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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 763: 144208, 2021 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33385843

RESUMO

Aquatic biofilms are heterogeneous assemblages of microorganisms surrounded by a matrix of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). Recent studies suggest that aquatic biofilms can physically act as sorptive sponges of DNA. We took the opportunity from already available samples of stone biofilms and macroinvertebrates specimens collected in parallel at the same sites to test the capacity of biofilms to act as DNA samplers of macroinvertebrate communities in streams. Macroinvertebrate communities are usually studied with metabarcoding using the DNA extracted from their bodies bulk samples, which remains a time-consuming approach and involves the destruction of all individual specimens from the samples. The ability of biofilms to capture DNA was explored on 19 rivers sites of a tropical island (Mayotte Island, France). First, macroinvertebrate specimens were identified based on their morphological characteristics. Second, DNA was extracted from biofilms, and macroinvertebrate communities were targeted using a standard COI barcode. The resulting morphological and molecular inventories were compared. They provided comparable structures and diversities for macroinvertebrate communities when one is working with the unassigned OTU data. After taxonomic assignment of the OTU data, diversity and richness were no longer correlated. The ecological assessment derived from morphological bulk samples was conserved by the biofilms samples. We also showed that the biofilm method allows to detect a higher diversity for some organisms (Cnidaria), that is hardly accessible with the morphological method. The results of this study exploring the DNA signal captured by natural biofilms are encouraging. However, a more detailed study integrating more replicates and comparing the biodiversity signal based on both morphological and molecular bulk macroinvertebrate samples to the one captured by biofilms will be necessary. Better understanding how the DNA signal captured by natural biofilms represents the biodiversity of a given sampling site is necessary before considering its use for bioassessment applications.


Assuntos
Invertebrados , Rios , Animais , Biodiversidade , Biofilmes , Comores , DNA , Ecossistema , DNA Ambiental , Monitoramento Ambiental , França , Invertebrados/genética
2.
Sci Total Environ ; 766: 144044, 2021 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33421783

RESUMO

Seasonal hydrological variation and chemical pollution represent two main drivers of freshwater biodiversity change in Mediterranean rivers. We investigated to what extent low flow conditions can modify the effects of chemical pollution on macroinvertebrate communities. To that purpose, we selected twelve sampling sites in the upper Tagus river basin (central Spain) having different sources of chemical pollution and levels of seasonal hydrological variation. The sites were classified as natural (high flow variation, low chemical impact), agricultural (high flow variation, high agricultural chemical inputs) and urban (limited flow variation, high urban chemical inputs). In these sites, we measured daily water discharge, nutrients, and contaminant concentrations, and we sampled benthic macroinvertebrates, in spring, summer and autumn. Significant differences related to toxic pressure and nutrient concentrations were observed between the three groups of sites. Seasonal patterns were found for some water quality parameters (e.g. nitrites, ammonia, suspended solids, metal toxicity), particularly in agricultural sites. Taxonomic and functional richness were slightly lower in the polluted sites (agricultural and urban), particularly during low flow periods (summer and early autumn). Functional diversity was significantly lower in sites with seasonal flow variation (agricultural sites) as compared to the more constant ones (urban sites). The frequency of traits such as large size, asexual reproduction, aquatic passive dispersion and the production of cocoons increased in response to pollution during low flow periods. This study shows that the impacts of anthropogenic chemical pollution on taxonomic and functional characteristics of macroinvertebrate communities seem to be larger during low flow periods. Therefore, further studies and monitoring campaigns assessing the effects of chemical pollution within these periods are recommended.


Assuntos
Invertebrados , Rios , Animais , Monitoramento Ambiental , Espanha , Qualidade da Água
3.
Oecologia ; 195(2): 397-407, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33392792

RESUMO

Omnivores can dampen trophic cascades by feeding at multiple trophic levels, yet few studies have evaluated how intraspecific variation of omnivores influences community structure. The speckled dace (Rhinichthys osculus) is a common and omnivorous minnow that consumes algae and invertebrates. We studied effects of size and size structure on top-down control by dace and how effects scaled with density. Dace were manipulated in a mesocosm experiment and changes in invertebrate and algal communities and ecosystem function were monitored. Omnivores affected experimental communities via two distinct trophic pathways (benthic and pelagic). In the benthic pathway, dace reduced macroinvertebrate biomass, thereby causing density-mediated indirect effects that led to increased benthic algal biomass. Dace also reduced pelagic predatory macroinvertebrate biomass (hemipterans), thereby increasing the abundance of emerging insects. The effect of dace and hemipterans on emerging insects was mediated by a non-linear response to dace with peak emergence at intermediate dace density. In contrast with recent studies, omnivore size and size structure had no clear effect, indicating that small and large dace in our experiment shared similar functional roles. Our results support that the degree to which omnivores dampen trophic cascades depends on their relative effect on multiple trophic levels, such that the more omnivorous a predator is, the more likely cascades will be dampened. Availability of abundant macroinvertebrates, and the absence of top predators, may have shifted dace diets from primary to secondary consumption, strengthening density-dependent trophic cascades. Both omnivore density and dietary shifts are important factors influencing omnivore-mediated communities.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Cadeia Alimentar , Animais , Biomassa , Invertebrados , Comportamento Predatório
4.
Braz J Biol ; 81(3): 750-764, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33331437

RESUMO

Soft-bottom macrobenthic invertebrates are sensitive to natural or anthropogenic changes in aquatic ecosystems. The distribution patterns of sublittoral macrobenthic species in Guanabara Bay were studied from 2005 to 2007. Samples were collected at ten stations during six surveys throughout the rainfall regime (dry, early and late rainy). Ten replicates were collected at each station by Gravity corer or skin diving. Van Dorn bottles (bottom water) and by Ekman sediment sampler (granulometry) provided material for abiotic data. Stations were grouped into sectors (Entrance, Intermediary and Inner) based on abiotic data and location. The Redundancy Analysis (RDA) and Parsimonious RDA for all years and each annual cycle showed indicator taxa with high dominance in each sector. PERMANOVA indicated a regular seasonality between the surveys for the first annual cycle (p <0.05), and an atypical pattern for the second (p> 0.05), possibly due the low rainfall observed during this period. The mosaic of soft-bottom substrates infers structural variables, and patterns of temporal distribution were basically influenced by parameters those indicating pollution and the SACW (South Atlantic Central Water) intrusion, as well as ecological attributes among species, such as: predation, competition. The Ervilia concentrica and Cypridinidae could be used as indicators for anthropic and natural impacts in the Guanabara Bay for the Entrance sector, while Cyprideis salebrosa and Cyprideis sp. for the Intermediary sector and Heleobia australis for the Inner sector.


Assuntos
Baías , Ecossistema , Animais , Brasil , Crustáceos , Monitoramento Ambiental , Sedimentos Geológicos , Invertebrados
5.
Sci Total Environ ; 757: 143988, 2021 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33310576

RESUMO

We describe the multi-decadal delayed effects of flood on macroinvertebrate community structure using 33 years of monitoring data on macroinvertebrates, water quality, and climate, and 51 years of hydrological data, spanning 2300 km of the Murray River, Australia. We used distributed lag nonlinear models in a four-step analytical process, including 1) modelling macroinvertebrate community structure, represented as a set of principle coordinate axes, as a function of a lagged hydrologic index and other environmental variables using distance-based redundancy analysis 2) visualizing the patterns of delayed effects of flows on the PCO axes, 3) modelling the abundances of groups of taxa along individual PCO axes, and 4) combining the two sets of models in a counterfactual analysis to predict the community structure under flood and no-flood scenarios to describe the multi-decadal trajectory of the community following a flood. Our findings show an increase in abundance of most taxa of filtering-gathering collectors, scrapers, and shredders in the long term that implicates an influx of organic matter of all sizes, from particulate organic matter to coarse and large woody debris, that serves directly or indirectly as a food resource and/or habitat. Our approach enabled the isolation of a flood impact from the confounding effects of other flow events and environmental variables, overcoming a substantial challenge in ecohydrological studies.


Assuntos
Inundações , Rios , Animais , Austrália , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental , Invertebrados , Dinâmica não Linear
6.
Sci Total Environ ; 757: 143972, 2021 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33321337

RESUMO

Land use change threatens the ecological integrity of tropical rivers and streams; however, few studies have simultaneously analyzed the taxonomic and functional responses of tropical macroinvertebrates to riparian forest conversion. Here, we used community structure, functional diversity, and stable isotope analyses to assess the impacts of riparian deforestation on macroinvertebrate communities of streams in southern Mexico. Monthly sampling during the dry season was conducted in streams with riparian forest (forest streams), and in streams with pasture dominating the riparian vegetation (pasture streams). Samples were collected for water quality (physical-chemical variables, nutrient concentrations, and total suspended solids), organic matter (leaf litter abundance and algal biomass), and macroinvertebrate abundance and diversity. Higher temperature, conductivity, suspended solids, and chlorophyll a were detected in pasture streams, while nitrate concentrations and leaf litter biomass were greater in forest streams. Macroinvertebrate density was higher in pasture sites, while no differences in taxonomic diversity and richness were found between land uses. Functional evenness was greater in forest streams, while richness and divergence were similar between land uses, despite differences in taxonomic composition. Environmental variables were associated with taxa distribution but not with functional traits, suggesting current conditions still promote redundancy in ecological function. Isotopic analyses indicated consumers in pasture streams were enriched in 13C and 15N relative to forest streams, potentially reflecting the higher algal biomass documented in pasture systems. Isotopic niches were broader and more overlapped in pasture streams, indicating more generalist feeding habits. No significant losses of taxonomic or functional diversity were detected in pasture streams. However, changes in trophic ecology suggest landscape-level processes are altering macroinvertebrate feeding habits in streams. The changes we observed in habitat, water quality, and macroinvertebrate community were related to the removal of the riparian vegetation, suggesting the structure and function of the focal systems would benefit from riparian restoration.


Assuntos
Invertebrados , Rios , Animais , Clorofila A , Ecossistema , Florestas , México
7.
Sci Total Environ ; 763: 144043, 2021 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33383512

RESUMO

The effects of forest harvesting on headwaters are quite well understood, yet our understanding of whether impacts accumulate or dissipate downstream is limited. To address this, we investigated whether several biotic indicators changed from smaller to larger downstream sites (n = 6) within three basins that had intensive, extensive or minimal forest management in New Brunswick (Canada). Biofilm biomass and grazer abundance significantly increased from upstream to downstream, whereas organic matter decomposition and the autotrophic index of biofilms decreased. However, some spatial trends differed among basins and indicated either cumulative (macroinvertebrate abundance, predator density, sculpin GSI) or dissipative (autotrophic index, cotton decomposition) effects downstream, potentially explained by sediment and nutrient dynamics related to harvesting. No such among-basin differences were observed for leaf decomposition, biofilm biomass, macroinvertebrate richness or sculpin condition. Additionally, results suggest that some of the same biological impacts of forestry observed in small headwaters also occurred in larger systems. Although the intensive and extensive basins had lower macroinvertebrate diversity, there were no other signs of biological impairment, suggesting that, overall, current best management practices protect biological integrity downstream despite abiotic effects.


Assuntos
Florestas , Invertebrados , Animais , Biomassa , Canadá , Ecossistema , Agricultura Florestal
8.
Ecol Lett ; 24(3): 572-579, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33331673

RESUMO

The frequency distribution of individual body sizes in animal communities (i.e. the size spectrum) provides powerful insights for understanding the energy flux through food webs. However, studies of size spectra in rocky and coral reef communities typically focus only on fishes or invertebrates due to taxonomic and data constraints, and consequently ignore energy pathways involving the full range of macroscopic consumer taxa. We analyse size spectra with co-located fish and mobile macroinvertebrate data from 3369 reef sites worldwide, specifically focusing on how the addition of invertebrate data alters patterns. The inclusion of invertebrates steepens the size spectrum, more so in temperate regions, resulting in a consistent size spectrum slope across latitudes, and bringing slopes closer to theoretical expectations based on energy flow through the system. These results highlight the importance of understanding contributions of both invertebrates and fishes to reef food webs worldwide.


Assuntos
Recifes de Corais , Peixes , Animais , Tamanho Corporal , Cadeia Alimentar , Invertebrados
9.
Environ Pollut ; 271: 116284, 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33360655

RESUMO

Economic losses can result from biofouling establishment on man-made structures. Macrofouling causes damage to artificial substrates, which justifies the need for its control. However, the antifouling coatings employed nowadays are typically not safe for the environment. Microfouling can affect macrofouling colonization, and thus represents a potential target for alternative antifouling control. From both ecological and economical points of view, information on the ecology and interactions between micro- and macrofouling are crucial to develop successful and safe control strategies, which will prevent biofouling development on man-made structures while preserving water quality and the safety of non-target organisms. This study presents a metabarcoding analysis of biofilm-associated marine bacteria (16S-rRNA-gene) and fungi (ITS-region), with the aim to understand invertebrate settlement over time on hard substrates exposed to natural condition (Control) and two treatments (Antimicrobials and Antifouling Painted). Biofouling composition changed with exposure time (up to 12 days) and showed differences among Control and Antimicrobials and Painted treatments. Antimicrobial treatment influenced more the biofouling composition than traditional antifouling paint (Cu2O-based). Both treatments caused microbial resistance. Macrofouling establishment was strongly influenced by Gram-negative heterotrophic bacteria (mostly Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes). Nevertheless, each macrofouling taxon settled in response to a specific biofilm bacterial composition, although other factors can also affect the biofouling community as the condition of the substrate. We suggest that proper friendly antifouling technologies should be focused on inhibiting bacterial biofilm adhesion.


Assuntos
Incrustação Biológica , Animais , Bactérias , Biofilmes , Incrustação Biológica/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Invertebrados , Pintura
10.
Sci Total Environ ; 761: 144112, 2021 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33360123

RESUMO

Methods for metric scoring and health status classification in development of index of biotic integrity (IBI) vary considerably across published studies. The difference between ecosystem health assessment results from these alternative methods for scoring and classification has rarely been studied systematically. Poyang Lake in China has experienced severe degradation over recent decades. Here, we aimed to develop a benthic macroinvertebrate-based index of biotic integrity (B-IBI) to assess the wetland health of Poyang Lake, and to evaluate the difference in assessment results using different methods of scoring and classification. Data on benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages, water quality and human-induced disturbances were collected at 30 sampling sites. Forty-nine attributes of macroinvertebrate assemblages were tested, and only the attributes that were significantly correlated with disturbance gradients or showed strong discriminatory power between reference and impaired sites were selected as the B-IBI metrics. Two scoring, two thresholding and three classification methods were applied for metric scoring and health status classification. Five assemblage attributes, i.e. the number of taxa, Shannon-Wiener diversity index, % Diptera, ASPT index and the number of predator taxa, were selected as the B-IBI metrics. Health status assessments varied considerably among the various metric scoring and classification methods, suggesting the importance of standardizing the methods for scoring and classification to be able to compare assessment results across different areas and time periods. The wetland health of Poyang Lake was rated as fair, which indicates that the wetland has experienced anthropogenic pressure and substantial changes in macroinvertebrate assemblage structure. Further, sample sites adjacent to tributary river mouths were in poor or very poor condition, suggesting that pollutant input by rivers has strong negative impacts on wetland health. Effective management of the entire lake basin and its watershed is therefore important for the wetland conservation.


Assuntos
Lagos , Áreas Alagadas , Animais , China , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Invertebrados , Rios
11.
Sci Total Environ ; 762: 143915, 2021 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33360450

RESUMO

The degradation of aquatic ecosystems, induced by worldwide intensification in the use of both land and aquatic resources, has highlighted the critical need for innovative methods allowing an objective quantification and ranking of anthropogenic pressure effects on aquatic organisms. Such diagnostic tools have a great potential for defining robust management responses to anthropogenic pressures. Our objective was to explore how the outputs of three diagnostic tools (based on benthic diatoms, macroinvertebrates and fishes) could be combined to (i) disentangle the temporal effects of multiple pressures over two decades and (ii) provide policy-relevant information for stream managers and decision makers. The diagnostic tools estimated, using taxonomy- and trait-based metrics, the impairment probabilities of biotic assemblages over time by different pressure categories, describing the alteration of water quality, hydromorphology and land use related to anthropogenic activities, in French streams (number of sites = 312). The main result shows that a large proportion of the time series exhibited no significant temporal patterns over the two decades (61.5% to 87.8%, depending on the used tests). Among time series exhibiting significant change, positive trends in impairment probabilities (i.e., degradation) were less frequent than negative ones, indicating a modest improvement in water quality at national scale over the study period. However, trends can be substantially different according to hydroecoregion and pressure category. The three biological compartments displayed convergent temporal responses according to the pressure category and regional context (e.g., lowland plains vs. mountains, pristine vs. agricultural regions). Altogether, this study proposes a unifying approach to integrate a vast amount of information in a single ecological diagnosis using an unparalleled database on natural and anthropized environments. Strengthening the synthesis of biological information provided by various biological compartments should be a priority before implementing evidence-based sustainable conservation and restoration actions.


Assuntos
Diatomáceas , Rios , Animais , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental , Peixes , França , Invertebrados
12.
Vet Clin North Am Exot Anim Pract ; 24(1): 229-251, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33189253

RESUMO

Invertebrate animals comprise more than 95% of the animal kingdom's species and approximately 40 separate phyla. Yet, invertebrates are an artificial taxon, in which all members simply possess a single negative trait: they lack a vertebral column (backbone). In fact, some invertebrates are more closely related to vertebrates than to their "fellow" invertebrates. For the purpose of this veterinary article, we have elected to review a handful of important groups: Coelenterates, Gastropods, Cephalopods, Chelicerates, Crustaceans, Insects, and Echinoderms. We have primarily included behaviors that may have an impact on clinical case outcome, or be of interest to the veterinary clinician.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Invertebrados/fisiologia , Animais de Estimação , Bem-Estar do Animal , Animais
13.
Sci Total Environ ; 760: 144117, 2021 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33383318

RESUMO

So far, research on plant-associated macroinvertebrates, even if conducted on a large number of water bodies, has mostly focused on a relatively small area, permitting limited conclusions to be drawn regarding potentially broader geographic effects, including climate. Some recent studies have shown that the composition of epiphytic communities may differ considerably among climatic zones. To assess this phenomenon, we studied macroinvertebrates associated with the common reed Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. ex Steud in 46 shallow lakes using a common protocol. The lakes, located in nine countries, covered almost the entire European latitudinal range (from <48°N to 61°N) and captured much of the variability in lake size and nutrient content in the region. A Poisson Generalized Linear Mixed Model (GLMM) showed the number of macroinvertebrate epiphytic taxa to be negatively associated with water conductivity and positively associated with medium ice cover duration (approximately 1 month). A Gamma GLMM showed a positive effect of chlorophyll a on the density of macroinvertebrates, and a significantly greater density in lakes located at the lowest and highest latitudes. Individual taxa responded differently to lake environmental conditions across climate zones. Chironomidae dominated in all climate zones, but their contribution to total density decreased with increasing latitude, with progressively greater proportions of Naidinae, Asellidae, Ephemeroptera and Trichoptera. Our study demonstrates that epiphytic macroinvertebrate fauna, even when analyzed at low taxonomic resolution, exhibits clear differences in diversity, relative abundance of individual taxa and total density, shaped both by geographic and anthropogenic variables. The results were discussed in the context of climate change. To our best knowledge this is the first study to examine epiphytic fauna carried out on a European scale.


Assuntos
Invertebrados , Lagos , Animais , Clorofila A , Mudança Climática , Ecossistema
14.
Sci Total Environ ; 753: 141865, 2021 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32891996

RESUMO

Riparian zones ensure freshwater ecosystem processes such as microclimate regulation, organic matter inputs, and fine substrate retention. These processes illustrate the importance of riparian zones for freshwater ecosystem functioning, maintaining biodiversity, and mitigating the effects of anthropogenic pressures on aquatic ecosystems. We aimed to determine the freshwater invertebrate biological traits that are most affected by anthropogenic stressors in the riparian zones of 210 Neotropical savanna headwater streams. We assessed % canopy cover over the streambed, % fine bottom substrate, % leaf pack, substrate heterogeneity, and water temperature. Firstly, we identified bioindicator taxa in response to each local metric gradient. We assessed the functional response, based on biological traits of bioindicators previously selected. We identified 324,015 specimens belonging to 84 freshwater invertebrate taxa. Fifty-one taxa (60%) were bioindicators of anthropogenic stressors. We found three main sets of traits. (1) a set of traits linked to increased disturbance (higher percentage of fine sediments), consisting of organisms with aquatic adult stages, spherical body shape, and long adult life stages. (2) A set of traits linked to lower disturbance (higher substrate heterogeneity), including taxa with short or very short lifespans that live attached to substrates. (3) A set of traits linked to higher water temperature, including organisms with short adult lifespans and lower body flexibility. These patterns suggest that the stressors act as environmental filters and do not act independently on single traits, but rather, selecting sets of biological traits that facilitate taxa surviving and persisting in local environmental conditions. Our results support the development of powerful evaluation tools for environmental managers and decision makers. Because degraded freshwater communities respond in similar ways across large biogeographic areas, these sets of traits can be used for ecological monitoring efforts along other tropical savanna headwaters worldwide.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Rios , Animais , Biodiversidade , Monitoramento Ambiental , Pradaria , Invertebrados
15.
Sci Total Environ ; 753: 141986, 2021 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32911168

RESUMO

Rising salinity in freshwater ecosystems can affect community composition. Previous studies mainly focused on changes in freshwater communities along gradients of absolute levels of electrical conductivity (EC). However, both geogenic and anthropogenic drivers contribute to the EC level and taxa may regionally be adapted to geogenic EC levels. Therefore, we examined the turnover in freshwater invertebrates along gradients of anthropogenic EC change in two regions of Germany. The anthropogenic change of EC was estimated as the difference between the measured EC and the modeled background EC driven by geochemical and climate variables. Turnover in freshwater invertebrates (ß-diversity) was estimated using the Jaccard index (JI). We found that invertebrate turnover between EC gradient categories is generally greater than 47%, with a maximum of approximately 70% in sites with a more than 0.4 mS cm-1 change compared to the baseline (i.e. no difference between predicted and measured EC). The invertebrates Amphinemura sp., Anomalopterygella chauviniana and Leuctra sp. were reliable indicators of low EC change, whereas Potamopyrgus antipodarum indicated sites with the highest EC change. Variability within categories of EC change was slightly lower than within categories of absolute EC. Elevated nutrient concentrations that are often linked to land use may have contributed to the observed change of the invertebrate richness and can exacerbate effects of EC on communities in water. Overall, our study suggests that the change in EC, quantified as the difference between measured EC and modeled background EC, can be used to examine the response of invertebrate communities to increasing anthropogenic salinity concentrations in rivers. However, due to the strong correlation between EC change and observed EC in our study regions, the response to these two variables was very similar. Further studies in areas where EC change and observed EC are less correlated are required. In addition, such studies should consider the change in specific ions.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Rios , Animais , Biodiversidade , Água Doce , Alemanha , Invertebrados
16.
Sci Total Environ ; 753: 141987, 2021 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32911169

RESUMO

Artificial ponds are increasingly created for the services they provide to humans. While they have the potential to offer habitats for freshwater biodiversity, their contribution to regional diversity has hardly been quantified. In this study, we assess the relative contribution of five types of artificial ponds to regional biodiversity of five different regions, studying amphibians, water beetles and freshwater snails. This biodiversity is also compared with that observed in natural ponds from three of the investigated regions. Our results indicate that artificial ponds host, on average, about 50% of the regional pool of lentic species. When compared to natural ponds, the artificial ponds always supported a substantially lower alpha richness (54% of the natural pond richness). The invertebrate communities presented high values of beta diversity and were represented by a restricted set of widely distributed species, and by numerous rare species. There were discrepancies among the taxonomic groups: overall, amphibians benefited most from the presence of artificial ponds, since 65% of the regional lentic species pools for this group was found in artificial ponds, whereas 43% and 42% was observed in the case of beetles and snails, respectively. However, each invertebrate group was promptly the most benefited animal group in a single pond type. Therefore, artificial pond types were complementary among them in terms of contribution to regional diversity of the three animal groups. Based on these results, we forecast that future human-dominated landscapes in which most ponds are artificial will be particularly impoverished in terms of freshwater biodiversity, underlining the need to conserve existing natural ponds and to create new "near-natural" ponds. However, if properly designed and managed, artificial ponds could make a substantial contribution to support freshwater biodiversity at a regional scale. Furthermore, the number and diversity of artificial ponds must be high in each considered landscape.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Tanques , Anfíbios , Animais , Ecossistema , Humanos , Invertebrados
17.
Sci Total Environ ; 754: 142133, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32916494

RESUMO

While ecotoxicological impacts of microplastics on aquatic organisms have started to be investigated recently, impacts on ecosystem functions mediated by benthic biota remain largely unknown. We investigated the effect of microplastics on nitrogen removal in freshwater sediments where microorganisms and benthic invertebrates (i.e., chironomid larvae) co-existed. Using microcosm experiments, sediments with and without invertebrate chironomid larvae were exposed to microplastics (polyethylene) at concentrations of 0, 0.1, and 1 wt%. After 28 days of exposure, the addition of microplastics or chironomid larvae promoted the growth of denitrifying and anammox bacteria, leading to increased total nitrogen removal, in both cases. However, in microcosms with chironomid larvae and microplastics co-existing, nitrogen removal was less than the sum of their individual effects, especially at microplastics concentration of 1 wt%, indicating an adverse effect on microbial nitrogen removal mediated by macroinvertebrates. This study reveals that the increasing concentration of microplastics entangled the nitrogen cycling mediated by benthic invertebrates in freshwater ecosystems. These findings highlight the pursuit of a comprehensive understanding of the impacts of microplastics on the functioning in freshwater ecosystems.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Desnitrificação , Invertebrados , Microplásticos , Nitrogênio , Plásticos/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
18.
Water Res ; 188: 116528, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33126003

RESUMO

Pesticide contamination of agricultural streams has widely been analysed in regions of high intensity agriculture such as in Western Europe or North America. The situation of streams subject to low intensity agriculture relying on human and animal labour, as in parts of Romania, remains unknown. To close this gap, we determined concentrations of 244 pesticides and metabolites at 19 low-order streams, covering sites from low to high intensity agriculture in a region of Romania. Pesticides were sampled with two passive sampling methods (styrene-divinylbenzene (SDB) disks and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) sheets) during three rainfall events and at base flow. Using the toxic unit approach, we assessed the toxicity towards algae and invertebrates. Up to 50 pesticides were detected simultaneously, resulting in sum concentrations between 0.02 and 37 µg L-1. Both, the sum concentration as well as the toxicities were in a similar range as in high intensity agricultural streams of Western Europe. Different proxies of agricultural intensity did not relate to in-stream pesticide toxicity, contradicting the assumption of previous studies. The toxicity towards invertebrates was positively related to large scale variables such as the catchment size and the agricultural land use in the upstream catchment and small scale variables including riparian plant height, whereas the toxicity to algae showed no relationship to any of the variables. Our results suggest that streams in low intensity agriculture, despite a minor reported use of agrochemicals, exhibit similar levels of pesticide pollution as in regions of high intensity agriculture.


Assuntos
Praguicidas , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Agricultura , Animais , Monitoramento Ambiental , Europa (Continente) , Invertebrados , Praguicidas/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
19.
Sci Total Environ ; 754: 142171, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33254878

RESUMO

Benthic macroinvertebrate communities are used as indicators for anthropogenic stress in freshwater ecosystems. To better understand the relationship between anthropogenic stress and changes in macroinvertebrate community composition, it is important to understand how different stressors and species traits are associated, and how these associations influence variation in species occurrence and abundances. Here, we show the capacity of the multivariate technique of double constrained correspondence analysis (dc-CA) to analyse trait-environment relationships, and we compare it with the redundancy analysis method on community weighted mean values of traits (CWM-RDA), which is frequently used for this type of analysis. The analyses were based on available biomonitoring data for macroinvertebrate communities from the Danube River. Results from forward selection of traits and environmental variables using dc-CA analyses showed that aquatic stages, reproduction techniques, dispersal tactics, locomotion and substrate relations, altitude, longitudinal and transversal distribution, and substrate preferendum were significantly related to habitat characteristics, hydromorphological alterations and water quality measurements such as physico-chemical parameters, heavy metals, pesticides and pharmaceuticals. Environmental variables significantly associated with traits using the CWM-RDA method were generally consistent with those found in dc-CA analysis. However, the CWM-RDA does neither test nor explicitly select traits, while dc-CA tests and selects both traits and environmental variables. Moreover, the dc-CA analysis revealed that the set of environmental variables was much better in explaining the community data than the available trait set, a kind of information that can neither be obtained from CWM-RDA nor from RLQ (Environment, Link and Trait data), which is a close cousin of dc-CA but not regression-based. Our results suggest that trait-based analysis based on dc-CA may be useful to assess mechanistic links between multiple anthropogenic stressors and ecosystem health, but more data sets should be analysed in the same manner.


Assuntos
Invertebrados , Metais Pesados , Animais , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental , Metais Pesados/análise , Rios
20.
J Environ Manage ; 278(Pt 2): 111532, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33130404

RESUMO

Mining has changed landscapes locally in northern Fennoscandia and there is an increasing pressure for exploitation of the remaining mineral deposits of the region. Mineral deposits, even if unmined, can strongly influence stream water chemistry, stream biological communities and the ability of organisms to tolerate stressors. Using data sampled from six mining areas with three active (gold and chrome), two closed (gold) and one planned mine (phosphate), we examined how mineral deposits and mining influence water chemistry and diatom and macroinvertebrate communities in subarctic streams in Finnish Lapland. We supplemented the data by additional samples compiled from databases and further assessed how variation in background geological conditions influences bioassessments of the impacts arising from mining. We found that water specific conductivity was elevated in our study streams draining through catchments with a high mineral potential. Mining effects were mainly seen as increased concentration of nitrogen. Influence of mineral deposits was detected in composition of diatom and macroinvertebrate communities, but communities in streams in areas with a high mineral potential were as diverse as those in streams in areas with a low mineral potential. Mining impacts were better detected for diatoms using a reference condition based on sites with a high than low mineral potential, while for macroinvertebrates, the responses were generally less evident, likely because of only minor effects of mining on water chemistry. Community composition and frequencies of occurrence of macroinvertebrate taxa were, however, highly similar between mine-influenced streams and reference streams with a high potential for minerals indicating that the communities are strongly structured by the natural influence of mineral deposits. Incorporating geochemistry into the reference condition would likely improve bioassessments of both taxonomic groups. Replicated monitoring in potentially impacted sites and reference sites would be the most efficient framework for detecting environmental impacts in streams draining through mineral-rich catchments.


Assuntos
Diatomáceas , Invertebrados , Animais , Biota , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental , Mineração
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