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1.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 184(1): K1-K5, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33112279

RESUMO

Background: Pituitary carcinomas are rare but aggressive and require maximally coordinated multimodal therapies. For refractory tumors, unresponsive to temozolomide (TMZ), therapeutic options are limited. Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) may be considered for treatment as illustrated in the present case report. Case: We report a patient with ACTH-secreting pituitary carcinoma, progressive after multiple lines of therapy including chemotherapy with TMZ, who demonstrated disease stabilization by a combination of ipilimumab (anti-CTLA-4) and nivolumab (anti-PD-1) ICI therapy. Discussion: Management of pituitary carcinoma beyond TMZ remains ill-defined and relies on case reports. TMZ creates, due to hypermutation, more immunogenic tumors and subsequently potential candidates for ICI therapy. This case report adds support to the possible role of ICI in the treatment of pituitary carcinoma. Conclusion: ICI therapy could be a promising treatment option for pituitary carcinoma, considering the mechanisms of TMZ-induced hypermutation with increased immunogenicity, pituitary expression of CTLA-4 and PD-L1, and the frequent occurrence of hypophysitis as a side effect of ICI therapy.


Assuntos
Adenoma Hipofisário Secretor de ACT/tratamento farmacológico , Adenoma/tratamento farmacológico , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma/tratamento farmacológico , Adenoma Hipofisário Secretor de ACT/imunologia , Adenoma/imunologia , Adulto , Carcinoma/imunologia , Pontos de Checagem do Ciclo Celular/imunologia , Humanos , Ipilimumab/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Nivolumabe/uso terapêutico
2.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(10): e2016144, 2020 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33052401

RESUMO

Importance: Checkpoint inhibitor combination therapy represents a major advance in the first-line treatment of advanced renal cell carcinoma. Pembrolizumab-axitinib and nivolumab-ipilimumab have become standard of care options after demonstrating clinical efficacy against sunitinib in separate phase 3 trials. The cost-effectiveness of these regimens is unknown. Objective: To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of pembrolizumab-axitinib and nivolumab- ipilimumab in the first-line treatment of advanced renal cell carcinoma. Design, Setting, and Participants: For this economic evaluation, a primary microsimulation model was developed and run between August and December 2019. Separate analyses were conducted for an intermediate- and poor-risk patient population (base case) and a favorable-risk population (exploratory analysis) because prognosis is known to differ between risk groups; 100 000 patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma were simulated in each treatment arm. Survival, treatment regimens, and other relevant conditions were based on data from the phase 3 KEYNOTE-426 and CheckMate214 clinical trials. The study perspective was the US health care sector. Main Outcomes and Measures: An incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was calculated for each of the 2 analyses and compared with a willingness-to-pay threshold of $100 000 per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY). Results: Pembrolizumab-axitinib was estimated to add 0.60 QALYs compared with nivolumab-ipilimumab in the base case analysis (3.66 vs 3.05 QALYs) and 0.25 QALYs compared with nivolumab-ipilimumab in the exploratory analysis (4.55 vs 4.30 QALYs), and was more costly (base case analysis: $562 927 vs $458 961; exploratory analysis: $589 035 vs $470 403). The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was $172 532 per QALY in the base case analysis and $468 682 per QALY in the exploratory analysis. One-way sensitivity analyses revealed that the base case model was most sensitive to first-line drug prices (incremental cost-effectiveness ratio at upper limit of nivolumab price and lower limits of axitinib and pembrolizumab prices: $89 983, $102 287, and $114 943 per QALY, respectively). The exploratory analysis model was most sensitive to overall survival rates (incremental cost-effectiveness ratio at lower limit of pembrolizumab-axitinib rate and upper limit of nivolumab-ipilimumab rate: $278 644 and $285 684 per QALY, respectively). Conclusions and Relevance: The findings suggest that pembrolizumab-axitinib treatment is associated with greater QALYs compared with nivolumab/ipilimumab treatment in patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma but may not be cost-effective. Price reductions may make the cost of pembrolizumab-axitinib proportional to its clinical value and less financially burdensome to the US health care system.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/economia , Axitinibe/economia , Carcinoma de Células Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma de Células Renais/economia , Ipilimumab/economia , Nivolumabe/economia , Sunitinibe/economia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/economia , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Axitinibe/uso terapêutico , Análise Custo-Benefício/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Ipilimumab/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Renais/economia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nivolumabe/uso terapêutico , Sunitinibe/uso terapêutico , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
3.
Rev Prat ; 70(5): 471-474, 2020 May.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33058629

RESUMO

Immune checkpoint inhibitors for treatment of advanced stage melanoma. Immunotherapy, which stimulates the anti-tumor immune response, has significantly modified the prognosis of advanced stage melanoma. Anti-CTLA4 monoclonal antibody, ipilimumab, showed a benefit on survival compared to chemotherapy in 2011. Anti-PD1, nivolumab and pembrolizumab subsequently showed superior clinical benefit including overall survival and tolerance over anti-CTLA4. Currently, the combination of ipilimumab and nivolumab appears as the most effective immunotherapy but the toxicity of this regimen is a limitation. Anti-PD1 antibodies have also been evaluated in the adjuvant setting for patients with stage III or IV resected melanoma where they have shown a significant benefit in term of relapse-free-survival. Studies are underway to evaluate these drugs in stage II resected melanoma and in neo-adjuvant setting with promising results.


Assuntos
Melanoma , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Humanos , Imunoterapia , Ipilimumab/uso terapêutico , Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico , Nivolumabe/uso terapêutico
4.
Mol Immunol ; 127: 203-211, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33011403

RESUMO

Cancer is a group of diseases involving disordered growth of abnormal cells with the potential to invade and spread to other parts of the body. Today, immunotherapy is the most efficient treatment, with fewer side effects. Notably, the employment of monoclonal antibodies to inhibit checkpoint proteins, such as CTLA-4, has caused much excitement among cancer immunotherapy researchers. Thus, in-depth analysis through quantum biochemistry and molecular dynamics simulations was performed to understand the complex formed by ipilimumab and its target CTLA-4. Our computational results provide a better understanding of the binding mechanisms and new insights about the CTLA-4: ipilimumab interaction, identifying essential amino acid residues to support the complex. Additionally, we report new interactions such as aromatic-aromatic, aromatic-sulfur, and cation-pi interactions to stabilize the CTLA-4:ipilimumab complex. Finally, quantum biochemistry analyses reveal the most important amino acid residues involved in the CTLA-4:ipilimumab interface, which were used to design synthetic peptides to inhibit CTLA-4. The computational results presented here provide a better understanding of the CTLA-4:ipilimumab binding mechanisms, and can support the development of alternative antibody-based drugs with high relevance in cancer immunotherapy.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Antígeno CTLA-4/imunologia , Desenho de Fármacos , Imunoterapia , Ipilimumab/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias/imunologia , Neoplasias/terapia , Peptídeos/uso terapêutico , Antígeno CTLA-4/química , Eletricidade , Humanos , Ipilimumab/química , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Peptídeos/química , Ligação Proteica , Proteólise , Termodinâmica
5.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 10: CD012796, 2020 10 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33058158

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Several comparative randomised controlled trials (RCTs) have been performed including combinations of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) and immune checkpoint inhibitors since the publication of a Cochrane Review on targeted therapy for metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) in 2008. This review represents an update of that original review. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of targeted therapies for clear cell mRCC in patients naïve to systemic therapy. SEARCH METHODS: We performed a comprehensive search with no restrictions on language or publication status. The date of the latest search was 18 June 2020. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomised controlled trials, recruiting patients with clear cell mRCC naïve to previous systemic treatment. The index intervention was any TKI-based targeted therapy. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently assessed the included studies and extracted data for the primary outcomes: progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS) and serious adverse events (SAEs); and the secondary outcomes: health-related quality of life (QoL), response rate and minor adverse events (AEs). We performed statistical analyses using a random-effects model and rated the certainty of evidence according to the GRADE approach. MAIN RESULTS: We included 18 RCTs reporting on 11,590 participants randomised across 18 comparisons. This abstract focuses on the primary outcomes of select comparisons. 1. Pazopanib versus sunitinib Pazopanib may result in little to no difference in PFS as compared to sunitinib (hazard ratio (HR) 1.05, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.90 to 1.23; 1 study, 1110 participants; low-certainty evidence). Based on the control event risk of 420 per 1000 in this trial at 12 months, this corresponds to 18 fewer participants experiencing PFS (95% CI 76 fewer to 38 more) per 1000 participants. Pazopanib may result in little to no difference in OS compared to sunitinib (HR 0.92, 95% CI 0.80 to 1.06; 1 study, 1110 participants; low-certainty evidence). Based on the control event risk of 550 per 1000 in this trial at 12 months, this corresponds to 27 more OSs (95% CI 19 fewer to 70 more) per 1000 participants. Pazopanib may result in little to no difference in SAEs as compared to sunitinib (risk ratio (RR) 1.01, 95% CI 0.94 to 1.09; 1 study, 1102 participants; low-certainty evidence). Based on the control event risk of 734 per 1000 in this trial, this corresponds to 7 more participants experiencing SAEs (95% CI 44 fewer to 66 more) per 1000 participants. 2. Sunitinib versus avelumab and axitinib Sunitinib probably reduces PFS as compared to avelumab plus axitinib (HR 1.45, 95% CI 1.17 to 1.80; 1 study, 886 participants; moderate-certainty evidence). Based on the control event risk of 550 per 1000 in this trial at 12 months, this corresponds to 130 fewer participants experiencing PFS (95% CI 209 fewer to 53 fewer) per 1000 participants. Sunitinib may result in little to no difference in OS (HR 1.28, 95% CI 0.92 to 1.79; 1 study, 886 participants; low-certainty evidence). Based on the control event risk of 890 per 1000 in this trial at 12 months, this would result in 29 fewer OSs (95% CI 78 fewer to 8 more) per 1000 participants. Sunitinib may result in little to no difference in SAEs (RR 1.01, 95% CI 0.93 to 1.10; 1 study, 873 participants; low-certainty evidence). Based on the control event risk of 705 per 1000 in this trial, this corresponds to 7 more SAEs (95% CI 49 fewer to 71 more) per 1000 participants.  3. Sunitinib versus pembrolizumab and axitinib Sunitinib probably reduces PFS as compared to pembrolizumab plus axitinib (HR 1.45, 95% CI 1.19 to 1.76; 1 study, 861 participants; moderate-certainty evidence). Based on the control event risk of 590 per 1000 in this trial at 12 months, this corresponds to 125 fewer participants experiencing PFS (95% CI 195 fewer to 56 fewer) per 1000 participants. Sunitinib probably reduces OS (HR 1.90, 95% CI 1.36 to 2.65; 1 study, 861 participants; moderate-certainty evidence). Based on the control event risk of 880 per 1000 in this trial at 12 months, this would result in 96 fewer OSs (95% CI 167 fewer to 40 fewer) per 1000 participants. Sunitinib may reduce SAEs as compared to pembrolizumab plus axitinib (RR 0.90, 95% CI 0.81 to 1.02; 1 study, 854 participants; low-certainty evidence) although the CI includes the possibility of no effect. Based on the control event risk of 604 per 1000 in this trial, this corresponds to 60 fewer SAEs (95% CI 115 fewer to 12 more) per 1000 participants.  4. Sunitinib versus nivolumab and ipilimumab Sunitinib may reduce PFS as compared to nivolumab plus ipilimumab (HR 1.30, 95% CI 1.11 to 1.52; 1 study, 847 participants; low-certainty evidence). Based on the control event risk of 280 per 1000 in this trial at 30 months' follow-up, this corresponds to 89 fewer PFSs (95% CI 136 fewer to 37 fewer) per 1000 participants. Sunitinib reduces OS (HR 1.52, 95% CI 1.23 to 1.89; 1 study, 847 participants; high-certainty evidence). Based on the control event risk 600 per 1000 in this trial at 30 months, this would result in 140 fewer OSs (95% CI 219 fewer to 67 fewer) per 1000 participants. Sunitinib probably increases SAEs (RR 1.37, 95% CI 1.22 to 1.53; 1 study, 1082 participants; moderate-certainty evidence). Based on the control event risk of 457 per 1000 in this trial, this corresponds to 169 more SAEs (95% CI 101 more to 242 more) per 1000 participants. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Based on the low to high certainty of evidence, several combinations of immune checkpoint inhibitors appear to be superior to single-agent targeted therapy in terms of PFS and OS, and with a favourable AE profile. Some single-agent targeted therapies demonstrated a similar or improved oncological outcome compared to others; minor differences were observed for AE within this group. The certainty of evidence was variable ranging from high to very low and all comparisons were based on single trials.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma de Células Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/efeitos adversos , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Axitinibe/efeitos adversos , Axitinibe/uso terapêutico , Bevacizumab/efeitos adversos , Bevacizumab/uso terapêutico , Viés , Carcinoma de Células Renais/mortalidade , Everolimo/efeitos adversos , Everolimo/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Ipilimumab/efeitos adversos , Ipilimumab/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Renais/mortalidade , Neoplasias Renais/patologia , Compostos de Fenilureia/efeitos adversos , Compostos de Fenilureia/uso terapêutico , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/efeitos adversos , Pirimidinas/efeitos adversos , Pirimidinas/uso terapêutico , Qualidade de Vida , Quinolinas/efeitos adversos , Quinolinas/uso terapêutico , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Receptores de Fatores de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/antagonistas & inibidores , Sirolimo/efeitos adversos , Sirolimo/análogos & derivados , Sirolimo/uso terapêutico , Sorafenibe/efeitos adversos , Sorafenibe/uso terapêutico , Sulfonamidas/efeitos adversos , Sulfonamidas/uso terapêutico , Sunitinibe/efeitos adversos , Sunitinibe/uso terapêutico
6.
Dermatol Online J ; 26(7)2020 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32898395

RESUMO

Melanoma is responsible for nearly 9,000 deaths each year in the United States. Until the early 2000s, chemotherapeutic agents were the mainstay of treatment for metastatic disease. Currently approved treatments include therapies that block signal transduction pathways (BRAF inhibition), increase anti-tumor immune responses (CTLA-4 blockade), or stimulate tumor-infiltrating T cells (IL2). In recent years, various new strategies have emerged. Radiation therapy has been widely underutilized, but it can prime tumor cells that are distant from the field of radiation, a phenomenon termed the abscopal effect. Other therapies such as pembrolizumab disrupt the tumor cells' typical mechanisms of T-cell avoidance. Various other treatments involving imiquimod, adoptive T-cell therapy, and vaccines are currently being studied and can play a role in metastatic melanoma treatment in the future. Herein, we review the past treatment modalities, currently approved treatments, and potentially effective options for the future. We also provide strengths of recommendation and level of evidence for each treatment.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Melanoma/secundário , Melanoma/terapia , Antígeno B7-H1/antagonistas & inibidores , Antígeno CTLA-4/antagonistas & inibidores , Vacinas Anticâncer/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Imiquimode/uso terapêutico , Interferons/uso terapêutico , Ipilimumab/uso terapêutico , Melanoma/mortalidade , Melanoma/cirurgia , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/antagonistas & inibidores , Radioterapia , Taxa de Sobrevida
7.
Lancet Haematol ; 7(9): e660-e670, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32853585

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recognising that the immune suppressive microenvironment promotes tumour growth in Hodgkin lymphoma, we hypothesised that activating immunity might augment the activity of targeted chemotherapy. We evaluated the safety and activity of combinations of brentuximab vedotin with nivolumab or ipilimumab, or both in patients with relapsed or refractory Hodgkin lymphoma. METHODS: In this multicentre, open-label, phase 1/2 trial, patients with relapsed or refractory Hodgkin lymphoma aged 18 years or older who had relapsed after at least one line of therapy, with an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 2 or lower, and adequate organ and marrow function, with no pulmonary dysfunction were eligible for inclusion. Phase 1 primary objectives were to determine the maximum tolerated dose and dose limiting toxicities of brentuximab vedotin combined with ipilimumab (ipilimumab group), nivolumab (nivolumab group), or both (triplet therapy group) using a 3 + 3 dose escalation design with expansion cohorts. During the dose escalation phase, patients were enrolled sequentially into one of six cohorts: in the ipilimumab group fixed brentuximab vedotin 1·8 mg/kg with ipilimumab 1 mg/kg (cohort A) or 3 mg/kg (cohort B); in the nivolumab group fixed nivolumab 3 mg/kg with brentuximab vedotin 1·2 mg/kg (cohort D) or 1·8 mg/kg (cohort E); and in the triplet therapy group fixed nivolumab 3 mg/kg and ipilimumab 1 mg/kg with brentuximab vedotin 1·2 mg/kg (cohort G) or 1·8 mg/kg (cohort H). Additional patients were enrolled in the expansion phase at the same doses of cohorts B, E, and H. All drugs were given intravenously; brentuximab vedotin and nivolumab were given every 3 weeks, ipilimumab was given every 6 weeks in the ipilimumab group and every 12 weeks in the triplet therapy group. All eligible and treated patients were included in the analysis. This phase 1/2 study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01896999. The phase 2, randomised portion of the trial is still enrolling. FINDINGS: Between March 7, 2014, and Dec 28, 2017, 64 patients were enrolled; two patients in the ipilimumab group and one patient in the nivolumab group were excluded due to ineligibility after enrolment and 61 were evaluable. A total of six dose limiting toxicities were reported in four patients, and the doses used in cohorts B, E, and H were established as maximum tolerated doses and patients were subsequently enrolled onto expansion cohorts (C, F, and I) with these schedules. There were ten (43%) grade 3-4 treatment related adverse events in the ipilimumab group, three (16%) in the nivolumab group, and 11 (50%) in the triplet therapy group including: eight (13%) of 64 patients reporting rash, and colitis, gastritis, pancreatitis and arthritis, and diabetic ketoacidosis each occurring in one (2%) patient. There were two (3%) treatment related deaths, one in the nivolumab group and one in the triplet therapy group. The overall response rate was 76% (95% CI 53-92) in the ipilimumab group, 89% (65-99) in the nivolumab group, and 82% (60-95) in the triplet therapy group, and the complete response rate was 57% (95% CI 34-78%) in the ipilimumab group, 61% (36-83%) in the nivolumab group, and 73% (50-89%) in the triplet therapy group. With a median follow-up of 2·6 years (IQR 1·8-2·9) in the ipilimumab group, 2·4 years (2·2-2·6) in the nivolumab group, and 1·7 years (1·6-1·9) in the triplet therapy group, median progression-free survival is 1·2 years (95% CI 1·7-not reached) in the ipilimumab group, but was not reached in the other two treatment groups. Median overall survival has not been reached in any of the groups. INTERPRETATION: There are clear differences in activity and toxicity of the three combination regimens. The tolerability and preliminary activity for the two most active regimens, brentuximab vedotin with nivolumab and the triplet therapy, are being compared in a randomised phase 2 trial (NCT01896999). FUNDING: Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group-American College of Radiology Imaging Network and the National Cancer Institute of the National Institutes of Health.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Brentuximab Vedotin/uso terapêutico , Doença de Hodgkin/tratamento farmacológico , Ipilimumab/uso terapêutico , Nivolumabe/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/efeitos adversos , Brentuximab Vedotin/efeitos adversos , Progressão da Doença , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Doença de Hodgkin/mortalidade , Doença de Hodgkin/patologia , Humanos , Hipersensibilidade/etiologia , Ipilimumab/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nivolumabe/efeitos adversos , Dor/etiologia , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Recidiva , Taxa de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
Brasília; S.N; 23 jul. 2020.
Não convencional em Português | LILACS, BRISA/RedTESA, PIE | ID: biblio-1117682

RESUMO

O Informe Diário de Evidências é uma produção do Ministério da Saúde que tem como objetivo acompanhar diariamente as publicações científicas sobre tratamento farmacológico e vacinas para a COVID-19. Dessa forma, são realizadas buscas estruturadas em bases de dados biomédicas, referentes ao dia anterior desse informe. Não são incluídos estudos pré-clínicos (in vitro, in vivo, in silico). A frequência dos estudos é demonstrada de acordo com a sua classificação metodológica (revisões sistemáticas, ensaios clínicos randomizados, coortes, entre outros). Para cada estudo é apresentado um resumo com avaliação da qualidade metodológica. Essa avaliação tem por finalidade identificar o grau de certeza/confiança ou o risco de viés de cada estudo. Para tal, são utilizadas ferramentas já validadas e consagradas na literatura científica, na área de saúde baseada em evidências. Cabe ressaltar que o documento tem caráter informativo e não representa uma recomendação oficial do Ministério da Saúde sobre a temática. Foram encontrados 21 artigos e 8 protocolos.


Assuntos
Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Esteroides/uso terapêutico , Avaliação da Tecnologia Biomédica , Vacina BCG/uso terapêutico , Heparina/uso terapêutico , Almitrina/uso terapêutico , Estudos de Coortes , Corticosteroides/uso terapêutico , Enoxaparina/uso terapêutico , Azitromicina/uso terapêutico , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/uso terapêutico , Darunavir/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Ipilimumab/uso terapêutico , Fondaparinux/uso terapêutico , Nivolumabe/uso terapêutico , Antagonistas dos Receptores Histamínicos/uso terapêutico , Hidroxicloroquina/uso terapêutico , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico
10.
Brasília; CONITEC; jul. 2020.
Não convencional em Português | BRISA/RedTESA | ID: biblio-1123192

RESUMO

INTRODUÇÃO: Embora não esteja entre os tumores malignos com maior incidência, o melanoma é considerado o tipo mais agressivo de câncer de pele devido ao grande potencial de disseminação à distância e consequente elevada letalidade. Em 2018, um total de 6.260 casos novos de melanoma maligno de pele foram estimados no Brasil, com aproximadamente 26% dos casos em estágio metastático e 1.794 óbitos registrados em 2015. O presente estudo avaliou as opções terapêuticas sistêmicas aprovadas pela Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária (ANVISA) para o tratamento de primeira linha do melanoma avançado não cirúrgico e metastático. PERGUNTA: O uso de terapia-alvo ou imunoterapia é mais eficaz, seguro e custo-efetivo do que a quimioterapia com dacarbazina para o tratamento de primeira linha do melanoma avançado não-cirúrgico e metastático? TECNOLOGIAS: terapia-alvo (vemurafenibe, dabrafenibe, cobimetinibe, trametinibe) e imunoterapia (ipilimumabe, nivolumabe, pembrolizumabe). EVIDÊNCIAS CIENTÍFICAS: Quando comparadas ao tratamento padrão com dacarbazina, todas as terapias demonstraram superioridade estatisticamente significativa, tanto no desfecho de sobrevida livre de progressão (SLP) quanto em sobrevida global (SG), exceto dabrafenibe isolado. Em relação à SG, as estimativas pontuais demonstram maior benefício na redução do risco de morte com a combinação de nivolumabe/ipilimumabe (67%; 23% no pior cenário) seguida das imunoterapias isoladas com nivolumabe ou pembrolizumabe (54%; 41% no pior cenário), terapias-alvo combinadas (44-46%; 23-27% no pior cenário), imunoterapia isolada com ipilimumabe (32%; 7% no pior cenário) e terapia-alvo isolada com vemurafenibe (20%; 3% no pior cenário). Os eventos adversos graus 3/4 foram avaliados entre as classes terapêuticas de terapia-alvo, imunoterapia e quimioterapia. Os estudos reportaram menor risco de eventos adversos para a imunoterapia isolada anti-PD-1 (nivolumabe e pembrolizumabe) em relação à dacarbazina. As classes terapêuticas que apresentaram maior risco de eventos adversos foram: terapia-alvo isolada, terapia-alvo combinada, imunoterapia isolada com anti-CTLA-4 e imunoterapia combinada, todas com estimativa pontual de risco relativo acima de 1,40. AVALIAÇÃO ECONÔMICA: A avaliação de custo-efetividade demonstrou o ipilimumabe como a alternativa com menor razão de custo-efetividade incremental (ICER) em relação à dacarbazina. O nivolumabe e a sua associação com ipilimumabe tiveram melhores resultados em efetividade, porém com maior custo. Uma redução do preço do nivolumabe em 8 vezes tornaria seu ICER menor que 1 PIB per capita em relação à dacarbazina. A análise de sensibilidade probabilística revelou incertezas sobre a análise e o nivolumabe + ipilimumabe teve maior probabilidade que a dacarbazina de ser custo-efetivo em limiares próximos a R$322.000/QALY. AVALIAÇÃO DE IMPACTO ORÇAMENTÁRIO: O impacto orçamentário incremental em 5 anos variou de R$ 617.226.282,43 a R$ 2.880.924.401,13 para o ipilimumabe e sua associação com nivolumabe, respectivamente. As associações com terapia-alvo resultaram em impacto orçamentário menor que o nivolumabe, pois nessas estratégias apenas metade da população que tem a mutação BRAF seria tratada. O modelo buscou considerar além dos custos com os medicamentos, os custos diretos relacionados aos tratamentos. RECOMENDAÇÃO PRELIMINAR DA CONITEC: Os membros do Plenário da CONITEC presentes na 84ª reunião ordinária, no dia 05 de dezembro de 2019, definiram que o tema deve ser submetido à consulta pública com recomendação preliminar desfavorável à incorporação no SUS de terapia-alvo e da imunoterapia para o tratamento de primeira linha de pacientes com melanoma avançado não-cirúrgico e metastático. Apesar destas terapias apresentarem maior eficácia em relação à dacarbazina, o elevado custo do tratamento produziu uma relação de custo-efetividade e um impacto orçamentário incrementais que inviabilizam a sua incorporação. CONSULTA PÚBLICA: A Consulta Pública nº 85/2019, ocorreu entre os dias 02/01/2020 e 21/01/2020. Foram recebidas 2.300 contribuições, das quais 1.995 (mil novecentos e noventa e cinco) foram do formulário de experiência ou opinião e 305 (trezentos e cinco) do formulário técnico científico. Das contribuições de experiência ou opinião, 92% discordaram da recomendação preliminar e entre as contribuições técnico-científicas, 95% discordaram da recomendação preliminar e a maior parte das contribuições foram relacionadas à eficácia da terapia-alvo e da imunoterapia quando comparadas à dacarbazina. Os principais argumentos foram relacionados ao direito ao acesso ao tratamento de alto custo, eficácia dos tratamentos avaliados, e obsolescência do medicamento mais amplamente utilizado atualmente do SUS (dacarbazina). Foram recebidas contribuições de 4 (quatro) empresas fabricantes das tecnologias. Algumas contribuições levaram à atualização do modelo econômico, mas mostraram que o nivolumabe e a combinação nivolumabe com ipilimumabe permaneceram sendo as estratégias não dominadas. Outras terapias passaram a ter dominância extendida, mas não passaram a ser dominantes. Na discussão do tema, os membros do Plenário destacaram que a utilização do desfecho "cura dos pacientes com melanoma metastático", conforme apresentado pelo fabricante, não é adequado, por se tratar de uma avaliação indireta por meio de dados da literatura sobre respostas completas sustentadas em um período determinado de tempo. Foi ressaltado, em termos gerais, que as terapias avaliadas, principalmente imunoterapias anti-PD1, mudam inteiramente o contexto atual do melanoma metastático, representando uma evolução no tratamento. Porém, o custo das terapias permanece muito elevado. Houve novas propostas de preços pelas empresas fabricantes dos medicamentos anti-PD1 avaliados (nivolumabe e pembrolizumabe) que apresentaram satisfatórios perfis de eficácia e segurança. Com as informações adicionais a avaliação econômica foi atualizada com a alteração da duração de tratamento do pembrolizumabe e com novos preços propostos pelas empresas. Para o nivolumabe houve a proposta de redução do preço que era de R$27.882,36 para R$20.939,69, com duração de tratamento até a progressão da doença ou morte. Para o pembrolizumabe houve a proposta de redução do preço que era de R$28.954,80 para R$23.724 (ICMS 17%) ou R$19.690,02 (ICMS 0%), com duração de tratamento até progressão da doença ou morte ou até vinte e quatro meses em pacientes sem progressão. RECOMENDAÇÃO FINAL: Os membros da Conitec presentes na 88ª reunião ordinária, no dia 08 de julho de 2020, deliberaram, por unanimidade, por recomendar a incorporação no Sistema Único de Saúde da classe anti-PD1 (nivolumabe ou pembrolizumabe), para tratamento de primeira linha do melanoma avançado não cirúrgico e metastático, conforme modelo da assistência oncológica no SUS. Foram levadas em consideração as novas propostas de preços apresentadas pelas empresas fabricantes dos medicamentos anti-PD1 avaliados (nivolumabe e pembrolizumabe) além dos satisfatórios perfis de eficácia e segurança demonstrado pelos dois medicamentos. Discutiu-se que o custo mensal do tratamento de ambos os medicamentos deveriam ainda ser reduzidos conforme valor de referência de 3 PIB/per capita para uma razão de custo-efetividade incremental favorável. Foi discutida também a possibilidade de criação de um valor máximo para o procedimento na tabela SIGTAP com a recomendação da classe terapêutica. Foi assinado o Registro de Deliberação nº 533/2020. DECISÃO: incorporar a classe anti-PD1 (nivolumabe e pembrolizumabe) para o tratamento de primeira linha do melanoma avançado não-cirúrgico e metastático, conforme o modelo da assistência oncológica, no âmbito do Sistema Único de Saúde - SUS, conforme a Portaria nº 23, publicada no Diário Oficial da União nº 149, seção 1, página 91, em 05 de agosto de 2020.


Assuntos
Humanos , Neoplasias Cutâneas/tratamento farmacológico , Dacarbazina/uso terapêutico , Ipilimumab/uso terapêutico , Vemurafenib/uso terapêutico , Nivolumabe/uso terapêutico , Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico , Metástase Neoplásica , Avaliação da Tecnologia Biomédica , Sistema Único de Saúde , Brasil , Análise Custo-Benefício/economia
11.
Eur Urol Focus ; 6(5): 1086-1096, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32540268

RESUMO

CONTEXT: The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic that erupted in December 2019 has affected more than a million people from over 200 countries, claiming over 70 000 lives (by April 7, 2020). As the viral infection is driven by increased angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (ACE2) expression, with the kidney exhibiting the highest expression, it is crucial to gain insights into the mechanisms underlying renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). OBJECTIVE: This study considers up-to-date information on the biological determinants shared by COVID-19 and renal disease, and aims to provide evidence-based recommendations for the clinical management of RCC patients with COVID-19. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: A literature search was performed using all sources (MEDLINE, EMBASE, ScienceDirect, Cochrane Libraries, and Web of Science). As of March 31, 2020, the Center for Disease Control reported that of the adults hospitalized for COVID-19 with underlying conditions in the USA, 74.8% had chronic renal disease. EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: Evidence is discussed from epidemiological studies on SARS-CoV-2 pandemic and molecular studies on the role of kidney in facilitating routes for SARS-CoV-2 entry, leading to increased virulence of SARS-CoV-2 and clinical manifestation of symptoms in RCC. CONCLUSIONS: This analysis will advance our understanding of (1) the molecular signatures shared by RCC and COVID-19 and (2) the clinical implications of overlapping signaling pathways in the therapeutic management of RCC and COVID-19 patients. PATIENT SUMMARY: Amid the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, patients diagnosed with renal cell carcinoma and infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) may receive complimentary treatment modalities to enhance therapeutic response.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Células Renais/metabolismo , Infecções por Coronavirus/metabolismo , Neoplasias Renais/metabolismo , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/metabolismo , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/metabolismo , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/metabolismo , Lesão Renal Aguda/epidemiologia , Lesão Renal Aguda/metabolismo , Lesão Renal Aguda/terapia , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma de Células Renais/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Antagonistas dos Receptores de Endotelina/uso terapêutico , Hospitalização , Humanos , Ipilimumab/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Renais/epidemiologia , Biópsia Líquida , Nivolumabe/uso terapêutico , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Diálise Renal , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/terapia , Serina Endopeptidases/metabolismo , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Sunitinibe/uso terapêutico
12.
Ann Oncol ; 31(8): 1075-1082, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32387454

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anti-programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) antibodies (PD1) prolong recurrence-free survival in high-risk resected melanoma; however, approximately 25%-30% of patients recur within 1 year. This study describes the pattern of recurrence, management and outcomes of patients who recur with adjuvant PD1 therapy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Consecutive patients from 16 centres who recurred having received adjuvant PD1 therapy for resected stage III/IV melanoma were studied. Recurrence characteristics, management and outcomes were examined; patients with mucosal melanoma were analysed separately. RESULTS: Melanoma recurrence occurred in 147 (17%) of ∼850 patients treated with adjuvant PD1. In those with cutaneous melanoma (n = 136), median time to recurrence was 4.6 months (range 0.3-35.7); 104 (76%) recurred during (ON) adjuvant PD1 after a median 3.2 months and 32 (24%) following (OFF) treatment cessation after a median 12.5 months, including in 21 (15%) who ceased early for toxicity. Fifty-nine (43%) recurred with locoregional disease only and 77 (57%) with distant disease. Of those who recurred locally, 22/59 (37%) subsequently recurred distantly. Eighty-nine (65%) patients received systemic therapy after recurrence. Of those who recurred ON adjuvant PD1, none (0/6) responded to PD1 alone; 8/33 assessable patients (24%) responded to ipilimumab (alone or in combination with PD1) and 18/23 (78%) responded to BRAF/MEK inhibitors. Of those who recurred OFF adjuvant PD1, two out of five (40%) responded to PD1 monotherapy, two out of five (40%) responded to ipilimumab-based therapy and 9/10 (90%) responded to BRAF/MEK inhibitors. CONCLUSIONS: Most patients who recur early despite adjuvant PD1 develop distant metastases. In those who recur ON adjuvant PD1, there is minimal activity of further PD1 monotherapy, but ipilimumab (alone or in combination with PD1) and BRAF/MEK inhibitors have clinical utility. Retreatment with PD1 may have activity in select patients who recur OFF PD1.


Assuntos
Melanoma , Neoplasias Cutâneas , Terapia Combinada , Humanos , Imunoterapia , Ipilimumab/uso terapêutico , Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Cutâneas/tratamento farmacológico
15.
Cancer Imaging ; 20(1): 36, 2020 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32408884

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Immune checkpoint blockade such as ipilimumab and anti-PD1 monoclonal antibodies have significantly improved survival in advanced melanoma. Biomarkers are urgently needed as a majority of patients do not respond, despite treatment-related toxicities. We analysed pre-treatment 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computerised tomography (FDG PET/CT) parameters to assess its correlation with patient outcome. METHODS: This retrospective study evaluated pre-treatment FDG PET/CT scans in a discovery cohort of patients with advanced melanoma treated with ipilimumab or anti-PD1. Pre-treatment scans were assessed for maximum tumoral standardised uptake value (SUVmax), metabolic tumour volume (MTV) and spleen to liver ratio (SLR). Progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were characterised and modelled using univariable and multivariable analyses. Correlation of SLR and OS was validated in an independent cohort. Blood parameters and stored sera of patients from the discovery cohort was analysed to investigate biological correlates with SLR. RESULTS: Of the 90 evaluable patients in the discovery cohort: 50 received ipilimumab monotherapy, 20 received anti-PD1 monotherapy, and 20 patients received ipilimumab followed by anti-PD1 upon disease progression. High SLR > 1.1 was associated with poor PFS (median 1 vs 3 months; HR 3.14, p = 0.008) for patients treated with ipilimumab. High SLR was associated with poor OS after ipilimumab (median 1 vs 21 months; HR 5.83, p = 0.0001); as well as poor OS after first line immunotherapy of either ipilimumab or anti-PD1 (median 1 vs 14 months; HR 3.92, p = 0.003). The association of high SLR and poor OS after ipilimumab was validated in an independent cohort of 110 patients (median 2.3 months versus 11.9 months, HR 3.74). SLR was associated with poor OS in a multi-variable model independent of stage, LDH, absolute lymphocyte count and MTV. CONCLUSIONS: Pre-treatment Spleen to liver ratio (SLR) > 1.1 was associated with poor outcome after ipilimumab in advanced melanoma. This parameter warrants prospective evaluation.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Ipilimumab/uso terapêutico , Melanoma/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada com Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Fluordesoxiglucose F18 , Humanos , Fígado/diagnóstico por imagem , Fígado/patologia , Masculino , Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos , Baço/diagnóstico por imagem , Baço/patologia
16.
Expert Opin Biol Ther ; 20(7): 687-693, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32249635

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths worldwide and up to recently, sorafenib was the only approved systemic treatment options. In recent years, many other treatment options have received approval for advanced HCC, including nivolumab, a Programmed-Death-1 (PD-1) inhibitor. AREAS COVERED: We review the current treatment landscape of HCC, an overview of the characteristics of nivolumab and current ongoing and completed trials of nivolumab. EXPERT OPINION: Nivolumab is generally well tolerated and has modest single-agent activity as a monotherapy in advanced HCC. Further studies are required to better explore its role as part of combination approaches, in adjuvant/neoadjuvant setting, as well as to understand the impact of sequencing of its use with other systemic therapy options.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Nivolumabe/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/imunologia , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/metabolismo , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Quimioterapia Combinada , Humanos , Ipilimumab/uso terapêutico , Nivolumabe/imunologia , Nivolumabe/metabolismo , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/imunologia , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(15): e19741, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32282733

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Immune-related adverse events (ir-AEs) are increasingly becoming a concern, as immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) are used more frequently. Herein, we present a case of fulminant cytokine release syndrome (CRS) complicated by dermatomyositis after the combination therapy with ICIs. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 70-year-old male developed dermatomyositis during the course of treatment with two ICIs, nivolumab and ipilimumab. He was treated by steroid pulse therapy, but the effect was limited. Afterwards, he had acute-onset high fever, hypotension, respiratory failure, impaired consciousness, renal failure, and coagulation abnormality at the same time. C reactive protein (CRP), creatinine kinase (CK), D-dimer, and ferritin levels were considerably elevated: CRP, 24 mg/dL; CK, 40,500 U/L; D-dimer, 290 µg/mL; ferritin, 329,000 ng/mL. DIAGNOSIS: CRS induced by ICI combination therapy. INTERVENTIONS: Given that high fever and elevated CRP level indicated potential sepsis, an antibiotic was used until the confirmation of negative blood cultures. All the simultaneous acute symptoms were supposed to be CRS. He was admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU), and temporary intubation and hemodialysis were needed. Immunosuppressive therapy was reinforced by mycophenolate mofetil together with steroid, and plasma exchange was performed for the elimination of abnormal proteins. OUTCOMES: The patient's clinical symptoms and laboratory parameters gradually improved and he was discharged from the ICU in a month. CONCLUSION: Fulminant CRS can be induced by ICI combination therapy. As the initial symptoms of CRS resemble sepsis, it is important to consider CRS as a differential diagnosis and to initiate immunosuppressive therapy early when needed. In steroid-resistant cases, early introduction of other immunosuppressive therapy and plasma exchange can be effective.


Assuntos
Terapia Combinada/métodos , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/sangue , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/complicações , Dermatomiosite/etiologia , Idoso , Antibióticos Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Antibióticos Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/efeitos adversos , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Biomarcadores/sangue , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/tratamento farmacológico , Dermatomiosite/sangue , Dermatomiosite/patologia , Dermatomiosite/terapia , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Humanos , Fatores Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Fatores Imunológicos/efeitos adversos , Fatores Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Ipilimumab/administração & dosagem , Ipilimumab/efeitos adversos , Ipilimumab/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Ácido Micofenólico/administração & dosagem , Ácido Micofenólico/uso terapêutico , Nivolumabe/administração & dosagem , Nivolumabe/efeitos adversos , Nivolumabe/uso terapêutico , Troca Plasmática/métodos , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0231038, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32282861

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate if the treatment outcomes of checkpoint inhibitors (CPI) in patients with advanced-stage skin head and neck melanoma (HNM) differs from outcomes in patients with non-HNM. DESIGN: A retrospective cohort study of patients with unresectable AJCC stage III and stage IV, who received CPI between 2010 and 2017. PARTICIPANTS: Overall, 122 unresectable AJCC stage III and metastatic stage IV melanoma adult patients were treated with CPI during the study period (consecutive patients). The HNM group of patients was comparable with limbs and trunk melanoma group except different distant metastatic (M1a/b/c/d) pattern (p = 0.025). MAIN OUTCOMES: Comparison of overall survival and clinical response to CPI in patients with advanced-stage skin melanoma of the head and neck with non-HNM. RESULTS: We analyzed 38 patients with melanoma arising in the head and neck skin regions, 33 with melanoma of limbs and 51 with trunk melanoma. Most of the head and neck patients were men (89.5%), the average age of melanoma diagnosis was 61.4±16.7 years (range 16.4-85.6). More than a third of HNM group of patients (36.8%) were 70 years and older. Overall response rate (ORR) to CPI was 50% (CR 31.6% and PR 18.4%) in the head and neck study group of patients, compared to an ORR of 36.3% and 23.5% in melanoma of the limbs and of the trunk, respectively (p = 0.03). The median overall survival of HNM group of patients was 60.2±6.3 months, CI 95% [47.7-72.7], 63% were alive at 30 months, reaching a plateau. Whereas, the median survival time of limbs and trunk melanoma were 51.2 and 53.4 months, which did not reach significance. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Response rate to CPI is significantly improved in patients with melanoma of the head and neck and they have a trend towards improved, long standing, overall survival.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Antígeno CTLA-4/antagonistas & inibidores , Ipilimumab/uso terapêutico , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço , Humanos , Masculino , Melanoma , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Neoplasias Cutâneas , Análise de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
19.
J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry ; 91(7): 772-778, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32312871

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe the spectrum and outcome of central nervous system complications associated with immune checkpoint inhibitors (CNS-ICI). METHODS: Patients with CNS-ICI were identified and their characteristics compared with ICI-related peripheral neuropathy (PN-ICI). RESULTS: We identified 19 patients with CNS-ICI. The patients were receiving nivolumab (n=8), pembrolizumab (n=6), a combination of ipilimumab-nivolumab (n=3), ipilimumab-durvalumab (n=1), or atezolizumab (n=1). Underlying malignancies included non-small-cell lung cancer (n=8), melanoma (n=3), and other less common tumours (n=8). Neurological phenotypes were limbic encephalitis (n=8), meningoencephalitis (n=4) and cerebellitis (n=4). Two patients developed isolated confusion and one parkinsonism. Associated autoantibodies included onconeural (Ma2, n=7; Hu, n=1), astrocytic (glial fibrillar acidic protein, n=2) and neuronal surface (contactin-associated protein-like 2, n=1) specificities. ICIs were withheld and corticosteroid treatment was given in all cases. Five patients received intravenous immunoglobulin, two rituximab, one plasmapheresis and one infliximab. Overall, six patients died. Readministration of ICI was attempted in three patients, without further relapses. Non-small-cell lung cancer was significantly more frequent in patients with CNS-ICI (p<0.01), while melanoma and ipilimumab treatment were more common in PN-ICI (p<0.01 and p=0.01). Conversely, CNS-ICI cases were more frequently antibody-positive than PN-ICI (p<0.01) and showed a strong trend towards poorer outcome (p=0.053). CONCLUSION: Three main clinical phenotypes characterise CNS complications of ICIs, each with distinct immunological background, disease course and response to treatment. Other clinical manifestations (including parkinsonism and steroid-responsive confusion) are also possible. Underlying cancers, antibody prevalence and outcome appear different from those of patients with PN-ICI.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/efeitos adversos , Confusão/induzido quimicamente , Transtornos Parkinsonianos/induzido quimicamente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticorpos Monoclonais/efeitos adversos , Anticorpos Monoclonais/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/efeitos adversos , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Humanos , Ipilimumab/efeitos adversos , Ipilimumab/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Nivolumabe/efeitos adversos , Nivolumabe/uso terapêutico
20.
BMC Cancer ; 20(1): 304, 2020 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32293341

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: For novel cancer treatments, effectiveness in clinical practice is not always aligned with clinical efficacy results. As such it is important to understand a treatment's real-world effectiveness. We examined real-world population-based comparative effectiveness of second-line ipilimumab versus non-ipilimumab treatments (chemotherapy or targeted treatments). METHODS: We used a cohort of melanoma patients receiving systemic treatment for advanced disease since April 2005 from Ontario, Canada. Patients were identified from provincial drug databases and the Ontario Cancer Registry who received second-line ipilimumab from 2012 to 2015 (treated) or second-line non-ipilimumab treatment prior to 2012 (historical controls). Historical controls were chosen, to permit the most direct comparison to pivotal trial findings. The cohort was linked to administrative databases to identify baseline characteristics and outcomes. Kaplan-Meier curves and multivariable Cox regression models were used to assess overall survival (OS). Observed potential confounders were adjusted for using inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW). RESULTS: We identified 329 patients with metastatic melanoma (MM) who had received second-line treatments (189 treated; 140 controls). Patients receiving second-line ipilimumab were older (61.7 years vs 55.2 years) compared to historical controls. Median OS were 6.9 (95% CI: 5.4-8.3) and 4.95 (4.3-6.0) months for ipilimumab and controls, respectively. The crude 1-year, 2-year, and 3-year OS probabilities were 34.3% (27-41%), 20.6% (15-27%), and 15.2% (9.6-21%) for ipilimumab and 17.1% (11-23%), 7.1% (2.9-11%), and 4.7% (1.2-8.2%) for controls. Ipilimumab was associated with improved OS (IPTW HR = 0.62; 95% CI: 0.49-0.78; p < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: This real-world analysis suggests second-line ipilimumab is associated with an improvement in OS for MM patients in routine practice.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Ipilimumab/administração & dosagem , Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Bases de Dados de Produtos Farmacêuticos , Feminino , Humanos , Ipilimumab/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Metástase Neoplásica , Ontário , Análise de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento
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