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1.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 28(1): 416-431, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32808131

RESUMO

The empirical linkages from tourism, governance, and FDI have been quantified on CO2 emission and energy use over 2002-2014 for a panel of 13 Muslim countries. To this end, we have examined the data for cross-sectional dependence (CD) and panel heterogeneity and employed panel algorithms, which account for both CD and panel heterogeneity. The results from Pedroni, Westerlund, and Kao tests supported the existence of a cointegration association between the chosen variables. In the CO2 model, we observed that tourism positively, and governance negatively, influences the CO2 emission. However, in the case of the energy model, the results of tourism pose a negative relationship, and governance indicates a positive relationship with energy use. The results supported the pollution haven phenomenon, finance, and energy triggered pollution in the study area. Further, the research supported a two-way causality between tourism and CO2, where there is a unilateral causality from governance to CO2. Similarly, a unidirectional causality was obtained from energy towards tourism. Lastly, the key policy recommendations based on the outcomes of the study are encouraging clean energy investment, enhancing good governance, and sustainable tourism development for improving environmental quality.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono , Desenvolvimento Econômico , Estudos Transversais , Investimentos em Saúde , Islamismo , Turismo
2.
J Environ Manage ; 279: 111569, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33190973

RESUMO

Although Asian economies have registered strong economic growth over the last few decades, their growing pollution emissions raise concerns among the policymakers about the sustainability of this output growth. This paper tests the causal relationship between economic development, energy consumption, trade openness, financial development, FDI, government expenditures, institutional quality. and pollution emissions for 41 Asian economies from 1996 to 2015. Further, we separately test the impact of political and economic institutions on pollution emissions of the sample economies. Our estimated outcomes, based on the panel cointegration method and panel vector error correction models (VECM), substantiate the presence of a cointegration relationship among all the selected variables. While economic development, energy use, trade openness, and FDI augment environmental degradation, financial development and better economic institutions help the selected countries in reducing their pollution emissions. Moreover, better economic and political institutions also mediate the adverse impact of income, trade openness, and FDI on pollution emissions. The VECM model shows that per capita GDP is the only variable having a causal effect on pollution emissions in all the models. For all the other variables, the causal effect is significant only in a few cases. These outcomes have some important policy recommendations for the sample economies.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono , Desenvolvimento Econômico , Ásia , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Poluição Ambiental/análise , Investimentos em Saúde
3.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 28(3): 3243-3252, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32910404

RESUMO

This study aims to analyze the relationship among international tourism, energy consumption, carbon dioxide emissions, and economic growth in Mediterranean countries for the 1995-2014 data period. According to the results of panel quantile regression model for 17 countries, the tourism-led growth hypothesis is valid in low growth levels, but deviations from this hypothesis are determined after the middle growth level. Also, the CO2 coefficient at low growth levels indicated that sustainable growth is achieved, but no significant results are obtained at subsequent growth levels. Finally, energy consumption supports economic growth at low and medium growth levels. Short-run causality test results illustrated that there is bidirectional causality between GDP and all explanatory variables.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono , Desenvolvimento Econômico , Investimentos em Saúde , Energia Renovável , Turismo
4.
Trop Med Int Health ; 26(1): 20-22, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32985024

RESUMO

Community health workers in low- and middle-income country primary health care systems are well suited to perform essential functions on the frontlines of Covid-19 pandemic responses. However, clear and coordinated guidance, updated infection control training, and reliable access to personal protective equipment must be ensured in order to deploy them safely and effectively. With these additional responsibilities, community health workers must also be supported to ensure that hard-fought gains in population health, including progress on non-communicable diseases, are sustained throughout the pandemic.


Assuntos
Países em Desenvolvimento , Saúde da População , Agentes Comunitários de Saúde/economia , Humanos , Investimentos em Saúde , Atenção Primária à Saúde/organização & administração
7.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0239549, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33270678

RESUMO

Environmental protection regulations adopted by governments affect the microeconomic behavior of enterprises. The Chinese government began piloting the outgoing leading officials' accountability audit of natural resources assets (OANRA) in some regions in 2014. Based on this quasi-natural experimental setting, this paper chose heavy-polluting and resource-based enterprises in pilot regions of China from 2011 to 2016 as examples for studying the impact of the OANRA on enterprise innovation and further examines the role of government subsidies in this process. The study finds that the OANRA has no significant impact on enterprise innovation. However, with support from government subsidies, the OANRA dramatically accelerates enterprise innovation investment. The results are still seen after applying propensity matching analysis (PSM), balancing panel data and deleting special provinces. Further analysis shows that this effect is more obvious among small-scale, state-owned enterprises that are located in areas with high degrees of marketization and high bank credit constraints. This study advances the research of the OANRA's effects on the microeconomic behavior of enterprises. Moreover, the adjustment effect of government subsidies also provides great reference value to making rational use of policy to cooperate with the OANRA.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/legislação & jurisprudência , Poluentes Ambientais/efeitos adversos , Poluição Ambiental/legislação & jurisprudência , Poluição Ambiental/prevenção & controle , China , Eficiência , Governo , Indústrias/legislação & jurisprudência , Investimentos em Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência
8.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0243080, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33275622

RESUMO

Investor sentiment is a research focus in behavior finance. This paper chooses five proxy variables according to China's reality and uses a two-step principal component analysis to construct an investor sentiment index. The five proxy variables are the number of new stock accounts, turnover ratio, margin balance, net active purchasing amount, and investor attention. In the final part of this study, using the price data from the Shanghai and Shenzhen Security Exchange, this paper investigates the dynamic relationship between investor sentiment and stock market realized volatility based on the thermal optimal path. The empirical results show that when the market fluctuates severely, investor sentiment leads stock market realized volatility over one or two steps. The prediction power is also checked. The results indicate that investor sentiment indeed forecasts the realized volatility. This research supports regulators and financial institutions in taking advanced measures.


Assuntos
Comércio/economia , Investimentos em Saúde/economia , China , Previsões , Humanos , Modelos Econômicos , Análise de Componente Principal
9.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0242449, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33259510

RESUMO

In this paper, two new aggregation operators based on Choquet integral, namely the induced generalized interval neutrosophic Choquet integral average operator(IGINCIA) and the induced generalized interval neutrosophic Choquet integral geometric operator(IG-INCIG), are proposed for multi-criteria decision making problems (MCDM). Firstly, the criteria are dependent to each other and the evaluation information of the criteria are expressed by interval neutrosophic numbers. Moreover, two indices which are inspired by the geometrical structure are established to compare the interval neutrosophic numbers. Then, a MCDM method is proposed based on the proposed aggregation operators and ranking indices to cope with MCDM with interactive criteria. Lastly, an investment decision making problem is provided to illustrate the practicality and effectiveness of the proposed approach. The validity and advantages of the proposed method are analyzed by comparing with some existing approaches. By a numerical example in company investment to expand business though five alternatives with considering four criteria, the optimal decision is made.


Assuntos
Tomada de Decisões , Técnicas de Apoio para a Decisão , Teoria da Decisão , Investimentos em Saúde/tendências , Algoritmos , Entropia , Lógica Fuzzy , Humanos
10.
Front Public Health ; 8: 563525, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33282810

RESUMO

Responsive private sector engagement in developing test kits for coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in South Korea offers a valuable case study in public-private partnership and infectious disease governance. Korean biotech firms promptly developed diagnostic test kits, and the nation achieved capacity to test more than 20,000 people daily. This was a direct result of the continuous application of lessons learned from the Middle Eastern respiratory syndrome outbreak in 2015. South Korea had been strengthening the private sectors' infectious disease governance and response capacity, creating various new constructive pathways toward public-private partnership. Regulatory amendments were made to better liaise with the private sector. Government-led investment had increased in the research and development of testing technologies over the past 5 years. Furthermore, the Korean government had introduced fast-tracking approval, allowing open competition for more than 20 domestic biotech companies to develop test kits. An overview of test kit governance informs us of the importance of public-private partnership for pandemic threats.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Coronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Setor Privado , Parcerias Público-Privadas , Kit de Reagentes para Diagnóstico/provisão & distribução , Humanos , Investimentos em Saúde , República da Coreia , Pesquisa
12.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0241318, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33141827

RESUMO

Most single-factor and multifactor asset pricing models constitute special cases of the consumption-based asset pricing theory, in which investors' marginal utility is the key determinant of asset prices. However, in recent years, production-based asset pricing models have been extraordinarily successful in correctly pricing a wide range of anomaly portfolios that are typically mispriced in previous research. In parallel, research on conditioning information has contributed to significantly improve the performance of classic consumption-based asset pricing models. On this basis, in this paper we conduct an in-depth research on the performance of consumption and production-based asset pricing models on the Tokyo Stock Exchange, for the period from 1992 to 2018, in order to test to what extent consumer confidence helps consumption models to correctly capture shifts in the investment opportunity set of investors. To overcome the constraints imposed by the periodicity of macroeconomic data, we use a factor-mimicking portfolio approach that allows us to test the performance of the models into consideration at different frequencies. Our results suggest that the consumer confidence index for Japan helps consumption-based asset pricing models outperform production-based models for different anomaly portfolios. Conversely, in those cases where consumption models perform worse, the production models also perform poorly. These results help to partially reconcile the results provided by the consumption and production models, and constitute a step forward for the purpose of identifying the fundamental risk factors that drive asset prices.


Assuntos
Participação da Comunidade , Custos e Análise de Custo/economia , Investimentos em Saúde/economia , Modelos Econômicos , Análise de Regressão , Tóquio
13.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0241573, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33147275

RESUMO

Construction of a reliable stock portfolio remains an open issue in quantitative investment. Multiple machine learning models have been trained for stock portfolio selection, but their practical applicability remains limited due to the challenges posed by the characteristic of a low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), the nature of time-series data, and non-independent identical distribution in financial data. Here, we transformed the stock selection task into a matching problem between a group of stocks and a stock selection target. We proposed a novel representation algorithm of stock selection target and a novel deep matching algorithm (TS-Deep-LtM). Then we proposed a deep stock profiling method to extract the optimal feature combination and trained a deep matching model based on TS-Deep-LtM algorithm for stock portfolio selection. Especially, TS-Deep-LtM algorithm was obtained by setting statistical indicators to filter and integrate three deep text matching algorithms. This parallel framework design made it good at capturing signals from time-series data and adapting to non-independent identically distributed data. Finally, we applied the proposed model to stock selection and tested long-only portfolio strategies from 2010 to 2017. We demonstrated that the risk-adjusted returns obtained by our portfolio strategies outperformed those obtained by the CSI300 index and learning-to-rank approaches during the same period.


Assuntos
Aprendizado Profundo , Investimentos em Saúde/economia , Modelos Econômicos
16.
Vaccine ; 38(52): 8318-8325, 2020 12 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33199075

RESUMO

The counterfeiting of vaccines is an increasing problem globally with the safety of persons vaccinated, the trust in vaccines generally and the associated reputation of vaccine manufacturers and regulatory agencies at risk. This risk is especially critical with the on-going development of COVID-19 vaccines. The ability to track and trace vaccines through the vaccine supply chain down to persons vaccinated has to be enhanced. In this context of traceability, the global immunization community has recently set the barcoding of the primary packaging of vaccines, specifically vaccine vials and pre-filled syringes, as a top priority. Emerging vaccine manufacturers are already engaged in investigating ways to incorporate barcoding in their labelling and packaging using GS1 international standards. A specific pilot taking place in Indonesia by the national vaccine manufacturer, Bio Farma, shows the innovation of barcoding on primary packaging already underway with a relatively modest level of investment and success at this stage. This article highlights the efforts of industry and governments on the value of traceability and introduction to 2D barcodes. Access to financial resources and support from the international immunization community would accelerate such innovations leading to enhanced security of the vaccine supply chain.


Assuntos
Medicamentos Falsificados , Indústria Farmacêutica/normas , Rotulagem de Medicamentos/normas , Processamento Eletrônico de Dados , Vacinas/normas , /normas , Indústria Farmacêutica/economia , Indústria Farmacêutica/métodos , Rotulagem de Medicamentos/métodos , Humanos , Indonésia , Cooperação Internacional , Invenções , Investimentos em Saúde , Inovação Organizacional , Projetos Piloto
17.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(47): 29577-29583, 2020 11 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33168741

RESUMO

The justification and targeting of conservation policy rests on reliable measures of public and private benefits from competing land uses. Advances in Earth system observation and modeling permit the mapping of public ecosystem services at unprecedented scales and resolutions, prompting new proposals for land protection policies and priorities. Data on private benefits from land use are not available at similar scales and resolutions, resulting in a data mismatch with unknown consequences. Here I show that private benefits from land can be quantified at large scales and high resolutions, and that doing so can have important implications for conservation policy models. I developed high-resolution estimates of fair market value of private lands in the contiguous United States by training tree-based ensemble models on 6 million land sales. The resulting estimates predict conservation cost with up to 8.5 times greater accuracy than earlier proxies. Studies using coarser cost proxies underestimate conservation costs, especially at the expensive tail of the distribution. This has led to underestimations of policy budgets by factors of up to 37.5 in recent work. More accurate cost accounting will help policy makers acknowledge the full magnitude of contemporary conservation challenges and can help improve the targeting of public ecosystem service investments.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/economia , Custos e Análise de Custo/economia , Comércio/economia , Ecossistema , Investimentos em Saúde/economia , Estados Unidos
18.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0242412, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33237920

RESUMO

This study evaluates the impacts of renewable energy, environmental taxes, environmental technology, and financial development on carbon emissions in OECD economies from 1995 to 2015 by employing system-GMM and quantile regression approaches. Our empirical analysis indicates that environmental tax negatively affects carbon emissions; economic growth impedes environmental quality by increasing carbon emissions. Further, renewable energy consumption, environmental technology, and financial development improve environmental quality by decreasing carbon emissions. We suggest that changes in policymaking to promote sustainable economic growth and environmental quality should be prevent environmental degradation, but also inspire greater investments in new technologies and energy expertise in the renewables industry.


Assuntos
Pegada de Carbono , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/economia , Desenvolvimento Econômico , Política Ambiental , Energia Renovável , Crescimento Sustentável , Impostos , Tecnologia/economia , Dióxido de Carbono , Mudança Climática , Gases de Efeito Estufa , Invenções/economia , Investimentos em Saúde , Modelos Econométricos , Energia Renovável/economia
19.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0239652, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33006975

RESUMO

In this paper, we propose six Student's t based compound distributions where the scale parameter is randomized using functional forms of the half normal, Fréchet, Lomax, Burr III, inverse gamma and generalized gamma distributions. For each of the proposed distribution, we give expressions for the probability density function, cumulative distribution function, moments and characteristic function. GARCH models with innovations taken to follow the compound distributions are fitted to the data using the method of maximum likelihood. For the sample data considered, we see that all but two of the proposed distributions perform better than two popular distributions. Finally, we perform a simulation study to examine the accuracy of the best performing model.


Assuntos
Administração Financeira/estatística & dados numéricos , Modelos Econômicos , Simulação por Computador , Humanos , Investimentos em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Funções Verossimilhança , Modelos Estatísticos , Distribuições Estatísticas
20.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0239635, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33006998

RESUMO

To evaluate the overseas investment risks of enterprises and expand the application and development of deep learning methods in risk assessment, 15 national clusters are utilized as samples to analyze and discuss the overseas investment risk indicators of enterprises. First, based on the indicator system of overseas investment risks, five major types of investment risks are identified. Second, the Deep Neural Network (DNN) is introduced; a risk evaluation model is constructed for enterprise overseas investment. Finally, the investment attractiveness index in the Fraser risk assessment learning label is adopted as the evaluation results of the model. According to the classification of risks, the model is trained and its performance is tested. The results show that the major source of overseas investment risks includes basic resources, political systems, economic and financial development, and environmental protection. The corresponding risk score is high. North American country clusters and Oceanian country clusters have lower investment risks, while the investment risks in Africa, Latin America, and Asia are affected by multiple factors of the specific cities. This is closely related to the resources and legal systems possessed by the country clusters. This is of great significance for enterprises to conduct risk assessment in overseas investment.


Assuntos
Indústrias/economia , Investimentos em Saúde , Medição de Risco , África , América , Ásia , Aprendizado Profundo , Europa (Continente) , Análise Fatorial , Humanos , Indústrias/estatística & dados numéricos , Investimentos em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Oceania , Medição de Risco/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Risco
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