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1.
Science ; 367(6475): 249, 2020 01 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31949068
2.
Ambio ; 49(3): 833-847, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31955399

RESUMO

This review provides a synopsis of the main findings of individual papers in the special issue Terrestrial Biodiversity in a Rapidly Changing Arctic. The special issue was developed to inform the State of the Arctic Terrestrial Biodiversity Report developed by the Circumpolar Biodiversity Monitoring Program (CBMP) of the Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF), Arctic Council working group. Salient points about the status and trends of Arctic biodiversity and biodiversity monitoring are organized by taxonomic groups: (1) vegetation, (2) invertebrates, (3) mammals, and (4) birds. This is followed by a discussion about commonalities across the collection of papers, for example, that heterogeneity was a predominant pattern of change particularly when assessing global trends for Arctic terrestrial biodiversity. Finally, the need for a comprehensive, integrated, ecosystem-based monitoring program, coupled with targeted research projects deciphering causal patterns, is discussed.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Ecossistema , Animais , Regiões Árticas , Aves , Invertebrados
3.
Ecol Lett ; 23(3): 495-505, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31919988

RESUMO

Many generalist species consist of specialised individuals that use different resources. This within-population niche variation can stabilise population and community dynamics. Consequently, ecologists wish to identify environmental settings that promote such variation. Theory predicts that environments with greater resource diversity favour ecological diversity among consumers (via disruptive selection or plasticity). Alternatively, niche variation might be a side-effect of neutral genomic diversity in larger populations. We tested these alternatives in a metapopulation of threespine stickleback. Stickleback consume benthic and limnetic invertebrates, focusing on the former in small lakes, the latter in large lakes. Intermediate-sized lakes support generalist stickleback populations using an even mixture of the two prey types, and exhibit greater among-individual variation in diet and morphology. In contrast, genomic diversity increases with lake size. Thus, phenotypic diversity and neutral genetic polymorphism are decoupled: trophic diversity being greatest in intermediate-sized lakes with high resource diversity, whereas neutral genetic diversity is greatest in the largest lakes.


Assuntos
Smegmamorpha , Animais , Dieta , Variação Genética , Genômica , Invertebrados , Lagos
4.
Glob Chang Biol ; 26(1): 80-102, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31670444

RESUMO

Although cross generation (CGP) and multigenerational (MGP) plasticity have been identified as mechanisms of acclimation to global change, the weight of evidence indicates that parental conditioning over generations is not a panacea to rescue stress sensitivity in offspring. For many species, there were no benefits of parental conditioning. Even when improved performance was observed, this waned over time within a generation or across generations and fitness declined. CGP and MGP studies identified resilient species with stress tolerant genotypes in wild populations and selected family lines. Several bivalves possess favourable stress tolerance and phenotypically plastic traits potentially associated with genetic adaptation to life in habitats where they routinely experience temperature and/or acidification stress. These traits will be important to help 'climate proof' shellfish ventures. Species that are naturally stress tolerant and those that naturally experience a broad range of environmental conditions are good candidates to provide insights into the physiological and molecular mechanisms involved in CGP and MGP. It is challenging to conduct ecologically relevant global change experiments over the long times commensurate with the pace of changing climate. As a result, many studies present stressors in a shock-type exposure at rates much faster than projected scenarios. With more gradual stressor introduction over longer experimental durations and in context with conditions species are currently acclimatized and/or adapted to, the outcomes for sensitive species might differ. We highlight the importance to understand primordial germ cell development and the timing of gametogenesis with respect to stressor exposure. Although multigenerational exposure to global change stressors currently appears limited as a universal tool to rescue species in the face of changing climate, natural proxies of future conditions (upwelling zones, CO2 vents, naturally warm habitats) show that phenotypic adjustment and/or beneficial genetic selection is possible for some species, indicating complex plasticity-adaptation interactions.


Assuntos
Organismos Aquáticos , Mudança Climática , Aclimatação , Animais , Ecossistema , Invertebrados
5.
Ambio ; 49(2): 605-615, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31175582

RESUMO

The development of shale petroleum resources has industrialized rural landscapes. We investigated how traffic from energy development expands and intensifies the road-effect zone through increased dust exposure, and how birds and invertebrates inhabiting the road-effect zone in agricultural areas of the Bakken region might be affected by dust exposure. We used dust collectors, trail cameras, and sweep-netting at increasing distances from unpaved roads to determine dust deposition, relative bird abundance, and invertebrate abundance, respectively. We found that traffic associated with fracking along unpaved roads emitted substantial dust 180 m into adjacent crop fields. But neither bird abundance or behavior, nor invertebrate abundance or community composition, appeared to be affected by dust or traffic. These findings suggest that wildlife in previously intensified agricultural landscapes like crop fields are resilient to intensification from energy development, but the same might not be true for wildlife in previously undisturbed habitat.


Assuntos
Poeira , Fraturamento Hidráulico , Animais , Aves , Ecossistema , Invertebrados
6.
Sci Total Environ ; 700: 134451, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31698273

RESUMO

Polyester fiber is one of the most abundant types of microplastics in the environment. A major proportion of the fibers entering wastewater treatment plants end up in sewage sludge, which is used as a soil fertilizer in many countries. As their impacts in the terrestrial environment are still poorly understood, we studied the effects of polyester fibers on enchytraeids (Enchytraeus crypticus), springtails (Folsomia candida), isopods (Porcellio scaber) and oribatid mites (Oppia nitens), all playing an important role in soil decomposer food webs. We exposed these invertebrates in the laboratory to short (12 µm-2.87 mm) and long (4-24 mm) polyester fibers, spiked in soil or in food at five concentrations ranging from 0.02% to 1.5% (w/w) and using five replicates. Overall the effects of polyester fibers on the soil invertebrates were slight. Energy reserves of the isopods were slightly affected by both fiber types, and enchytraeid reproduction decreased up to 30% with increasing fiber concentration, but only for long fibers in soil. The low ingestion of long fibers by the enchytraeids suggests that this negative impact arose from a physical harm outside the organism, or from indirect effects resulting from changes in environmental conditions. The short fibers were clearly ingested by enchytraeids and isopods, with the rate of ingestion positively related to fiber concentration in the soil. This study shows that polyester fibers are not very harmful to soil invertebrates upon short-term exposure. However, longer lasting, multigeneration studies with functional endpoints are needed to reveal the possible long-term effects on soil invertebrates and their role in the decomposition process. This study also shows that polyester fibers can enter terrestrial food web via ingestion of fibers by soil invertebrates.


Assuntos
Invertebrados/fisiologia , Plásticos/toxicidade , Poliésteres/toxicidade , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Animais , Oligoquetos , Solo/química , Testes de Toxicidade
7.
Sci Total Environ ; 702: 134974, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31734610

RESUMO

Understanding the role of climatic variation on biodiversity is of chief importance due to the ongoing biodiversity loss and climate change. Freshwaters, one of the most threatened ecosystems in the world, offer a valuable context to study biodiversity patterns of distinct organism groups in relation to climatic variation. In the Tibetan Plateau biodiversity hotspot - Hengduan Mountain region, we studied the effects of climate and local physico-chemical factors on stream microorganisms (i.e. bacteria) and macroorganisms (i.e. macroinvertebrates) in two parallel catchments with contrasting precipitation and temperature, that is, the Nujiang and Lancang Rivers. Diversities and community structures were better explained by climatic and local environmental variables in the drier and colder catchment and at higher elevations, than in the warmer and wetter conditions and at lower elevations. This suggests that communities may be more strongly assembled by deterministic processes in the former, comparatively harsher conditions, compared to the latter, more benign conditions. Macroinvertebrates were more strongly affected by climatic and local environmental factors compared to bacteria, but the diversities and community structures of the two groups showed spatially similar responses to overall abiotic variation, being especially evident with their community structures' responses to climate. Furthermore, bacterial and macroinvertebrate diversities were positively correlated in the drier and colder catchment, implying that these biologically and ecologically distinct organism groups are likely to be driven by similar processes in areas with such climatic conditions. We conclude that changes in climatic and local environmental conditions may affect the diversity of macroorganisms more strongly than that of microorganisms, at least in subtropical mountainous stream ecosystems studied here, but simultaneous responses of both groups to environmental changes can also be expected.


Assuntos
Bactérias , Mudança Climática , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental , Invertebrados , Animais , Biodiversidade , Ecologia , Rios , Tibet
8.
Sci Total Environ ; 698: 134268, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31783446

RESUMO

Antarctica is one of the least anthropogenically-impacted areas of the world. Metal sources to the marine environment include localised activities of research stations and glacial meltwater containing metals of lithogenic origin. In this study, concentrations of nine metals (Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn) were examined in three species of benthic invertebrates collected from four locations near Rothera Research Station on the western Antarctic Peninsula: Laternula elliptica (mudclam, filter feeder), Nacella concinna (limpet, grazer) and Odontaster validus (seastar, predator and scavenger). In addition, metals were evaluated in sediments at the same locations. Metal concentrations in different body tissues of invertebrates were equivalent to values recorded in industrialized non-polar sites and were attributed to natural sources including sediment input resulting from glacial erosion of local granodioritic rocks. Anthropogenic activities at Rothera Research Station appeared to have some impact on metal concentrations in the sampled invertebrates, with concentrations of several metals higher in L. elliptica near the runway and aircraft activities, but this was not a trend that was detected in the other species. Sediment analysis from two sites near the station showed lower metal concentrations than the control site 5 km distant and was attributed to differences in bedrock metal content. Differences in metal concentrations between organisms were attributed to feeding mechanisms and habitat, as well as depuration routes. L. elliptica kidneys showed significantly higher concentrations of eight metals, with some an order of magnitude greater than other organs, and the internal structure of O. validus had significantly higher Ni. This study supports previous assessments of N. concinna and L. elliptica as good biomonitors of metal concentrations and suggests O. validus as an additional biomonitor for use in future Antarctic metal monitoring programs.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Metais Pesados/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Animais , Regiões Antárticas , Organismos Aquáticos , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Invertebrados/química
9.
Ecol Lett ; 23(3): 439-446, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31854097

RESUMO

Leigh Van Valen famously stated that under constant conditions extinction probability is independent of species age. To test this 'law of constant extinction', we developed a new method using deep learning to infer age-dependent extinction and analysed 450 myr of marine life across 21 invertebrate clades. We show that extinction rate significantly decreases with age in > 90% of the cases, indicating that most species died out soon after their appearance while those which survived experienced ever decreasing extinction risk. This age-dependent extinction pattern is stronger towards the Equator and holds true when the potential effects of mass extinctions and taxonomic inflation are accounted for. These results suggest that the effect of biological interactions on age-dependent extinction rate is more intense towards the tropics. We propose that the latitudinal diversity gradient and selection at the species level account for this exceptional, yet little recognised, macroevolutionary and macroecological pattern.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Extinção Biológica , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Fósseis , Invertebrados
10.
J Anim Ecol ; 88(12): 1828-1831, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31815298

RESUMO

In Focus: Potapov, A. M., Klarner, B., Sandmann, D., Widyastuti, R. and Scheu, S. (2019). Linking size spectrum, energy flux and trophic multifunctionality in soil food webs of tropical land-use systems. Journal of Animal Ecology, 88, 1845-1859. https://doi.org/10.1111/1365-2656.13027 Potapov et al. (2019) advance our understanding of the various levels of the consequences of human impact on ecosystems. They examine the communities of litter and soil invertebrates in four different forests (from rainforest to oil palm plantations). Data on abundance, body masses and trophic guild in litter and soil invertebrates are expanded to a study towards biodiversity, biomass, energy flux and ecosystem functions. Their results show that size spectra are affected differently for decomposers, herbivores, omnivores and predators. Most of these groups decrease in abundance with increasing land use, and only large decomposers increase strongly. Moreover, creating trophic-group food webs for litter and soil invertebrates of each forest demonstrates the changes in energy flux and ecosystem functions. With their study, Potapov et al. (2019) present new insights into ecosystem functions and the sensitivity of communities to changes in land use.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Solo , Animais , Biodiversidade , Florestas , Invertebrados
11.
Sci Total Environ ; 695: 133910, 2019 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31756874

RESUMO

Protecting the structural and functional integrity of lotic ecosystems is becoming increasingly important as many ecological systems face escalating pressures from human population growth and environmental impacts. Knowledge on the functional composition of macroinvertebrates in austral temperate streams is generally lacking hindering the design and implementation of water management and restoration goals. Therefore, this study examined the effects of urban land-use activities on the benthic macroinvertebrate functional feeding guild structure among different stream orders in an austral river system (Bloukrans River) in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. Water quality and macroinvertebrate community data were collected across two seasons from 18 sites in two different stream order categories (i.e. 1, 2 + 3), following standard methods. We separated macroinvertebrates into functional feeding groups (FFGs), which we then used to assess the effects of riparian condition on FFG organization. Linear mixed effects model (LMM) results demonstrated that total dissolved solids (TDS), canopy cover, phosphate and channel width were the key variables that described the major sources of variation in macroinvertebrate FFGs. Based on FFG proportions, collector-gatherers were the most abundant in the Bloukrans River and represented 71.3% of the macroinvertebrate assemblages. The FFG ratios indicated that all the eighteen sites were strongly heterotrophic (i.e. streams received additional sources of energy from leaf litter and other organic matter), showed below expected linkage with riparian input and stable substrates were limited. The FFG ratios offered some insights into the overall functioning of Bloukrans River system. Our results highlight the importance of including macroinvertebrate functional diversity as a complementary approach to assess the ecological integrity in management and restoration plans of river systems.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental , Invertebrados , Rios , Animais , Biodiversidade , Ecologia , África do Sul , Qualidade da Água
12.
Environ Monit Assess ; 191(11): 702, 2019 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31667629

RESUMO

Human activities altering ecosystems structure and function worldwide strongly affect rivers. We studied aquatic macroinvertebrate communities (taxonomic and functional diversity) from rivers immersed in a forest matrix and rivers flowing through croplands. As rivers of the region experience a monsoon climate, high and low water seasons were also considered and their effect tested. We expected lower taxonomic and functional diversity in rivers flowing through croplands, and also during high water periods. We selected five Piedmont forest and three sugarcane crop rivers in Austral Yungas piedmont forests (Argentina), where marginal vegetation, land use, and hydromorphological variables were studied. Samplings were performed in these 8 sites during high and low water seasons of three consecutive years, totaling 32 samples. We analyzed differences between categories through nonparametric analyses of variance and SIMPER analysis. We studied taxonomic diversity through effective number of species and functional diversity using feeding groups with a factorial ANOVA. We calculated different biotic indices to test differences in water quality. We identified 11,034 specimens from 58 families of aquatic macroinvertebrates. Piedmont forest rivers showed higher richness (order 0) than crop rivers, but diversities of orders 1 and 2 showed the opposite pattern. Functional feeding groups were different between both situations. Season greatly influenced the assemblages, with reduced diversity and abundances during high water periods. Biotic indices showed good water quality, except during high water season for crop sites. A complex response of aquatic communities was found, but generally crop sites were more markedly affected during high water season.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Monitoramento Ambiental , Invertebrados/classificação , Animais , Argentina , Ecossistema , Florestas , Atividades Humanas , Humanos , Invertebrados/fisiologia , Rios/química , Saccharum , Estações do Ano , Qualidade da Água
13.
Environ Monit Assess ; 191(12): 724, 2019 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31696310

RESUMO

Sandy sediment and its infauna were annually sampled along the shallow waters of the Israeli coast during the 2005-2016 period, as a part of the Israeli National Environmental Program framework, aiming to detect anthropogenic interference in that province by monitoring changes in the species composition, abundance, and diversity of the infaunal communities and in accompanied abiotic parameters: the levels of total organic carbon and a series of heavy metals and the site-specific grain size distribution. The > 250-µm fraction of the fauna was segregated from the sampled sediment and was identified to species or higher taxonomic level. Three spatial biotopes were determined based on their unique faunal composition, Haifa Bay, Haifa harbor, and the southern coast. Species homogeneity among samples of each biotope was evaluated. Temporal and spatial changes of the species composition, abundance, and diversity were calculated for each biotope, mostly revealing random annual fluctuations. Only two minor temporal trends were observed: two spatially identical and temporally different faunal communities in the southern coast biotope, distinguishing the 2005-2007 and 2008-2016 periods, and a slight increase in the number of species across time in the two Haifa Bay provinces. Total organic carbon was highly correlated to the faunal composition with the highest organic carbon levels in the Haifa harbor biotope. The biotopes' mutually occurring abundant species were sufficient to determine biotope borders and the contribution of intermittently sampled rare species, including the zoogeographically Indo-Pacific originated ones was feeble, important only to identify species migration and faunistics. Practically, three sampling sites along the Israeli shallow soft substrate, corresponding to the defined spatial biotopes, are sufficient to monitor the effect of environmental changes. Seasonal sampling twice a year is recommended as well as more accurate species identification using molecular taxonomy.


Assuntos
Organismos Aquáticos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Monitoramento Ambiental , Animais , Invertebrados/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Israel , Metais Pesados/análise
14.
Zootaxa ; 4604(2): zootaxa.4604.2.11, 2019 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31717198

RESUMO

A new solitary species of Loxosomatidae (Entoprocta), Loxosoma discoides n. sp., is described. The specimens were found in the intertidal level of two locations in the Galician (NW Spain) coast. This new species, with "table-tennis bat" appearance, is characterised by showing large lateral wings in the calyx, which confer the singular aspect. It is the first record of this genus at the coast of the Iberian Peninsula.


Assuntos
Invertebrados , Animais , Europa (Continente) , Espanha
15.
Zootaxa ; 4691(4): zootaxa.4691.4.2, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31719386

RESUMO

The heteronemertean genus Dushia Corrêa, 1963 was established for what was identified as D. atra (Girard, 1851) (originally Meckelia atra) based on material from littoral, shallow waters in Curaçao, while the nominal species Meckelia atra was originally described from deep water off Florida Cape. In this paper, we conclude that the type species for Dushia has been misidentified. Based on specimens from the Caribbean, we establish D. wijnhoffae Schwartz Norenburg sp. nov. to represent the true identity of the genus, according to Article 70.3.2 of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature; Meckelia atra should be regarded as a nomen dubium. While the genus has remained monotypic since its establishment, our molecular analysis discovered a second member-or rather a group of members-from the West Pacific. This 'group of members', herein termed Dushia nigra (Stimpson, 1855) species complex comb. nov., involves i) at least two genetically separated biological entities, 0.136-0.148 (p-distance) and 0.152-0.168 (K2P) apart in terms of 513-bp COI sequences, which we interpret as likely to represent cryptic species, ii) three color forms, orange, brown, and black, with the last one occurring most frequently, and iii) four nominal species, Meckelia nigra Stimpson, 1855 (now Cerebratulus niger), Meckelia rubella Stimpson, 1855 (now Cerebratulus rubellus), Micrura formosana Yamaoka, 1939, and Micrura japonica Iwata, 1952. At present, however, we have no objective ground as to which of the four potentially available names (i.e., formosana, japonica, nigra, and rubella) should be allotted to the two cryptic species discovered in the analysis, because i) a single locality can harbor two cryptic species, ii) a single cryptic species may contain three different color morphs (i.e., orange, brown, black), and iii) no data from the type localities for these four nominal species are available at the moment. Our multi-locus analysis of heteronemerteans-for which 16S rRNA, COI, 18S rRNA, 28S rRNA, histone H3 genes are available in public databases-shows that Dushia wijnhoffae sp. nov. and Dushia nigra species complex comb. nov. form a clade, which is closely related to Gorgonorhynchus albocinctus Kajihara, 2015 and an undetermined heteronemertean that has been misidentified as Cerebratulus leucopsis (Coe, 1901). Members of Dushia thus show a vicariant Caribbean-West-Pacific distribution, indicating that the lineage predates the rise of the Isthmus of Panama.


Assuntos
Invertebrados , Animais , Região do Caribe , Curaçao , Florida , Invertebrados/genética , Panamá , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Índias Ocidentais
16.
Zootaxa ; 4683(4): zootaxa.4683.4.3, 2019 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31715909

RESUMO

The rhynchonellide brachiopod genus Australocoelia was widely distributed across the Southern Hemisphere in the Devonian with three species recognized; A. palmata, A. peruviana and A. polyspera. In Brazil, A. palmata was initially reported from the Ponta Grossa and São Domingos formations (Paraná Basin), later recorded from the western border of the Parnaíba Basin (Pimenteira Formation, State of Tocantins), and is now shown to occur on the eastern border of the same basin (Pimenteira Formation, State of Piauí). In this paper, we describe a fourth species from the Paraná Basin as Australocoelia boucoti n. sp. It differs from A. palmata and the other species of Australocoelia in features of ornamentation and interspace, in addition to paleoecological characteristics.


Assuntos
Brânquias , Invertebrados , Animais , Brasil
17.
Nat Ecol Evol ; 3(12): 1655-1660, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31740841

RESUMO

The unprecedented diversifications in the fossil record of the early Palaeozoic (541-419 million years ago) increased both within-sample (α) and global (γ) diversity, generating considerable ecological complexity. Faunal difference (ß diversity), including spatial heterogeneity, is thought to have played a major role in early Palaeozoic marine diversification, although α diversity is the major determinant of γ diversity through the Phanerozoic. Drivers for this Phanerozoic shift from ß to α diversity are not yet resolved. Here, we evaluate the impacts of environmental and faunal heterogeneity on diversity patterns using a global spatial grid. We present early Palaeozoic genus-level α, ß and γ diversity curves for molluscs, brachiopods, trilobites and echinoderms and compare them with measures of spatial lithological heterogeneity, which is our proxy for environmental heterogeneity. We find that α and ß diversity are associated with increased lithological heterogeneity, and that ß diversity declines over time while α increases. We suggest that the enhanced dispersal of marine taxa from the Middle Ordovician onwards facilitated increases in α diversity by encouraging the occupation of narrow niches and increasing the prevalence of transient species, simultaneously reducing spatial ß diversity. This may have contributed to a shift from ß to α diversity as the major determinant of γ diversity increase over this critical evolutionary interval.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Fósseis , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Ecologia , Invertebrados
18.
Zootaxa ; 4613(2): zootaxa.4613.2.1, 2019 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716410

RESUMO

For the first time large numbers of thecideide brachiopods have been collected from the Mozambique Channel, more particularly from the western part of the Comorian Island of Mayotte (France). The moderately diverse brachiopod fauna is from a submarine cave situated on the second barrier reef encircling this island, with three different genera being found: Thecidellina, Ospreyella and Minutella. The last genus is represented by M. cf. minuta (Cooper, 1981), which was first discovered around Madagascar. Ospreyella is represented by a new species (O. mayottensis sp. nov.) as is Thecidellina, which is represented by T. leipnitzae sp. nov. This species is markedly distinct from T. europa Logan et al., 2015 from Europa Island in the southern Mozambique Channel (1,200 km south of Mayotte), providing an example of allopatric speciation in an isolated cryptic habitat.


Assuntos
Invertebrados , Animais , Comores , França , Ilhas , Madagáscar , Moçambique
19.
Zootaxa ; 4561(1): zootaxa.4561.1.1, 2019 Feb 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716563

RESUMO

The description of a new representative of the species-poor genus Condyloderes Higgins, 1969 from the Northeast Pacific (Alaska) is reported. The analyzed specimens of Condyloderes shirleyi sp. nov. showed a significant variation of numerous morphological characters, along with female-specific traits known also from other congeneric species. These findings stimulated the re-investigation of the type material of the six species of Condyloderes described so far, i.e., C. kurilensis Adrianov Maiorova, 2016, C. megastigma Sørensen, Rho Kim, 2010b, C. multispinosus (McIntyre, 1962) Higgins, 1969, C. paradoxus Higgins, 1969, C. setoensis Adrianov, Murakami Shirayama, 2002, and C. storchi Higgins, 2004 in Martorelli Higgins, 2004. Our study allowed to reveal various morphological novelties and to emend the diagnosis of these species and of the genus Condyloderes. Furthermore, our analysis led to synonymize C. megastigma with C. setoensis. The results of our investigation about the significant variation in C. shirleyi sp. nov. raise a wider question on species identity within Kinorhyncha, underscoring the necessity, if possible, to describe new species from a higher number of specimens and to concentrate on the morphological variation of the going-to-be-described species.


Assuntos
Invertebrados , Alaska , Animais , Feminino
20.
Zootaxa ; 4663(1): zootaxa.4663.1.1, 2019 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716693

RESUMO

A detailed list of acanthocephalans from Argentina was generated based on 205 published records. The list includes 52 named and 35 undetermined species of Acanthocephala infecting 6 species of invertebrate (2 amphipods, 3 decapods and 1 insect) and 155 species of vertebrate (one cartilaginous fish, 95 bony fishes, 10 amphibians, 3 reptiles, 13 birds and 33 mammals) host species in the Argentinean territory. The present list contains information on the invertebrate and vertebrate host(s), site of infection, developmental stage and locality(ies) of the acanthocephalans listed and references. For some species of acanthocephalans, information about repositories of the type material, voucher specimens, and DNA sequences of individual taxa are also presented. Finally, a host-Acanthocephala list is also provided. The data compiled revealed considerable gaps in the knowledge of the diversity, taxonomy, distribution, and life cycles of the acanthocephalans from Argentina.


Assuntos
Acantocéfalos , Animais , Argentina , Peixes , Invertebrados , Mamíferos
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