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1.
Development ; 148(12)2021 06 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34170290

RESUMO

The third 'Symposium for the Next Generation of Stem Cell Research' (SY-Stem) was held virtually on 3-5 March 2021, having been cancelled in 2020 due to the COVID-19 pandemic. As in previous years, the meeting highlighted the work of early career researchers, ranging from postgraduate students to young group leaders working in developmental and stem cell biology. Here, we summarize the excellent work presented at the Symposium, which covered topics ranging from pluripotency, species-specific aspects of development and emerging technologies, through to organoids, single-cell technology and clinical applications.


Assuntos
Congressos como Assunto/organização & administração , Invenções/tendências , Pesquisa com Células-Tronco , Animais , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Diferenciação Celular , Congressos como Assunto/história , Congressos como Assunto/tendências , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Internet , Invenções/história , Sistemas On-Line , Pandemias , Análise de Célula Única/métodos , Análise de Célula Única/tendências , Pesquisa com Células-Tronco/história , Células-Tronco/fisiologia , Técnicas de Cultura de Tecidos/métodos , Técnicas de Cultura de Tecidos/tendências
2.
J Nurs Adm ; 51(6): 304-306, 2021 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34006801

RESUMO

The COVID pandemic generated unparalleled operational disruption. C-suites and chief nurse executives responded to create capacity and clinical readiness despite enormous uncertainty. Innovations were put in place to combat the care crisis; however, is there merit in continuing these innovations as the pandemic subsides? Examining highly impactful operational innovations that were rapidly implemented during the pandemic should be prioritized as organizations seek to establish their new normal.


Assuntos
COVID-19/terapia , Atenção à Saúde/tendências , Invenções/tendências , Atenção à Saúde/métodos , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle
3.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0249071, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33793626

RESUMO

Evidence-based STI (science, technology, and innovation) policy making requires accurate indicators of innovation in order to promote economic growth. However, traditional indicators from patents and questionnaire-based surveys often lack coverage, granularity as well as timeliness and may involve high data collection costs, especially when conducted at a large scale. Consequently, they struggle to provide policy makers and scientists with the full picture of the current state of the innovation system. In this paper, we propose a first approach on generating web-based innovation indicators which may have the potential to overcome some of the shortcomings of traditional indicators. Specifically, we develop a method to identify product innovator firms at a large scale and very low costs. We use traditional firm-level indicators from a questionnaire-based innovation survey (German Community Innovation Survey) to train an artificial neural network classification model on labelled (product innovator/no product innovator) web texts of surveyed firms. Subsequently, we apply this classification model to the web texts of hundreds of thousands of firms in Germany to predict whether they are product innovators or not. We then compare these predictions to firm-level patent statistics, survey extrapolation benchmark data, and regional innovation indicators. The results show that our approach produces reliable predictions and has the potential to be a valuable and highly cost-efficient addition to the existing set of innovation indicators, especially due to its coverage and regional granularity.


Assuntos
Aprendizado Profundo/tendências , Medicina Baseada em Evidências/tendências , Invenções/tendências , Ciência/tendências , Alemanha , Humanos , Internet/tendências , Inquéritos e Questionários , Tecnologia/tendências
5.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0249124, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33826637

RESUMO

In the rapidly changing high-tech industry, firms that produce multi-generational products struggle to consistently introduce new products that are superior in innovativeness. However, developing innovative products in a short time sequence period is likely to cause quality problems. Therefore, considering time and resource constraints, two kinds of strategies are commonly employed: sequential innovation strategy, sequentially introducing a new generation of technology product at every launch interval, ensuring timely innovativeness but with relatively uncertain quality, or quality strategy, intermittently introducing a new generation of products, together with a derivative model between generations to enhance the quality. In this study, we propose a framework for a cost-benefit analysis that compares these two strategies by considering competition between firms within a generation as well as that within a firm across multiple generations (i.e., cannibalization) throughout the launch cycle of high-tech products. We apply our proposed framework to the smartphone market and conduct a sensitivity analysis. The results are expected to contribute to strategic decision-making related to the introduction of multi-generational technology products.


Assuntos
Análise Custo-Benefício , Invenções/economia , Invenções/normas , Invenções/tendências
6.
Nat Med ; 27(3): 401-410, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33723456

RESUMO

The twenty-first century has already recorded more than ten major epidemic or pandemic virus emergence events, including the ongoing and devastating coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. As viral disease emergence is expected to accelerate, these data dictate a need for proactive approaches to develop broadly active family-specific and cross-family therapeutics for use in future disease outbreaks. Emphasis should focus not only on the development of broad-spectrum small-molecule and antibody direct-acting antivirals, but also on host-factor therapeutics, including repurposing previously approved or in-pipeline drugs. Another new class of therapeutics with great antiviral therapeutic potential is RNA-based therapeutics. Rather than only focusing on known risks, dedicated efforts must be made toward pre-emptive research focused on outbreak-prone virus families, ultimately offering a strategy to shorten the gap between outbreak and response. Emphasis should also focus on orally available drugs for outpatient use, if possible, and on identifying combination therapies that combat viral and immune-mediated pathologies, extend the effectiveness of therapeutic windows and reduce drug resistance. While such an undertaking will require new vision, dedicated funding and private, federal and academic partnerships, this approach offers hope that global populations need never experience future pandemics such as COVID-19.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/terapia , Terapias em Estudo , Viroses/terapia , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Desenvolvimento de Medicamentos/métodos , Desenvolvimento de Medicamentos/tendências , Reposicionamento de Medicamentos , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Invenções/tendências , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Terapias em Estudo/métodos , Terapias em Estudo/tendências
7.
Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab ; 320(5): E886-E890, 2021 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33719586

RESUMO

The first therapeutic use of insulin by Frederick Banting and Charles Best in 1921 revolutionized the management of type 1 diabetes and considerably changed the lives of many patients with other types of diabetes. In the past 100 years, significant pharmacological advances took place in the field of insulin therapy, bringing closer the goal of optimal glycemic control along with decreased diabetes-related complications. Despite these developments, several challenges remain, such as increasing treatment flexibility, reducing iatrogenic hypoglycemia, and optimizing patient quality of life. Ongoing innovations in insulin therapy (e.g., new insulin analogs, alternative routes of insulin administration, and closed-loop technology) endeavor to overcome these hurdles and change the landscape of diabetes mellitus management. This report highlights recent advances made in the field of insulin therapy and discusses future perspectives.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus/tratamento farmacológico , Composição de Medicamentos/tendências , Endocrinologia/tendências , Insulina/uso terapêutico , Animais , Preparações de Ação Retardada/farmacocinética , Preparações de Ação Retardada/uso terapêutico , Composição de Medicamentos/história , Composição de Medicamentos/métodos , Endocrinologia/história , Endocrinologia/métodos , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Insulina/administração & dosagem , Insulina/química , Insulina/farmacocinética , Sistemas de Infusão de Insulina/tendências , Absorção Intestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Invenções/tendências
8.
A A Pract ; 15(3): e01419, 2021 Mar 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33684080

RESUMO

The risk of aerosol transmission has been a key factor for the rapid dissemination of the coronavirus pandemic. Transportation of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-infected patients with active air leaks could expose unprotected health care personnel and other patients to aerosolized viral particles. We devised a way to avoid aerosolization while the chest tube drain is on water seal. It involves placing an Ultipor100 viral filter on the suction port of the drain system as well as sealing off the safety valve. This mechanism allows positive pressure from an air leak to escape while on water seal while trapping viral particles.


Assuntos
COVID-19/terapia , Portador Sadio/prevenção & controle , Tubos Torácicos/efeitos adversos , Gerenciamento Clínico , Invenções/tendências , Cuidados Pós-Operatórios/tendências , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Portador Sadio/epidemiologia , Humanos , Cuidados Pós-Operatórios/métodos
9.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0247609, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33684163

RESUMO

Entrepreneurship activity varies significantly across cities. We use the novel data for 1,652 ecosystem actors across sixteen cities in nine developing and transition economies during 2018-2019 to examine the role that institutional context plays in facilitating the productive entrepreneurship and reducing the unproductive entrepreneurship. This study is the first to develop and test a model of multi-dimensional institutional arrangements in cities. It demonstrates that not just that institutions matter in shaping the entrepreneurship ecosystem in cities, but in particular those institutional arrangements enhancing the productive and reducing unproductive entrepreneurship. Our findings suggest that differences between normative, cognitive, and regulatory pillars are associated with variance in both types of entrepreneurship in cities. For the formation of productive and high-growth entrepreneurs, all three pillars of institutional arrangement matter. For unproductive entrepreneurship normative pillar of institutions and the role of civil society matter most. This study has theoretical and practical implications for entrepreneurship ecosystem policy in cities.


Assuntos
Economia/estatística & dados numéricos , Empreendedorismo/organização & administração , Invenções/tendências , Modelos Econométricos , Cidades/economia , Países em Desenvolvimento , Eficiência , Empreendedorismo/legislação & jurisprudência , Regulamentação Governamental , Humanos , Invenções/economia
14.
J Minim Invasive Gynecol ; 28(3): 490-495, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33310145

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To review the current status of robotic training and the impact of various training platforms on the performance of robotic surgical trainees. DATA SOURCES: Literature review of Google Scholar and PubMed. The search terms included a combination of the following: "robotic training," "simulation," "robotic curriculum," "obgyn residency robotic training," "virtual reality robotic training," "DaVinci training," "surgical simulation," "gyn surgical training." The sources considered for inclusion included peer-reviewed articles, literature reviews, textbook chapters, and statements from various institutions involved in resident training. METHODS OF STUDY SELECTION: A literature search of Google Scholar and PubMed using terms related to robotic surgery and robotics training, as mentioned in the "Data Sources" section. RESULTS: Multiple novel platforms that use machine learning and real-time video feedback to teach and evaluate robotic surgical skills have been developed over recent years. Various training curricula, virtual reality simulators, and other robotic training tools have been shown to enhance robotic surgical education and improve surgical skills. The integration of didactic learning, simulation, and intraoperative teaching into more comprehensive training curricula shows positive effects on robotic skills proficiency. Few robotic surgery training curricula have been validated through peer-reviewed study, and there is more work to be completed in this area. In addition, there is a lack of information about how the skills obtained through robotics curricula and simulation translate into operating room performance and patient outcomes. CONCLUSION: Data collected to date show promising advances in the training of robotic surgeons. A diverse array of curricula for training robotic surgeons continue to emerge, and existing teaching modalities are evolving to keep up with the rapidly growing demand for proficient robotic surgeons. Futures areas of growth include establishing competency benchmarks for existing training tools, validating existing curricula, and determining how to translate the acquired skills in simulation into performance in the operating room and patient outcomes. Many surgical training platforms are beginning to expand beyond discrete robotic skills training to procedure-specific and team training. There is still a wealth of research to be done to understand how to create an effective training experience for gynecologic surgical trainees and robotics teams.


Assuntos
Competência Clínica , Invenções , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Robóticos/métodos , Treinamento por Simulação/métodos , Cirurgiões/educação , Simulação por Computador , Currículo , Humanos , Internato e Residência/métodos , Internato e Residência/tendências , Invenções/tendências , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Robóticos/tendências , Treinamento por Simulação/tendências , Realidade Virtual
15.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0242253, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33259475

RESUMO

The aims are to explore the construction of the knowledge management model for engineering cost consulting enterprises, and to expand the application of data mining techniques and machine learning methods in constructing knowledge management model. Through a questionnaire survey, the construction of the knowledge management model of construction-related enterprises and engineering cost consulting enterprises is discussed. First, through the analysis and discussion of ontology-based data mining (OBDM) algorithm and association analysis (Apriori) algorithm, a data mining algorithm (ML-AR algorithm) on account of ontology-based multilayer association and machine learning is proposed. The performance of the various algorithms is compared and analyzed. Second, based on the knowledge management level, analysis and statistics are conducted on the levels of knowledge acquisition, sharing, storage, and innovation. Finally, according to the foregoing, the knowledge management model based on engineering cost consulting enterprises is built and analyzed. The results show that the reliability coefficient of this questionnaire is above 0.8, and the average extracted value is above 0.7, verifying excellent reliability and validity. The efficiency of the ML-AR algorithm at both the number of transactions and the support level is better than the other two algorithms, which is expected to be applied to the enterprise knowledge management model. There is a positive correlation between each level of knowledge management; among them, the positive correlation between knowledge acquisition and knowledge sharing is the strongest. The enterprise knowledge management model has a positive impact on promoting organizational innovation capability and industrial development. The research work provides a direction for the development of enterprise knowledge management and the improvement of innovation ability.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Industrial/tendências , Invenções/tendências , Gestão do Conhecimento , Aprendizado de Máquina/tendências , Mineração de Dados/tendências , Eficiência , Humanos , Inovação Organizacional
16.
Nat Plants ; 6(12): 1408-1417, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33257857

RESUMO

Innovative approaches are urgently required to alleviate the growing pressure on agriculture to meet the rising demand for food. A key challenge for plant biology is to bridge the notable knowledge gap between our detailed understanding of model plants grown under laboratory conditions and the agriculturally important crops cultivated in fields or production facilities. This Perspective highlights the recent development of new analytical tools that are rapid and non-destructive and provide tissue-, cell- or organelle-specific information on living plants in real time, with the potential to extend across multiple species in field applications. We evaluate the utility of engineered plant nanosensors and portable Raman spectroscopy to detect biotic and abiotic stresses, monitor plant hormonal signalling as well as characterize the soil, phytobiome and crop health in a non- or minimally invasive manner. We propose leveraging these tools to bridge the aforementioned fundamental gap with new synthesis and integration of expertise from plant biology, engineering and data science. Lastly, we assess the economic potential and discuss implementation strategies that will ensure the acceptance and successful integration of these modern tools in future farming practices in traditional as well as urban agriculture.


Assuntos
Agricultura/métodos , Agricultura/estatística & dados numéricos , Agricultura/tendências , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Invenções/tendências , Previsões , Invenções/estatística & dados numéricos
17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(21)2020 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33153229

RESUMO

The advanced and performing technologies of glucose monitoring systems provide a large amount of glucose data that needs to be properly read and interpreted by the diabetology team in order to make therapeutic decisions as close as possible to the patient's metabolic needs. For this purpose, new parameters have been developed, to allow a more integrated reading and interpretation of data by clinical professionals. The new challenge for the diabetes community consists of promoting an integrated and homogeneous reading, as well as interpretation of glucose monitoring data also by the patient himself. The purpose of this review is to offer an overview of the glycemic status assessment, opened by the current data management provided by latest glucose monitoring technologies. Furthermore, the applicability and personalization of the different glycemic monitoring devices used in specific insulin-treated diabetes mellitus patient populations will be evaluated.


Assuntos
Glicemia/análise , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Controle Glicêmico/instrumentação , Invenções , Automonitorização da Glicemia/instrumentação , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Equipamentos e Provisões/normas , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Controle Glicêmico/métodos , Humanos , Insulina/administração & dosagem , Sistemas de Infusão de Insulina , Invenções/tendências
18.
J Mater Chem B ; 8(47): 10681-10685, 2020 12 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33155000

RESUMO

The development of innovative nanomedicine has raised the standards over the last few decades. The establishment of research institutes with robust budgets dedicated to nanomedicine has created promise for the development of products based on biomedical applications of nanotechnology. Currently, this development meets obstacles because some of the scientific community has raised concerns regarding the launch of nanomedicine in the market. In this review highlight, we aimed to discuss some of these concerns and contribute to this discussion. For this purpose, we enumerated three issues that should be deeply discussed by the nanotech community to improve the translation of innovation from the laboratory to the market: (1) set-up more effective scaled-up industrial processes; (2) correlate data from preclinical and clinical studies with nanomedical developments; (3) optimize the incorporation of nanoparticles in a compatible final pharmaceutical form. Other issues are also important for this discussion, but we believe that these three are fundamental aspects to bridge the gap between basic nanoscience knowledge to market nanomedical innovations.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento de Medicamentos/tendências , Nanomedicina/métodos , Nanopartículas/administração & dosagem , Animais , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto/métodos , Desenvolvimento de Medicamentos/métodos , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos/métodos , Humanos , Invenções/tendências , Nanomedicina/tendências , Nanotecnologia/métodos , Nanotecnologia/tendências
19.
Med Sci (Paris) ; 36(11): 1038-1044, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33151850

RESUMO

Visual prostheses aim at restoring useful vision to patients who have become blind. This useful vision should enable them to regain autonomy in society for navigation, face recognition or reading. Two retinal prostheses have already obtained market authorization for patients affected by retinal dystrophies while a new device is in clinical trials for patients affected by age-related macular degeneration. Various prostheses, in particular cortical prostheses, are currently in clinical trials for optic neuropathies (glaucoma). Optogenetic therapy, an alternative strategy, has now reached the stage of clinical trials at the retinal level while moving forward at the cortical level. Other innovating strategies have obtained proofs of concepts in rodents but require a further validation in large animals prior to their evaluation on patients. Restoring vision should therefore become a reality for many patients even if this vision will not be as extensive and perfect as natural vision.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Visão/reabilitação , Visão Ocular/fisiologia , Próteses Visuais , Animais , Humanos , Invenções/tendências , Terapia de Campo Magnético/instrumentação , Terapia de Campo Magnético/métodos , Terapia de Campo Magnético/tendências , Nervo Óptico/patologia , Nervo Óptico/fisiologia , Optogenética/instrumentação , Optogenética/métodos , Optogenética/tendências , Desenho de Prótese , Regeneração/fisiologia , Degeneração Retiniana/terapia , Transtornos da Visão/terapia , Próteses Visuais/química , Próteses Visuais/classificação , Próteses Visuais/tendências
20.
Med Sci (Paris) ; 36(11): 1054-1058, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33151867

RESUMO

The term incidentaloma, created in 1982, has spread throughout medical literature. However, there does not seem to be a precise definition to describe what an incidentaloma is. In the initial uses, the word incidentaloma systematically designated a mass that was detected during an imaging examination prescribed for diagnostic purposes unrelated to the reason for carrying out the examination. Naming this mass "incidentaloma" did not give any precision on its nature as it can be located in many anatomical zones, secreting or not, benign or malignant, etc. Today, the term "incidentaloma" carries a much broader dimension which seems to cover the notion of incidental discovery, whether radiological, biological or genetic. The evolution of the term "incidentaloma" demonstrates its heuristic nature. It is a sign of a change in modern medicine which hesitates between a patient clinic and a data clinic. Fortuitous discoveries are a phenomenon known and anticipated by radiologists. Thus, these discoveries are no longer fortuitous, or even unexpected, but secondary to the use of health technology.


Assuntos
Diagnóstico por Imagem , Achados Incidentais , Invenções , Descoberta do Conhecimento , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Diagnóstico por Imagem/história , Diagnóstico por Imagem/tendências , Comportamento Exploratório/fisiologia , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Invenções/história , Invenções/tendências , Descoberta do Conhecimento/história , Motivação , Neoplasias/diagnóstico por imagem
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