULTS: First-of-shift login was reduced by 5.3 seconds (15.3%) and reconnect duration was reduced by 20.4 seconds (69.9%). SSO liberated 27,962.4 hours of nursing time from keyboard login per year across 19 facilities, and 1,471.7 hours/year/facility, valued at $52,112/facility and $990,128 for 19 hospitals. Time value ranges from $201,835 per year for a 5-hospital system with 300 nurses per facility to $672,790 per year for a 10-facility system with 500 nurses per hospital. CONCLUSIONS: Nurses gained substantial time liberated from EHR keyboard by SSO for patient care, having significant financial value for the organization.


Assuntos
Documentação/tendências , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Hospitais/estatística & dados numéricos , Invenções/economia , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde/economia , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde/organização & administração , Humanos , Assistência ao Paciente , Fatores de Tempo
7.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235828, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32649693

RESUMO

This study aims to explore the direct effect and spillover effect of innovation policy in the distribution and dynamic evolution of the regional innovation from the perspective of innovation motivation using the spatial econometric model. Substantive innovation and strategic innovation in one region could affect innovation in another region. In addition, the direct effect and spatial spillover effect of innovation policy could significantly affect innovation; however, they exert a higher impact on substantive innovation. Considering different policy tools, we found that government subsidies exert a significant positive impact on substantive innovation and strategic innovation, whereas financial institution loans exert a significant negative impact on substantive innovation and strategic innovation. And for the impact range, the government subsidies are higher than that of financial institution loans. Furthermore, this study reveals the leading environmental factors affecting regional innovation and provide a policy basis to promote the construction of an innovation-oriented country.


Assuntos
Invenções/economia , China , Financiamento Governamental , Humanos , Invenções/legislação & jurisprudência , Modelos Econométricos , Motivação
10.
Pan Afr Med J ; 35(Suppl 1): 15, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32373266

RESUMO

The recent setbacks in efforts to achieve measles elimination goals are alarming. To reverse the current trends, it is imperative that the global health community urgently intensify efforts and make resource commitments to implement evidence-based elimination strategies fully, including supporting research and innovations. The Immunization Agenda 2030: A Global Strategy to Leave No One Behind (IA2030) is the new global guidance document that builds on lessons learned and progress made toward the GVAP goals, includes research and innovation as a core strategic priority, and identifies measles as a "tracer" for improving immunisation services and strengthening primary health care systems. To achieve vaccination coverage and equity targets that leave no one behind, and accelerate progress toward disease eradication and elimination goals, sustained and predictable investments are needed for the identified research and innovations priorities for the new decade.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças/estatística & dados numéricos , Imunização/economia , Invenções/economia , Investimentos em Saúde , Sarampo/epidemiologia , Sarampo/prevenção & controle , Erradicação de Doenças/economia , Erradicação de Doenças/organização & administração , Erradicação de Doenças/normas , Surtos de Doenças/economia , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Obtenção de Fundos/métodos , Obtenção de Fundos/tendências , Saúde Global/economia , Saúde Global/normas , Saúde Global/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Imunização/métodos , Programas de Imunização/economia , Programas de Imunização/métodos , Programas de Imunização/organização & administração , Incidência , Invenções/tendências , Investimentos em Saúde/economia , Investimentos em Saúde/organização & administração , Investimentos em Saúde/tendências , Sarampo/economia , Vacina contra Sarampo/economia , Vacina contra Sarampo/uso terapêutico , Cobertura Vacinal/economia , Cobertura Vacinal/organização & administração , Cobertura Vacinal/normas
11.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0227593, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32294089

RESUMO

Genomic editing technologies are developing rapidly, promising significant developments for biomedicine, agriculture and other fields. In the present investigation, we analyzed and compared the process of innovation for six genomic technologies: viral vectors, RNAi, TALENs, meganucleases, ZFNs and CRISPR/Cas including the profile of the main research institutions and their funders, to understand how innovation evolved and what institutions influenced research trajectories. A Web of Science search of papers on viral vectors RNAi, CRISPR/Cas, TALENs, ZFNs and meganucleases was used to build a citation network of 16,746 papers. An analysis of network clustering combined with text mining was performed. For viral vectors, a long-term process of incremental innovation was identified, which was largely publicly funded in the United States and the European Union. The trajectory of RNAi research included clusters related to the study of RNAi as a biological phenomenon and its use in functional genomics, biomedicine and pest control. A British philanthropic organization and a US pharmaceutical company played a key role in the development of basic RNAi research and clinical application respectively, in addition to government and academic institutions. In the case of CRISPR/Cas research, basic science discoveries led to the technical improvements, and these two in turn provided the information required for the development of biomedical, agricultural, livestock and industrial applications. The trajectory of CRISPR/Cas research exhibits a geopolitical division of the investigation efforts between the US, as the main producer and funder of basic research and technical improvements, and Chinese research institutions increasingly leading applied research. Our results reflect a change in the model for financing science, with reduced public financing for basic science and applied research on publicly funded technological developments in the US, and the emergence of China as a scientific superpower, with implications for the development of applications of genomic technologies.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica/tendências , Tecnologia Biomédica/tendências , Organização do Financiamento/tendências , Edição de Genes/tendências , Invenções/tendências , Pesquisa Biomédica/economia , Pesquisa Biomédica/métodos , Pesquisa Biomédica/organização & administração , Tecnologia Biomédica/economia , Tecnologia Biomédica/métodos , Tecnologia Biomédica/organização & administração , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , China , Organização do Financiamento/economia , Organização do Financiamento/métodos , Edição de Genes/economia , Edição de Genes/métodos , Vetores Genéticos , Invenções/economia , Liderança , Política , Interferência de RNA , Estados Unidos , Vírus/genética
12.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0230805, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32214371

RESUMO

The innovation value chain is an effective tool for analysing innovation activities and reflects the process of value creation and increase in innovation activities. From the perspective of innovation value chains, we divided patent innovation activities into three stages: knowledge innovation stage, applied research stage and patent commercialization stage. The panel data from 64 universities directly managed by the Ministry of Education from 2009 to 2017 were used and several conclusions were drawn: 1) In the initial stage of knowledge innovation, the fundamental research fund plays a crucial promoting role, and knowledge innovation achievements are mainly published academic papers. 2) In the applied research stage, the knowledge innovation in the early stage and the fund investment in R&D activities have a significant positive effect on the patent output of universities, but the personnel investment has a negative effect. 3) In the final stage of patent commercialization, preliminary research results have a positive impact on patent commercialization, whose marginal effect depends on the industry-university-research relationship, external competition and reputation of the university. The evidence showed that there is a feedback channel between university patent commercialization and knowledge innovation, and new knowledge generated by the interaction with the outside world in the process of patent commercialization was transmitted to the subject of knowledge innovation through this channel, forming a virtuous dynamic cycle. By analysing the driving factors of the value chain of patent innovation in colleges and universities, we provided empirical evidence for the operation mechanism and policy formulation of college patents in China.


Assuntos
Invenções/economia , Patentes como Assunto , Universidades/economia , Pesquisa Biomédica/economia , China
13.
World Neurosurg ; 137: e395-e405, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32035202

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Historically, practicing neurosurgeons have been key drivers of neurosurgical innovation. We sought to describe the patents held by U.S. academic neurosurgeons and to explore the relationship between patents and royalties received. METHODS: The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid CMS Open Payments Data was used to identify academic neurosurgeons who had received royalties and royalty amounts during a 5-year period (2013-2017). Online patent databases were used to gather patent details. Patent citations and 5-year individual and departmental patent Hirsch (h)-indexes were calculated. Royalties were correlated with the number of patents, patent citations, and patent h-index. RESULTS: We found that 119 academic neurosurgeons (7.8%) from 57 U.S. teaching programs (48.3%) had received royalty payments; 72 (60.5%) had published 648 patents. All surgeons were men, with approximately one half in the "late" stages of their career (45.3%) and subspecializing in spinal surgery (50.4%). The patented products or devices were most commonly used for spinal surgery (72.1%), with 2010-2019 the most productive period (n = 455; 70.2%). The median number of citations per patent was 32 (range, 0-620), with 33% having ≥100 citations. The highest individual and institutional patent h-index was 95; 25 (34.7%) neurosurgeons had a patent h-index of ≥5. The median total royalty payment per individual neurosurgeon was $111,011 (range, $58.05-$76,715,750.34). Royalties were correlated with the number of patents (Spearman r = 0.37; P ≤ 0.001), citations (Spearman r, 0.38; P ≤ 0.001), and inventor h-index (Spearman r = 0.38; P ≤ 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Few U.S. academic neurosurgeons (7.8%) receive royalties and hold patents (4.7%), with an even smaller select group having a patent h-index of ≥5 (1.6%).


Assuntos
Invenções/economia , Invenções/estatística & dados numéricos , Neurocirurgiões , Neurocirurgia , Patentes como Assunto/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Estados Unidos
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31947558

RESUMO

Medical innovation has consistently been an essential subject and a source of support for public health research. Furthermore, improving the level of medical research and development is of great concern in this field. This paper highlights the role of big data in public medical innovation. Based on a sample of China's listed firms in the medical industry from 2013 to 2018, this paper explores the exogenous shock effect of China's big data medical policy. Results show that the construction of the medical big data platform effectively promotes innovation investment and the innovation patent of medical firms. In addition, the heterogeneity of this promoting effect is reflected in firm size through the overcoming of different innovation bottlenecks. The research conclusions support the positive significance of the macro-led implementation of the medical big data platform, and suggest that the positive economic externalities generated by this policy are critical to public health.


Assuntos
Big Data , Invenções/estatística & dados numéricos , Investimentos em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde Pública/métodos , Invenções/economia , Saúde Pública/estatística & dados numéricos
15.
PLoS One ; 14(10): e0223175, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31589643

RESUMO

There is few significant attempt to integrate environmental regulation, government financial support, and corporate technological innovation in a methodological framework. Employing the data of the industrial enterprises with an annual turnover of over 20 million yuan from 30 Chinese provinces or municipalities between 2008 and 2016, this paper applies the fixed effect regression model to reveal the relationships between environmental regulation, government financial support, and corporate technological innovation simultaneously. Results show that: (1) there exists a U-shaped relation between environmental regulation intensity and technological innovation of enterprises which declines first and then climbs up, and China is still at the stage of inhibition before the "inflection point". (2) government financial support does not significantly work on technological innovation directly, but environmental regulation drives this effect to be achieved; when the value of lnER is higher than 3.69, government financial support can significantly facilitate corporate technological innovation. (3) the comparison between regional samples reveals that heterogeneity exists in the influence of environmental regulation intensity and government financial support on corporate technological innovation. The threshold value of enabling effects of environmental regulation in eastern region is higher than that of the central and western region. These results remain consistent after we experiment several robustness checks. Theory and policy implications of our work are discussed.


Assuntos
Meio Ambiente , Invenções , Controle Social Formal , China , Poluição Ambiental/economia , Poluição Ambiental/prevenção & controle , Apoio Financeiro , Governo , Invenções/economia , Investimentos em Saúde , Modelos Econométricos , Patentes como Assunto , Análise de Regressão , Pesquisa/economia
16.
Rev Epidemiol Sante Publique ; 67(6): 361-368, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31662284

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Activity-based Funding can induce financial imbalances for health institutions if innovative medical devices (MD) used to perform acts are included in Diagnosis Related Groups (DRG) tariff. To be reimbursed in addition to the DRG tariff, innovative MD must have received a favorable evaluation by the French National Authority for Health (Haute Autorité de Santé) and be registered on the positive list. The aim of this study was to evaluate the expenses and incomes generated by each scenario (before and after the reimbursement of MD), and the financial reports. This study concerned the management of ischemic stroke by mechanical thrombectomy devices, in high-volume French hospital. METHODS: All patients who have had an acute ischemic stroke and admitted to the interventional neuroradiology unit between January 2016 and December 2017 were included retrospectively in this monocentric study. They were divided into four subgroups based on the severity of the DRG. The cost study was carried out using the French National Cost Study Methodology adjusted for the duration of the stays and by micro-costing on MD. RESULTS: A total of 267 patients were included. Over the study period, the average cost of the hospital stay was €10,492±6364 for a refund of €9838±6749 per patient. The acts performed became profitable once the MD were registered on the positive list (€-1017±3551 vs. €560±2671; P<0.05). Despite this reimbursement, this activity remained in deficit for DRG lowest severity (level 1) patients (€-492±1244). Specific MD used for mechanical thrombectomy represented 37% of the total cost of stay. CONCLUSION: The time required to evaluate MD reimbursement files is too long compared to their development. As a result, practitioners are in difficulty to be able to carry out acts according to the consensual practices of their learned societies, without causing any financial deficit of their institutions.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica/terapia , Equipamentos e Provisões/economia , Invenções/economia , Trombólise Mecânica , Saúde Pública/economia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/terapia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Isquemia Encefálica/complicações , Isquemia Encefálica/economia , Isquemia Encefálica/epidemiologia , Análise Custo-Benefício , Feminino , França/epidemiologia , Humanos , Reembolso de Seguro de Saúde/economia , Invenções/tendências , Tempo de Internação/economia , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Trombólise Mecânica/economia , Trombólise Mecânica/instrumentação , Trombólise Mecânica/tendências , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Saúde Pública/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde Pública/tendências , Estudos Retrospectivos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/economia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Trombectomia/economia , Trombectomia/instrumentação , Trombectomia/tendências
17.
Can J Surg ; 62(5): 294-299, 2019 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31550090

RESUMO

Background: In Canada, health care is covered by provincial health insurance programs; patients do not directly participate in paying for their acute care expenses. The aim of this study is to assess the willingness of Canadian patients to contribute to the costs of novel total joint arthroplasty implants. Methods: We administered a questionnaire to patients attending an outpatient arthroplasty clinic in Ontario. In the questionnaire, the longevity and risk of complications of a "standard" implant were described. We asked if participants would be willing to contribute to the cost of 3 novel implants that had differing longevities and risks of complications compared with the standard implant. Results: One hundred and fifteen patients completed our questionnaire. Up to 62% of patients were willing to contribute a copayment to get an implant with greater longevity. Willingness to pay decreased to 40% for an implant with greater longevity but an increased risk of complications. Forty percent of participants were willing to pay for an implant with the same longevity as the standard implant but a decreased risk of complications. Participants with a higher income were more willing than other participants to contribute to the cost of a novel implant with greater longevity or lower complication rates. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that up to 62% of our sample of patients in Ontario were willing to share the costs of a novel total joint replacement implant. Willingness to pay was associated with the proposed benefits of the implant and certain patient characteristics. Our study shows that a high proportion of Canadian patients may be willing to copay to have access to new technologies.


Assuntos
Artroplastia de Quadril/instrumentação , Artroplastia do Joelho/instrumentação , Gastos em Saúde , Prótese Articular/economia , Preferência do Paciente/economia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Artroplastia de Quadril/economia , Artroplastia do Joelho/economia , Tecnologia Biomédica/economia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Seguro Saúde , Invenções/economia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ontário , Preferência do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Sistema de Fonte Pagadora Única/economia , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
19.
Cien Saude Colet ; 24(6): 2211-2220, 2019 Jun 27.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31269180

RESUMO

This article analyzes the profile of research conducted in the Federal District of Brazil funded through public calls for proposals issued by the Research for the SUS Program: shared health management/Federal District (PPSUS/DF) and a research support program run by the Superior School of Health Sciences, maintained by the Health Sciences Teaching and Research Foundation (ESCS/FEPECS, acronym in Portuguese). A document analysis was undertaken of all research funded by the PPSUS/DF and ESCS/FEPECS's Research Support Program between 2008 and 2017 using the following variables: year, title, research themes of the National Agenda for Health Research Priorities (ANPPS, acronym in Portuguese), implementing organization, area of application of research, and amount of funding. PPSUS/DF funded 73 projects with a total investment of approximately R$8 million, while ESCS/FEPECS funded 85 projects with a total investment of R$2.3 million. This study provides a critical analysis of the research themes supported by ESCS/FEPECS and PPSUS/DF between 2008 and 2017. It is recommended that future calls for proposals should prioritize the three leading causes of death in the Federal District and the organization and evaluation of healthcare services.


Assuntos
Tecnologia Biomédica/economia , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde/organização & administração , Programas Nacionais de Saúde/organização & administração , Brasil , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde/economia , Humanos , Invenções/economia , Programas Nacionais de Saúde/economia , Apoio à Pesquisa como Assunto
20.
PLoS One ; 14(6): e0217250, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31188841

RESUMO

This paper aims to demonstrate the impact of coal enterprises' vertical integration on the performance of innovation corporate social responsibility (ICSR) and to elaborate its specific transmission path through financing structure and market power. This paper takes the data of A-share listed coal company from 2008 to 2017 as samples, uses input-output table method to measure the degree of vertical integration, and explores the relationship between the four factors through multiple linear regression and Bootstrap method. We found that: (1) the vertical integration of coal enterprises has positive incentives for the promotion of ICSR. (2) Financing structure and market power play a chain intermediary role in this process of incentive. (3) In areas with high marketization process, vertical integration has more significant incentive effect on ICSR. The paper extends the research on the relationship between vertical integration and innovation, which provides a reference for the improvement of China's supply-side reform and corporate social responsibility (CSR) fulfillment policy. It is helpful to promote the sustainable development of the coal industry, stimulate the innovation vitality of enterprises, and improve the fulfillment of CSR.


Assuntos
Indústria do Carvão Mineral/organização & administração , Invenções/economia , Responsabilidade Social , China , Modelos Econômicos
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