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1.
Plant Dis ; 104(5): 1477-1486, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32196415

RESUMO

In this study, the effect of a Kenyan strain of Sweetpotato leaf curl virus (SPLCV) and its interactions with Sweetpotato feathery mottle virus (SPFMV) and Sweetpotato chlorotic stunt virus (SPCSV) on root yield was determined. Trials were performed during two seasons using varieties Kakamega and Ejumula and contrasting in their resistance to sweetpotato virus disease in a randomized complete block design with 16 treatments replicated three times. The treatments included plants graft inoculated with SPLCV, SPFMV, and SPCSV alone and in possible dual or triple combinations. Yield and yield-related parameters were evaluated at harvest. The results showed marked differences in the effect of SPLCV infection on the two varieties. Ejumula, which is highly susceptible to SPFMV and SPCSV, suffered no significant yield loss from SPLCV infection, whereas Kakamega, which is moderately resistant to SPFMV and SPCSV, suffered an average of 47% yield loss from SPLCV, despite only mild symptoms occurring in both varieties. These results highlight the variability in yield response to SPLCV between sweetpotato cultivars as well as a lack of correlation of SPLCV-related symptoms with yield reduction. In addition, they underline the lack of correlation between resistance to the RNA viruses SPCSV and SPFMV and the DNA virus SPLCV.[Formula: see text] Copyright © 2020 The Author(s). This is an open access article distributed under the CC BY 4.0 International license.


Assuntos
Ipomoea batatas , Quênia , Doenças das Plantas
2.
Food Chem ; 312: 126087, 2020 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31911355

RESUMO

Beer has been one of the most consumed alcoholic beverages worldwide. However, the incorporation of adjuncts in the beer can add new organoleptic and functional characteristics to the beverage. For this, Beauregard sweet potato shows high potential due to being a rich source of starch and many bioactive compounds. The aim of this study was to develop the best process condition to produce a Sweet potato beer with enhanced nutritional and antioxidant properties and good sensory characteristics. Beer samples showed increased antioxidant activity especially due to ß-carotene and their total phenolic content. The phytochemical profile of sweet potato biocompounds demonstrated a direct effect of this adjunct on sensory and functional characteristics of the finished beer. In conclusion, it was found that Beauregard sweet potato is a promising adjunct for beer brewing with nutraceutical properties due to its rich composition of bioactive compounds.


Assuntos
Cerveja/análise , Ipomoea batatas/química , Antioxidantes/análise , Fenômenos Químicos , Fenóis/análise , Amido/química , beta Caroteno/análise
3.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 148: 1-9, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31923733

RESUMO

Sweet potato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.] (2n = 6x = 90) is an economic important autopolyploid species and its varieties differ regarding storage root skin and flesh colors. Two sweet potato genetic lines, Sushu8 (with red skin) and its mutant Zhengshu20, which produced different colored storage roots, were used in this study. The total flavonoid, carotenoid, and anthocyanin contents of the two lines were analyzed and revealed that anthocyanin was primarily responsible for the skin color difference. In addition, the early storage root expanding stage was the key period for anthocyanin accumulation in Sushu8. A total of 24 samples, including the skins of the fibrous root and the storage root at the early and middle expanding stages as well as the flesh of the storage root at the middle expanding stage, were analyzed based on differentially expressed genes identified by transcriptome sequencing and a weighted gene co-expression network analysis. Two gene modules highly related with the regulation of sweet potato skin color through stress responses as well as starch synthesis and glucose metabolism were identified. Furthermore, the WRKY75 transcription factor gene, fructose-bisphosphate aldolase 2 gene, and other DEGs highly related to the regulation of anthocyanin metabolism were enriched in the brown and green modules.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Ipomoea batatas , Pigmentação , Antocianinas/genética , Antocianinas/metabolismo , Carotenoides/metabolismo , Flavonoides/genética , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Genes de Plantas/genética , Ipomoea batatas/genética , Ipomoea batatas/metabolismo , Mutação , Pigmentação/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
4.
Plant Biol (Stuttg) ; 22(3): 376-385, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31943638

RESUMO

Nitrogen (N) could affect storage root growth and development of sweet potato. To manage external N concentration fluctuations, plants have developed a wide range of strategies, such as growth changes and gene expression. Five sweet potato cultivars were used to analyse the functions of N in regulating storage root growth. Growth responses and physiological indicators were measured to determine the physiological changes regulated by different N concentrations. Expression profiles of related genes were analysed via microarray hybridization data and qRT-PCR analysis to reveal the molecular mechanisms of storage root growth regulated by different N concentrations. The growth responses and physiological indicators of the five cultivars were changed by N concentration. The root fresh weight of two of the sweet potato cultivars, SS19 and GS87, was higher under low N concentrations compared with the other cultivars. SS19 and GS87 were found to be having greater tolerance to low N concentration. The expression of N metabolism and storage root growth related genes was regulated by N concentration in sweet potato. These results reveal that N significantly regulated storage root growth. SS19 and GS87 were more tolerant to low N concentration and produced greater storage root yield (at 30 days). Furthermore, several N response genes were involved in both N metabolism and storage root growth.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Ipomoea batatas , Nitrogênio , Raízes de Plantas , Ipomoea batatas/genética , Ipomoea batatas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ipomoea batatas/metabolismo , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo
5.
BMC Plant Biol ; 20(1): 3, 2020 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31898489

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Continuous storage root formation and bulking (CSRFAB) in sweetpotato is an important trait from agronomic and biological perspectives. Information about the molecular mechanisms underlying CSRFAB traits is lacking. RESULTS: Here, as a first step toward understanding the genetic basis of CSRFAB in sweetpotato, we performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) using phenotypic data from four distinct developmental stages and 33,068 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and insertion-deletion (indel) markers. Based on Bonferroni threshold (p-value < 5 × 10- 7), we identified 34 unique SNPs that were significantly associated with the complex trait of CSRFAB at 150 days after planting (DAP) and seven unique SNPs associated with discontinuous storage root formation and bulking (DCSRFAB) at 90 DAP. Importantly, most of the loci associated with these identified SNPs were located within genomic regions (using Ipomoea trifida reference genome) previously reported for quantitative trait loci (QTL) controlling similar traits. Based on these trait-associated SNPs, 12 and seven candidate genes were respectively annotated for CSRFAB and DCSRFAB traits. Congruent with the contrasting and inverse relationship between discontinuous and continuous storage root formation and bulking, a DCSRFAB-associated candidate gene regulates redox signaling, involved in auxin-mediated lateral root formation, while CSRFAB is enriched for genes controlling growth and senescence. CONCLUSION: Candidate genes identified in this study have potential roles in cell wall remodeling, plant growth, senescence, stress, root development and redox signaling. These findings provide valuable insights into understanding the functional networks to develop strategies for sweetpotato yield improvement. The markers as well as candidate genes identified in this pioneering research for CSRFAB provide important genomic resources for sweetpotato and other root crops.


Assuntos
Ipomoea batatas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Genes de Plantas , Genoma de Planta , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Ácidos Indolacéticos/metabolismo , Oxirredução , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/genética , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Locos de Características Quantitativas
6.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 31(1): 189-198, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31957396

RESUMO

To explore the alleviation effect of spraying phytohormone on physiological characteristics and yield of sweet potato under drought stress in different periods, and to determine the best period of spraying external plant hormones, the effects on endogenous hormone content, photosynthetic fluorescence characteristics and yield of sweet potato were examined by spraying 6-benzylaminopurine (6-BA), α-naphthylacetic acid (NAA) and abscisic acid (ABA) respectively under drought stress after transplanting for 20 days (early stage), 60 days (middle stage) and 100 days (later stage) under artificial water control. The results showed that compared with spraying water, exogenous phytohormones significantly increased the yield of sweet potato under drought stress, among which 6-BA had the highest effect, followed by NAA and ABA. The effect of spraying in early stage was better than that in middle and late stages. Exogenous phytohormones significantly increased photosynthetic and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters of sweet potato leaves under drought stress at different stages, alleviated the decrease in eatin ribonucleoside (ZR) and auxin (IAA) caused by drought. Stepwise regression analysis showed that endogenous hormones and photosynthetic characteristics were key factors affecting yield of sweet potato. Results of path analysis showed that spraying exogenous plant hormone affected sweet potato yield by changing net photosynthetic rate (Pn), IAA, ZR, maximal photochemical efficiency and photochemical performance index under drought stress at early stage. Therefore, spraying 6-BA could regulate the content of endogenous hormones and improve photosynthetic characteristics of sweet potato at the early growth stage, and thus effectively alleviate the loss of yield caused by drought stress.


Assuntos
Secas , Ipomoea batatas , Ácido Abscísico , Fotossíntese , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta , Folhas de Planta , Estresse Fisiológico , Água
7.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(6): 1596-1608, 2020 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31927925

RESUMO

Purple sweet potato is known as a rich source of protein and anthocyanins. Anthocyanins can form complexes with protein present in food products through non-covalent forces or covalent bonds during processing, transportation, and storage as their protein affinity. We evaluated the hypoglycemic effects of protein-bound anthocyanin compounds of purple sweet potato (p-BAC-PSP) and free anthocyanin compounds of purple sweet potato (FAC-PSP) in high-fat diet/streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice. The results showed that administration of both p-BAC-PSP and FAC-PSP improved diabetic condition, as evidenced by the improvement of glucose tolerance and lipid metabolism, and the decrease of oxidative stress and liver damage. For the mechanism study, we have found that p-BAC-PSP and FAC-PSP induced the expression of AMP-activated protein kinase in liver. With p-BAC-PSP or FAC-PSP treatment, glucose transporter type 2, the protein levels of glucokinase, and insulin receptor α were found to be improved significantly (p < 0.05). Glycolysis key genes, phosphofructokinase and pyruvate kinase, were upregulated in two treatment groups, while gluconeogenic genes, glucose-6-phosphatase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, were downregulated. Our findings suggested that p-BAC-PSP has great potential as a dietary supplement with hypoglycemic activity for general, pre-diabetic, and diabetic population.


Assuntos
Antocianinas/administração & dosagem , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Hiperglicemia/tratamento farmacológico , Hipoglicemiantes/administração & dosagem , Ipomoea batatas/química , Fígado/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Proteínas de Plantas/administração & dosagem , Animais , Antocianinas/química , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/metabolismo , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Glucose/metabolismo , Humanos , Hiperglicemia/metabolismo , Hipoglicemiantes/química , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Extratos Vegetais/química , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Tubérculos/química
8.
Plant Dis ; 104(3): 930-937, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31994985

RESUMO

In 2014, Ceratocystis fimbriata, causal agent of black rot in sweetpotato, reemerged and inflicted large financial losses on growers in the United States. Black rot continues to damage sweetpotatoes and has become a priority to the industry since then. In contrast, little is known about the biology of C. fimbriata and the epidemiology of sweetpotato black rot. In this study, effects of environmental factors such as inoculum density, RH, and temperature on sweetpotato black rot were determined. Cured sweetpotatoes were wounded with a toothpick to simulate puncture wounds, inoculated with different spore suspensions (inoculum density) (104, 105, or 106 spores/ml), and incubated under different RH (85.53, 94.09, or 97.01%) and temperature (13, 18, 23, 29, or 35°C) for 21 days. In a separate experiment, five root wounding types (cuts, punctures, abrasions, end breaks, and macerating bruises) were compared. All wounded roots were subsequently soaked in a 103 spores/ml suspension and incubated at 100% RH and 23°C for 21 days. This study found 29 and 23°C to be the optimal temperature for black rot disease development and sporulation, respectively. No pathogen growth was observed at 13 and 35°C. Increased inoculum density significantly (P < 0.0001) increased disease incidence, but increasing RH had an effect only on sporulation area. All wound types resulted in increased disease incidence and sporulation as early as 7 days postinoculation. Our results highlight the importance of characterizing factors that affect disease development for achieving successful disease management strategies. Findings from this study will be used to improve disease management for sweetpotato black rot by suggesting tighter regulation of curing and storage conditions and better postharvest handling of sweetpotato roots to avoid unnecessary wounding.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos , Ipomoea batatas , Progressão da Doença , Humanos , Temperatura
9.
Food Chem ; 312: 125904, 2020 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31901701

RESUMO

This study investigated sucrose catabolism during cold-induced sweetening (CIS) and its impact on the quality of sweet potato chips of cultivars with varied levels of tolerance to cold during storage at 6 and 13 °C. In contrast to cultivar Beauregard, cultivar BRS Rubissol and BRS Cuia were cold-sensitive exhibiting intense symptoms of chilling injury at 6 °C. CIS in the sensitive cultivars BRS Rubissol and BRS Cuia was characterized by low accumulation of reducing sugar (RS), high non-reducing sugars content, low invertase activity and high sucrose synthase (SuSy) activity. In the tolerant cultivar Beauregard, the high content of RS was due to high invertases activity. In the three cultivars, the darkening of chips was more influenced by the non-reducing sugars, instead of RS. Our results suggest that SuSy was induced by cold stress in cold-sensitive cultivar, but did not contribute to the CIS in sweet potato.


Assuntos
Edulcorantes/química , Metabolismo dos Carboidratos , Carboidratos/química , Temperatura Baixa , Glucosiltransferases , Ipomoea batatas/metabolismo , Edulcorantes/metabolismo , Paladar , beta-Frutofuranosidase/metabolismo
10.
Food Chem ; 314: 125959, 2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31991283

RESUMO

Anthocyanins from purple-fleshed sweetpotatoes constitute highly valued natural colorants and functional ingredients. In the past, anthocyanin extraction conditions and efficiencies using a single acidified solvent have been assessed. However, the potential of solvent mixes that can be generated by fermentation of biomass-derived sugars have not been explored. In this study, the effects of single and mixed solvent, time, temperature, sweetpotato genotype and preparation, on anthocyanin and phenolic extraction were evaluated. Results indicated that unconventional diluted solvent mixes containing acetone, butanol, and ethanol were superior or equally efficient for extracting anthocyanins when compared to commonly used concentrated extractants. In addition, analysis of anthocyanidins concentrations including cyanidin (cy), peonidin (pe), and pelargonidin (pl), indicated that different ratios of pn/cy were obtained depending on the solvent used. These results could be useful when selecting processing conditions that better suit particular end-use applications and more environmentally friendly process development for purple sweetpotatoes.


Assuntos
Antocianinas/isolamento & purificação , Fracionamento Químico/métodos , Ipomoea batatas/química , Solventes/química , Acetona/química , Antocianinas/análise , Antocianinas/química , Butanóis/química , Etanol/química , Fenóis/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/química
11.
J Sci Food Agric ; 100(4): 1702-1710, 2020 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31803935

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The presence of insoluble calcium oxalate druse crystals (CaOx) in sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) can negatively affect its nutritional quality. Photosynthesis, starch, and protein composition are linked with oxalate synthesis and tuber quality under water scarcity. Our main objective was the oxalate quantitation of sweet potato tubers and shoots and also to assess how drought changes their nutritional value. Eight sweet potato accessions from Madeira, the Canaries and Guinea-Bissau were analyzed for their response to drought stress. Tubers and shoots were analyzed for total (T-Ox), soluble (S-Ox) and insoluble (CaOx) oxalates, protein, chlorophyll content index (CCI), soluble starch, starch swelling power, and starch solubility in water. RESULTS: The S-Ox and CaOx content was higher in shoots. Six accessions were above maximum CaOx levels for raw consumption. Accessions with more favorable responses to drought had decreased CaOx with S-Ox increase content for osmoregulation. They also presented slightly decreased CCI and protein contents. These accessions also had an increased shoot starch content, for further tuber storage starch hydrolysis, and maintained the quality and functional properties of the tuber starch grain. Those with a less favorable response to drought had a higher T-Ox and CaOx content in both organs, hindering water absorption. They also had decreased protein and CCI, with a slight increase in tuber starch hydrolysis. CONCLUSION: Oxalate content was significantly related to carbohydrate metabolism, CCI, and protein synthesis. This study significantly contributed to the screening of the sweet potato stress response to drought, to adapt this crop to climatic change through breeding programs. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Ipomoea batatas/metabolismo , Oxalatos/química , Tubérculos/química , Água/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Carboidratos , Secas , Ipomoea batatas/química , Oxalatos/metabolismo , Fotossíntese , Brotos de Planta/química , Brotos de Planta/metabolismo , Tubérculos/metabolismo , Amido/análise , Amido/metabolismo , Água/análise
12.
Gene ; 727: 144244, 2020 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31715303

RESUMO

Sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas [L.] Lam) is considered an economically important crop worldwide and is used as a source of food, feed, and biomaterials. However, its origin in tropical regions makes it vulnerable to chilling injury during postharvest storage at low temperature. To gain further insight into the molecular mechanism of chilling response, we performed comparative transcriptome analysis of two sweetpotato lines, Xushu 15-1 and Xushu 15-4, with high and low cold storage ability, respectively. Tuberous roots of these lines were stored at 4 °C for 0, 2, and 6 weeks. RNA-Seq data of both lines were de novo assembled, producing 27,636 unigenes with a N50 value of 1204 bp. A total of 525 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified and categorized into six clusters. Genes with higher expression in Xushu 15-1 than in Xushu 15-4 significantly increased in number over time during low temperature storage. Functional annotation of DEGs using KEGG enrichment analysis showed that these DEGs were involved in carbohydrate metabolism, ribosome, protein processing in endoplasmic reticulum, plant-pathogen interaction, and plant hormone signal transduction. Several key candidate genes involved in KEGG pathways were selected and discussed further. The results of this study enhance our understanding of the complex mechanisms involved in low temperature tolerance in sweetpotato during storage and provide a set of candidate genes for the development of new varieties with improved cold storage ability.


Assuntos
Resposta ao Choque Frio/genética , Ipomoea batatas/genética , Temperatura Baixa/efeitos adversos , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Anotação de Sequência Molecular/métodos , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Análise de Sequência de RNA/métodos , Temperatura , Transcriptoma/genética
13.
Food Chem ; 311: 126011, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31862571

RESUMO

Variations in fine structure of pigmented sweet potato starches and their relationships with starch functional properties were explored in this study. The amylose content (18.63-20.45%), XAM1 (308-387) and hAP2 (0.723-0.810) and hAM2 (0.134-0.167) significantly differed (P < 0.05), while other structural parameters had small variations. The average chain length of amylopectin ranged in degree of polymerization (DP) from 23.3 to 24.7. The proportions of fa, fb1, fb2 and fb3 were 21.88-27.18%, 45.45-50.81%, 11.87-13.29% and 14.02-16.96%, respectively, with significant (P < 0.05) differences among these samples. Pearson correlation analysis indicated that fine structures of both amylose and amylopectin had significant impacts on pasting, gelatinization, and textural properties. XAM2, fa, fb1, XAM2 and fa/fb1 were significantly correlated with pasting parameters, while fa and fa/fb1 were negatively correlated with thermal parameters. XAM1 and hAP2 were negatively correlated with texture. These results may provide an overview of structure-function correlations for sweet potato starches.


Assuntos
Ipomoea batatas/metabolismo , Amido/química , Amilopectina/química , Amilose/química , Cromatografia em Gel , Temperatura
14.
Biosci Biotechnol Biochem ; 84(1): 198-207, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31566090

RESUMO

High glycosidase-producing strains of Aspergillus luchuensis were isolated from 2-deoxyglucose (2-DG) resistant mutants. α-Amylase, exo-α-1,4-glucosidase, ß-glucosidase and ß-xylosidase activity in the mutants was ~3, ~2, ~4 and ~2.5 times higher than the parental strain RIB2604 on koji-making conditions, respectively. Citric acid production and mycelia growth of the mutants, however, approximately halved to that of the parent. Compared to the parent, the alcohol yield from rice and sweet potato shochu mash of the mutant increased ~5.7% and 3.0%, respectively. The mutant strains showed significantly low glucose assimilability despite the fructose one was almost normal, and they had a single missense or nonsense mutation in the glucokinase gene glkA. The recombinant strain that was introduced at one of the mutations, glkA Q300K, demonstrated similar but not identical phenotypes to the mutant strain. This result indicates that glkA Q300K is one of the major mutations in 2-DG resistant strains.


Assuntos
Aspergillus/genética , Aspergillus/isolamento & purificação , Separação Celular/métodos , Códon sem Sentido/genética , Genes Fúngicos/genética , alfa-Glucosidases/metabolismo , Aspergillus/classificação , Aspergillus/metabolismo , Catepsina A/metabolismo , Ácido Cítrico/metabolismo , Desoxiglucose/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Fúngica , Etanol/metabolismo , Fermentação , Alimentos e Bebidas Fermentados/microbiologia , Frutose/metabolismo , Glucoquinase/genética , Glucose/metabolismo , Ipomoea batatas/química , Oryza/química , Fenótipo , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/classificação , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/isolamento & purificação , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Xilosidases/metabolismo , alfa-Amilases/metabolismo , beta-Glucosidase/metabolismo
15.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 35(6): 1708-1717, nov./dec. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1049095

RESUMO

Studies on the determination of genetic divergence among genotypes are important tools in breeding programs, contributing to the identification of parents with considerable productive potential. However, little is known about the combinatorial capacity of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) accessions and its adaptation to the different regions of Brazil. The objective of this study was to evaluate the morpho-agronomic traits from 102 sweet potato accessions from the Germplasm Bank of Embrapa Hortaliças. The experiment was laid out as an augmented block design comprised of 102 treatments. Nineteen above ground traits were measured using descriptors for the respective parts. Estimated values of broad sense heritability were high for the traits mean branch length (95.75%), immature leaf color (85.06%), and predominant branch color (90.57%). Coefficients of environmental variation were below 30.00% for all variables, except for branch weight (51.62%). The 102 clones analyzed presented broad genetic variability for the different traits evaluated, especially for branch weight, and branch length, and mature leaf color.


Estudos de determinação de divergência genética entre genótipos são ferramentas de grande importância em programas de melhoramento, auxiliando na identificação de genitores com considerável potencial produtivo. No entanto, pouco ainda se sabe sobre a capacidade combinatória de acessos de batata-doce (Ipomoea batatas) e sobre a adaptação a diferentes regiões do Brasil. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar características agronômicas de 102 acessos de batata-doce mantidos no Banco de Germoplasma da Embrapa Hortaliças. O experimento foi instalado utilizando o delineamento em blocos aumentados, com 102 tratamentos. Foram mensuradas 19 características da parte aérea utilizando-se descritores das respectivas partes. Os valores das estimativas de herdabilidade no sentido amplo foram altos para as características comprimento médio das ramas (95,75%), cor da folha imatura (85,06%) e cor predominante da rama (90,57%). Os coeficientes de variação foram inferiores a 30 % para todas as variáveis, exceto para peso das ramas (51.62%). Os 102 clones analisados apresentaram ampla variabilidade genética para as diferentes características avaliadas, principalmente para peso das ramas, comprimento das ramas e cor da folha madura


Assuntos
Ipomoea batatas , Melhoramento Vegetal , Banco de Sementes , Genótipo
16.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 35(6): 1773-1779, nov./dec. 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1049114

RESUMO

Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) is a rustic horticultural crop with high production potential. However, the crop is susceptible to many pests and diseases. The objective of this study was to evaluate 10 genotypes of sweet potato regarding their yield and resistance to soil insects, under Brazilian cerrado soil conditions. Genotypes were selected from the Sweet Potato Germplasm Bank of Embrapa Hortaliças. The experiment was conducted at Água Limpa Farm, belonging to University of Brasilia (UnB), and consisted of a randomized block design, with 10 treatments (genotypes), 10 plants per plot, and four replications. The following traits were analyzed: number of perforations per root, incidence of roots injured by insects, plant resistance degree, root shape, total and marketable root yields, root peel color, root pulp color, pulp total soluble solids, pulp titratable acidity, pulp TSS/TA ratio, pulp moisture, and pulp starch yield. Genotype CNPH 53 (26.78 t ha-1) presented total root yield greater than the commercial variety Brazlândia Rosada (17.54 t ha-1). Genotype Santa Sofia (11.77 t ha-1) and Brazlândia (13.5 t ha-1) had similar marketable root yields. CNPH 53 showed the best agronomic performance, exhibiting moderate susceptibility to soil insects and root shape meeting the market standards. It also had low pulp TA (2.53%); high pulp TSS (12.25 °Brix) and pulp TSS/AT ratio (4.24); pulp moisture content close to 70%; and the highest pulp starch content (11.98%). The traits number of perforations per root, root shape, and pulp TA presented heritability values close to 70%. Marketable root yield, pulp moisture, and pulp starch content demonstrated heritability values greater than 90% and CVG/CVE greater than 1


A batata-doce (Ipomoea batatas) é uma hortícola rústica e de elevado potencial produtivo. No entanto, ainda é suscetível a grande número de pragas e doenças. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar dez genótipos de batata-doce quanto à produtividade e resistência a insetos de solo nas condições de solo do cerrado Brasileiro. Os genótipos avaliados foram selecionados do Banco de Germoplasma da Embrapa Hortaliças. O experimento foi conduzido na Fazenda Água Limpa da Universidade de Brasília (UnB) utilizando delineamento experimental de blocos casualizados, com 10 tratamentos, 4 repetições e 10 plantas de batata-doce por parcela. As características avaliadas foram: número de furos por raiz, incidência de danos causados por insetos, grau de resistência da planta, formato de raiz, cor da casca da raiz, cor da polpa da raiz, produtividade total e comercial de raiz, e teor de sólidos solúveis totais (SST), acidez total titulável (AT), STT/AT, rendimento de amido e umidade da polpa. O genótipo CNPH 53 apresentou produtividade total (26,78 t ha-1) superior à variedade comercial Brazlândia Rosada (17,54 t ha-1). O genótipo Santa Sofia obteve produtividade comercial (11,77 t ha-1) próxima à variedade Brazlândia Rosada (13,75 t ha-1). O genótipo CNPH 53 apresentou o melhor desempenho agronômico, exibindo suscetibilidade moderada aos insetos de solo e formato de raiz dentro dos padrões comerciais. Apresentou também baixa acidez (2,53%); alto teor de sólidos solúveis (12,25 °Brix) e de ratio (4,24); teor de umidade da polpa próximo a 70% e maior teor de amido na polpa (11,98%). As características número de furos, formato e acidez apresentaram valores de herdabilidade próximos de 70%. A produtividade comercial, umidade e amido da polpa demonstraram valores de herdabilidade acima de 90% e CVg/CVe maior que 1


Assuntos
Raízes de Plantas , Pragas da Agricultura , Ipomoea batatas , Melhoramento Vegetal
17.
World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 35(11): 176, 2019 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31673867

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to clarify effects of soil and climatic conditions on community structure of sweet potato bacterial endophytes by applying locked nucleic acid oligonucleotide-PCR clamping technique and metagenomic analysis. For this purpose, the soil samples in three locations were transferred each other and sweet potato nursery plants from the same farm were cultivated for ca. 3 months. After removal of plastid, mitochondria and undefined sequences, the averaged numbers of retained sequences and operational taxonomic units per sample were 20,891 and 846, respectively. Proteobacteria (85.0%), Bacteroidetes (6.6%) and Actinobacteria (6.3%) were the three most dominant phyla, accounting for 97.9% of the reads, and γ-Proteobacteria (66.3%) being the most abundant. Top 10 genera represented 81.2% of the overall reads in which Pseudomonas (31.9-45.0%) being the most predominant. The overall endophytic bacterial communities were similar among the samples which indicated that the soil and the climatic conditions did not considerably affect the entire endophytic community. The original endophytic bacterial community might be kept during the cultivation period.


Assuntos
Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/metabolismo , Clima , Endófitos/classificação , Ipomoea batatas/microbiologia , Metagenoma , Microbiota , Solo/química , Bactérias/genética , Sequência de Bases , Biodiversidade , DNA Bacteriano/análise , DNA Mitocondrial/análise , Endófitos/genética , Microbiota/genética , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Microbiologia do Solo
18.
Plant Foods Hum Nutr ; 74(4): 531-537, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31713022

RESUMO

Sweet potato is one of the oldest crops cultivated in Mexico, and Mesoamerica is considered as a region with the greatest diversity of this species. Therefore, the present study focused on the evaluation of biologically active compounds, such as caffeoylquinic acid derivatives and flavonoid compounds, in sweet potato leaves of 200 accessions of the main producing regions of Mexico. The analysis of total phenol content (TPC) showed a great variability of concentrations among the examined accessions (54.41 to 284.64 mgTPC/g DW). Likewise, total flavonoid content (TFC) was determined and ranged from 10.01 to 40.17 mgTFC /g DW. Finally, total anthocyanin content (TAC) was evaluated and concentrations obtained varied from 0.05 to 0.98 mgTAC/g DW. Additionally, HPLC analysis of all 200 accessions demonstrated the presence of caffeic acid (CA), 5-caffeoylquinic acid (5-CQA), three isomers of di-caffeoylquinic acid (di-CCA) and 4-feruloyl-5-caffeoylquinic acid (4F-5CQA) in all test samples. Only 21 accessions tested showed the quantitative amount of 3,4,5-tri-caffeoylquinic acid (3,4,5-tri-CQA) with concentrations ranging from 44.73 to 193.22 mg/100 g DW and high content of 4F-5CQA (139.46 to 419.99 mg/100 g DW). The gathered data indicate that leaves of Mexican sweet potatoes are a promising source of phenolic compounds with remarkable nutraceutical potential.


Assuntos
Ipomoea batatas , Antocianinas , Flavonoides , México , Fenóis , Folhas de Planta , Ácido Quínico/análogos & derivados
19.
J Plant Physiol ; 243: 153052, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31689580

RESUMO

Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) is an important crop in the world, cultivated in temperate climates under low inputs. Drought changes the plant biomass allocation, together with the carbon and nitrogen isotopic composition (δ13C and δ15N), whose changes are faintly known in sweet potato crops. Here, we show the biomass allocation of eight sweet potato accessions submitted to drought during 3 months, using the δ13C, δ15N, carbon isotope discrimination (Δ13C), total carbon (TC) and water use efficiency (WUE) traits. The tolerant accessions had improved WUE, with higher TPB and TC. Storage roots and shoots had a heavier δ13C content under drought stress, with greater 13C fixation in roots. The Δ13C did not show a significant association with WUE. The δ15N values indicated a generalised N reallocation between whole-plant organs under drought, as a physiological integrator of response to environmental stress. This information can aid the selection of traits to be used in sweet potato breeding programs, to adapt this crop to climate change.


Assuntos
Biomassa , Isótopos de Carbono/análise , Carbono/metabolismo , Secas , Ipomoea batatas/fisiologia , Radioisótopos de Nitrogênio/análise
20.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(43): 12061-12071, 2019 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31588743

RESUMO

Ascorbic acid is widely used in the food industry as a source of vitamin C or as antioxidant. However, it degrades quickly in beverages at acidic pH and can accelerate the degradation of anthocyanins, natural dyes used in beverages, leading to a loss of color. In this work, we investigated the possibility to replace ascorbic acid by ascorbic acid derivatives to prevent its degradation effect on anthocyanins from natural extracts (black carrot, grape juice, and purple sweet potato). For this, the thermal and photolytic stabilities under air and under N2 of ascorbic acid (as reference) and of some ascorbic acid derivatives (3-O-ethyl-l-ascorbic acid, 2-O-α-d-glucopyranosyl-l-ascorbic acid, l-ascorbic acid 2-phosphate sesquimagnesium salt hydrate, l-ascorbyl 2,6-dibutyrate, glyceryl ascorbate, (+)-5,6-O-isopropylidene-l-ascorbic acid), soluble in aqueous model beverages, were studied alone and in the presence of anthocyanins from the natural extracts in citrate buffer at pH 3. The stability was followed by UV-visible spectrometry. To extend the investigation, some properties of the ascorbic acid derivatives (pKa, oxidation potential, bond dissociation energy, ionization potential) were also determined. Moreover, the addition of chlorogenic acid was examined to further stabilize the mixture of anthocyanins with 2-O-α-d-glucopyranosyl-l-ascorbic acid, a promising ascorbic acid derivative.


Assuntos
Antocianinas/análise , Ácido Ascórbico/análogos & derivados , Bebidas/análise , Aditivos Alimentares/análise , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Ácido Ascórbico/análise , Cor , Daucus carota/química , Ipomoea batatas/química , Vitis/química
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