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1.
Psychiatr Danub ; 31(4): 448-456, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31698401

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to explore the association of five factors personality traits, as predictor variables, with the anxiety and depression as joint dependent variables in an Iranian adult population. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A total of 3175 subjects living in Isfahan participated in this cross-sectional population-based study (SEPAHAN) and completed self-administered questionnaires about demographic, life style, gastrointestinal disorders, personality traits, social support, and psychological problems. Data was analyzed using bivariate multiple binary logistic regression in R Free statistical software. RESULTS: The results indicated high scores of neuroticisms increase the risk of anxiety and depression after adjustment for the potential confounders in total sample (OR (95% CI): 1.22 (1.19-1.24) and 1.19 (1.17-1.21), respectively) as well as in both male and female. In contrast, joint inverse associations were found between anxiety and depression with high extraversion (OR (95% CI): 0.90 (0.88-0.92) and 0.91 (0.89-0.92), respectively), agreeableness (0.93 (0.91-0.96) and 0.94 (0.92-0.96) respectively) and conscientiousness scores (0.95 (0.93-0.97) and 0.95 (0.94-0.97) respectively) as well as in both male and female. Furthermore, higher scores of openness had significant inverse association with depression in male. CONCLUSION: The present study indicated that higher scores of neuroticism, however lower extraversion, conscientiousness and agreeableness scores are risk factors for both anxiety and depression in Iranian adult population. It is suggested to perform family studies or twin and genetic association studies with considering combinations of personality traits (personality styles), and also measuring personality traits at the facet level.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/psicologia , Depressão/psicologia , Modelos Logísticos , Personalidade , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico) , Masculino , Neuroticismo , Inventário de Personalidade
2.
Psychol Assess ; 31(10): 1181-1191, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31580131

RESUMO

An alternative diagnostic model of personality disorders (AMPD) was introduced in DSM-5 that diagnoses PDs based on the presence of personality impairment (Criterion A) and pathological personality traits (Criterion B). Research examining Criterion A has been limited to date, due to the lack of a specific measure to assess it; this changed, however, with the recent publication of a self-report assessment of personality dysfunction as defined by Criterion A (Levels of Personality Functioning Scale-Self-report; LPFS-SR; Morey, 2017). The aim of the current study was to test several key propositions regarding the role of Criterion A in the AMPD including the underlying factor structure of the LPFS-SR, the discriminant validity of the hypothesized factors, whether Criterion A distinguishes personality psychopathology from Axis I symptoms, the overlap between Criterion A and B, and the incremental predictive utility of Criterion A and B in the statistical prediction of traditional PD symptom counts. Neither a single factor model nor an a priori four-factor model of dysfunction fit the data well. The LPFS-SR dimensions were highly interrelated and manifested little evidence of discriminant validity. In addition, the impairment dimensions manifested robust correlations with measures of both Axis I and II constructs, challenging the notion that personality dysfunction is unique to PDs. Finally, multivariate regression analyses suggested that the traits account for substantially more unique variance in DSM-5 Section II PDs than does personality impairment. These results provide important information as to the functioning of the two main components of the DSM-5 AMPD and raise questions about whether the model may need revision moving forward. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Transtornos da Personalidade/diagnóstico , Adulto , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Personalidade , Inventário de Personalidade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Autorrelato , Adulto Jovem
3.
Psychiatr Hung ; 34(3): 266-279, 2019.
Artigo em Húngaro | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31570658

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The Inventory of Callous-Unemotional Traits (ICU) is one of the most widely used measures of psychopathic traits in children. Callous-unemotional (CU) traits designate an important subgroup of antisocial youth characterized by lack of empathy, guilt and remorse. The aim of the present study was to test the applicability and reliability of the self-reported ICU in a high-risk sample of adolescent boys. METHODS: Participants were 202 adolescent boys (mean age: 16.63 years; SD = 1.71) from institutional care facilities and juvenile detention centres. Confirmatory factor analyses (CFA) were conducted to investigate the factor structure of the ICU. In addition, MIMIC modelling (CFA with covariates) was applied to test the convergent validity of the ICU scores by examining relationships with externalizing symptoms (including conduct problems, hyperactivity-inattention, proactive-reactive aggression), and prosocial behaviour. RESULTS: We observed that the bifactor model with three correlated specific factors (callousness, uncaring and unemotional) and one general CU traits factor provided the best fit to the data. However, similar to previous studies, low internal consistency was found for the unemotional scale. In line with our expectations, CU traits showed positive associations with externalizing symptoms, and negative associations with prosocial behaviour. CONCLUSION: The ICU is a reliable and valid measure of callous-unemotional traits. Our results support the application of the Hungarian version of the questionnaire.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/diagnóstico , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/psicologia , Emoções , Psicometria , Adolescente , Humanos , Hungria , Masculino , Inventário de Personalidade/normas , Psicometria/normas , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Risco , Autorrelato
4.
East Asian Arch Psychiatry ; 29(3): 81-86, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31566183

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to examine the association between five personality traits and late-onset depression in Hong Kong older people. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included a convenience sample of 40 older people with late-onset depression (LOD) and 54 non-depressed elderly controls. The patients were assessed using the NEO Five Factor Inventory (for personality), the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (for depression severity), the Mini-Mental State Examination (for cognitive function), the Lawton Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (for functioning), and the Cumulative Illness Rating Scale (for number of physical illnesses). RESULT: The LOD group had a higher Hamilton Depression Rating Scale score (18.9 vs 3.7, p < 0.001), lower Mini Mental State Examination score (24.9 vs 26.4, p = 0.004), and lower Instrumental Activities of Daily Living scale score (21.9 vs 23.7, p = 0.013). On the NEO Five Factor Inventory, the LOD group had a higher neuroticism score (30.7 vs 17.5, p < 0.001) and lower scores on extraversion (19.0 vs 26.4, p < 0.001), openness (18.9 vs 21.5, p = 0.026), and conscientiousness (29.1 vs 33.8, p < 0.001). Neuroticism was the only significant predictor of LOD (odds ratio = 2.325, p = 0.001) and the only significant factor associated with depression severity (ß = 0.581, p = 0.003). CONCLUSIONS: The personality trait of neuroticism is associated with LOD and its severity. Assessment of personality traits should be included in the assessment of people with depression.


Assuntos
Depressão/psicologia , Transtornos de Início Tardio/psicologia , Personalidade , Atividades Cotidianas , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Hong Kong , Humanos , Masculino , Inventário de Personalidade/estatística & dados numéricos , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica/estatística & dados numéricos
5.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(42): e17518, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31626112

RESUMO

Little is known about the relationship between levels of self-esteem and the development of depression in young adults. The present study investigated the relationship between self-esteem and depression to determine whether self-esteem levels are a risk factor for the development of depression in young adults. This study was conducted with 113 college students aged 19 to 35 (major depressive disorder (MDD) n = 44, Mild Depressive Symptoms (MDS) n = 37, Healthy Control n = 32). The levels of clinical symptoms, self-esteem, resilience, social support, and quality of life, as well as personality traits, were assessed (by Patient Health Questionnaire-9, generalized anxiety disease-7, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory-S, Resilience Appraisal Scale, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, Quality of Life, and NEO-personality inventory (NEO-PI)). The MDS group with high self-esteem reported having the lowest levels of social support, resilience, agreeableness, and extraversion compared to those of the MDD group and control group with high self-esteem. In contrast, the MDS group with low self-esteem showed no differences in social support, resilience, agreeableness and openness according to the NEO-PI scale. Sex and age had no significant impact on the results. Levels of self-esteem are strongly associated with the development of depression. Results suggest that early intervention for depression in young adults needs to focus on improving their levels of social support, resilience, and positive domains of personality. Further studies on the effects of high self-esteem in the development of depression are warranted.


Assuntos
Depressão/psicologia , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/psicologia , Autoimagem , Estudantes/psicologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Personalidade , Inventário de Personalidade , Qualidade de Vida , Resiliência Psicológica , Fatores de Risco , Apoio Social , Adulto Jovem
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31546664

RESUMO

BACKGROUNDS: The development of the Internet has changed interpersonal interactions, so that people no longer need to physically meet each other. However, some people are more vulnerable to becoming addicted to Internet activities, something to which the ease of Internet access and usage has contributed. In this study, we examined the association between personality traits and feelings about online interpersonal interactions to predict Internet addiction. This was accomplished using an online advertisement that asked participants to complete the questionnaires in the laboratory. METHODS: Two hundred and twenty-three participants with a mean age of 22.50 years were recruited for this study and asked to complete the following questionnaires: the Beck Depressive Inventory (BDI), the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), the Chen Internet Addiction Scale (CIAS), the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ), the Internet Usage Questionnaire (IUQ) and the Feelings of Internet Interpersonal Interaction Questionnaire (FIIIQ). RESULTS: The results showed that people with a neurotic personality and anxious feelings about Internet interpersonal interactions are more likely to become addicted to the Internet. In addition, people with neuroticism and who are more anxious about Internet interpersonal relationships are more likely to develop Internet addiction. CONCLUSIONS: People who tend to develop new interpersonal relationships via the Internet and be anxious about online interpersonal relationships are more vulnerable to becoming addicted to the Internet. The individuals who are more anxious about Internet interpersonal interaction and tend to develop new interpersonal relationships via the Internet are more likely to develop Internet addiction.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo , Internet , Relações Interpessoais , Personalidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Coleta de Dados , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Inventário de Personalidade , Adulto Jovem
7.
Scand J Psychol ; 60(5): 492-500, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31402468

RESUMO

In recent years, narcissism has been reconceptualized as a multi-dimensional feature of human psychology. The Five Factor Narcissism Inventory (FFNI) has been proposed as a measure for two distinguishable dimensions of narcissism: Vulnerable and Grandiose (Glover, Miller, Lynam, Crego & Widiger, 2012). To investigate the role that some of these factors may have in moderating responses to cues of social exclusion, implemented in a connected laboratory experiment, we translated the subscales for Vulnerable Narcissism and the Grandiose Narcissism subscale of Indifference from English into Norwegian and included them in an online survey that was used to recruit and pre-screen participants for the laboratory experiment. In this paper, we test the psychometric properties of these translated self-report measures, in what amounted to be a diverse sample of the Norwegian population. We perform reliability tests and confirmatory factor analysis on the long- and short-form versions of FFNI Vulnerable Narcissism and the Grandiose Narcissism subscale of Indifference. We further test the criterion validity of these measures by way of correlational analyses with other theoretically relevant measures. We conclude that the Norwegian short-form versions of FFNI Vulnerable Narcissism and Grandiose Narcissism subscale of Indifference exhibit good psychometric properties in our data and propose that the translated scales can now be used to explore these constructs in clinical and non-clinical populations in Norway, and can be easily adapted for use in other Scandinavian countries.


Assuntos
Narcisismo , Inventário de Personalidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Noruega , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Autorrelato , Adulto Jovem
8.
Nord J Psychiatry ; 73(7): 462-469, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31403840

RESUMO

Background: An abnormal interaction between cognition and emotion may contribute to the development of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Aims: In this study, we aimed to evaluate theory of mind and emotion regulation skills in adolescents diagnosed with OCD. In addition, the results were evaluated in accordance with patients' insight levels. Methods: This study was conducted with 50 patients, who were aged between 11 and 16 and who were newly diagnosed with OCD and 50 healthy individuals. The Turkish version of the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School Age Children - Present and Lifetime was used to diagnose OCD and other comorbidities. The Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale, the Children's Depression Inventory, and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children were used for clinical evaluation. The intelligence levels were assessed using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised Short Form. Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test was used in patients. The Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale was also used to evaluate the skills of regulating emotions. Results: Patients with OCD had lower ability with regard to reading minds in the eyes and emotion regulation than the healthy individuals. Patients with OCD, who had a poor insight, had more difficulty in reading minds in the eyes and emotion regulation than those with good insight. Conclusions: This study supports the idea that OCD is related to deficits in theory of mind and emotion regulation skills. Thus, further studies are required to confirm the findings of this study.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/fisiologia , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/diagnóstico , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/psicologia , Teoria da Mente/fisiologia , Adolescente , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Comorbidade , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Inventário de Personalidade
9.
J Forensic Nurs ; 15(3): 133-142, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31436681

RESUMO

Moral distress has been widely addressed across the nursing profession and within other disciplines. Forensic nurses are a vital part of the nursing profession as they care for complex patients who may suffer physically and psychologically. However, forensic nurses' moral distress in the context of caring for victims of violence has not been addressed. This integrative review of the literature reveals the consequences of moral distress on the nursing workforce particularly regarding nurses' burnout and intentions to leave their jobs. Turnover contributes to the country's critical shortage of nurses, which affects the quality of care patients receive and increases the costs for healthcare institutions.


Assuntos
Esgotamento Profissional/psicologia , Princípios Morais , Recursos Humanos de Enfermagem/psicologia , Reorganização de Recursos Humanos , Humanos , Inventário de Personalidade
10.
Psicothema (Oviedo) ; 31(3): 263-270, ago. 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-185352

RESUMO

Background: Despite the recent popularity of the classification for maladaptive traits proposed by the DSM-5, little is known about the implications of these traits in adolescent populations. This study examines the relationship between the five broad maladaptive traits included in the DSM-5 (Negative Affect, Detachment, Antagonism, Disinhibition and Psychoticism) and a wide range of criteria of adolescent functioning: behavioural (bullying, cyberbullying, victimization, cybervictimization, problematic Internet use, substance use), emotional (negative and positive emotions, life satisfaction, self-esteem, loneliness) and motivational (extrinsic and intrinsic aspirations). Methods: Data were collected from 921 community adolescents, who were administered the brief form of the Personality Inventory for the DSM-5 (PID-5-BF) as well as self-reported measures of the behavioural, emotional and motivational criteria. Results: Antagonism and Disinhibition were the most important traits for behaviour problems, with face-to-face bullying being more associated with maladaptative traits than cyberbullying; Negative Affect, Detachment and Psychoticism were more closely related to emotional dissatisfaction, and adolescents’ goals were associated with most of the maladaptative traits. Conclusions: This study supports the relevance of the PID-5 traits for adolescents, and extends the nomological net of pathological personality traits to multiple facets of emotions, motivations and social behaviour in young people


Antecedentes: a pesar de la reciente popularidad de los rasgos desadaptativos de la personalidad propuestos por el DSM-5, se sabe poco sobre sus implicaciones en la adolescencia. Este estudio examina la relación entre los cinco grandes rasgos desadaptativos incluidos en el DSM-5 (Afecto Negativo, Desapego, Antagonismo, Desinhibición y Psicoticismo) y múltiples criterios de funcionamiento adolescente: conductuales (acoso, ciberacoso, victimización, cibervictimización, uso problemático de Internet, uso de sustancias), emocionales (emociones negativas y positivas, satisfacción con la vida, autoestima, soledad) y motivacionales (aspiraciones extrínsecas e intrínsecas). Método: se recogieron datos en 921 adolescentes de la población general, a quienes se les administró el PID-5-BF, así como medidas autoinformadas de los criterios a analizar. Resultados: Antagonismo y Desinhibición fueron los rasgos más asociados con los problemas de conducta, y el bullying se vio más relacionado con los rasgos PID que el ciberbullying; Afecto Negativo, Desapego y Psicoticismo se relacionaron más estrechamente con la insatisfacción emocional, y los rasgos desadaptativos contribuyeron también a predecir las metas de los jóvenes. Conclusiones: este estudio apoya la relevancia de los rasgos del PID-5 en la adolescencia, y extiende su red nomológica a múltiples facetas de las emociones, motivaciones y conducta social de los adolescentes


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente , Bullying/psicologia , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Emoções , Motivação , Transtornos da Personalidade/psicologia , Afeto , Anedonia , Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Comportamento Impulsivo , Internet , Satisfação Pessoal , Inventário de Personalidade , Assunção de Riscos , Transtornos Psicóticos/psicologia , Autorrelato , Fatores Sexuais , Isolamento Social , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/psicologia
11.
Interv. psicosoc. (Internet) ; 28(2): 67-73, ago. 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-183647

RESUMO

The purpose of the study was to analyze the connections between victimization and perpetration of face-to-face bullying and cyberbullying with self-perceived childhood stress and diverse emotional and behavioral problems (EBPs) evaluated by parents. Participants were 1,993 students, aged 9-13 years, from the Basque Country (Spain) (49.8% females). The results of the analyses of variance (MANOVA-ANOVA) and correlational analyses showed that: (1) students who had higher scores in victimization and perpetration of bullying/cyberbullying had significantly high levels of stress and many EBPs; (2) participants who had higher scores in victimization/cybervictimization and perpetration of bullying obtained higher scores in all the dimensions of stress, while those who had higher scores in cyberaggression only showed higher school stress; (3) students who had higher scores in victimization/cybervictimization manifested internalizing and externalizing EBPs, whereas those who had higher scores in perpetration of bullying/cyberbullying had fewer internalizing problems; and (4) children who obtained higher scores in victimization and perpetration of bullying/cyberbullying had received psychological counseling significantly more frequently in the past year than those who had lower scores in indicators of bullying/cyberbullying. The importance of preventing/intervening in bullying situations to reduce psychopathological problems is emphasized in the discussion


El estudio tuvo como objetivo analizar la relación entre victimización y perpetración de acoso escolar presencial y ciberacoso con el estrés infantil autopercibido y con los problemas emocionales y de conducta (PEC) evaluados por los padres. Participaron 1,993 estudiantes, de 9 a 13 años, del País Vasco (España) (49,8% mujeres). Los resultados de los análisis de varianza (MANOVA-ANOVA) y correlacionales mostraron que: (1) los estudiantes que tenían mayores puntuaciones en victimización y perpetración de acoso/ciberacoso escolares tenían significativamente alto nivel de estrés y muchos PEC; (2) los participantes que tenían puntuaciones superiores en victimización/cibervictimización y perpetración de acoso escolar obtuvieron mayores puntuaciones en todas las dimensiones del estrés, mientras que aquellos que tenían altas puntuaciones en ciberagresión únicamente mostraban mayor estrés escolar; (3) los participantes que tuvieron mayor puntuación en victimización/cibervictimización mostraban PEC internalizantes y externalizantes y aquellos con mayor puntuación en agresión/ciberagresion tenían menos problemas internalizantes; (4) los niños que obtuvieron mayores puntuaciones en victimización y perpetración de acoso/ciberacoso escolares habían acudido significativamente más al psicólogo en el último año que aquellos que tuvieron menores puntuaciones en los indicadores de acoso/ciberacoso escolares. El debate destaca la importancia de prevenir/tratar el acoso para disminuir los problemas psicopatológicos


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Adolescente , Cyberbullying/psicologia , Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Emoções Manifestas , Estresse Psicológico , Análise de Variância , Bullying/psicologia , Esgotamento Psicológico , Ensino Fundamental e Médio , Inventário de Personalidade/estatística & dados numéricos
12.
Harefuah ; 158(7): 458-462, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Hebraico | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31339246

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Simple logic would suggest that there should be some endophenotype for bipolar disorder. Possible endophenotypes could include specific variations in personality. Bagby and Ryder summarized the work up to that point by noting that the related personality traits of high neuroticism and harm avoidance seem to be associated with bipolar disorder as well as with unipolar depression, whereas higher novelty seeking may be associated only with bipolar patients. As these parameters are all very sensitive to the affective state, it is critical to examine the literature that pertains specifically to euthymic patients in order to evaluate the extent to which this signifies underlying personality (trait), and not primarily clinical status (state). Several important studies have been published since the Bagby and Ryder paper, which we review here. We restrict our current review to empirical studies which employed both adequate samples of euthymic (to minimize the state/trait dilemma) bipolar patients as well as healthy comparison subjects. This paper is restricted to frequently used explicit measures of personality - that is, self-report questionnaires: the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) based on Cloninger's psychobiological theory of temperament and character, the Revised NEO Personality Inventory based on the five-factor model of Costa & McCrae, and the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11) (23). No single dimension of 'personality' reviewed would qualify as a psychological marker for a bipolar disorder. Earlier findings as reviewed by Bagby and Ryder, of higher novelty seeking, were not replicated in these studies. Of the personality traits considered, the most promising candidate for marker or endophenotype would seem to be "impulsivity" as measured by the BIS-II.


Assuntos
Transtorno Bipolar , Personalidade , Caráter , Humanos , Inventário de Personalidade , Autorrelato
13.
S Afr J Surg ; 57(2): 32-39, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31342682

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Studies have attempted to categorise undergraduate medical and postgraduate students and specialists into personality types, to determine what influences personality has on specialty choice and job satisfaction. This study explored the personality characteristics of doctors in four surgical and three consulting specialties at an academic hospital in Bloemfontein, South Africa. METHOD: This analytical cross-sectional study used the Zuckerman-Kuhlman Personality Questionnaire as a measuring tool which included five scales: impulsive sensation seeking (subscales impulsivity and sensation seeking), neuroticismanxiety, aggression-hostility, sociability (parties and friends and isolation intolerance), and activity ( work activity and general activity). Overall, 70 consultants and senior registrars from surgical specialties (anaesthesiology, obstetrics and gynaecology, orthopaedic surgery, surgery), (response rate 60.3%) and 58 consultants and senior registrars from three consulting specialties (internal medicine, paediatrics, family medicine) (response rate 71.6%) participated. RESULTS: Respondents from four surgical specialties had higher medians than the overall consulting group for the subscale sensation seeking. The subscale sensation seeking scored higher than impulsivity across surgical and consulting groups. The surgical group scored lower than the consulting group in neuroticism-anxiety, with anaesthesiology scoring the highest (42.1%) and orthopaedic surgery scoring the lowest (15.8%). Orthopaedic surgery scored the highest (50.0%) in aggressionhostility, sociability (52.9%), parties and friends (44.4%) and isolation intolerance (65.5%). The surgical group scored significantly higher than the consulting group for activity (p < 0.01). CONCLUSION: In exploring the personality types of specialists, the orthopaedic surgeons in specialist departments in Bloemfontein seem unique in their sociability and aggression-hostility traits, anaesthesiologists scored strongly on the sensation seeking and neuroticism-anxiety scales, while the obstetricians and gynaecologists did not manifest either of these traits strongly. This data contributes to a growing discussion on personality choice and job satisfaction.


Assuntos
Escolha da Profissão , Inventário de Personalidade , Especialidades Cirúrgicas , Estudantes de Medicina/psicologia , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , África do Sul
14.
Psicothema ; 31(3): 263-270, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31292040

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite the recent popularity of the classification for maladaptive traits proposed by the DSM-5, little is known about the implications of these traits in adolescent populations. This study examines the relationship between the five broad maladaptive traits included in the DSM-5 (Negative Affect, Detachment, Antagonism, Disinhibition and Psychoticism) and a wide range of criteria of adolescent functioning: behavioural (bullying, cyberbullying, victimization, cybervictimization, problematic Internet use, substance use), emotional (negative and positive emotions, life satisfaction, self-esteem, loneliness) and motivational (extrinsic and intrinsic aspirations). METHODS: Data were collected from 921 community adolescents, who were administered the brief form of the Personality Inventory for the DSM-5 (PID-5-BF) as well as self-reported measures of the behavioural, emotional and motivational criteria. RESULTS: Antagonism and Disinhibition were the most important traits for behaviour problems, with face-to-face bullying being more associated with maladaptative traits than cyberbullying; Negative Affect, Detachment and Psychoticism were more closely related to emotional dissatisfaction, and adolescents’ goals were associated with most of the maladaptative traits. CONCLUSIONS: This study supports the relevance of the PID-5 traits for adolescents, and extends the nomological net of pathological personality traits to multiple facets of emotions, motivations and social behaviour in young people.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Emoções , Motivação , Transtornos da Personalidade/psicologia , Adolescente , Afeto , Anedonia , Bullying/psicologia , Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Comportamento Impulsivo , Internet , Masculino , Satisfação Pessoal , Inventário de Personalidade , Transtornos Psicóticos/psicologia , Assunção de Riscos , Autorrelato , Fatores Sexuais , Isolamento Social , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/psicologia
15.
J Psychol ; 153(8): 860-879, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31314688

RESUMO

Little attention has been paid to middle adulthood in research on personality stability and change. In addition, previous research on individual differences in personality change has not fully explained its variability. This study focused on the differential susceptibility model, which suggests that individual susceptibility interacts with environmental factors and produces variability in outcomes, and investigated individual differences in personality change with a middle adult sample. A total of 1051 Japanese middle adults (M = 41.61 years; SD = 5.31; range 30-50 years; 534 females) participated in this two-wave short-term longitudinal study. Latent change score model analyses revealed substantial mean-level declines in Agreeableness and Honesty-Humility. Moreover, the results showed that the influences of some life events on personality change are moderated for better and for worse by individual susceptibility to one's environment. These findings suggest that the trends of personality development may differ between Western and non-Western countries and that differential susceptibility model may play an important role in deriving individual differences in personality stability and change.


Assuntos
Acontecimentos que Mudam a Vida , Inventário de Personalidade , Personalidade , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Feminino , Humanos , Individualidade , Japão , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Desenvolvimento da Personalidade , Inquéritos e Questionários
16.
Health Care Women Int ; 40(11): 1135-1148, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31274387

RESUMO

In this descriptive study, our aim was to examine the relationship between violence exposure status and personality characteristics among infertile women. The researchers collected data from 315 infertile women at an in vitro fertilization unit of the Woman and Child Disease Training and Research Hospital in Istanbul, Turkey. An introductory information form, the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire Revised-Abbreviated Form (EPQR-A), and the Infertile Women's Exposure to Violence Determination Scale (IWEVDS) were used as data collection tools. When the relationship between the IWEVDS and EPQR-A subdimension scores of the infertile women were examined, a positive relationship was found between the being-forced-into-traditional-practices subdimension of the IWEVDS and the neuroticism subdimension of the EPQR-A. In addition, a weak negative relationship was found between the being-forced-into-traditional-practices subdimension of the IWEVDS and the lying subdimension of the EPQR-A.


Assuntos
Violência Doméstica/psicologia , Exposição à Violência/psicologia , Infertilidade Feminina/psicologia , Transtornos Neuróticos/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Violência Doméstica/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Personalidade , Inventário de Personalidade , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Qualidade de Vida , Percepção Social , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estereotipagem , Turquia
17.
J Altern Complement Med ; 25(8): 814-823, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31290694

RESUMO

Objectives: There are no known studies of concurrent exposure to high temperature and yoga for the treatment of depression. This study explored acceptability and feasibility of heated (Bikram) yoga as a treatment for individuals with depressive symptoms. Design: An 8-week, open-label pilot study of heated yoga for depressive symptoms. Subjects: 28 medically healthy adults (71.4% female, mean age 36 [standard deviation 13.57]) with at least mild depressive symptoms (Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression [HRSD-17] score ≥10) who attended at least one yoga class and subsequent assessment visit. Intervention: Participants were asked to attend at least twice weekly community held Bikram Yoga classes. Assessments were performed at screening and weeks 1, 3, 5, and 8. Hypotheses were tested using a modified-intent-to-treat approach, including participants who attended at least one yoga class and subsequent assessment visit (N = 28). Results: Almost half of our subjects completed the 8-week intervention, and close to a third attended three quarters or more of the prescribed 16 classes over 8 weeks. Multilevel modeling revealed significant improvements over time in both clinician-rated HRSD-17 (p = 0.003; dGLMM = 1.43) and self-reported Beck Depression Inventory (BDI; p < 0.001, dGLMM = 1.31) depressive symptoms, as well as the four secondary outcomes: hopelessness (p = 0.024, dGLMM = 0.57), anxiety (p < 0.001, dGLMM = 0.78), cognitive/physical functioning (p < 0.001, dGLMM = 1.34), and quality of life (p = 0.007, dGLMM = 1.29). Of 23 participants with data through week 3 or later, 12 (52.2%) were treatment responders (≥50% reduction in HRSD-17 score), and 13 (56.5%) attained remission (HRSD score ≤7). More frequent attendance was significantly associated with improvement in self-rated depression symptoms, hopelessness, and quality of life. Conclusions: The acceptability and feasibility of heated yoga in this particular sample with this protocol warrants further attention. The heated yoga was associated with reduced depressive symptoms, and other improved related mental health symptoms, including anxiety, hopelessness, and quality of life.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo Maior/terapia , Temperatura Alta/uso terapêutico , Ioga , Adulto , Depressão/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inventário de Personalidade , Projetos Piloto , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31357406

RESUMO

Objective: Previous studies investigating the association between body weight and personality traits have found mixed results. This paper uses a large data set and two different study designs (cross-sectional and longitudinal) to provide more consistent estimates of the effect of personality traits on obesity. Methods: The present study is based on data from the German Socio-Economic Panel (GSOEP) from the waves 2005 to 2013; GSOEP is a longitudinal survey of private households in Germany that has been carried out since 1984. Responses provided data about personality, measured using the BFI-S Questionnaire, data for self-rated body mass index BMI (to determine the obesity level), as well as information for potential confounders. Cross-sectional and longitudinal logistic regression models were used. Results: The cross-sectional study yielded statistically significant results for the association between the outcome variable and four personality factors neuroticism, extraversion, openness and agreeableness. After controlling for several potential confounders, the association between obesity and extraversion, openness as well as agreeableness remained; additionally, the personality factor consciousness reached statistical significance. In the longitudinal study, a statistically significant association was found only for two personality factors, namely extraversion and agreeableness. After adding the control variables, the FE-regression yielded an association only for agreeableness (negative). Gender differences were not significant. Discussion: The findings show that results of a cross-sectional study design differ from the outcome of the longitudinal study design. The latter stresses the association between excess weight and the personality factor agreeableness, contrasting with most outcomes of previous research.


Assuntos
Obesidade/psicologia , Personalidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Alemanha , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/etiologia , Inventário de Personalidade , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Adulto Jovem
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31357601

RESUMO

The Taq1A polymorphism located in the ANKK1 gene is one of the most widely studied polymorphisms in regards to the genetics of behavior and addiction. The aim of our study was to analyze this polymorphism with regard to personality characteristics and anxiety measured by means of the Personality Inventory-(NEO Five-Factor Inventory-NEO-FFI) and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) in polysubstance addicted subjects. The study group consisted of 600 male volunteers, including 299 addicted subjects and 301 controls. Psychiatrists recruited members for both groups. Addiction was diagnosed in the case group. In the control group mental illness was excluded. The same psychometric test and genotyping using the real-time PCR (polymerase chain reaction) method was performed for both groups. The results were investigated by means of multivariate analysis of the main effects Multi-factor ANOVA. Significantly higher scores on the scale of STAI state and Neuroticism and Openness traits, as well as lower scores on the scales of Extraversion, Agreeability, and Conscientiousness, were found in the case group subjects, compared to the controls. Differences in frequency of genotypes and alleles of Taq1A polymorphism between the studied groups were not found. Multi-factor ANOVA of addicted subjects and control subjects and the ANKK1 Taq1A variant interaction approximated the statistical significance for the STAI state. The main effects ANOVA of both subjects' groups were found for the STAI state and trait, the Neuroticism scale, the Extraversion scale, and the Agreeability scale. The ANKK1 Taq1A main effects approximated the statistical significance of the STAI trait. Our study shows not only differences in personality traits between addicted and non-addicted subjects, but also the possible impact of ANKK1 on given traits and on addiction itself.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genótipo , Personalidade/genética , Polimorfismo Genético , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/genética , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/genética , Adulto , Alelos , Ansiedade , Transtornos de Ansiedade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Inventário de Personalidade , Fenótipo , Psicometria , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
20.
Psychopathology ; 52(3): 191-197, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31167212

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dispositional mindfulness deficits and psychopathic personality traits have been shown to be closely associated and independent predictors of antisocial behaviors (AB) in young adults. However, the interaction effects of these 2 factors have not yet been explored. The aim of this study was to examine the contribution of dispositional mindfulness and psychopathic traits to ABs in a college student sample. METHODS: Participants were 1,572 students from different French universities who completed self-report questionnaires. Regression analyses were conducted in order to test a moderation model between psychopathic traits and AB. RESULTS: Moderation analyses revealed that dispositional mindfulness interacted with psychopathic personality traits in predicting AB. In males with high levels of dispositional mindfulness, as psychopathic traits increased, AB increased less than in males with low levels of dispositional mindfulness. CONCLUSIONS: The present study suggests possible implications for prevention and treatment of AB among non-clinical young adults with relatively high psychopathic traits.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/psicologia , Atenção Plena/métodos , Psicopatologia/métodos , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Inventário de Personalidade/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
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