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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32867344

RESUMO

Background: The link between personality traits and employment status in individuals with chronic health conditions (CHCs) is largely unexplored. In this study, we examined this association among 21,173 individuals with CHCs and whether this association differs between individuals suffering from a heart disease, depression, anxiety, cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, musculoskeletal disease (MSD) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Methods: This study was conducted using baseline data from the Lifelines Cohort Study. Employment status and the presence of CHCs were determined by questionnaire data. The Revised Neuroticism-Extroversion-Openness Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R) was used to measure eight personality facet traits. We conducted disease-generic and disease-specific logistic regression analyses. Results: Workers with higher scores on self-consciousness (OR: 1.02; 95% CI: 1.01-1.02), impulsivity (1.03; 1.02-1.04), excitement seeking (1.02; 1.01-1.02), competence (1.08; 1.07-1.10) and self-discipline (1.04; 1.03-1.05) were more often employed. Adults with higher scores on anger-hostility (0.97; 0.97-0.98), vulnerability (0.98; 0.97-0.99), and deliberation (0.96; 0.95-0.97) were least often employed. Personality facets were associated strongest with employment status among individuals suffering from MSD and weakest in individuals with T2DM. Conclusions: Personality might be a key resource to continue working despite having a CHC. This may be relevant for the development of targeted personality-focused interventions.


Assuntos
Doença Crônica , Emprego , Personalidade , Trabalho/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Países Baixos , Inventário de Personalidade , Vigilância da População , Estudos Prospectivos
2.
An. psicol ; 36(2): 320-329, mayo 2020. graf, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-192069

RESUMO

In accordance with the goal of the positive psychology approach, this study was designed to build an understanding of the relationships among optimism, cognitive flexibility, adjustment to university life and happiness by proposing a multiple mediation model. A total of 386 undergraduates (64% female and 36% male) between 18-22 years participated in the study. The participants were recruited from a small university in Turkey. The Life Orientation Test, Cognitive Flexibility Inventory, University Life Scale, and Oxford Happiness Questionnaire Short Form were utilized as measures. The results showed that optimism, cognitive flexibility, adjustment to university life, and happiness positively correlated. The findings from the mediational analyses also indicated that the serial multiple mediation of cognitive flexibility and adjustment to university life in the hypothetical model was statistically significant and explained approximately 50% of the variance in happiness


De acuerdo con el objetivo del enfoque de psicología positiva, este estudio fue diseñado para construir una comprensión de las relaciones entre optimismo, flexibilidad cognitiva, ajuste a la vida universitaria y felicidad mediante la propuesta de un modelo de mediación múltiple. Un total de 386 estudiantes universitarios (64% mujeres y 36% hombres) entre 18-22 años participaron en el estudio. Los participantes fueron reclutados de una pequeña universidad en Turquía. El Test de Orientación de Vida, el Inventario de Flexibilidad Cognitiva, la Escala de Vida Universitaria y el Formulario Corto del Cuestionario de Felicidad de Oxford fueron utilizados como medidas. Los resultados mostraron que el optimismo, la flexibilidad cognitiva, el ajuste a la vida universitaria y la felicidad se correlacionan positivamente. Los resultados de los análisis mediacionales también indicaron que la mediación serial múltiple de la flexibilidad cognitiva y el ajuste a la vida universitaria en el modelo hipotetizado fue estadísticamente significativa y explicaron aproximadamente el 50% de la varianza en la felicidad


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Otimismo , Felicidade , Estudantes/psicologia , Ajustamento Social , Universidades , Cognição , Inventário de Personalidade/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Testes Psicológicos
3.
An. psicol ; 36(2): 370-377, mayo 2020. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-192074

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Political Skills Inventory (PSI) is a measurement tool for assessing four dimensions associated with political skills: social astuteness, interpersonal influence, networking ability and apparent sincerity (Ferris, 2005). METHOD: In the present study, multi-sample and multi-method, we developed and analyzed the psychometric properties of the Spanish version of the (PSI), by performing both exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. Additionally, a longitudinal reliability test and a sex factorial invariance test were performed. RESULTS: Cronbach's alpha and omega indices revealed satisfactory reliability and exploratory factor analyses extracted the four original factors as reported in other studies (N = 309). Confirmatory factorial analyses confirmed that the four-factor solution presented the best fit to our data (N = 248). CONCLUSIONS: We add new evidence for time and sex invariance of the measure, showing that the PSI can be considered a stable and valid measure over time and across sex


INTRODUCCIÓN: El inventario de habilidades políticas (PSI, siglas en inglés) es una medida para calibrar cuatro dimensiones relacionadas con es-te constructo: la astucia social, la capacidad de influencia interpersonal, la habilidad para establecer contactos y la sinceridad aparente (Ferris, David-son & Perrewé, 2005). MÉTODO: En el presente estudio, multi-muestra y multimétodo, sendos análisis factorial exploratorio y confirmatorio se han llevado a cabo sobre dos muestras, una primera compuesta por trabajadores de varios ramos (recogido en tres etapas, con una edad media comprendida entre 43.66 y 44.70 años, DT = 9.42 - 10.22, y un porcentaje de mujeres entre 57.3 - 58.4%) y una segunda por trabajadores del sector salud (Mage = 35.56, SD = 7.23; 80.6% women), para desarrollar y testar las propiedades psicométricas de la versión española del PSI. Adicionalmente, se llevó a cabo una prueba de fiabilidad longitudinal y un análisis de invarianza relativo al género. RESULTADOS: Los índices alpha de Cronbach (cuyos valores oscilaron entre 0.83-0.90 en nuestros datos, y entre 0.73-0.87 en la versión original) y omega (0.85 para el total de la escala) revelaron un grado de fiabilidad satisfactoria. El análisis factorial exploratorio extrajo los cuatro factores de la versión original, tal y como ya ha sido reportado en otros estudios (N = 309). El análisis factorial confirmatorio confirmó que el ajuste de dicha estructura fue el mejor frente a los datos (N = 248). CONCLUSIONES: Con este estudio se añade evidencia al estudio de la invarianza de género y la estabilidad temporal de esta medida, mostrando que la versión española del PSI puede ser considerada una medida estable y válida a través del tiempo y relativa al género


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Adulto , Inventário de Personalidade/normas , Aptidão , Política , Psicometria/instrumentação , Psicometria/normas , Análise Fatorial , Inquéritos e Questionários , 16054/psicologia , Traduções , Avaliação de Desempenho Profissional/estatística & dados numéricos , Mobilidade Ocupacional , Poder Psicológico
4.
Psychiatr Danub ; 32(Suppl 1): 188-193, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32890388

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Typus Melancholicus (TM) is the premorbid personality of endogenous depression defined by Tellenbach and Kraus and characterized by orderliness, conscientiousness, norm orientation and intolerance of ambiguity. Tellenbach's hypothesis was to find around 50% of TM in the sample of patients with an Unipolar Depression (UD). The present paper aims to make a literature review on the relationship between the Typus Melancholicus (TM) and Unipolar Depression (UD). METHODS: Nineteen references were selected through searches on PubMed, Google Scholar and Sciences-Direct with the following MeSH terms in the title: Typus Melancholicus AND Depressive or Depression or Dépression or Depressione. Nine of them were selected for our review. RESULTS: Eight of the nine reviewed articles confirm Tellenbach's hypothesis. The literature review also shows that, in a population of UD, TM is always constant regardless of age or sex, has no relationship to clinical characteristics and could contribute to the chronicity of depression. The TM with depression have increased levels of "lack of vital drive" and "feelings of guilt" and low scores in irritability and dysphoria compared to Non-Typus Melancholicus (NTM). Due to its characteristics, TM could also be involved in some pathologies such as burnout or postpartum depression. TM does not seem to be linked to a particular Personality Disorder or maladaptive personality, but the two may coexist in certain circumstances. It has been suggested that specific psychotherapeutic methods can be used to treat TM with UD. CONCLUSIONS: The TM could be very useful in our clinical practice. Better practical knowledge of TM could lead to more efficient psychiatric care as well as heightened capacity to predict new episodes.


Assuntos
Depressão Pós-Parto , Transtorno Depressivo Maior , Transtornos da Personalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Personalidade , Inventário de Personalidade
5.
Psychopathology ; 53(3-4): 205-212, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32777787

RESUMO

Personality pathology often emerges during adolescence, but attempts to understand its neurocognitive basis have traditionally been undermined by problems associated with the categorical classification of personality disorders. In contrast, dimensional models of personality pathology, such as the Alternative Model for Personality Disorders (AMPD) in DSM-5, may provide a stronger foundation for neurobiological investigations of maladaptive individual differences in personality. As an example, we review studies of the adolescent development of reward processing and cognitive control and connect these systems to the normal personality hierarchy and to two dimensions included in the AMPD - Detachment and Disinhibition. We argue that by linking developmental changes in these systems to the AMPD, researchers will be better positioned to understand the relationship between neurocognitive development and the expression of personality pathology in adolescence and early adulthood.


Assuntos
Neurociência Cognitiva/métodos , Transtornos da Personalidade/psicologia , Inventário de Personalidade/normas , Psicometria/métodos , Adolescente , Humanos
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32858996

RESUMO

The relationship between Dark Triad traits and risky behaviours has been shown in recent years. However, few studies have attempted to disentangle this relationship using a person-centred approach. The goal of the current study was to identify subgroups of individuals on the basis of their scores on Machiavellianism, psychopathy, and narcissism and analyse the differences between them in a set of risky behaviours (i.e., frequency of substance use, reactive and proactive aggression, risk perception and risk engagement, and problematic internet use). The sample consisted of 317 undergraduates aged 18-34 (46% males). The results of the latent profile analysis showed five subgroups of individuals that were identified based on their scores on the Dark Triad traits: low-Dark Triad, narcissistic, Machiavellian/narcissistic, psychopathic, and Machiavellian/psychopathic. Overall, the Machiavellian/narcissistic and Machiavellian/psychopathic subgroups showed higher scores for most risky behaviours. The low-Dark Triad scored higher for risk perception. No significant differences between subgroups were found as regards frequency of alcohol, tobacco, and cannabis use. These findings suggest that the combination of the Dark Triad traits lead to more negative outcomes as regards risky behaviour than individual components. Moreover, they highlight the relevance of using a person-centred approach in the study of dark personalities.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/psicologia , Maquiavelismo , Narcisismo , Personalidade/fisiologia , Estudantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Agressão/psicologia , Comportamento Aditivo/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Inventário de Personalidade , Assunção de Riscos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
7.
Psychiatr Hung ; 35(3): 254-268, 2020.
Artigo em Húngaro | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32643617

RESUMO

In our review, we present the theory of affective temperaments, the evolution of the temperament-concept, and the characteristics of the various forms of temperament (depressive, cyclothymic, hyperthymic, irritable, and anxious). We describe their relationship with the bipolar and unipolar spectrum, the ethological and evolutionary importance of temperaments, and their neurochemical, genetic basis. We present the self-report questionnaire (TEMPS-A) used for distinguishing between temperament forms. We analyze the relationship of affective tempera - ments with psychiatric disorders and suicide acts and the revealed associations.


Assuntos
Transtorno Bipolar/psicologia , Ideação Suicida , Temperamento , Humanos , Inventário de Personalidade , Autorrelato , Inquéritos e Questionários
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32635595

RESUMO

The use of cannabis among college students is increasing. Cannabis abuse has been proposed to be associated with personality dimensions. However, there are currently no known studies on the relationship of temperament traits and recreational cannabis use among college students. This is a cross-sectional study that investigated 328 students at a Podiatric Medical College. We evaluated the association between temperament and recreational cannabis use by the students. Temperament was investigated using the Memphis, Pisa, Paris and San Diego Auto- Questionnaire (TEMPS-A (short version)). Additionally, we assessed demographics variables and perceived stress in the context of cannabis use, and analyzed the findings using logistic regression. The prevalence of recreational cannabis use was 8.45%. Recreational cannabis use among these students was highly associated with irritable and cyclothymic temperament traits. There was no association between recreational cannabis use and perceived stress, and demographic variables or other substance use. Furthermore, logistic regression analysis indicated that higher scores in cyclothymic or irritable temperament traits are significant predictors for recreational cannabis use. Our study has identified key temperament traits, with a strong association with recreational use of cannabis of the studied student population. Our findings are useful in designing screening and educational strategies directed towards increasing the wellbeing of medical students.


Assuntos
Cannabis , Fumar Maconha , Estudantes de Medicina , Temperamento , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Inventário de Personalidade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudantes de Medicina/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
9.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236893, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32730328

RESUMO

We created a facet atlas that maps the interrelations between facet scales from 13 hierarchical personality inventories to provide a practically useful, transtheoretical description of lower-level personality traits. We generated this atlas by estimating a series of network models that visualize the correlations among 268 facet scales administered to the Eugene-Springfield Community Sample (Ns = 571-948). As expected, most facets contained a blend of content from multiple Big Five domains and were part of multiple Big Five networks. We identified core and peripheral facets for each Big Five domain. Results from this study resolve some inconsistencies in facet placement across instruments and highlight the complexity of personality structure relative to the constraints of traditional hierarchical models that impose simple structure. This facet atlas (also available as an online point-and-click app at tedschwaba.shinyapps.io/appdata/) provides a guide for researchers who wish to measure a domain with a limited set of facets as well as information about the core and periphery of each personality domain. To illustrate the value of a facet atlas in applied and theoretical settings, we examined the network structure of scales measuring impulsivity and tested structural hypotheses from the Big Five Aspect Scales inventory.


Assuntos
Individualidade , Redes Neurais de Computação , Desenvolvimento da Personalidade , Inventário de Personalidade/estatística & dados numéricos , Personalidade/classificação , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Comportamento Impulsivo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Psicológicos , Psicometria , Adulto Jovem
10.
Beijing Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 52(3): 506-513, 2020 Jun 18.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32541985

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore the correlation between different personality characteristics and self-management attitude such as medication, exercise and diet in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. METHODS: The patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus from 4 Community Healthcare Services and 22 affiliated community stations of Tongzhou District and Shunyi District of Beijing were selected as subjects. The Chinese big five personality inventory and the self-designed scale including the attitudes of medication, exercise and diet were used in the study. RESULTS: In this study, 642 subjects were finally included, among whom the sex ratio of male and female was basically the same, 61.21% were over 61 years old. In this study, different genders had differences in neurotic personality (P<0.05), different age groups had differences in agreeableness and openness (P<0.05), different education levels had differences in openness and extraversion (P<0.05), and different income levels had differences in agreeableness, openness and extraversion (P<0.05). The linear correlation analysis of the five-factor moldel of personality traits with medication, exercise and diet attitude showed that three items of perceived disorders of medication were positively correlated with neuroticism (r=0.125, 0.187, 0.151, P<0.05), four items of perceived disorders of exercise were positively correlated with neurotic personality (r=0.163, 0.129, 0.119, 0.104, P<0.05), and perceived benefits of exercise were positively correlated with conscientiousness (five items, r=0.156, 0.111, 0.131, 0.104, 0.131, P<0.05), agreeableness (two items, r=0.092, 0.078, P<0.05) and extraversion (four items, r=0.079, 0.122, 0.115, 0.123, P<0.05), three items of perceived disorders of diet were positively correlated with neuroticism (r=0.115, 0.137, 0.108, P<0.05), and two items of were negatively correlated with conscientiousness (r=-0.126, -0.161, P<0.05) and agreeableness (r=-0.103, -0.115, P<0.05). In the canonical correlation analysis, according to the formula combination of three groups of typical variables and canonical structure diagrams, neuroticism and agreeableness played major roles in personality traits, and items that represented "obstacles" in medication, exercise, and dietary attitudes played a major role. CONCLUSION: All the five personality traits were correlated with the self-management attitude of type 2 diabetes patients, and different personality traits have an impact on the self-management of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. In particular, it is of great significance to understand neuroticism for improving the mental health and quality of life of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Therefore, attention should be paid to the influence of psychological factors in community management of type 2 diabetes and disease self-management, and the personalized care and health education should be carried out according to the personality traits of patients.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Autogestão , Atitude , Pequim , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Personalidade , Inventário de Personalidade , Qualidade de Vida
11.
Crim Behav Ment Health ; 30(2-3): 141-150, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32483870

RESUMO

Dialectical behaviour therapy (DBT) is a therapy model incorporating elements of Eastern philosophies and cognitive behavioural principles. Originally designed for people struggling with chronic suicidality and borderline personality disorder (BPD), it has been adapted to treat complex, multi-diagnostic presentations, such as those in forensic mental health settings. To date, there has been little evaluation when the primary diagnosis is of psychosis. To explore the effectiveness of DBT, with patients, with multiple comorbidities, including psychosis, in a forensic psychiatric inpatient setting. A descriptive outcome study with a cohort of offender-patients in one specialist forensic mental health unit. Before and after treatment change scores were compared on anger, aggression, hopefulness, coping abilities, emotional intelligence, insight and subjective symptom severity scales, as well as staff-rated risk, and length of stay. Nine men and five women residents in one Canadian secure hospital completed a standard DBT programme, and self-ratings, over about 1 year. Scale scores indicated significantly increased insight and acknowledgment of problems. Apparently increased anger and vengeance scores were clinically associated. Independent staff ratings indicated reductions in risk and most patients achieved early release. This study provides support for extension of the use of DBT to offender-patients with psychosis among the complex mix in their presentation. It suggests that a randomised controlled trial with cost-benefit analysis is warranted, as well as further work, to promote understanding of mechanisms of effectiveness.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Personalidade Borderline/terapia , Criminosos/psicologia , Terapia do Comportamento Dialético/métodos , Psiquiatria Legal/métodos , Prisioneiros/psicologia , Violência/prevenção & controle , Adaptação Psicológica , Adulto , Agressão , Ira , Transtorno da Personalidade Borderline/diagnóstico , Transtorno da Personalidade Borderline/psicologia , Canadá , Inteligência Emocional , Emoções , Feminino , Esperança , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inventário de Personalidade , Transtornos Psicóticos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
Am J Psychiatry ; 177(9): 827-833, 2020 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32539529

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: With the addition of the "with limited prosocial emotions" specifier within the diagnosis of conduct disorder (DSM-5) and of conduct-dissocial disorder (ICD-11) to designate those with elevated callous-unemotional traits, the authors examined the role that callous-unemotional traits play in the risk for gun carrying and gun use during a crime in a sample at high risk for gun violence. METHODS: Male juvenile offenders (N=1,215) from three regions of the United States were assessed after their first arrest and then reassessed every 6 months for 36 months and again at 48 months. Callous-unemotional traits and peer gun carrying and ownership were measured via self-report after the first arrest (i.e., baseline). Gun carrying and use of a gun during a crime were self-reported at all follow-up points. RESULTS: Callous-unemotional traits at baseline increased the frequency of gun carrying and the likelihood of using a gun during a crime across the subsequent 4 years after accounting for other risk factors. Furthermore, callous-unemotional traits moderated the relationship between peer gun carrying and ownership and participant gun carrying, such that only participants low on callous-unemotional traits demonstrated increased gun carrying as a function of their peers' gun carrying and ownership. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates the importance of considering callous-unemotional traits in gun violence research both because callous-unemotional traits increase gun carrying and use in adolescents and because the traits may moderate other key risk factors. Notably, the influence of peer gun carrying and ownership may have been underestimated in past research for the majority of adolescents by not considering the moderating influence of callous-unemotional traits.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial , Transtorno da Conduta , Emoções , Armas de Fogo , Violência com Arma de Fogo , Infuência dos Pares , Adolescente , Agressão , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/diagnóstico , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/etiologia , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/psicologia , Transtorno da Conduta/diagnóstico , Transtorno da Conduta/epidemiologia , Transtorno da Conduta/psicologia , Criminosos/psicologia , Armas de Fogo/legislação & jurisprudência , Armas de Fogo/estatística & dados numéricos , Psiquiatria Legal/métodos , Violência com Arma de Fogo/etnologia , Violência com Arma de Fogo/prevenção & controle , Violência com Arma de Fogo/psicologia , Violência com Arma de Fogo/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Propriedade , Inventário de Personalidade , Medição de Risco/métodos , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos
13.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0232459, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32442169

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The association between temperament characteristics and mood disorders has gained much attention in recent years. The Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris and San Diego-autoquestionnaire version (TEMPS-A) is a self-rating scale measuring 5 affective temperament dimensions. In this study, we aimed to clarify whether each affective temperament of TEMPS-A is a differentiating factor between major depressive disorder (MDD), bipolar I disorder (BD-I), and bipolar II disorder (BD-II), and analyzed the utility of TEMPS-A in their differential diagnosis in a clinical setting. METHODS: A total of 346 patients (MDD, n = 176; BD-II, n = 112; BD-I, n = 58) filled out TEMPS-A. To assess the patients' mood state at the time of temperament assessment, Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) and Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) were also conducted. RESULTS: Multivariate logistic regression analysis demonstrated that cyclothymic and anxious temperament scores were significant factors differentiating the diagnosis of BD-I and BD-II from the diagnosis of MDD, and hyperthymic temperament score was a specific factor for the differential diagnosis of BD-I versus the diagnosis of BD-II. LIMITATIONS: All of the patients included in our study received treatment in large general hospitals. Because the nature of the present study was cross-sectional, some MDD subjects in this study might have unrecognized BD-I/BD-II. CONCLUSIONS: Cyclothymic and anxious temperament scores assessed by TEMPS-A might enable differentiation between MDD and BD, and hyperthymic temperament score on TEMPS-A might be useful in distinguishing between BD-I and BD-II.


Assuntos
Transtorno Bipolar/diagnóstico , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/diagnóstico , Inventário de Personalidade , Temperamento , Adulto , Afeto , Ansiedade , Transtorno Bipolar/classificação , Transtorno Bipolar/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/psicologia , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Autorrelato
14.
Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992) ; 66(2): 166-173, 2020 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32428151

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We investigated the associations between adhesive capsulitis (AC) and a specific psychological profile. METHODS: We assessed 72 patients with phase-II AC. In our study, 36 patients were affected by primary disease and 36 by secondary disease. The inclusion criteria were as follows: unilateral AC and pain in the shoulder for at least two months. The exclusion criteria were: psychiatric and neurological manifestations with a previous diagnosis and inability to comprehend the instruments. Outcomes were determined at 52 weeks. Shoulder pain severity was assessed with the Visual Analog Scale. We also measured the range of motion with a universal goniometer and the strength with the Medical Research Council. We assessed the personality traits of our patients with the Cloninger's Temperament and Character Inventory and the Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale. RESULTS: Patients with primary AC needed more time to improve the symptomatology compared to the group with the secondary disease (p<0.01). Patients with primary AC complained of severe and lasting pain more frequently than patients with the secondary disease (p< 0.01). In patients with primary disease, the prevalence of perfectionism, low levels of novelty seeking, and high levels of harm avoidance were 88.2 and 86.2%, and 80.4, respectively, and below 20 percent in patients with secondary AC disease. CONCLUSION: We found a significant correlation between primary AC and particular personality traits, indicating an interaction between psychological and somatic factors.


Assuntos
Bursite/psicologia , Personalidade , Transtornos Psicofisiológicos/psicologia , Adulto , Idoso , Bursite/fisiopatologia , Bursite/reabilitação , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medição da Dor , Inventário de Personalidade , Amplitude de Movimento Articular , Estudos Retrospectivos , Dor de Ombro/fisiopatologia , Dor de Ombro/psicologia , Dor de Ombro/reabilitação , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32423166

RESUMO

Background: Research exploring the relationship between personality and important pregnancy outcomes (i.e., depressive symptoms, adjustment, and perceived social support) tends to be cross-sectional, arguably due to the difficulties of conducting longitudinal and mental health research in this population. The objective of this study is to use a web-based solution to longitudinally explore how personality traits are associated, not only with the co-occurrence of these outcomes but also with their evolution during pregnancy. Stability and change of these outcomes will also be investigated. Methods: The sample included 85 pregnant women attending several medical centers in Spain. The web-based assessment included sociodemographic and obstetric variables (ad hoc) and personality (at the second trimester only), and outcomes at both the second and the third trimester (i.e., depressive symptoms, adjustment, and perceived social support). Results: The results showed that adjustment worsened from the second to the third trimester of pregnancy. Neuroticism (N), low extraversion (E), and psychoticism (P) were cross-sectionally and longitudinally associated with outcomes. In addition, N and, to a lesser extent P, uniquely contributed to the evolution of these outcomes in the multivariate analyses, including autoregressions. Conclusion: Personality and especially N and P should be evaluated early during pregnancy mental health screening. The use of a web page appears to be a useful tool for that purpose. Technologies might also help disseminate mental health prevention programs for these women, which would be especially recommended for those with a personality profile characterized by high N and P and, to a lesser extent, low E.


Assuntos
Depressão , Apoio Social , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Personalidade , Inventário de Personalidade , Gravidez , Espanha
16.
Psychopathology ; 53(3-4): 179-188, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32369820

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The DSM-5 Alternative Model of Personality Disorders (AMPD) and the ICD-11 classification of personality disorders (PD) are largely commensurate and, when combined, they delineate 6 trait domains: negative affectivity, detachment, antagonism/dissociality, disinhibition, anankastia, and psychoticism. OBJECTIVE: The present study evaluated the international validity of a brief 36-item patient-report measure that portrays all 6 domains simultaneously including 18 primary subfacets. METHODS: We developed and employed a modified version of the Personality Inventory for DSM-5 - Brief Form Plus (PID5BF+). A total of 16,327 individuals were included, 2,347 of whom were patients. The expected 6-factor structure of facets was initially investigated in samples from Denmark (n = 584), Germany (n = 1,271), and the USA (n = 605) and subsequently replicated in both patient- and community samples from Italy, France, Switzerland, Belgium, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Poland, Czech Republic, the USA, and Brazil. Associations with interview-rated DSM-5 PD categories were also investigated. RESULTS: Findings generally supported the empirical soundness and international robustness of the 6 domains including meaningful associations with familiar interview-rated PD types. CONCLUSIONS: The modified PID5BF+ may be employed internationally by clinicians and researchers for brief and reliable assessment of the 6 combined DSM-5 and ICD-11 domains, including 18 primary subfacets. This 6-domain framework may inform a future nosology for DSM-5.1 that is more reasonably aligned with the authoritative ICD-11 codes than the current DSM-5 AMPD model. The 36-item modified PID5BF+ scoring key is provided in online supplementary Appendix A see www.karger.com/doi/10.1159/000507589 (for all online suppl. material).


Assuntos
Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Classificação Internacional de Doenças/normas , Transtornos da Personalidade/classificação , Inventário de Personalidade/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
17.
Psychopathology ; 53(3-4): 198-204, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32464626

RESUMO

This paper reviews maladaptive trait development (DSM-5 Section III Criterion B), the development of DSM-5 Section II borderline personality disorder, and research on the development of identity, self-direction, empathy/mentalizing, and intimacy (DSM-5 Section III Criterion A). Combined, these previously disparate literatures begin to point to an integrated developmental theory of personality pathology, which suggests that Criterion A concepts (identity, self-direction, empathy, and intimacy) coalesce around the development of self, marking a discontinuous (qualitative) developmental shift. This developmental shift is a function of the demands placed on individuals to take on independent adult role function, combined with biologically-based maturational cognitive and emotional advances during adolescence. Section II personality disorder ensues when an integrated and coherent sense of self fails to develop, resulting in nonfulfilment of adult role function. In this sense, Criterion A self function can account for the onset of Section II personality disorder in adolescence, while Criterion B provides a useful descriptive account of continuous aspects of personality function over time.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Personalidade/psicologia , Inventário de Personalidade/normas , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
18.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(17): e19812, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32332624

RESUMO

The European Higher Education Area was implemented more than a decade ago with the aim of improving internationally the competitiveness of European university education putting the spotlight on skills and competence development (and not only on knowledge acquisition). This work intends to analyze the impact of competence-based teaching methodologies on university students, as well as to contribute to the study of the individual personality traits differences regarding this impact. For this, a descriptive, quantitative, cross-sectional study was conducted with a non-randomised sample of university students. The sample was composed of a total of 499 students of the University of Huelva (350 from the Health Sciences degree, and 149 form other degrees), who completed a questionnaire on professional skills and teaching methods developed ad hoc for this research, as well as the brief version of the Spanish adaptation of the NEO Five-Factor Inventory. The results show that Health Sciences students feel more satisfied with the most participative and active methodologies, and they consider these better contribute to their future professional competence development. On the other hand, in relation to the big 5 personality traits studied, links have been found between competence development perception and personal preferences and the dimensions of extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness and openness to experience. This last factor, openness to experience, appears when analyzing the main differences among both groups, being Health Sciences students more intellectually curious, showing more openness and diversity of interests, in addition to being more creative, innovative, and flexible.


Assuntos
Pessoal Técnico de Saúde/educação , Pessoal Técnico de Saúde/psicologia , Inventário de Personalidade/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Pessoal Técnico de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Educação Baseada em Competências/métodos , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes de Personalidade/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários
19.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0232187, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32348331

RESUMO

Social anxiety disorder (SAD) can come in different forms, presenting problems for diagnostic classification. Here, we examined personality traits in a large sample of patients (N = 265) diagnosed with SAD in comparison to healthy controls (N = 164) by use of the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R) and Karolinska Scales of Personality (KSP). In addition, we identified subtypes of SAD based on cluster analysis of the NEO-PI-R Big Five personality dimensions. Significant group differences in personality traits between patients and controls were noted on all Big Five dimensions except agreeableness. Group differences were further noted on most lower-order facets of NEO-PI-R, and nearly all KSP variables. A logistic regression analysis showed, however, that only neuroticism and extraversion remained significant independent predictors of patient/control group when controlling for the effects of the other Big Five dimensions. Also, only neuroticism and extraversion yielded large effect sizes when SAD patients were compared to Swedish normative data for the NEO-PI-R. A two-step cluster analysis resulted in three separate clusters labelled Prototypical (33%), Introvert-Conscientious (29%), and Instable-Open (38%) SAD. Individuals in the Prototypical cluster deviated most on the Big Five dimensions and they were at the most severe end in profile analyses of social anxiety, self-rated fear during public speaking, trait anxiety, and anxiety-related KSP variables. While additional studies are needed to determine if personality subtypes in SAD differ in etiological and treatment-related factors, the present results demonstrate considerable personality heterogeneity in socially anxious individuals, further underscoring that SAD is a multidimensional disorder.


Assuntos
Personalidade , Fobia Social/psicologia , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Análise por Conglomerados , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Determinação da Personalidade , Inventário de Personalidade , Fobia Social/classificação , Suécia , Adulto Jovem
20.
Wei Sheng Yan Jiu ; 49(2): 173-226, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32290928

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationships among personality traits, resilience and depressive symptoms of primary and high school students. METHODS: Totally 6019 students aged 10-17 from 5 primary schools(grades 5-6), 3 junior middle schools(grades 7-9) and 2 senior high schools(grade 1) years were selected by cluster sampling in Wuhan, from September 2015 to January 2016. Among them, there were 2420 primary school students, 2912 junior high school students and 687 senior high school students. In addition, 3071 students were male, 2948 students were female. Participants were asked to complete self-report questionnaires, including demographic characteristic questionnaire, the center for epidemiological studies depression scale(CES-D), the connor davidson resilience scale(CD-RISC) and the NEO-five factor inventory(NEO-FFI). Multivariate Logistic regression analysis was used to analyze the influence factors of depressive symptoms in primary and high school students. RESULTS: The detection rate of depressive symptoms was 10. 5%(635/6019). Multivariate Logistic regression analysis showed that after adjusting for grade and family history of depression, neuroticism(OR=4. 53, 95% CI 3. 88-5. 28) and openness(OR=1. 33, 95% CI 1. 18-1. 50) were positively associated with depressive symptoms. But the higher level of extraversion(OR=0. 70, 95% CI 0. 62-0. 79) and conscientiousness(OR=0. 77, 95% CI 0. 67-0. 90) and resilience(OR=0. 77, 95% CI 0. 67-0. 88) were associated with lower risk of depressive symptoms in primary and high school students. CONCLUSION: Neuroticism and openness might be positively correlated with, whereas extraversion, conscientiousness and resilience might be negatively correlated with the onsets of depressive symptoms in primary and secondary school students. Thus, developing adaptive personality and improving resilience would contribute to the prevention and intervention of depression in primary and high school students.


Assuntos
Depressão , Personalidade , Estudantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Inventário de Personalidade , Inquéritos e Questionários
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