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3.
Global Health ; 15(Suppl 1): 78, 2019 11 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31775767

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Trade and investment agreements negotiated after the World Trade Organization's Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) have included increasingly elevated protection of intellectual property rights along with an expanding array of rules impacting many aspects of pharmaceutical policy. Despite the large body of literature on intellectual property and access to affordable medicines, the ways in which other provisions in trade agreements can affect pharmaceutical policy and, in turn, access to medicines have been little studied. There is a need for an analytical framework covering the full range of provisions, pathways, and potential impacts, on which to base future health and human rights impact assessment and research. A framework exploring the ways in which trade and investment agreements may affect pharmaceutical policy was developed, based on an analysis of four recently negotiated regional trade agreements. First a set of core pharmaceutical policy objectives based on international consensus was identified. A systematic comparative analysis of the publicly available legal texts of the four agreements was undertaken, and the potential impacts of the provisions in these agreements on the core pharmaceutical policy objectives were traced through an analysis of possible pathways. RESULTS: An analytical framework is presented, linking ten types of provisions in the four trade agreements to potential impacts on four core pharmaceutical policy objectives (access and affordability; safety, efficacy, and quality; rational use of medicines; and local production capacity and health security) via various pathways. CONCLUSIONS: The analytical framework highlights provisions in trade and investment agreements that need to be examined, pathways that should be explored, and potential impacts that should be taken into consideration with respect to pharmaceutical policy. This may serve as a useful checklist or template for health and human rights impact assessments and research on the implications of trade agreements for pharmaceuticals.


Assuntos
Comércio/legislação & jurisprudência , Cooperação Internacional/legislação & jurisprudência , Investimentos em Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Preparações Farmacêuticas/economia , Política Pública , Canadá , Custos e Análise de Custo , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Propriedade Intelectual , México , Estados Unidos
4.
Global Health ; 15(1): 55, 2019 11 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31690328

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Who benefits from the commercial biomedical research and development (R&D)? Patients-consumers and investors-shareholders have traditionally been viewed as two distinct groups with conflicting interests: shareholders seek maximum profits, patients - maximum clinical benefit. However, what happens when patients are the shareholders? With billions of dollars of public risk capital channeled into the drug development industry, analysing the complex financial architecture and the market for corporate control is essential for understanding industry's characteristics, such as pricing strategies or R&D priorities. RESULTS: Adding investments by governmentally-mandated retirement schemes, central and promotional banks, and sovereign wealth funds to tax-derived governmental financing shows that the majority of biomedical R&D funding is public in origin. Despite this, even in the high-income countries patients can be denied access to effective treatments due to their high cost. Since these costs are set by the drug development firms that are owned in substantial part by the retirement accounts of said patients, the complex financial architecture of biomedical R&D may be inconsistent with the objectives of the ultimate beneficiaries. CONCLUSIONS: The divergence in economic and public health performance of the drug development industry is resultant from its financial underwriting by enormously expanded pension schemes, governmentally mandated to represent the interests of "captive" beneficiaries, as well as similar policymaker-designed funding flows, whose standards of transparency, accountability and representation are substantially lower than that of governments themselves. Strengthening those elements of institutional design and thus ensuring active responsible shareholding in the interest of the patients-savers is an under-utilised, but potentially high-impact opportunity for advancing public health.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica/economia , Administração Financeira , Investimentos em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Pensões , Pesquisa/economia , Humanos , Saúde Pública , Responsabilidade Social
5.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(33): 34388-34400, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31637616

RESUMO

This study empirically evaluates the impact of energy, environmental pollution, human capital, financial development, and physical capital on economic growth in countries like Brazil, India, China, and South Africa (BRICS-4) from 1981 to 2015. Relevant diagnostic tests, the Panel Fully Modified Ordinary Least Squares (F.M.O.L.S.), Robust Least Squares (R.L.S.) methods, and the Dumitrescu-Hurlin Panel causality test are implemented for empirical investigation. The key outcomes from the F.M.O.L.S. and R.L.S. methods indicate that energy consumption, physical capital, human capital, and financial development contribute to economic growth, while environmental pollution attenuates economic growth. Moreover, the Dumitrescu-Hurlin Panel causality test results reveal about the bidirectional and unidirectional causality between energy consumption, environmental pollution, investment, human capital, and financial sector expansion and growth. Thus, based on the findings, this study recommend that the BRICS countries' policy makers need to formulate public policy to ensure adequate energy supply, enhance foreign investments, improve health sector, develop financial sector, and regulate environmental pollution to achieve sustainable development.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Econômico , Poluição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Brasil , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , China , Poluição Ambiental/análise , Humanos , Índia , Internacionalidade , Investimentos em Saúde , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , África do Sul
6.
Curr Top Microbiol Immunol ; 424: 75-83, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31650236

RESUMO

Infectious disease emergence into humans from animals or the environment occurs primarily due to genetic changes in the microbe through mutation or re-assortment making it either more transmissible or virulent or through a change in the disease "ecosystem". Research into infectious disease emergence can be grouped into different strategic approaches. One strategic approach is to study a specific or model disease system to understand the ecology of an infectious disease and how is transmitted and propagated through the environment and different hosts and then extrapolate that disease system knowledge to related pathogens. The other strategic approach follows the genomics and phylogenetics-tracking how pathogens are evolving and changing at the amino acid level. Here we argue that for understanding complex zoonotic diseases and for the purposes of preventing emergence and re-emergence into humans, that the Return on Investment be considered for the best research strategy.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis/economia , Doenças Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Filogenia , Vírus/classificação , Vírus/patogenicidade , Animais , Doenças Transmissíveis/classificação , Doenças Transmissíveis/virologia , Humanos , Investimentos em Saúde , Vírus/genética , Zoonoses/virologia
8.
9.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(30): 31422-31433, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31478171

RESUMO

This paper offers a perspective for the link between air quality and stock returns in China through quantile Granger causality test. Compared to previous studies, the study makes the following innovations. Given the Chinese government plays an important role in economic development, its industrial policies are regarded as a new indispensable supplement of analysis framework apart from investor mood. Next, due to different reflections from cross-industries for different AQ levels, the industry heterogeneity is further considered. Also, nine industries are chosen as a sample, including environmental protection, wind power equipment, steel, photovoltaic equipment, thermal power, tourism, coal, medical service, and medical equipment. Besides, the quantile Granger causality test is robust to misspecification errors when detecting the potential dependence structure between the variables of air quality and stock returns. The empirical results show that the causal link exists in all industries, except medical service. Meanwhile, this impact presents asymmetrical features that when air quality is unhealthy, it has an influence on stock returns of the remaining eight industries. It can be explained by increasing cortisol level, more stringent environmental protection, and industrial policies. These conclusions have essential implications for market participants due to the fact that air quality generates various influences on the stock market. That is why a sustainable environmental design, strict regulatory framework, and special monitoring activities should be highly regarded in China.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Desenvolvimento Econômico/tendências , Indústrias/estatística & dados numéricos , Poluição do Ar/análise , China , Carvão Mineral/análise , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Humanos , Investimentos em Saúde , Vento
10.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 19(1): 610, 2019 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31470846

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Even though China launched a series of measures to alleviate several financial burdens (including health insurance scheme, increased government investment, and so on), the economic burden of health expenditure has still not been alleviated. Out-of-pocket payments (OPPs) show not only a time correlation but also some degree of spatial correlation. The aims of the current study were thus to identify the spatial cluster of OPPs, to investigate the main factors affecting variation, and to explore the spatial spillover sources of China's OPP. METHODS: Global and local spatial autocorrelation tests were validated to identify the spatial cluster of OPPs using the panel data of 31 provinces in China from 2005 to 2016. The Spatial Durbin Model, established in this paper, measured the spatial spillover effect of OPPs and analyzed the possible spillover sources (demand, supply, and socio-economic factors. RESULTS: OPPs were found to have a significant and positive spatial correlation. The results of the Spatial Durbin Model showed the direct and indirect effects of demand, supply, and socio- economic factors on China's OPPs. Among the demand factors, the direct and indirect correlation (elasticity) coefficients were positive. Among the supply factors, the direct and indirect effects of the share of primary health beds on residents' OPPs were negative. The ratio of health technicians in hospitals to those in primary health institutions on per capital OPPs had a significant indirect effect. Among the socio-economic factors, the direct effects of GDP, government health expenditure, and urbanization on OPPs were found to be positive. There were no significant indirect effects of socio-economic factors on OPPs. CONCLUSION: This paper finds that China's OPPs are not randomly distributed but, overall, present a positive spatial cluster, even though a series of measures have been launched to promote health equity. Socio-economic factors and those associated with demand were found to be the main influences of variation in OPPs, while demand was seen to be the driver of the positive spatial spillover of OPPs, whereby effective supply could inhibit these positive spillover effects.


Assuntos
Gastos em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Seguro Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , China , Equidade em Saúde/economia , Equidade em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Seguro Saúde/economia , Investimentos em Saúde , Análise Espaço-Temporal , Urbanização
11.
JAMA ; 322(5): 468, 2019 08 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31386128
12.
JAMA ; 322(5): 468-469, 2019 08 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31386132
14.
J Environ Manage ; 248: 109309, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31394476

RESUMO

Heavy dependence on fossil fuels among rural households contributes to GHG emissions and air pollution while increasing landfill loads in Poland. This study examines benefits from the renewable energy utilization support program that subsidized household purchase and installation of thermal solar panels. This review of synergy between energy, climate, and air quality policies focuses on solar panel subsidies funded through the European Union and county governments in Mazowieckie Voivodship in Poland. County government offices, using the unpublished list of households receiving subsidies for thermal solar panel installation, mediated in the implementation of the survey and collected 123 completed questionnaires in May and June 2015. The heteroscedasticity-corrected OLS estimates two equations identifying and quantifying factors influencing the purchase price of solar panels and rural household monthly energy bill savings after installation using the gathered data. Among sociodemographic variables, increasing age was associated with an increasing price paid for the panels, but education was associated with paying a lower price for solar panels and lower self-reported energy bill savings. Panel purchase price increased if the respondent was a farmer, viewed subsidies as important, and preferred domestically manufactured panels. Location of household increased the price as compared to the reference county. Savings on monthly energy bills increased if respondent had a positive view of solar energy, expected a decrease in the bill following the purchase of panels, and heated large areas in the house. Subsidy programs have been important in increased household solar energy utilization, especially among farm households, while self-reported energy bill savings increased with positive attitudes towards renewable energy and the larger heated areas in rural residences.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar , Energia Solar , Clima , Humanos , Investimentos em Saúde , Polônia , Energia Renovável
15.
Int J Health Policy Manag ; 8(8): 508-510, 2019 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31441293

RESUMO

Building on Tangcharoensathien and colleagues' description of four tactics used by the tobacco, alcohol, processed food, and breast milk substitute industries to interfere with the development and implementation of health policies, we present a fifth tactic: trade and investment disputes. We describe recent examples of trade and investment claims filed by the tobacco industry to challenge plain packaging legislation, which may serve as a model for future claims by this and other industries. Next, we clarify specific areas of potential conflict between non-communicable disease (NCD) control policies and trade and investment agreement (TIA) commitments, identifying possible vulnerabilities that may be exploited by industry to challenge the legality of these policies. We conclude with ideas to strengthen the position of health policies vis-à-vis commitments in TIAs.


Assuntos
Indústria do Tabaco , Produtos do Tabaco , Feminino , Política de Saúde , Humanos , Investimentos em Saúde
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31434212

RESUMO

This study provides empirical evidence related to the "it pays to be green" hypothesis. Based on information from panel data approximately 42 industrial companies during an 8-year period, we determine some of the factors and contingences that affect the fulfilment of that hypothesis. We find that a certain level of proactivity in environmental strategy design is one of the conditions that favors a positive relationship between environmental investment and financial performance. We also provide empirical evidence on how some external conditions affect this positive relationship, such as regulatory pressure from the European Union Emissions Trading System (EU ETS) and the financial crisis.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/prevenção & controle , Meio Ambiente , União Europeia/economia , Indústrias/legislação & jurisprudência , Modelos Econômicos , Poluição do Ar/economia , Indústrias/economia , Investimentos em Saúde
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31438503

RESUMO

Climate change has made countries around the world realize the importance of reducing carbon emissions. Reductions in carbon emissions needs the support of policy, technology, and financial capital. The single/double/three-threshold model is used here with data from China to study the different impact of financial development in carbon emissions in high-energy industries when the threshold variables are in different intervals. The results show that when loan size is the core explanatory variable, and research and development (R and D) expenditure and energy structure are the threshold variables, the loan size variable has a significant effect on emission reductions in high-energy industries, and this effect is strengthened with increases in R and D expenditure and decreases in the proportion of energy from coal. Taking energy intensity as the threshold variable, the relationship between loan size and carbon dioxide emissions is V-shaped. With economic structure as the threshold variable, loan size has a significant effect on emissions reduction when the proportion of industrial added value in high-energy industries is low. When using foreign investment as the core explanatory variable, R and D expenditure, energy consumption intensity, and industrial structure are threshold variables. The impact of foreign investment on carbon dioxide emissions is negative, but when the threshold variable is within different intervals, this negative impact differs. With stock market value as the core explanatory variable, and R and D expenditure and energy structure as the threshold variables, the stock market value can promote reductions in carbon emissions, but when R and D expenditure and the proportion of coal consumption is high, stock market value has no significant effect on emissions reduction. When energy consumption intensity is the threshold variable, the relationship between stock market value and carbon dioxide emissions is V-shaped.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/prevenção & controle , Dióxido de Carbono , Desenvolvimento Econômico , Indústrias/economia , Tecnologia/economia , Poluição do Ar/economia , China , Mudança Climática , Carvão Mineral , Eletricidade , Gastos em Saúde , Internacionalidade , Investimentos em Saúde
19.
J Environ Manage ; 249: 109347, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31419672

RESUMO

When effectively managed, Protected Areas (PAs) are capable of generating multiple forms of value, both tangible and intangible, for individuals and institutions. However, the value-generating potential of many PAs may be going unrecognized and underutilized due to a limited view of management objectives as codified within the parks' Management Plan. Here, we test the hypothesis that PAs are undervalued by evaluating the degree to which Management Plans from four different Brazilian designations (National Parks, Ecological Stations, Environmental Protected Areas and National Forests) recognize different categories of nature-related assets (entities, attributes and relationships that can be protected, managed and/or invested in to generate forms of value). Based on a recently proposed PA Asset Framework, we identify what assets are mentioned by Management Plans and what assets are under-represented. Our results indicate that Human and Cultural assets are the least represented of the major asset classes (Biophysical, Human, Infrastructural, Institutional and Cultural) and that many asset sub-categories that should reasonably be expected to be present in Management Plans are frequently not mentioned. Assets that are not being considered in Management Plans are, by extension, less likely to be managed and/or invested in. Given the strong similarities between PA Management Plans in different countries, these results probably reflect a general trend. A simple way to ensure that PAs maximize the value generating potential (within the context of their designation) would be to survey their assets and generate a 'PA Asset Management and Investment Plan' to supplement and support existing planning documentation.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Investimentos em Saúde , Brasil , Ecologia , Humanos
20.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(30): 31178-31197, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31463751

RESUMO

The objective of this study is to investigate the potential impacts of foreign ownership on the corporate sustainability disclosure of leading non-financial companies in the context of an emerging economy of Pakistan. The study employed data from the year 2006 to 2018 gathered from the Pakistan stock exchange. Further, the data on foreign ownership and corporate sustainability disclosure obtained from the firm's annual reports and the global reporting initiatives (GRI) database. This study employed a sequential mixed methods technique. The empirical results indicate that foreign ownership has a significant impact on total sustainability disclosure (TCSRI). Whereas having an individual assessment, we found that foreign ownership is positively associated with each component (economic, social, and environmental) disclosure respectively. Moreover, our findings prove that firm size and growth are positively related to foreign ownership, TCSRI, and its aspects. In contrast, the study reveals a negative relationship among financial leverage, TCSRI, and economic, social, and environmental sustainability exposure. Summing up, the study indicates that foreign ownership effectively improves sustainability governance mechanism, and at the same time, it is also found that higher financial leverage restricts the sustainability disclosure capacity of firms. Results from this study have technical, theoretical, and policy implications for regulatory institutions, corporate management, and investors in emerging economies. Hence, we put forward the policy implications that the regulatory institutions need to reconsider the policy guidelines subject to diversification of ownership and activism of foreign shareholders in both small/large size firms to enhance the sustainability disclosure practices. Also, reduce the increasing level of financial leverage, which is curbing the firm's economic, social, and environmental reporting activities.


Assuntos
Propriedade , Desenvolvimento Sustentável , Revelação , Humanos , Indústrias , Internacionalidade , Investimentos em Saúde , Modelos Teóricos , Análise Multivariada , Cultura Organizacional , Paquistão
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