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1.
Food Chem ; 339: 127887, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32877815

RESUMO

The effect of yoghurt and curd cheese additions on pasting properties, starch digestibility and estimated glycemic index of wheat bread were studied. Yoghurt and curd cheese incorporations (6% up to 25% w/w) promoted considerable changes on starch performance based on gelatinization and final dough consistency properties. These changes led to a significant impact on starch digestibility, reducing significantly the rapidly digestible starch while increasing the resistant starch. The estimated glycemic index reflected the changes promoted on starch performance from both dairy products addition, at higher level tested (25%): a significant reduction of around 30% for yoghurt bread and 38% for curd cheese bread, was obtained, resulting in medium to low (55-69) glycemic index breads. Correlations were found between pasting properties, starch digestibility and glycemic index, revealing that the effects observed are proportional to the levels of dairy products added. Microstructure images of the starch granules supported these findings.


Assuntos
Pão/análise , Queijo/análise , Índice Glicêmico , Amido/metabolismo , Triticum/química , Iogurte/análise , Digestão , Farinha/análise , Reologia
2.
Food Chem ; 340: 128199, 2021 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33027719

RESUMO

This study was the first to evaluate changes in isoflavone, amino acid, conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), antioxidant effect, and digestive enzyme inhibition during fermentation of soy-milk to soy-yogurt with L. brevis and L. plantarum. Total average isoflavones were reduced (1318.2 â†’ 971.1 µg/g) with an increase of aglycones (60.2 â†’ 804.9 µg/g, genistein > daidzein > glycitein) in soy powder yogurts (SPYs). Amino acids increased considerably, as did ornithine (average 4.1 â†’ 551.0 mg/g), and CLA showed high variations from not-detected (ND) to 0.5, 0.9 mg/g (cis-9, trans-11) and ND to 0.3, 0.2 mg/g (trans-10, cis-12). Digestive enzyme inhibitions (α-glucosidase, α-amylase, and pancreatic lipase) displayed high activities (average 50.6 â†’ 67.2, 5.2 â†’ 46.4, 10.6 â†’ 51.4%). Moreover, the antioxidant abilities against radicals were elevated as follows: ABTS > DPPH > hydroxyl (average 63.5 â†’ 86.5, 50.2 â†’ 70.3, 39.3 â†’ 55.2%). Specifically, SPY using mixed strains exhibited the greatest enzymatic inhibition and antioxidant capacities.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos/análise , Digestão , Fermentação , Isoflavonas/análise , Ácidos Linoleicos Conjugados/análise , Soja/microbiologia , Iogurte/análise , Antioxidantes/análise , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Inibidores Enzimáticos/análise , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Isoflavonas/farmacologia , Especificidade da Espécie , Iogurte/microbiologia
3.
Food Chem ; 333: 127482, 2020 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32659671

RESUMO

In order to evaluate differences in the peptide profile and bioactive potential in dairy products, by increasing the protein content and using proteolytic bacteria strain to enable the release of bioactive peptides, a high-protein yogurt with adjunct culture was developed. The effect of protein content, the addition of Lactobacillus helveticus LH-B02, and storage time were evaluated. The qualitative analysis of peptide profile was performed using a mass spectrometry approach (MALDI-ToF-MS), and the potential bioactivity evaluated by ACE inhibition activity. Protein content did not affect the peptide profile in yogurts, and the addition of Lactobacillus helveticus LH-B02 favored the formation of peptides recognized as bioactive, such as αS1-CN f(24-32) and ß-CN f(193-209). Increased protein content and adjunct culture addition increased the ACE inhibitory activity. The combination of both factors had no additional effect on the bioactive potential of yogurts.


Assuntos
Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/análise , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/farmacologia , Lactobacillus helveticus/metabolismo , Peptídeos/análise , Peptídeos/farmacologia , Iogurte/análise , Iogurte/microbiologia , Animais , Fermentação
4.
Food Chem ; 332: 127384, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32615384

RESUMO

Dairy polar lipids (PL) seem to exhibit antiplatelet effects. However, it is not known what molecular species may be responsible. In this study, we confirmed using C30 reversed-phase (C30RP) ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) coupled to high resolution accurate mass tandem mass spectrometry (HRAM-MS/MS) that fermentation of yoghurts from ovine milk using specific starter cultures altered the PL composition. These lipid alterations occurred concomitant with increased antithrombotic properties of the yoghurts PL fractions against platelet-activating factor (PAF) and thrombin-induced platelet aggregation. Specifically, elevation in phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), sphingomyelin (SM), phosphatidylcholine (PC) and their molecular species were observed following yoghurt fermentation. Furthermore, PC(18:0/18:1), PE(18:1/18:2), SM(d18:0/22:0) and several other molecular species were significantly inversely correlated with the inhibition of PAF and thrombin. These molecular species were abundant in the most bioactive yoghurts fermented by S. thermophilus and L. acidophilus, which suggest that fermentation by these microorganisms increases the antithrombotic properties of ovine milk PL.


Assuntos
Lipídeos/análise , Leite/metabolismo , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/análise , Iogurte/análise , Animais , Plaquetas/efeitos dos fármacos , Plaquetas/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Fermentação , Lipídeos/farmacologia , Fosfatidilcolinas/metabolismo , Fosfatidiletanolaminas/metabolismo , Agregação Plaquetária/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/farmacologia , Ovinos , Esfingomielinas/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Trombina/farmacologia
5.
J Food Sci ; 85(7): 2069-2079, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32602125

RESUMO

Triggered by the development of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) during the production of Scotch whisky, this study examined the influence of yeast and LAB inoculation on whisky flavor. Four new spirits were produced using the same process. LAB were added as a form of a Greek yogurt's live culture. In each category (barley and rye), one sample was fermented with Greek yogurt while the other was fermented without it. The spirits were matured and analyzed at five different points. Results from gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis showed basic volatile compounds, along with some important extra compounds with yogurt culture. The most obvious differences were observed in the concentration of butanoic acid, a characteristic acid in spirits undergoing lactic acid fermentation: to identify esters such as ethyl butanoate, ethyl isobutanoate, isoamyl butanoate, and 2-phenylethyl butanoate, they are not typical compounds in whisky.


Assuntos
Bebidas Alcoólicas/análise , Aromatizantes/química , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Iogurte/análise , Bebidas Alcoólicas/microbiologia , Meios de Cultura/análise , Meios de Cultura/metabolismo , Fermentação , Aromatizantes/metabolismo , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Hordeum/metabolismo , Hordeum/microbiologia , Humanos , Lactobacillales/metabolismo , Odorantes/análise , Secale/metabolismo , Secale/microbiologia , Paladar , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/química , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/metabolismo , Leveduras/metabolismo , Iogurte/microbiologia
6.
Food Chem ; 333: 127421, 2020 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32653681

RESUMO

An extraction procedure was developed for the determination of aflatoxin M1 in milk and dairy products. A sorbent based on UVM-7 mesoporous silica was used as solid phase for the sample clean-up, and the analyte determination was carried out by HPLC coupled to a fluorescence detector. The material architecture was characterized by transmission electronic microscopy, X-ray diffraction, 29Si NMR and nitrogen adsorption-desorption. After the optimization of extraction parameters, the influence of the matrix has been evaluated, obtaining recoveries in the range 78-105% for whole and skimmed milk and yogurt matrix. The reusability of the material was also proved. The sensitivity of the method was also evaluated, and a LOQ (0.015 µg kg-1) below the European legislation limit was obtained. The procedure was successfully applied for the determination of aflatoxin M1 in real samples. The results were compared with those obtained with a reference method, being the results statistically comparable.


Assuntos
Aflatoxina M1/análise , Custos e Análise de Custo , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Leite/química , Nanoestruturas/química , Dióxido de Silício/química , Iogurte/análise , Adsorção , Aflatoxina M1/química , Animais , Fluorescência , Análise de Alimentos/economia , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Limite de Detecção , Porosidade
7.
Food Chem ; 326: 126986, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32407998

RESUMO

In the present work, a barcode-DNA analysis method is described for the detection of plant oil adulteration in milk and dairy products. The method relies on the fact that plant DNA should not be present in readily detectable amounts in a dairy product unless it contains undeclared plant material. Thus, a universal plant barcode is chosen as the target to be amplified from dairy samples. Accordingly, barcode PCR-CE (PCR-capillary electrophoresis) assays are described, which do not require preliminary information on the species source of the adulterant oil type. Two PCR-CE assays, one operating on the plastid trnL (UAA) intron and the other targeting its inner P6 loop in nested format, were shown to detect corn, soybean, rapeseed and sunflower oils in clarified butter, milk and yogurt. Both barcodes are robustly amplified with extremely conserved primers. While the intron provides the species discrimination ability, the P6 loop provides superior detection sensitivity.


Assuntos
DNA de Plantas/análise , Laticínios/análise , Eletroforese Capilar/métodos , Leite/química , Óleos Vegetais/química , Animais , Código de Barras de DNA Taxonômico , DNA de Plantas/genética , DNA de Plantas/metabolismo , Óleos Vegetais/metabolismo , Plastídeos/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Soja/genética , Iogurte/análise , Zea mays/genética
8.
Food Chem ; 324: 126857, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32344342

RESUMO

Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is an important signal in the peripheral and neural systems, which contributes to the maintenance of glucose and energy homeostasis. In this study, 1H NMR validated polyphenols and polysaccharides extracted from sprouted quinoa yoghurt were used as isolates and conjugates to upregulate the stimulation of GLP-1 release in NCI-H716 cells. In addition, we explored their effect on proglucagon and prohormone convertase 3 mRNA expressions, HNF-3γ and CCK-2R gene protein expression, as well as cytosolic calcium release. Variations in concentration showed a dose-dependent GLP-1 stimulation, and were significantly optimized by germination. Proglucagon mRNA expression in NCI-H716 cells was upregulated, and was relatively highest with QYPSP1 treatments in a 2.68 fold. The results suggested that the conjugates had greater potential to stimulate GLP-1 release than their isolates. Sprouted quinoa yoghurt could therefore be a potential functional food useful to regulate glucose and energy homeostasis.


Assuntos
Chenopodium quinoa/química , Inibidores da Dipeptidil Peptidase IV/química , Peptídeo 1 Semelhante ao Glucagon/metabolismo , Polifenóis/química , Polissacarídeos/química , Iogurte/análise , Cálcio/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Chenopodium quinoa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Chenopodium quinoa/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Inibidores da Dipeptidil Peptidase IV/metabolismo , Inibidores da Dipeptidil Peptidase IV/farmacologia , Germinação , Humanos , Polifenóis/análise , Polifenóis/isolamento & purificação , Polissacarídeos/análise , Polissacarídeos/isolamento & purificação , Proglucagon/antagonistas & inibidores , Proglucagon/genética , Proglucagon/metabolismo , Pró-Proteína Convertase 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Pró-Proteína Convertase 1/genética , Pró-Proteína Convertase 1/metabolismo
9.
Food Chem ; 322: 126758, 2020 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32283372

RESUMO

A paper-based DNA biosensor was developed for food authenticity testing using dairy products as a model. DNA from milk-based samples was isolated, and species-specific DNA sequences were amplified and identified by the biosensor using specific DNA probes. The properties of gold nanoparticles were exploited for visual detection. The biosensor was applied for detection of three species, namely cow, sheep and goat, while as low as 1.6 fmol for cow and goat, and 3.1 fmol for sheep PCR product were detected. Moreover, adulteration down to 0.01% could be detected, based on binary mixtures of cows', ewes' and goats' milk yogurt, containing 0.01 to 5% of cows' yogurt in ewes' and goats' yogurts, respectively. The proposed paper-based DNA biosensor offered 10 times higher detectability than other methods, good specificity and reproducibility, and could be applied easily for the detection of other adulterated food products, such as meat, olive oil and legumes.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais/métodos , DNA/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Leite/química , Papel , Animais , Bovinos , DNA/metabolismo , Sondas de DNA/metabolismo , Feminino , Cabras/genética , Ouro/química , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Leite/metabolismo , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Ovinos/genética , Iogurte/análise
10.
Food Chem ; 316: 126362, 2020 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32050115

RESUMO

Free sucrose, lactose, galactose, glucose and fructose were determined in yoghurts, milk and honey using on-line coupling of capillary electrophoresis with microdialysis. The dairy products were diluted 50-fold with 10 mmol/L NaOH and sampled using laboratory-made microdialysis probes. The microdialysate was brought to the entrance of the electrophoretic capillary and the coupling consisted in a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) cross connector working in the flow-gating interface regime. The electrophoretic analysis was performed in 50 mmol/L NaOH (pH 12.6) background electrolyte, where baseline separation of the five saccharides was achieved in 3.5 min. The LOQs varied in the range 2.3-7.3 mg/L, the number of separation plates varied between 176,000 plates/m for glucose to 326,000 plates/m for galactose and the relative standard deviation (RSD) for ten consecutive analyses of fruit yoghurt was 0.2% for the migration time and 4.4-7.6% for the peak area.


Assuntos
Eletroforese Capilar , Mel/análise , Microdiálise , Iogurte/análise
11.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(4): 3045-3054, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32059863

RESUMO

Yogurt making traditionally relies on the simultaneous utilization of 2 starters: Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus bulgaricus, but these 2 strains normally metabolize the glucose portion of lactose and release galactose into extracellular medium, resulting in high levels of residual galactose and unfermented lactose in yogurt, which leads to several industrial and health concerns. In this study, we found that Lactobacillus plantarum could effectively metabolize both lactose and galactose. Comparative genomic analysis demonstrated the constant presence of a chromosome-encoded Leloir pathway for galactose metabolism in Lb. plantarum species, and the gal operon was driven by a strong constitutive promoter in Lb. plantarum WCFS1, displaying great potential in low-sugar yogurt making. To test this hypothesis, Lb. plantarum WCFS1 was co-cultured with S. thermophilus or Lb. bulgaricus in lactose-based medium. Results showed that lactose was consumed completely and galactose was metabolized efficiently. For yogurt making, co-cultivation of Lb. plantarum WCFS1 with yogurt starter cultures produced a higher reduction of total sugar content compared with the traditional fermentation processes. In addition, the sensory analysis indicated that the yogurt fermented with yogurt starter cultures and Lb. plantarum WCFS1 was acceptable to consumers in appearance, texture, and flavor. Therefore, this study emphasized the potential to manufacture low-sugar yogurt by the co-cultivation of Lb. plantarum with yogurt starter cultures.


Assuntos
Lactobacillus plantarum/metabolismo , Açúcares/análise , Iogurte/análise , Metabolismo dos Carboidratos , Fermentação , Galactose/metabolismo , Glucose/metabolismo , Lactobacillus delbrueckii/metabolismo , Lactose/metabolismo , Streptococcus thermophilus/metabolismo
12.
Food Chem ; 317: 126419, 2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32088406

RESUMO

Fermentation of milk is commonly used throughout the world to produce a variety of foods with different health benefits. We hypothesised that due to differences in physicochemical properties and protein sequences among milk from different species and their fermented yogurt samples, their protein digestion and resulting peptide profiles would differ. Cow, goat and sheep milk and yogurt were compared at designated timepoints throughout in vitro gastric and intestinal digestion for differences in peptide profiles and peptide bioactivities. The results showed that most proteins in all milk and yogurt samples were digested within the early phase of gastric digestion. ß-Lg and ß-CN were digested faster in yogurt than milk, which was most evident for sheep products. Regardless of species, in vitro gastric and intestinal digestion released a higher concentration of specific peptides, particularly anti-hypertensives, from yogurt compared with their milk counterparts.


Assuntos
Leite/metabolismo , Peptídeos/metabolismo , Iogurte/análise , Animais , Bovinos , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Digestão , Feminino , Cabras , Espectrometria de Massas , Leite/química , Peptídeos/análise , Análise de Componente Principal , Ovinos
13.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(4): 2956-2968, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32089310

RESUMO

We developed a synbiotic yogurt using monk fruit extract as a sweetener and investigated the effects of feeding the yogurt to rats with type 2 diabetes induced by streptozotocin and a high-fat diet. The rats fed the synbiotic yogurt showed greater blood glucose regulation and a significant decrease in insulin resistance and glycosylated hemoglobin compared with rats fed yogurt sweetened with sucrose, and they showed a remarkable improvement in short-chain fatty acid levels and gut microbiota status. Liver and kidney damage was also ameliorated in the rats fed the synbiotic yogurt. Immunohistochemistry analysis showed that the synbiotic yogurt inhibited ß-cell loss compared with the control yogurt. Consuming the synbiotic yogurt helped to restore the islets of Langerhans. Our results indicated that monk fruit extract may be a good alternative to sucrose for synbiotic yogurt products in people with type 2 diabetes to delay the progression of diabetes and associated complications.


Assuntos
Cucurbitaceae/química , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Edulcorantes/farmacologia , Iogurte , Animais , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Frutas/química , Resistência à Insulina , Fígado/patologia , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Simbióticos , Iogurte/análise
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31917644

RESUMO

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ingested with foods and cause toxicities for humans. Yoghurt is one of the main foods that mediate PAH ingestion. Yanik yoghurt, a traditional strained yoghurt, can contain PAHs due to its production process. Therefore, the concentration and types of four polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Yanik yoghurt samples were collected from different shops in Denizli, Turkey. For the method validation, the Eurachem guide (second edition) was adopted. Accordingly, linearity, working range, limits of detection (LOD), quantification (LOQ), precision and trueness values were set. Due to the selected validation parameters, the limit for detection was between 0.03 ng g-1and 0.05 ng g-1while the limit for quantification was between 0.10 ng g-1 and 0.16 ng g-1. Recovery rates higher than 83.80 % were obtained for four PAHs at two spiked concentrations (2.0 and 5.0 ng g-1). Five Yanik yoghurt samples and one commercial concentrated yoghurt sample were successfully analysed using the validated method.


Assuntos
Análise de Alimentos , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Iogurte/análise , Manipulação de Alimentos , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Turquia
15.
Nutrients ; 12(1)2020 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31936185

RESUMO

The UK government has called for industry reformulation of foods that contribute most to sugar consumption in children's diets, including yogurts. The aim of this work was to comprehensively survey yogurt products available in UK supermarkets in 2019 to determine whether sugar contents had been reduced since our baseline survey in 2016. Product information was collected for 893 unique yogurt, fromage frais and dairy dessert products, and nutrient contents were analysed in comparison to those previously examined. Examining all products, there was a highly significant (p < 0.0001) reduction in the median total sugar contents in 2019 compared to those in 2016: median (interquartile range): 10.4 g/100 g (6.6, 13.0) versus 11.9 g/100 (8.8, 13.6). However, notable product turnover was evident; while 60% of the 2019 products surveyed could be matched by brand and name to 2016, 40% were new. In scrutinising paired products closely, only 32% (173 of 539) had reduced sugar contents with a smaller mean difference of -0.65 g/100 g (p < 0.0001), suggesting that the overall median had dropped as a result of higher sugar products being discontinued. Categories showing the most improvements were children's, drinks and fruit yogurts. Although only 15% of the 2019 products contained ≤5 g/100 g sugars, considered a 'low-sugar' product for labelling, this was an improvement over the 9% identified in 2016. Our results yield important insights into current market trends and demonstrate that the median sugar content of UK yogurt products has been reduced by 13% in two years. These data independently evidence modest, but encouraging changes in response to public policy initiatives aimed at preventing childhood obesity.


Assuntos
Comércio , Açúcares/química , Edulcorantes/química , Iogurte/análise , Humanos , Fatores de Tempo , Reino Unido
16.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(3): 2139-2152, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31980226

RESUMO

A grainy texture and high syneresis are 2 defects in low-fat stirred yogurt that are often disliked by consumers. In this study, a rheometer controlling the shear rate and temperature was used to simulate the smoothing step of yogurt manufacture. Identical formulations containing whey protein isolate or whey protein concentrate were compared. After the yogurt milk underwent heat treatment, inoculation, and fermentation at 42°C, the yogurt was smoothed at 42°C (Y42) or 20°C (Y20) or during a cooling ramp from 42°C to 20°C (YR). Induced syneresis (serum expelled by centrifugation) was measured on d 3. Sizes of microgels (dense protein aggregates) were investigated on d 0, 4, and 7 by laser diffraction and by image analysis using optical microscopy. Optical microscopy was also used to characterize the reorganized protein network embedding microgels. The type of whey protein ingredient had only a slight effect on the induced syneresis of YR and Y20 treated yogurts, and the major effect came from the smoothing temperature. The Y42 treatment presented the highest induced syneresis; YR and Y20 had similar low induced syneresis values. Images showed a heterogeneous microstructure (large microgels, reorganized gel) and serum separation for Y42; the YR and Y20 networks were homogeneous. Both the image analyses and laser diffraction showed that the microgel size depended on the smoothing temperature. However, only the image analyses made it possible to identify a time dependency effect on microgel size during storage. The number of microgels >104 µm2 continued to increase over time, whereas the number of microgels <103 µm2 decreased. Microscopic observations were less destructive than laser diffraction and highlighted the presence of microgel aggregation during storage.


Assuntos
Manipulação de Alimentos , Microgéis/química , Leite/química , Proteínas do Soro do Leite/química , Iogurte/análise , Animais , Fermentação , Microscopia , Proteínas do Leite/química , Reologia , Temperatura , Viscosidade
17.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 111(3): 689-697, 2020 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31968071

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although a link between regular yogurt consumption and mortality appears plausible, data are sparse and have yielded inconsistent results. OBJECTIVES: We examined the association between regular yogurt consumption and risk of all-cause and cause-specific mortality among US women and men. METHODS: A total of 82,348 women in the Nurses' Health Study and 40,278 men in the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study without a history of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cancer in 1980 (women) or 1986 (men) were followed up until 2012. Yogurt consumption was assessed by updated validated FFQs. RESULTS: During 3,354,957 person-years of follow-up, 20,831 women and 12,397 men died. Compared with no yogurt consumption, the multivariable-adjusted HRs (95% CIs) of mortality were 0.89 (0.86, 0.93), 0.85 (0.81, 0.89), 0.88 (0.84, 0.91), and 0.91 (0.85, 0.98) for ≤1-3 servings/mo, 1 serving/wk, 2-4 servings/wk, and >4 servings/wk in women (P-trend = 0.34), respectively. For men, the corresponding HRs (95% CIs) were 0.99 (0.94, 1.03), 0.98 (0.91, 1.05), 1.04 (0.98, 1.10), and 1.05 (0.95, 1.16), respectively. We further noted inverse associations for cancer mortality (multivariable-adjusted HR comparing extreme categories: 0.87; 95% CI: 0.78, 0.98; P-trend = 0.04) and CVD mortality (HR: 0.92; 95% CI: 0.79, 1.08; P-trend = 0.41) in women, although the latter was attenuated in the multivariable-adjusted model. Replacement of 1 serving/d of yogurt with 1 serving/d of nuts (women and men) or whole grains (women) was associated with a lower risk of all-cause mortality, whereas replacement of yogurt with red meat, processed meat (women and men), and milk or other dairy foods (women) was associated with a greater mortality. CONCLUSIONS: In our study, regular yogurt consumption was related to lower mortality risk among women. Given that no clear dose-response relation was apparent, this result must be interpreted with caution.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/metabolismo , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Neoplasias/mortalidade , Iogurte/análise , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Carne/análise , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Leite/metabolismo , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
18.
Food Chem ; 314: 126179, 2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31968292

RESUMO

In this study, for the first time, hollow fiber and monolithic fiber were fabricated based on metal-organic framework deep eutectic solvents/molecularly imprinted polymers (MOF- DES/MIPs) and were used for microextraction of phthalate esters under termed hollow fiber liquid membrane-protected solid-phase microextraction (HFLMP-SPME) followed by gas chromatography- flame ionization detection. Several parameters influencing extraction recoveries of phthalate esters including adsorption and desorption parameters were investigated and optimized using fabricated MOF- DES/MIPs monolithic fiber. Under optimal conditions, detection limits (S/N = 3) of the method were in a range of 0.008-0.03 µg L-1 and limits of quantification (S/N = 10) were between 0.028 and 0.12 µg L-1. RSD (%) for intra-day and inter-day precisions were between 2.4-4.7% and 2.6-3.4%, respectively. Subsequently, this procedure was successfully applied with satisfactory results in the determination of phthalate esters in yogurt, water, and soybean oil samples. The R (%) ranged from 95.5 to 100.0% in different samples.


Assuntos
Estruturas Metalorgânicas/química , Impressão Molecular/métodos , Microextração em Fase Sólida/métodos , Óleo de Soja/química , Água/química , Iogurte/análise , Adsorção , Cromatografia Gasosa , Ésteres/química , Limite de Detecção , Impressão Molecular/instrumentação , Ácidos Ftálicos/química , Polímeros/química , Microextração em Fase Sólida/instrumentação , Solventes/química
19.
J Food Sci ; 85(2): 486-492, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31968393

RESUMO

Growing health concerns have increased interest in reducing the consumption of added sugars, which can be achieved by substituting or replacing sugar with sweeteners to maintain sensory intensity and quality. The growing availability of sweeteners has increased the complexity of the perceptual landscape as sweeteners differ in the qualitative, intensity, and temporal properties. A sweetener that can match the perceptual properties of sucrose in different food matrices is likely to have broad applications. In complex foods, sweetness is influenced by the taste interactions with the existing tastants and possible matrix effects that influence release and perception of sweetness. The current study compared the taste properties of three food matrices (black tea, chocolate milk, and natural yogurt) sweetened by sucrose to those sweetened using eight different sweeteners (acesulfame-K, aspartame, erythritol, luo han guo (Mogroside), palatinose (iso-maltulose), stevia (Reb-A), sucralose, and sucrose-allulose mixture) using Rate-All-That-Apply. The sensory properties of each sweetener differed across matrices, with sucrose-allulose mixture, aspartame, erythritol, palatinose, and sucralose having the most similar taste to sucrose across all foods. By contrast, acesulfame-K, stevia, and luo han guo had taste profiles that most varied from sucrose, characterized by side tastes such as bitterness, chemical taste, and a low sweetness. Sweeteners differed most from sucrose when presented in natural yogurt compared to tea and chocolate milk. A food's taste properties can suppress sweetness intensity and promote undesirable side tastes. Taken together, these findings highlight the importance of testing sweeteners in complex foods and help identify sweeteners and sweetener combinations that can replicate the sweetness of sucrose and support sugar reduction. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: Food manufacturers and researchers can refer to the results of the sensory profiles to identify suitable sweeteners substitutes for sucrose in foods with similar taste profiles to those tested. The current article highlights important changes to sweetener sensory properties when presented in different complex foods, and provides an indication of the potential for calorie reduction by substituting sucrose with a range of low or no calorie sweeteners.


Assuntos
Camellia sinensis/química , Chocolate/análise , Leite/química , Edulcorantes/análise , Chá/química , Iogurte/análise , Animais , Aspartame/análise , Bovinos , Diterpenos de Caurano/análise , Glucosídeos/análise , Humanos , Stevia/química , Sacarose/análogos & derivados , Sacarose/análise , Paladar , Chá/metabolismo
20.
J Food Sci ; 85(1): 36-49, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31898814

RESUMO

Miracle fruit's potential benefit is encouraging as a powerful antioxidant and sweetness enhancer due to its novel ability to modify sour taste to sweet. However, further studies are needed to evaluate the practicality of different miracle fruit products. Thus, this study aimed to characterize the taste modification effects of different miracle fruit products on different sour foods. For this, 10 trained subjects (80% female, 50% white, Mean ± SE = 27.3 ± 3.9 years old) performed a Quantitative Descriptive Analysis using a Latin Square design with three replications. One session was composed of pre- and posttest for miracle fruit administration. Five food samples (green apple, goat cheese, lemonade, plain fat-free yogurt, and cucumber pickle) and four miracle fruit products (three different brands of miracle fruit pill-Y, G, M and one powder product-P) were used and data were analyzed using analysis of variance and principal component analysis. The typical effects of miracle fruit, sweetness increase and sourness suppression were observed for all food samples albeit to different degrees. Y and M pills were most impactful while powder product was least, and goat cheese and yogurt had the most pronounced impact at increasing sweetness. Prior Miracle Fruit administration significantly decreased bitterness and increased creaminess in yogurt. However, it increased off-flavor in lemonade and pickle. Results suggest that miracle fruit usage for increasing sweetness is effective but the degree of taste-modifying effect differs according to the types of miracle fruit product and food samples applied. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: This research confirms miracle fruit's unique taste-modifying abilities and demonstrates a high potential as a sweetness enhancer to benefit human health. The results can be used to optimize miracle fruit's application and can be applied by food industry and health care provider to develop clinical remedies or disease prevention strategies.


Assuntos
Synsepalum/metabolismo , Adulto , Queijo/análise , Cor , Feminino , Aromatizantes/metabolismo , Frutas/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Malus/metabolismo , Análise de Componente Principal , Paladar , Iogurte/análise , Adulto Jovem
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