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1.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0234880, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32645050

RESUMO

This paper introduces a measure of the proximity in ideas using unsupervised machine learning. Knowledge transfers are considered a key driving force of innovation and regional economic growth. I explore knowledge relationships by deriving vector space representations of a patent's abstract text using Document Vectors (Doc2Vec), and using cosine similarity to measure their proximity in ideas space. I illustrate the potential uses of this method with an application to geographic localization in knowledge spillovers. For patents in the same technology field, their normalized text similarity is 0.02-0.05 S.D.s higher if they are located within the same city, compared to patents from other cities. This effect is much smaller than when knowledge transfers are measured using normalized patent citations: local patents receive about 0.23-0.30 S.D.s more local citations than compared to non-local control patents. These findings suggest that the effect of geography on knowledge transfers may be much smaller than the previous literature using citations suggests.


Assuntos
Disseminação de Informação/história , Invenções/tendências , Patentes como Assunto/história , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Conhecimento , Idioma , Aprendizado de Máquina , Modelos Estatísticos , Semântica , Aprendizado de Máquina não Supervisionado
2.
Br J Radiol ; 93(1111): 20200113, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32496816

RESUMO

MRI developed during the last half-century from a very basic concept to an indispensable non-ionising medical imaging technique that has found broad application in diagnostics, therapy control and far beyond. Due to its excellent soft-tissue contrast and the huge variety of accessible tissue- and physiological-parameters, MRI is often preferred to other existing modalities. In the course of its development, MRI underwent many substantial transformations. From the beginning, starting as a proof of concept, much effort was expended to develop the appropriate basic scanning technology and methodology, and to establish the many clinical contrasts (e.g., T1, T2, flow, diffusion, water/fat, etc.) that MRI is famous for today. Beyond that, additional prominent innovations to the field have been parallel imaging and compressed sensing, leading to significant scanning time reductions, and the move towards higher static magnetic field strengths, which led to increased sensitivity and improved image quality. Improvements in workflow and the use of artificial intelligence are among many current trends seen in this field, paving the way for a broad use of MRI. The 125th anniversary of the BJR is a good point to reflect on all these changes and developments and to offer some slightly speculative ideas as to what the future may bring.


Assuntos
Invenções/tendências , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/tendências , Inteligência Artificial/tendências , Meios de Contraste , Aprendizado Profundo/tendências , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/instrumentação , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Magnetismo , Fluxo de Trabalho
4.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0233278, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32437383

RESUMO

The innovation of a particular company benefits the whole industry when innovation technology transfers to others. Similarly, the development and innovation in internet companies influence the development and innovation of the industry. This investigation has applied a unique approach of meta-frontier analysis to estimate and analyze the innovation in internet companies in China. A unique dataset of Chinese internet companies from 2000 to 2017 has been utilized to estimate and compare the innovation over the period of study. The change in technology gap ratio (TGR) and a shift in production function have translated into innovation which was overlooked by previous studies. It is found that the production function of internet companies is moving upward in the presence of external factors such as smartphones invention, mobile internet, mobile payments, and artificial intelligence, etc. Consequently, a sudden increase in TGR is captured due to the innovation of some companies. Hence, the average TE of the industry falls caused by the increased distance of other companies form industry production function. However, the innovation advantage defused when other companies start imitating and the average TE elevates. A steady increase in the TGR index revealed that the continuous innovation-based growth of some companies lifting the production frontier upward. This provides the opportunity for other companies to imitate and provides continuous growth in the industry. This study provides a novel methodological approach to measure innovation and also provide practical implication by empirical estimation of innovation in Chinese internet companies.


Assuntos
Tecnologia da Informação/tendências , Internet/tendências , Invenções/tendências , China , Tecnologia da Informação/estatística & dados numéricos , Internet/estatística & dados numéricos , Invenções/estatística & dados numéricos
6.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(17): 9284-9291, 2020 04 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32291335

RESUMO

Prior work finds a diversity paradox: Diversity breeds innovation, yet underrepresented groups that diversify organizations have less successful careers within them. Does the diversity paradox hold for scientists as well? We study this by utilizing a near-complete population of ∼1.2 million US doctoral recipients from 1977 to 2015 and following their careers into publishing and faculty positions. We use text analysis and machine learning to answer a series of questions: How do we detect scientific innovations? Are underrepresented groups more likely to generate scientific innovations? And are the innovations of underrepresented groups adopted and rewarded? Our analyses show that underrepresented groups produce higher rates of scientific novelty. However, their novel contributions are devalued and discounted: For example, novel contributions by gender and racial minorities are taken up by other scholars at lower rates than novel contributions by gender and racial majorities, and equally impactful contributions of gender and racial minorities are less likely to result in successful scientific careers than for majority groups. These results suggest there may be unwarranted reproduction of stratification in academic careers that discounts diversity's role in innovation and partly explains the underrepresentation of some groups in academia.


Assuntos
Invenções/tendências , Grupos Minoritários/educação , Grupos Minoritários/psicologia , Grupos de Populações Continentais/educação , Grupos de Populações Continentais/psicologia , Diversidade Cultural , Docentes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Racismo/economia , Racismo/psicologia , Ciência , Comportamento Social
7.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0227593, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32294089

RESUMO

Genomic editing technologies are developing rapidly, promising significant developments for biomedicine, agriculture and other fields. In the present investigation, we analyzed and compared the process of innovation for six genomic technologies: viral vectors, RNAi, TALENs, meganucleases, ZFNs and CRISPR/Cas including the profile of the main research institutions and their funders, to understand how innovation evolved and what institutions influenced research trajectories. A Web of Science search of papers on viral vectors RNAi, CRISPR/Cas, TALENs, ZFNs and meganucleases was used to build a citation network of 16,746 papers. An analysis of network clustering combined with text mining was performed. For viral vectors, a long-term process of incremental innovation was identified, which was largely publicly funded in the United States and the European Union. The trajectory of RNAi research included clusters related to the study of RNAi as a biological phenomenon and its use in functional genomics, biomedicine and pest control. A British philanthropic organization and a US pharmaceutical company played a key role in the development of basic RNAi research and clinical application respectively, in addition to government and academic institutions. In the case of CRISPR/Cas research, basic science discoveries led to the technical improvements, and these two in turn provided the information required for the development of biomedical, agricultural, livestock and industrial applications. The trajectory of CRISPR/Cas research exhibits a geopolitical division of the investigation efforts between the US, as the main producer and funder of basic research and technical improvements, and Chinese research institutions increasingly leading applied research. Our results reflect a change in the model for financing science, with reduced public financing for basic science and applied research on publicly funded technological developments in the US, and the emergence of China as a scientific superpower, with implications for the development of applications of genomic technologies.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica/tendências , Tecnologia Biomédica/tendências , Organização do Financiamento/tendências , Edição de Genes/tendências , Invenções/tendências , Pesquisa Biomédica/economia , Pesquisa Biomédica/métodos , Pesquisa Biomédica/organização & administração , Tecnologia Biomédica/economia , Tecnologia Biomédica/métodos , Tecnologia Biomédica/organização & administração , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , China , Organização do Financiamento/economia , Organização do Financiamento/métodos , Edição de Genes/economia , Edição de Genes/métodos , Vetores Genéticos , Invenções/economia , Liderança , Política , Interferência de RNA , Estados Unidos , Vírus/genética
8.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 31(6): 573-575, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32064797

RESUMO

Schistosomiasis was once hyper-endemic in Jiangsu Province. During the past seven decades, the professionals working in schistosomiasis control from Jiangsu Province insisted on scientific and precision control all the time, created a series of replicable and generalizable "Jiangsu experiences". These practices have developed a number of tools and approaches that have been employed in schistosomiasis control programs in main endemic foci of China. More importantly, the successful experiences from national schistosomiasis control programs of China have been firstly transferred to Africa by professionals from Jiangsu Province, and remarkable achievements have been obtained for the control of schistosomiasis haematobia in Zanzibar.


Assuntos
Erradicação de Doenças , Invenções , Esquistossomose Urinária , China , Erradicação de Doenças/tendências , Humanos , Invenções/tendências , Esquistossomose Urinária/prevenção & controle
9.
Neuron ; 105(3): 413-415, 2020 02 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32027832

RESUMO

An international group of researchers met in November 2019 in Beijing to explore the intersection of neuroscience and AI. The aim was to offer a fertile ground for stimulating discussions and ideas, including issues such as policy making and the future of neuroscience and AI across the globe.


Assuntos
Inteligência Artificial/tendências , Congressos como Assunto/tendências , Inteligência/fisiologia , Invenções/tendências , Pequim , Humanos , Neurociências/métodos , Neurociências/tendências
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31817253

RESUMO

The extensive use of antimicrobials in animal farms poses serious safety hazards to both the environment and public health, and this trend is likely to continue. Antimicrobial resistance genes (ARGs) are a class of emerging pollutants that are difficult to remove once introduced. Understanding the environmental transfer of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria (ARB) and ARGs is pivotal for creating control measures. In this review, we summarize the research progress on the spread and detection of ARB and ARG pollution related to animal husbandry. Molecular methods such as high-throughput sequencing have greatly enriched the information about ARB communities. However, it remains challenging to delineate mechanisms regarding ARG induction, transmission, and tempo-spatial changes in the whole process, from animal husbandry to multiple ecosystems. As a result, future research should be more focused on the mechanisms of ARG induction, transmission, and control. We also expect that future research will rely more heavily on metagenomic -analysis, metatranscriptomic sequencing, and multi-omics technologies.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bactérias/genética , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Genes Bacterianos/efeitos dos fármacos , Invenções/tendências , Projetos de Pesquisa/tendências , Animais , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/efeitos dos fármacos , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Metagenômica/métodos , Metagenômica/tendências
12.
Nurs Forum ; 54(4): 707-713, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31667848

RESUMO

A 2-year long, multisite research study that evaluated cardiopulmonary resuscitation skill decay among nursing students was conducted at 10 schools of nursing across the United States. The study was conducted in two phases and required carefully timed sessions for skill performance. Multisite studies in nursing education need to be carefully planned. Time delays should be anticipated with processes and Institutional Review Board protocols across sites. All team members were trained and consistently supported during the entire study. While challenges and obstacles were identified, innovative solutions were implemented that assisted the research team to successfully complete the study. The use of new and existing technology allowed the team to surmount many of the challenges encountered in this study. The purpose of this article is to describe the logistics, processes, challenges, and lessons learned related to conducting a complex multisite study.


Assuntos
Invenções/tendências , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto/métodos , Técnicas de Planejamento , Comportamento Cooperativo , Humanos , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto/psicologia , Estados Unidos
13.
IET Nanobiotechnol ; 13(7): 651-664, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31573533

RESUMO

By integrating organic parts achieved through evolution and inorganic parts developed by human civilisation, the cyborg microrobot is rising by taking advantage of the high flexibility, outstanding energy efficiency, extremely exquisite structure in the natural components and the fine upgradability, nice controllability in the artefact parts. Compared to the purely synthetic microrobots, the cyborg microrobots, due to the exceptional biocompatibility and biodegradability, have already been utilised in in situ diagnosis, precise therapy and other biomedical applications. In this review, through a thorough summary of recent advances of cyborg microrobots, the authors categorise the cyborg microrobots into four major classes according to the configuration between biomaterials and artefact materials, i.e. microrobots integrated inside living cell, microrobots modified with biological debris, microrobots integrated with single cell and microrobots incorporated with multiple cells. Cyborg microrobots with the four types of configurations are introduced and summarised with the combination approaches, actuation mechanisms, applications and challenges one by one. Moreover, they conduct a comparison among the four different cyborg microrobots to guide the actuation force promotion, locomotion control refinement and future applications. Finally, conclusions and future outlook of the development and potential applications of the cyborg microrobots are discussed.


Assuntos
Cibernética/instrumentação , Invenções/tendências , Microtecnologia/instrumentação , Robótica/instrumentação , Tecnologia Biomédica/instrumentação , Tecnologia Biomédica/métodos , Tecnologia Biomédica/tendências , Desenho de Equipamento , Humanos , Microtecnologia/métodos
14.
Rev Epidemiol Sante Publique ; 67(6): 361-368, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31662284

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Activity-based Funding can induce financial imbalances for health institutions if innovative medical devices (MD) used to perform acts are included in Diagnosis Related Groups (DRG) tariff. To be reimbursed in addition to the DRG tariff, innovative MD must have received a favorable evaluation by the French National Authority for Health (Haute Autorité de Santé) and be registered on the positive list. The aim of this study was to evaluate the expenses and incomes generated by each scenario (before and after the reimbursement of MD), and the financial reports. This study concerned the management of ischemic stroke by mechanical thrombectomy devices, in high-volume French hospital. METHODS: All patients who have had an acute ischemic stroke and admitted to the interventional neuroradiology unit between January 2016 and December 2017 were included retrospectively in this monocentric study. They were divided into four subgroups based on the severity of the DRG. The cost study was carried out using the French National Cost Study Methodology adjusted for the duration of the stays and by micro-costing on MD. RESULTS: A total of 267 patients were included. Over the study period, the average cost of the hospital stay was €10,492±6364 for a refund of €9838±6749 per patient. The acts performed became profitable once the MD were registered on the positive list (€-1017±3551 vs. €560±2671; P<0.05). Despite this reimbursement, this activity remained in deficit for DRG lowest severity (level 1) patients (€-492±1244). Specific MD used for mechanical thrombectomy represented 37% of the total cost of stay. CONCLUSION: The time required to evaluate MD reimbursement files is too long compared to their development. As a result, practitioners are in difficulty to be able to carry out acts according to the consensual practices of their learned societies, without causing any financial deficit of their institutions.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica/terapia , Equipamentos e Provisões/economia , Invenções/economia , Trombólise Mecânica , Saúde Pública/economia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/terapia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Isquemia Encefálica/complicações , Isquemia Encefálica/economia , Isquemia Encefálica/epidemiologia , Análise Custo-Benefício , Feminino , França/epidemiologia , Humanos , Reembolso de Seguro de Saúde/economia , Invenções/tendências , Tempo de Internação/economia , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Trombólise Mecânica/economia , Trombólise Mecânica/instrumentação , Trombólise Mecânica/tendências , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Saúde Pública/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde Pública/tendências , Estudos Retrospectivos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/economia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Trombectomia/economia , Trombectomia/instrumentação , Trombectomia/tendências
15.
Nurs Adm Q ; 43(4): 329-332, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31479053

RESUMO

Health care costs are growing exponentially. They will continue to erode disposable income, especially among those most in need of health care-the poor and elderly. As the baby boomer generation ages, we will see dramatic growth in health care spending, which will influence the health care market in new ways. Increased government intervention and technological advancements will only further this shift. Factors driving the need for health care transformation include fragmentation, access problems, unsustainable costs, suboptimal outcomes, and disparities of care. Nurses now have more tools (ie, mHealth, telemedicine, and electronic health records) that they can use to provide assistance to their practices outside of acute care settings. These realities are all contributors to an evolving trend: retail health.


Assuntos
Invenções/tendências , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde/tendências , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde/tendências , Humanos , Telemedicina/métodos , Telemedicina/tendências
16.
Work ; 64(2): 249-270, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31524193

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Science, technology and innovation (STI) governance concerns itself with the societal impact of STI. Occupation, whether used with the meaning of paid, unpaid work or any activity that is considered meaningful to the individual on an everyday basis, is one area of societal impact of STI. Fields such as occupational therapy, occupational science and occupational health and safety concern themselves with the relationship between occupation and the health and well-being of human beings albeit all with different foci. OBJECTIVE: To ascertain the knowledge of students from two Occupational Therapy programs on STI governance, specific STI products and their views on the impact of STI governance and STI products on occupational therapy and its clients. METHODS: Online survey employing Yes/No' questions with comment boxes and open-ended textbox questions. Descriptive quantitative and thematic qualitative data was generated. RESULTS: Students were unfamiliar with STI governance discourses but felt that they should be aware of them. Students stated that how one governs STI impacts occupational therapy on all levels and that the occupational therapy community has expertise that would enrich STI governance discourses around occupation. CONCLUSION: Education actions seem to be warranted on the level of students and practitioners by the occupational therapy and STI governance communities.


Assuntos
Educação Profissionalizante/métodos , Invenções/tendências , Terapeutas Ocupacionais/psicologia , Educação Profissionalizante/tendências , Humanos , Terapeutas Ocupacionais/educação , Terapia Ocupacional/educação , Inquéritos e Questionários
17.
Int J Pharm ; 571: 118697, 2019 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31526839

RESUMO

The improvement of mucoadhesive buccal formulations has attracted profound interest in recent years. Drug permeability and controlled drug release via this route of administration are still a concern for effective therapy, although various strategies have been proposed. Advanced developments in nanotechnology have been investigated with promising clinical applications. The incorporation of nanoparticles in dosage forms for buccal delivery not only ensures efficient delivery but also reduces side effects to biological systems. Many approaches have been suggested to load and deliver nanoparticles containing drugs to the buccal mucosa both in topical and systemic administrations. This paper describes recent advanced concepts to include nanoparticles in dosage forms with improving drug delivery or targeting. The classification and discussion of these technologies are aimed at providing an overview of current strategies for applying controlled drug delivery. All remarkable findings will encourage innovative nanoparticle-delivered dosage forms for buccal delivery in clinical applications.


Assuntos
Preparações de Ação Retardada/administração & dosagem , Portadores de Fármacos/química , Desenvolvimento de Medicamentos/tendências , Mucosa Bucal/metabolismo , Nanopartículas/química , Adesividade , Administração Bucal , Animais , Preparações de Ação Retardada/farmacocinética , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos , Humanos , Invenções/tendências , Modelos Animais , Solubilidade
18.
PLoS One ; 14(9): e0222165, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31560691

RESUMO

Open data science and algorithm development competitions offer a unique avenue for rapid discovery of better computational strategies. We highlight three examples in computational biology and bioinformatics research in which the use of competitions has yielded significant performance gains over established algorithms. These include algorithms for antibody clustering, imputing gene expression data, and querying the Connectivity Map (CMap). Performance gains are evaluated quantitatively using realistic, albeit sanitized, data sets. The solutions produced through these competitions are then examined with respect to their utility and the prospects for implementation in the field. We present the decision process and competition design considerations that lead to these successful outcomes as a model for researchers who want to use competitions and non-domain crowds as collaborators to further their research.


Assuntos
Biologia Computacional/tendências , Algoritmos , Anticorpos/classificação , Anticorpos/genética , Análise por Conglomerados , Crowdsourcing/tendências , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Invenções/tendências
20.
World J Gastroenterol ; 25(27): 3538-3545, 2019 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31367155

RESUMO

The advent of video capsule endoscopy into clinical routine more than 15 years ago led to a substantial change in the diagnostic approach to patients with suspected small bowel diseases, often indicating a deep enteroscopy procedure for diagnostical confirmation or endoscopic treatment. Device assisted enteroscopy was developed in 2001 and for the first time established a practicable, safe and effective method for evaluation of the small bowel. Currently with double-balloon enteroscopy, single-balloon enteroscopy and spiral enteroscopy three different platforms are available in clinical routine. Summarizing, double-balloon enteroscopy seems to offer the deepest insertion depth to the small bowel going hand in hand with the disadvantage of a longer procedural duration. Manual spiral enteroscopy seems to be a faster procedure but without reaching the depth of the DBE in currently available data. Finally, single-balloon enteroscopy seems to be the least complicated procedure to perform. Despite substantial improvements in the field of direct enteroscopy, even nowadays deep endoscopic access to the small bowel with all available methods is still a complex procedure, cumbersome and time-consuming and requires high endoscopic skills. This review will give an overview of the currently available techniques and will further discuss the role of the upcoming new technology of the motorized spiral enteroscopy (PowerSpiral).


Assuntos
Enteroscopia de Balão/instrumentação , Endoscopia por Cápsula/instrumentação , Endoscópios Gastrointestinais , Enteropatias/diagnóstico por imagem , Enteroscopia de Balão/efeitos adversos , Enteroscopia de Balão/métodos , Tecnologia Biomédica/tendências , Endoscopia por Cápsula/efeitos adversos , Endoscopia por Cápsula/métodos , Humanos , Enteropatias/cirurgia , Intestino Delgado/diagnóstico por imagem , Intestino Delgado/cirurgia , Invenções/tendências
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