Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 9.902
Filtrar
1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e250280, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355867

RESUMO

Abstract Endozoochory by waterbirds is particularly relevant to the dispersal of non-flying aquatic invertebrates. This ecological function exercised by birds has been demonstrated in different biogeographical regions, but there are no studies for the neotropical region. In this work, we identified propagules of invertebrates in faeces of 14 syntopic South American waterbird species representing six families, and hatched additional invertebrates from cultured faeces. We tested whether propagule abundance, species richness and composition varied among bird species, and between the cold and warm seasons. We found 164 invertebrate propagules in faecal samples from seven different waterbirds species, including eggs of the Temnocephalida and Notonectidae, statoblasts of bryozoans (Plumatella sp.) and ephippia of Cladocera. Ciliates (including Paramecium sp. and Litostomatea), nematodes and rotifers (Adineta sp. and Nottomatidae) hatched from cultured samples. Potential for endozoochory was confirmed for 12 of 14 waterbird species. Our statistical models suggest that richness and abundance of propagules are associated with bird species and not affected by seasonality. Dispersal by endozoochory is potentially important to a broad variety of invertebrates, being promoted by waterbirds with different ecological and morphological traits, which are likely to drive the dispersal of invertebrates in neotropical wetlands.


Resumo A endozoocoria promovida por aves aquáticas é particularmente relevante para a dispersão de invertebrados aquáticos não-voadores. Essa função ecológica exercida pelas aves tem sido demonstrada para diferentes regiões biogeográficas, porém, não existem estudos para a região neotropical. Neste trabalho nós identificamos propágulos de invertebrados encontrados em fezes de 14 espécies sintópicas de aves aquáticas da América do Sul, representando seis famílias de aves, e também invertebrados emergidos de amostras fecais cultivadas em laboratório. Testamos se a abundância, riqueza de espécies e composição de propágulos de invertebrados variavam entre as espécies de aves e entre estações. Nós encontramos 164 propágulos de invertebrados em amostras fecais de sete espécies de aves, incluindo ovos de Temnocephalida e Notonectidae, estatoblastos de briozoários (Plumatella sp.) e efípios de Cladocera. Ciliados (incluindo Paramecium sp. e Litostomatea), nematóides e rotíferos (Adineta sp. e Nottomatidae) eclodiram de amostras cultivadas. O potencial para endozoocoria foi confirmado para 12 das 14 espécies de aves aquáticas investigadas. Nossos modelos estatísticos sugerem que a riqueza e abundância de propágulos estão associadas às espécies de aves e não são afetadas pela sazonalidade. A dispersão por endozoocoria é importante para uma ampla variedade de invertebrados, sendo promovida por aves aquáticas com diferentes características ecológicas e morfológicas as quais provavelmente regulam a dispersão de invertebrados entre áreas úmidas neotropicais.


Assuntos
Humanos , Animais , Áreas Alagadas , Invertebrados , Estações do Ano , Aves
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e251566, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355890

RESUMO

Abstract The Seybouse is the second largest river basin in Algeria, hosting an important biodiversity and providing various ecosystem services. This watershed is highly influenced by agricultural and industrial activities, which threaten its biodiversity and ecosystem integrity. The use of benthic macroinvertebrates as biological indicators has a long tradition in developed countries and integrated into all assessments of the ecological quality of river systems. However, the macroinvertebrates of many North African regions are still not well studied, including those of the Seybouse river. The aim of this study is to assess the inventory and ecological role of benthic macroinvertebrates in inland waters of the Seybouse River and determine the impact of pollution on their spatial distributions. We sampled the benthic macrofauna of Wadi Seybouse and its affluents using regular surveys in three sites, of which one was in the upper Seybouse Bouhamdane in Medjez Amar and two in the middle Seybouse. Between December 2019 and May 2020, 10 physico-chemical parameters (pH, EC, OD, water speed, NO3, Salinity, NO2, MES, turbidity, depth) were measured in order to establish a health state diagnosis of these aquatic ecosystems. The complementary biological approach by the analysis of populations of macroinvertebrates identified 7482 individuals and 40 taxa divided into five classes: Crustaceans which were the most dominant, insects with the main orders (Ephemeroptera, Diptera, Trichoptera, Heteroptera and Odonata), Molluscs, Nematodes and Annelids. The physico-chemical analyzes and the application of the organic pollution indices indicated a strong to excessive pollution for all sites, especially in Seybouse upstream


Resumo O Seybouse é um rio no nordeste da Argélia, é o segundo maior rio, tem uma área de captação de cerca de 6.500 km2 que acolhe cerca de 1,5 milhões de habitantes. Importantes atividades agrícolas e industriais são desenvolvidas nesta bacia hidrográfica. O uso de macroinvertebrados bentônicos como indicadores biológicos tem uma longa tradição em países desenvolvidos e está integrado em todas as avaliações da qualidade ecológica dos sistemas fluviais. O objetivo deste estudo foi revisar o inventário e o papel ecológico dos macroinvertebrados bentônicos nas águas interiores do rio Seybouse e determinar o impacto da poluição em suas distribuições. Resultados semelhantes foram relatados para outros países e rios argelinos. Este estudo enfoca a macrofauna bentônica de Wadi Seybouse e seus afluentes. Foram prospectados 03 locais, um no alto Seybousse Bouhamdane em Medjez Amar e dois no meio Seybousse Salah Salah Salah e Oued Zimba. Entre dezembro de 2019 e maio de 2020, dez parâmetros físico-químicos (pH, CE, DO, velocidade da água, NO3, Salinidade, NO2, MES, turbidez, deth) foram medidos para estabelecer um diagnóstico do estado de saúde desses ecossistemas aquáticos. A abordagem biológica complementar pela análise de populações de macroinvertebrados identificou 7.482 indivíduos e 40 táxons divididos em cinco classes: Crustáceos que são os mais dominantes, Insetos com as ordens principais (Ephemeroptera, Diptera, Trichoptera, Heteroptera e Odonata), Moluscos, Nematóides e Anelídeos. As análises físico-químicas e a aplicação dos índices de poluição orgânica, indicaram uma poluição forte a excessiva para todos os locais especialmente Salah Salah Salah.


Assuntos
Humanos , Animais , Ecossistema , Invertebrados , Monitoramento Ambiental , Biodiversidade , Rios
3.
PLoS One ; 17(5): e0264501, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35511881

RESUMO

In many respects, freshwater springs can be considered as unique ecosystems on the fringe of aquatic habitats. This integrates their uniqueness in terms of stability of environmental metrics. The main objective of our study was to evaluate how environmental variables may shape invertebrate diversity and community composition in different freshwater spring types and habitats within. In order to do so, we sampled invertebrates from 49 springs in Iceland, where we included both limnocrene and rheocrene springs. At each site, samples were taken from the benthic substrate of the spring ("surface") and the upwelling groundwater at the spring source ("source"). To collect invertebrates from the spring sources we used a modified method of "electrobugging" and Surber sampler for collecting invertebrates from the surface. In total, 54 invertebrate taxa were identified, mostly Chironomidae (Diptera). Chironomid larvae also dominated in terms of abundance (67%), followed by Ostracoda (12%) and Copepoda (9%). The species composition in the surface samples differed considerably between rheocrene and limnocrene springs and was characterised by several indicator species. Alpha diversity was greater at the surface of springs than at the source, but the beta diversity was higher at the source. Diversity, as summarized by taxa richness and Shannon diversity, was negatively correlated with temperature at the surface. At the source, on the other hand, Shannon diversity increased with temperature. The community assembly in springs appears to be greatly affected by water temperature, with the source community of hot springs being more niche-assembled (i.e., affected by mechanisms of tolerance and adaptation) than the source community of cold springs, which is more dispersal-assembled (i.e., by mechanisms of drift and colonization).


Assuntos
Fontes Termais , Nascentes Naturais , Animais , Biodiversidade , Ecossistema , Água Doce , Invertebrados
4.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 2520, 2022 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35534497

RESUMO

Management of coral predators, corallivores, is recommended to improve coral cover on tropical coral reefs under projected increasing levels of accumulated thermal stress, but whether corallivore management can improve coral cover, which is necessary for large-scale operationalisation, remains equivocal. Here, using a multispecies ecosystem model, we investigate intensive management of an invertebrate corallivore, the Crown-of-Thorns Starfish (Acanthaster cf. solaris), and show that culling could improve coral cover at sub-reef spatial scales, but efficacy varied substantially within and among reefs. Simulated thermal stress events attenuated management-derived coral cover improvements and was dependent on the level of accumulated thermal stress, the thermal sensitivity of coral communities and the rate of corallivore recruitment at fine spatial scales. Corallivore management was most effective when accumulated thermal stress was low, coral communities were less sensitive to heat stress and in areas of high corallivore recruitment success. Our analysis informs how to manage a pest species to promote coral cover under future thermal stress events.


Assuntos
Antozoários , Animais , Recifes de Corais , Ecossistema , Invertebrados , Compostos de Sódio , Estrelas-do-Mar
5.
Environ Monit Assess ; 194(6): 421, 2022 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35543765

RESUMO

The most robust approach to ecological monitoring and assessment is the use of regionally calibrated indicators. These should be calculated based on collocated biological (response) and physicochemical (stressor) variables and an objective rating and scoring system. In developing countries, a frequent lack of financial and technical resources for monitoring has led to many environmental problems being overlooked, such as the degradation of streams, rivers, and watersheds. In this paper, we propose the Karun Macroinvertebrate Tolerance Index (KMTI) for application to rivers in the Karun River basin, which is the largest watershed in Iran, draining semi-arid mountainous regions. The KMTI is the first biological index specifically developed and calibrated for Iranian water resources. Benthic macroinvertebrates, physical habitat, hydromorphic, and water quality data were collected and measured at 54 sites across four seasons in 2018 and 2019. A total of 101 families of benthic macroinvertebrates belonging to eight classes and 21 orders were identified, and tolerance values were determined for 95 families. The KMTI was found to be most efficient in identifying ecological degradation when data were used from winter samples with a discrimination efficiency (DE) 90% and a four-season mean of 84.3%. Also, the best DE of the water quality classification table based on the KMTI index was equal to 86.9%.


Assuntos
Invertebrados , Rios , Animais , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental , Irã (Geográfico) , Qualidade da Água
6.
Environ Monit Assess ; 194(6): 416, 2022 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35536370

RESUMO

The use of imidacloprid and, to a lesser degree, other neonicotinoid insecticides is widespread in FL (and globally). The moderate to high water solubility and environmental persistence of neonicotinoids allows these compounds to readily enter, and be retained in, water resources where they may harm nontarget organisms and impact biological communities and associated trophic structures negatively. To better understand imidacloprid's chronic long-term exposure potential to aquatic invertebrate communities in FL, grab water samples were collected monthly in 2015 at 77 monitoring stations statewide. Fifty-eight stations (75%), representing 24 of the 25 drainage basins sampled, had detectable concentrations of imidacloprid, with concentrations ranging from 2 to 660 nanograms per liter [ng/L]. Imidacloprid basin medians were found to be correlated with two of six land use categories (urban, transportation, agriculture, and three crop classes) examined; urban (rho = 0.43, p-value = 0.03), and orchards and vineyards (rho 0.49, p-value = 0.01). The resampling of 12 select stations, representing eight basins, between August 2019 and July 2020, for the neonicotinoids acetamiprid, clothianidin, dinotefuran, imidacloprid, and thiamethoxam, showed that (1) median values of imidacloprid continued to exceed the US EPA chronic freshwater Invertebrate Aquatic Life Benchmark (IALB) (10 ng/L), (2) imidacloprid concentration was directly correlated with flow measurements, and (3) while median imidacloprid concentration decreased between the two sampling events (48.5 vs. 34.5 ng/L, p-value = 0.01) differences in event 1 and 2 streamflow regimes and disruptions due to the COVID-19 pandemic likely affected this outcome. Clothianidin was the only other neonicotinoid found to have values greater than a US EPA IALB, with detections at three stations exceeding the chronic IALB (50 ng/L). This study highlights the challenges associated with limiting neonicotinoids from entering water resources and identifies means to reduce their entry into and persistence within FL water resources.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Inseticidas , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Monitoramento Ambiental , Florida , Humanos , Inseticidas/análise , Invertebrados , Neonicotinoides/análise , Nitrocompostos , Pandemias , Água
7.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2489: 449-457, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35524064

RESUMO

The isolation of pure organic compounds from biological sources, reaction media, or other complex molecular matrixes is the first step to overcome before further biological and chemical investigations. While the isolation of chemicals soluble in organic solvents is commonly accomplished, the isolation of water-soluble organic compounds is less often addressed. We present here a simple method for the isolation of water-soluble organic compounds, using adsorptive macroporous resins and reversed-phase chromatography.


Assuntos
Compostos Orgânicos , Água , Animais , Invertebrados , Solventes , Água/química
8.
Zootaxa ; 5099(1): 65-90, 2022 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35391426

RESUMO

Echinoderes goku sp. nov. is described from adult and juvenile specimens in samples collected from the Argentinean continental shelf in March 2019 during the campaign of the Motorsailer Bernardo Houssay, based on light and scanning electron microscopy studies. Echinoderes goku sp. nov. is differentiated from other species by its unique spine and tube pattern: (1) middorsal spine on segments 4, 6, and 8, (2) spine in lateroventral position on segments 69, (3) tube present in subdorsal position on segment 2, sublateral to midlateral position on segments 7 and 9, lateral accessory position on segment 8, lateroventral position on segment 5 and ventrolateral position on segment 2. Additionally, this species (4) lacks type-2 gland cell outlets and female-specific papillae or subcuticular funnel-like structures. (5) The male possesses a sublateral tube on segment 10 with a basal cylindrical reinforcement structure and three penile spines on segment 11, whereas the female lacks penile spines but reveals a lateral terminal accessory spine on segment 11 and on segment 10 lacks a subdorsal tube but possesses instead a sublateral fringe on the surface connected with a subcuticular conical structure and a basal cylindrical reinforcement structure. Among several juvenile specimens, one was captured in the process of moulting from the last juvenile stage to the female. Whereas the last juvenile stage revealed a sublateral tube on segment 10, the moulting female lacked this tube and showed a conical subcuticular structure with a basal cylindrical reinforcement structure instead. A cylindrical reinforcement structure at the base of a tube and a subcuticular conical structure have not been reported before for Kinorhyncha, and 14 selected species of Echinoderidae available for study were screened for these characters in order to get a first idea of their possible taxonomic importance. This article reports about the second species of Echinoderes from Argentinean waters.


Assuntos
Invertebrados , Animais , Feminino , Invertebrados/anatomia & histologia , Masculino , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão
9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(7)2022 Mar 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35408776

RESUMO

Invertebrates do not possess adaptive immunity but have evolved a variety of unique repertoires of innate immune sensors. In this study, we explored the immune diversity and specificity of invertebrates based on the lophotrochozoan RLRs, a major component in antiviral immune recognition. By annotating RLRs in the genomes of 58 representative species across metazoan evolution, we explored the gene expansion of RLRs in Lophotrochozoa. Of note, the N-terminal domains of lophotrochozoan RLRs showed the most striking diversity which evolved independently by domain grafting. Exon-intron structures were revealed to be prevalent in the domain grafting of lophotrochozoan RLRs based on an analysis of sibling paralogs and orthologs. In more than half of the cases, the mechanism of 'exonization/pseudoexonization' led to the generation of non-canonical N-terminal domains. Transcriptomic studies revealed that many non-canonical RLRs display immune-related expression patterns. Two of these RLRs showed obvious evidence of positive selection, which may be the result of host defense selection pressure. Overall, our study suggests that the complex and unique domain arrangement of lophotrochozoan RLRs might result from domain grafting, exon-intron divergence, expression diversification, and positive selection, which may have led to functionally distinct lophotrochozoan RLRs.


Assuntos
Imunidade Adaptativa , RNA Helicases , Animais , Éxons/genética , Imunidade Inata , Íntrons , Invertebrados/genética , RNA Helicases/genética
10.
Environ Monit Assess ; 194(5): 368, 2022 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35426571

RESUMO

We sampled headwater streams to characterize impacts of unconventional shale gas development (SGD) on aquatic ecosystems. The study area was relatively un-impacted by confounding activities. Intensity of SGD over the study decreased then increased again but not to levels seen the first year. Shale gas development was associated with increased, but non-impaired, water pH and specific conductance during the latter part of the study. Metrics summarizing macroinvertebrate assemblages were better on average in un-impacted reaches. A genus-level multimetric index of biotic integrity was statistically lower downstream of impacts compared to upstream, but only in the year when SGD activity was most intense. Multivariate analyses indicated that assemblages diverged in similarity downstream compared to upstream of impacts in the first and last years of the study when SGD activity was elevated. Assemblage divergence was related to variation in water quality. Indicator species analysis linked a few key taxa to un-impacted conditions in the first year of the study; tolerant taxa were indicators for impacted conditions later in the study. Our study links SGD to weak negative changes in water quality and benthic macroinvertebrates, which may have negative consequences to food quality for wildlife that rely on aquatic prey within forested systems.


Assuntos
Invertebrados , Gás Natural , Animais , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental , West Virginia
11.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 6830, 2022 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35474093

RESUMO

Wastewater treatment plant effluents have been identified as a major contributor to increasing anthropogenic pollution in aquatic environments worldwide. Yet, little is known about the potentially adverse effects of wastewater treatment plant effluent on aquatic invertebrates. In this study, we assessed effects of wastewater effluent on the behaviour and metabolic profiles of damselfly larvae (Coenagrion hastulatum), a common aquatic invertebrate species. Four key behavioural traits: activity, boldness, escape response, and foraging (traits all linked tightly to individual fitness) were studied in larvae before and after one week of exposure to a range of effluent dilutions (0, 50, 75, 100%). Effluent exposure reduced activity and foraging, but generated faster escape response. Metabolomic analyses via targeted and non-targeted mass spectrometry methods revealed that exposure caused significant changes to 14 individual compounds (4 amino acids, 3 carnitines, 3 lysolipids, 1 peptide, 2 sugar acids, 1 sugar). Taken together, these compound changes indicate an increase in protein metabolism and oxidative stress. Our findings illustrate that wastewater effluent can affect both behavioural and physiological traits of aquatic invertebrates, and as such might pose an even greater threat to aquatic ecosystems than previously assumed. More long-term studies are now needed evaluate if these changes are linked to adverse effects on fitness. The combination of behavioural and metabolomic assessments provide a promising tool for detecting effects of wastewater effluent, on multiple biological levels of organisation, in aquatic ecosystems.


Assuntos
Águas Residuárias , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Ecossistema , Invertebrados/metabolismo , Larva/metabolismo , Águas Residuárias/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo
12.
PLoS One ; 17(4): e0266776, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35476808

RESUMO

Blue and green ecosystems are considered a key for the improvement of cities sustainability, providing numerous ecosystem services and habitat for many species. However, urban streams are still neglected and degraded, specially in southern European countries. One important step towards the rehabilitation of these ecosystems is the awareness of their importance by citizens. This study aimed to assess the effect of 1-year of activities (field and laboratory) of an environmental education project on primary school children, in improving their knowledge on urban stream ecosystems and their problems. We analyzed students' questionnaires before and after field and laboratory activities, drawings and group interviews. Initially, most children had incipient contact with rivers and streams, showing fears and lack of knowledge about them. As the project progressed, their perceptions changed, with a clear increase in the proportion of students recognizing the biodiversity associated to rivers (e.g., names of riparian trees, aquatic plants and invertebrates). Also, their fears decreased significantly, while their awareness to the impacts of artificialization and lack of riparian vegetation increased. Our results show that direct contact with nature have a positive role in the way it is understood by children, as well as promoting responsible and sustainable behaviors, being effective from the early primary-school years.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Rios , Animais , Biodiversidade , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Invertebrados , Árvores
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35457703

RESUMO

Responses of the macrozoobenthic community to an ecological restoration activity in the northern Venice lagoon were studied, within the scope of the project LIFE SEagrass RESTOration aimed at recreating aquatic phanerogam meadows largely reduced in recent decades. Transplants were successful in almost all project areas. Macrozoobenthos was sampled in eight stations before (2014) and after (2015, 2016, 2017) transplanting activities. An increase in abundance and fluctuations in richness and univariate ecological indices (Shannon's, Margalef's, Pielou's indices) resulted during the years. Comparing non-vegetated and vegetated samples in 2017, every index except Pielou's increased in the latter. Multivariate analysis (hierarchical cluster analysis, MDS, PERMDISP, SIMPER) grouped samples by localization rather than years, with differences between stations due to the abundance of common species. In 2017, results were also grouped by the presence or absence of aquatic plants, with differences in the abundance of grazer and filter-feeding species. Results of ecological index M-AMBI depicted conditions from moderate to good ecological status (sensu Dir.2000/60/EC) with similar fluctuations, as presented by univariate indices from 2014 to 2017. Responses of the macrozoobenthic community were more evident when comparing vegetated and non-vegetated samples, with the vegetated areas sustaining communities with greater abundance and diversity than non-vegetated samples, thus demonstrating the supporting function of aquatic plants to benthic communities.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Ecossistema , Animais , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Invertebrados
14.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 2161, 2022 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35443761

RESUMO

Organisms have the capacity to alter their physiological response to warming through acclimation or adaptation, but the consequence of this metabolic plasticity for energy flow through food webs is currently unknown, and a generalisable framework does not exist for modelling its ecosystem-level effects. Here, using temperature-controlled experiments on stream invertebrates from a natural thermal gradient, we show that the ability of organisms to raise their metabolic rate following chronic exposure to warming decreases with increasing body size. Chronic exposure to higher temperatures also increases the acute thermal sensitivity of whole-organismal metabolic rate, independent of body size. A mathematical model parameterised with these findings shows that metabolic plasticity could account for 60% higher ecosystem energy flux with just +2 °C of warming than a traditional model based on ecological metabolic theory. This could explain why long-term warming amplifies ecosystem respiration rates through time in recent mesocosm experiments, and highlights the need to embed metabolic plasticity in predictive models of global warming impacts on ecosystems.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Aquecimento Global , Animais , Cadeia Alimentar , Invertebrados , Temperatura
15.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 2172, 2022 Apr 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35449136

RESUMO

Coleoid cephalopods (squid, cuttlefish, octopus) have the largest nervous system among invertebrates that together with many lineage-specific morphological traits enables complex behaviors. The genomic basis underlying these innovations remains unknown. Using comparative and functional genomics in the model squid Euprymna scolopes, we reveal the unique genomic, topological, and regulatory organization of cephalopod genomes. We show that coleoid cephalopod genomes have been extensively restructured compared to other animals, leading to the emergence of hundreds of tightly linked and evolutionary unique gene clusters (microsyntenies). Such novel microsyntenies correspond to topological compartments with a distinct regulatory structure and contribute to complex expression patterns. In particular, we identify a set of microsyntenies associated with cephalopod innovations (MACIs) broadly enriched in cephalopod nervous system expression. We posit that the emergence of MACIs was instrumental to cephalopod nervous system evolution and propose that microsyntenic profiling will be central to understanding cephalopod innovations.


Assuntos
Cefalópodes , Animais , Cefalópodes/genética , Decapodiformes/genética , Genoma/genética , Genômica , Invertebrados/genética
16.
Zootaxa ; 5093(3): 315-336, 2022 Jan 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35391484

RESUMO

Two new species of pycnophyid Kinorhyncha, Leiocanthus quinquenudus sp. nov. and L. satanicus sp. nov., are described from soft seafloor sediment samples in the Gulf of Mexico. Leiocanthus quinquenudus sp. nov. is easily distinguished from the other congeners by the absence of ventromedial setae on segment 5, a structure otherwise present in all the other known Leiocanthus. Leiocanthus satanicus sp. nov. lacks lateral terminal spines, a feature only shared by L. langi and L. mainensis among the congeners; otherwise the new species is easily discernible by the arrangement of the paradorsal, laterodorsal and ventromedial setae, and the number of ventral sensory spots per segment. These findings are a significant contribution to the knowledge of the Kinorhyncha biodiversity from the Gulf of Mexico, which has recently been explored in several taxonomical and ecological studies mainly focused on cyclorhagid Kinorhyncha, not pycnophyid kinorhynchs.


Assuntos
Invertebrados , Animais , Golfo do México
17.
Prog Brain Res ; 271(1): 1-35, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35397884

RESUMO

Lower invertebrates exhibit both morphological and behavioral defensive responses to aversive stimuli, characterized by withdrawal. Typical immobility responses are "sinking" in Rotifers and "crumpling" in Cnidaria. They also display individual adaptation and phenotypic plasticity but not tonic immobility (TI). The higher phyla with a more organized nervous system have developed morphological and behavioral defensive strategies including TI, occurring both in natural and laboratory conditions. There are general but also specific prey-predator mechanisms, that have coevolved leading to reciprocal phenotypic plasticity. The evolution of traits differentiated in subpopulations has been described in many species (animal personality). In insects the variability in TI is heritable and inversely related to boldness. In two genetic lines of beetles with long and short TI duration, the long duration line has higher survival rate but lower mating success (behavioral syndromes). TI may have an adaptive significance also in intraspecific interactions in the context of sexual selection.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica , Invertebrados , Animais , Humanos , Sistema Nervoso , Personalidade , Fenótipo
18.
Environ Pollut ; 305: 119290, 2022 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35436506

RESUMO

Massive use of pesticides in conventional agriculture leads to accumulation in soil of complex mixtures, triggering questions about their potential ecotoxicological risk. This study assessed cropland soils containing pesticide mixtures sampled from conventional and organic farming systems at La Cage and Mons, France. The conventional agricultural field soils contained more pesticide residues (11 and 17 versus 3 and 11, respectively) and at higher concentrations than soils from organic fields (mean 6.6 and 10.5 versus 0.2 and 0.6 µg kg-1, respectively), including systemic insecticides belonging to neonicotinoids, carbamate herbicides and broad-spectrum fungicides mostly from the azole family. A risk quotient (RQi) approach evaluated the toxicity of the pesticide mixtures in soil, assuming concentration addition. Based on measured concentrations, both conventional agricultural soils posed high risks to soil invertebrates, especially due to the presence of epoxiconazole and imidacloprid, whereas soils under organic farming showed negligible to medium risk. To confirm the outcome of the risk assessment, toxicity of the soils was determined in bioassays following standardized test guidelines with seven representative non-target invertebrates: earthworms (Eisenia andrei, Lumbricus rubellus, Aporrectodea caliginosa), enchytraeids (Enchytraeus crypticus), Collembola (Folsomia candida), oribatid mites (Oppia nitens), and snails (Cantareus aspersus). Collembola and enchytraeid survival and reproduction and land snail growth were significantly lower in soils from conventional compared to organic agriculture. The earthworms displayed different responses: L. rubellus showed higher mortality on soils from conventional agriculture and large body mass loss in all field soils, E. andrei showed considerable mass loss and strongly reduced reproduction, and A. caliginosa showed significantly reduced acetylcholinesterase activity in soils from conventional agriculture. The oribatid mites did not show consistent differences between organic and conventional farming soils. These results highlight that conventional agricultural practices pose a high risk for soil invertebrates and may threaten soil functionality, likely due to additive or synergistic "cocktail effects".


Assuntos
Artrópodes , Ácaros , Oligoquetos , Praguicidas , Poluentes do Solo , Acetilcolinesterase , Agricultura , Animais , Invertebrados , Praguicidas/toxicidade , Reprodução , Solo/química , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade
19.
Front Immunol ; 13: 840861, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35359984

RESUMO

Complement proteins emerged early in evolution but outside the vertebrate clade they are poorly characterized. An evolutionary model of C3 family members revealed that in contrast to vertebrates the evolutionary trajectory of C3-like genes in cnidarian, protostomes and invertebrate deuterostomes was highly divergent due to independent lineage and species-specific duplications. The deduced C3-like and vertebrate C3, C4 and C5 proteins had low sequence conservation, but extraordinarily high structural conservation and 2-chain and 3-chain protein isoforms repeatedly emerged. Functional characterization of three C3-like isoforms in a bivalve representative revealed that in common with vertebrates complement proteins they were cleaved into two subunits, b and a, and the latter regulated inflammation-related genes, chemotaxis and phagocytosis. Changes within the thioester bond cleavage sites and the a-subunit protein (ANATO domain) explained the functional differentiation of bivalve C3-like. The emergence of domain-related functions early during evolution explains the overlapping functions of bivalve C3-like and vertebrate C3, C4 and C5, despite low sequence conservation and indicates that evolutionary pressure acted to conserve protein domain organization rather than the primary sequence.


Assuntos
Complemento C3 , Invertebrados , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Complemento C3/metabolismo , Filogenia , Especificidade da Espécie
20.
Arch Environ Contam Toxicol ; 82(4): 569-580, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35460350

RESUMO

The fungicide fludioxonil, given its physicochemical properties, potentially accumulates and persists in sediments. Fludioxonil has a widespread agricultural use to control various fungal diseases. Its residues may cause toxic effects to benthic aquatic fauna, thereby impacting ecosystem service functions of aquatic ecosystems. To assess the potential environmental effects of fludioxonil in the sediment compartment of edge-of-field surface waters, sediment-spiked single-species toxicity tests with benthic macroinvertebrates were performed. In all experiments artificial sediment was used with an organic carbon content of 2.43% on dry weight basis. The single-species tests were conducted with 8 benthic macroinvertebrates covering different taxonomic groups typical for the Yangtze River Delta, China. The 28d-EC10 and 28-LC10 values thus obtained were used to construct species sensitivity distributions (SSDs). In addition, our dataset was supplemented with 28d-EC10 and 28-LC10 values for 8 different benthic invertebrates from a study in the Netherlands that used field-collected sediment. Based on SSDs constructed with 28d-EC10 or 28d-LC10 values hazardous concentrations to 5% of the species tested (HC5's) were obtained. The HC5 values based on the toxicity tests from China were lower than those from the Netherlands, although 95% confidence bands overlapped. The HC5 values derived from the separate datasets from China and the Netherlands, as well as from the combined dataset, were compared to the Tier-3 Regulatory Acceptable Concentrations (RAC) for fludioxonil and the benthic invertebrate community derived from a sediment-spiked outdoor microcosm experiment conducted in the Netherlands. The HC5 values obtained appeared to be lower than this Tier-3 RAC when expressed in terms of total sediment concentration, but not always when expressed in terms of pore water concentrations.


Assuntos
Sedimentos Geológicos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Dioxóis , Ecossistema , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Invertebrados , Pirróis , Testes de Toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...