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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(18)2021 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34575953

RESUMO

Jasmonate ZIM-domain (JAZ) proteins are key repressors of a jasmonic acid signaling pathway. They play essential roles in the regulation of plant growth and development, as well as environmental stress responses. However, this gene family has not been explored in sweet potato. In this study, we identified 14, 15, and 14 JAZs in cultivated hexaploid sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas, 2n = 6x = 90), and its two diploid relatives Ipomoea trifida (2n = 2x = 30) and Ipomoea triloba (2n = 2x = 30), respectively. These JAZs were divided into five subgroups according to their phylogenetic relationships with Arabidopsis. The protein physiological properties, chromosome localization, phylogenetic relationship, gene structure, promoter cis-elements, protein interaction network, and expression pattern of these 43 JAZs were systematically investigated. The results suggested that there was a differentiation between homologous JAZs, and each JAZ gene played different vital roles in growth and development, hormone crosstalk, and abiotic stress response between sweet potato and its two diploid relatives. Our work provided comprehensive comparison and understanding of the JAZ genes in sweet potato and its two diploid relatives, supplied a theoretical foundation for their functional study, and further facilitated the molecular breeding of sweet potato.


Assuntos
Ciclopentanos/metabolismo , Ipomoea batatas/genética , Oxilipinas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas Repressoras/genética , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Genoma de Planta/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Ipomoea batatas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Filogenia , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(17)2021 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34502298

RESUMO

Auxin response factors (ARFs) are a family of transcription factors that play an important role of auxin regulation through their binding with auxin response elements. ARF genes are represented by a large multigene family in plants; however, to our knowledge, the ARF gene family has not been well studied and characterized in sweet potatoes. In this study, a total of 25 ARF genes were identified in Ipomea trifida. The identified ItrARF genes' conserved motifs, chromosomal locations, phylogenetic relationships, and their protein characteristics were systemically investigated using different bioinformatics tools. The expression patterns of ItfARF genes were analyzed within the storage roots and normal roots at an early stage of development. ItfARF16b and ItfARF16c were both highly expressed in the storage root, with minimal to no expression in the normal root. ItfARF6a and ItfARF10a exhibited higher expression in the normal root but not in the storage root. Subsequently, ItfARF1a, ItfARF2b, ItfARF3a, ItfARF6b, ItfARF8a, ItfARF8b, and ItfARF10b were expressed in both root types with moderate to high expression for each. All ten of these ARF genes and their prominent expression signify their importance within the development of each respective root type. This study provides comprehensive information regarding the ARF family in sweet potatoes, which will be useful for future research to discover further functional verification of these ItfARF genes.


Assuntos
Fatores de Ribosilação do ADP/metabolismo , Cromossomos de Plantas/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genoma de Planta , Ipomoea batatas/metabolismo , Família Multigênica , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Fatores de Ribosilação do ADP/genética , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Ipomoea batatas/genética , Ipomoea batatas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas de Plantas/genética
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(9)2021 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34062942

RESUMO

A field experiment was established to study sweet potato growth, starch dynamic accumulation, key enzymes and gene transcription in the sucrose-to-starch conversion and their relationships under six K2O rates using Ningzishu 1 (sensitive to low-K) and Xushu 32 (tolerant to low-K). The results indicated that K application significantly improved the biomass accumulation of plant and storage root, although treatments at high levels of K, i.e., 300-375 kg K2O ha-1, significantly decreased plant biomass and storage root yield. Compared with the no-K treatment, K application enhanced the biomass accumulation of plant and storage root by 3-47% and 13-45%, respectively, through promoting the biomass accumulation rate. Additionally, K application also enhanced the photosynthetic capacity of sweet potato. In this study, low stomatal conductance and net photosynthetic rate (Pn) accompanied with decreased intercellular CO2 concentration were observed in the no-K treatment at 35 DAT, indicating that Pn was reduced mainly due to stomatal limitation; at 55 DAT, reduced Pn in the no-K treatment was caused by non-stomatal factors. Compared with the no-K treatment, the content of sucrose, amylose and amylopectin decreased by 9-34%, 9-23% and 6-19%, respectively, but starch accumulation increased by 11-21% under K supply. The activities of sucrose synthetase (SuSy), adenosine-diphosphate-glucose pyrophosphorylase (AGPase), starch synthase (SSS) and the transcription of Susy, AGP, SSS34 and SSS67 were enhanced by K application and had positive relationships with starch accumulation. Therefore, K application promoted starch accumulation and storage root yield through regulating the activities and genes transcription of SuSy, AGPase and SSS in the sucrose-to-starch conversion.


Assuntos
Glucose-1-Fosfato Adenililtransferase/genética , Glucosiltransferases/genética , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Potássio/farmacologia , Amilopectina/genética , Amilose/genética , Fertilização/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Ipomoea batatas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ipomoea batatas/metabolismo , Fotossíntese/efeitos dos fármacos , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Amido/metabolismo , Sacarose/metabolismo
4.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0247643, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33852587

RESUMO

Most scholars of the subject consider that a pre-Columbian transpacific transfer accounts for the historical role of American sweet potato Ipomoea batatas as the kumara staple of Indigenous New Zealand/Aotearoa Maori in cooler southwestern Polynesia. Archaeologists have recorded evidence of ancient Polynesian I. batatas cultivation from warmer parts of generally temperate-climate Aotearoa, while assuming that the archipelago's traditional Murihiku region in southern South Island/Te Waipounamu was too cold to grow and store live Polynesian crops, including relatively hardy kumara. However, archaeological pits in the form of seasonal Maori kumara stores (rua kumara) have been discovered unexpectedly at Purakaunui on eastern Murihuku's Otago coast, over 200 km south of the current Polynesian limit of record for premodern I. batatas production. Secure pit deposits that incorporate starch granules with I. batatas characteristics are radiocarbon-dated within the decadal range 1430-1460 CE at 95% probability in a Bayesian age model, about 150 years after Polynesians first settled Te Waipounamu. These archaeological data become relevant to a body of Maori oral history accounts and traditional knowledge (matauranga) concerning southern kumara, incorporating names, memories, landscape features and seemingly enigmatic references to an ancient Murihiku crop presence. Selected components of this lore are interpreted through comparative exegesis for correlation with archaeological science results in testable models of change. In a transfer and adaptation model, crop stores if not seasonal production technologies also were introduced from a warmer, agricultural Aotearoa region into dune microclimates of 15th-century coastal Otago to mitigate megafaunal loss, and perhaps to support Polynesia's southernmost residential chiefdom in its earliest phase. A crop loss model proposes that cooler seasonal temperatures of the post-1450 Little Ice Age and (or) political change constrained kumara supply and storage options in Murihiku. The loss model allows for the disappearance of kumara largely, but not entirely, as a traditional Otago crop presence in Maori social memory.


Assuntos
Agricultura/história , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ipomoea batatas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Arqueologia , Teorema de Bayes , Ecossistema , História do Século XV , Humanos , Nova Zelândia , Polinésia
5.
PLoS One ; 16(1): e0245266, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33481815

RESUMO

Leafy sweet potato is rich in total phenolics (TP) which play key roles in health protection, the chlorogenic acid (CGA) constitutes the major components of phenolic compounds in leafy sweet potato. Unfortunately, the mechanism of CGA biosynthesis in leafy sweet potato is unclear. To dissect the mechanisms of CGA biosynthesis, we performed transcriptome, small RNA (sRNA) and degradome sequencing of one low-CGA content and one high-CGA content genotype at two stages. A total of 2,333 common differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified, and the enriched DEGs were related to photosynthesis, starch and sucrose metabolism and phenylpropanoid biosynthesis. The functional genes, such as CCR, CCoAOMT and HCT in the CGA biosynthetic pathway were down-regulated, indicating that the way to lignin was altered, and two possible CGA biosynthetic routes were hypothesized. A total of 38 DE miRNAs were identified, and 1,799 targets were predicated for 38 DE miRNAs by using in silico approaches. The target genes were enriched in lignin and phenylpropanoid catabolic processes. Transcription factors (TFs) such as apetala2/ethylene response factor (AP2/ERF) and Squamosa promoter binding protein-like (SPL) predicated in silico were validated by degradome sequencing. Association analysis of the DE miRNAs and transcriptome datasets identified that miR156 family negatively targeted AP2/ERF and SPL. Six mRNAs and six miRNAs were validated by qRT-PCR, and the results showed that the expression levels of the mRNAs and miRNAs were consistent with the sequencing data. This study established comprehensive functional genomic resources for the CGA biosynthesis, and provided insights into the molecular mechanisms involving in this process. The results also enabled the first perceptions of the regulatory roles of mRNAs and miRNAs, and offered candidate genes for leafy sweet potato improvements.


Assuntos
Ácido Clorogênico/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Ipomoea batatas/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Pequeno RNA não Traduzido/genética , Transcriptoma , Ipomoea batatas/genética , Ipomoea batatas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , MicroRNAs/genética , Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , RNA de Plantas/análise , RNA de Plantas/genética
6.
J Sci Food Agric ; 101(7): 2961-2973, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33170508

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There are many scientific studies on performance of different sweet potato varieties under water deficits, however, no study on Koganesengan and Beniazuma varieties has been found in the literature. This study was aimed to investigate the effects of water deficit levels (control-WD0 , low-WD25 , medium-WD50 and high-WD75 water deficit levels) on growth, yield and quality parameters, water use efficiency and water-yield response factor values of these sweet potato varieties under drip irrigation. RESULTS: The seasonal water consumptions of varieties were calculated as 808 and 826 mm, respectively, under no water deficit. All of the growth (except average tuber length for Koganesengan) and yield parameters of both varieties were significantly affected by water deficit treatments. However, most of the quality parameters including total dry mater, starch, ß-carotene, ascorbic acid, protein, saccharose and glucose contents for both varieties; total ash, crude fiber and phenolic matter content for Beniazuma; and fructose content and antioxidant activity for Koganesengan variety had no response to water deficits at any level. Under high deficit and control, fresh and dry vine, tuber and total yields ranged from 4.80 to 14.54, 0.85 to 2.35, 1.59 to 10.97 and 6.40 to 25.52 t ha-1 for Koganesengan and 6.05 to 27.88, 0.99 to 4.09, 2.17 to 22.91 and 8.22 to 50.79 t ha-1 for Beniazuma, respectively. CONCLUSION: The results showed that Beniazuma variety is proportionally more sensitive to water deficit than Koganesengan. It can be concluded that both varieties can be grown in Mediterranean conditions by providing optimum irrigation applications. © 2020 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Irrigação Agrícola/métodos , Ipomoea batatas/metabolismo , Tubérculos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Água/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/análise , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Ácido Ascórbico/análise , Ácido Ascórbico/metabolismo , Ipomoea batatas/química , Ipomoea batatas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fenóis/análise , Fenóis/metabolismo , Tubérculos/química , Tubérculos/metabolismo , Amido/análise , Amido/metabolismo
7.
Gene ; 768: 145311, 2021 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33220344

RESUMO

The Shaker K+ channel family plays a vital role in potassium absorption and stress resistance in plants. However little information on the genes family is available about sweetpotato. In the present study, eleven sweetpotato Shaker K+ channel genes were identified and classified into five groups based on phylogenetic relationships, conserved motifs, and gene structure analyses. Based on synteny analysis, four duplicated gene pairs were identified, derived from both ancient and recent duplication, whereas only one resulted from tandem duplication events. Different expression pattern of Shaker K+ channel genes in roots of Xu32 and NZ1 resulted in different K+ deficiency tolerances, suggesting there is different mechanism of K+ uptake in sweetpotato cultivars with different K+-tolerance levels. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis revealed that the shaker K+ channel genes responded to drought and high salt stresses. Higher K+ influx under normal condition and lower K+ efflux under K+ deficiency stress were observed in IbAKT1 overexpressing transgenic roots than in adventitious roots, which indicated that IbAKT1 may play an important role in the regulation of K+ deficiency tolerance in sweetpotato. This is the first genome-wide analysis of Shaker K+ channel genes and the first functional analysis of IbAKT1 in sweetpotato. Our results provide valuable information on the gene structure, evolution, expression and functions of the Shaker K+ channel gene family in sweetpotato.


Assuntos
Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Ipomoea batatas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Superfamília Shaker de Canais de Potássio/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma/métodos , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Secas , Evolução Molecular , Duplicação Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Ipomoea batatas/genética , Ipomoea batatas/metabolismo , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Estresse Salino , Superfamília Shaker de Canais de Potássio/metabolismo , Sintenia
8.
Plant Cell Rep ; 40(2): 339-350, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33231729

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: Piriformospora indica symbiosis promoted the growth and photosynthesis, and simultaneously enhanced the resistance against insect herbivory by regulating sporamin-dependent defense in sweet potato. Piriformospora indica (P. indica), a versatile endophytic fungus, promotes the growth and confers resistance against multiple stresses by root colonization in plant hosts. In this study, the effects of P. indica colonization on the growth, physiological change, and herbivore resistance of leaf-vegetable sweet potato cultivar were investigated. P. indica symbiosis significantly improved the biomass in both above- and under-ground parts of sweet potato plants. In comparison with the non-colonized plants, the content of photosynthetic pigments and the efficiency of photosynthesis were increased in P. indica-colonized sweet potato plants. Further investigation showed that the activity of catalase was enhanced in both leaves and roots of sweet potato plants after colonization, but ascorbate peroxidase, peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase were not enhanced. Furthermore, the interaction between P. indica and sweet potato plants also showed the biological function in jasmonic acid (JA)-mediated defense. The plants colonized by P. indica had greatly increased JA accumulation and defense gene expressions, including IbNAC1, IbbHLH3, IbpreproHypSys, and sporamin, leading to elevated trypsin inhibitory activity, which was consistent with a reduced Spodoptera litura performance when larvae fed on the leaves of P. indica-colonized sweet potato plants. The root symbiosis of P. indica is helpful for the plant promoting growth and development and has a strong function as resistance inducers against herbivore attack in sweet potato cultivation by regulating sporamin-dependent defense.


Assuntos
Basidiomycota/fisiologia , Ciclopentanos/metabolismo , Ipomoea batatas/microbiologia , Oxilipinas/metabolismo , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/metabolismo , Spodoptera/fisiologia , Animais , Endófitos , Herbivoria , Ipomoea batatas/genética , Ipomoea batatas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ipomoea batatas/fisiologia , Fotossíntese , Doenças das Plantas/parasitologia , Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Folhas de Planta/microbiologia , Folhas de Planta/fisiologia , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia , Raízes de Plantas/fisiologia , Estresse Fisiológico , Simbiose
9.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 14674, 2020 09 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32895398

RESUMO

Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) is one of the ten most important staple crops and provides a livelihood for many people around the globe. To adapt to ever-changing circumstances farmers and breeders need to have access to a broad diversity of germplasm. This study focuses on the development of a cryopreservation protocol that allows the long term storage of different sweet potato cultivars. For this, a droplet vitrification protocol was optimized, comparing several parameters; preculture method (0.3 M sucrose vs no preculture); meristem position (axillary vs apical); plant age (3 to 9 weeks); regeneration medium (MS + 2.22 µM BA, Hirai and MS); and length of loading solution treatment (20 to 360 min). Two months after cryopreservation, the regeneration rates of the meristems were compared, which resulted in significant differences for the preculture method, meristem position and loading solution. With these new insights an optimized droplet vitrification protocol was developed with the following parameters: use of 3-9 week old axillary meristems, no preculture phase, 20 min LS treatment, 30 min PVS2 treatment, exposure to liquid nitrogen by droplet vitrification, warming treatment in RS for 15 min, 1 day 0.3 M sucrose recuperation culture, 1 month MS + 2.22 µM BA followed by 1 month of MS cultures. This protocol was subsequently tested on 10 representative accessions resulting in a post cryopreservation regeneration rate of more than 40% for 70% of the tested cultivars, showing that this protocol could be implemented for a large portion of existing sweet potato collections.


Assuntos
Criopreservação/métodos , Ipomoea batatas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Meristema/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Vitrificação , Criopreservação/economia , Crioprotetores/química , Fatores de Tempo
10.
J Plant Physiol ; 254: 153282, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32992132

RESUMO

Sweetpotato has special texture characteristics, which directly affect the eating quality and post-production processing quality of sweetpotato. To investigate the texture change mechanism of sweetpotato during the growth process, this study selected two varieties with significant differences in texture from 35 varieties. The storage roots were sampled at 50, 80, 110, and 140 days after planting. Measure the texture parameters, the cell wall composition content, cell wall-related enzyme activities and the expression of expansin genes of sweetpotato storage roots. The results show that the hardness, adhesiveness and chewiness parameters of 'Yushu No 10' were significantly lower than those of 'Mianfen No 1', they have significantly different texture properties. In terms of cell wall composition, the soluble pectin content of 'Yushu No 10' was more than twice that of 'Mianfen No 1', whereas the insoluble pectin content was lower than that of 'Mianfen No 1', with the cellulose content of 'Yushu No 10' being significantly higher than that of 'Mianfen No 1'. In terms of cell wall-related enzymes, 'Yushu No 10' hardness gumminess and chewiness had a significant correlation with hemicellulose activity, and 'Mianfen No 1' had insignificant correlation with four cell wall-related enzymes. Expansin genes were also expressed differently during the various stages of root tubers expansin. The expressions of IbEXP1, IbEXP2 and IbEXPL1 were significantly correlated with the changes in cell wall component content, and were related to the qualitative structure changes. The research conclusion shows that the texture changes during the growth of sweetpotato are related to cell wall composition, cell wall-related enzyme activity changes, and the expression of expansin genes. This study provides theoretical guidance for in-depth study of texture changes of sweetpotato, post-harvest processing and utilization and quality improvement of storage roots.


Assuntos
Parede Celular/metabolismo , Ipomoea batatas/metabolismo , Tubérculos/metabolismo , Polissacarídeos/metabolismo , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Ipomoea batatas/enzimologia , Ipomoea batatas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Tubérculos/enzimologia , Tubérculos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Transcriptoma
11.
J Plant Physiol ; 253: 153265, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32947245

RESUMO

This study investigated the alleviation effects of spraying phytohormones on the physiological characteristics and yield of sweet potato under drought stress during the early vine development and storage root bulking stage, respectively. The endogenous hormone contents, photosynthetic fluorescence indexes, photosynthetic products transfer allocation (based on 13C labeling method), and yield of sweet potato were studied by spraying water, 6-benzylaminopurine (6-BA), abscisic acid (ABA), and combined with the two exogenous hormones under artificial dry shed and dry pond. Results indicated that the yield was increased by spraying 6-BA or ABA separately in comparison with the control treatment under drought stress, and the alleviation effects of spraying 6-BA at the early stage were better than at the storage root bulking stage, while spraying ABA at the storage root bulking stage was better than at the early stage. The sweet potato yield increased when sprayed with 6-BA, especially at the early vine development stage, and sweet potato yield was further enhanced by the addition of ABA. When sprayed together, exogenous 6-BA and ABA increased plant shoot and storage root biomass, as well as leaf area and yield, at both stages. The combination of exogenous 6-BA and ABA also increased shoot 13C accumulation at the early vine development stage and storage root 13C accumulation at the storage root bulking stage, in comparison with 6-BA or ABA alone under drought stress. Spraying exogenous hormones under drought stress increased the endogenous hormone contents, enhanced carbon metabolism enzyme activities, improved the photosynthetic fluorescence characteristics of leaves, and regulated the source-sink balance, all of which alleviated the yield reduction caused by drought stress. Application of the combination of 6-AB and ABA yielded better results than that of the 6-BA or ABA alone.


Assuntos
Ácido Abscísico/farmacologia , Compostos de Benzil/farmacologia , Ipomoea batatas/efeitos dos fármacos , Fotossíntese/efeitos dos fármacos , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/farmacologia , Purinas/farmacologia , Biomassa , Secas , Ipomoea batatas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ipomoea batatas/fisiologia , Folhas de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Folhas de Planta/fisiologia , Brotos de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Brotos de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Brotos de Planta/fisiologia , Estresse Fisiológico , Água
12.
J Plant Physiol ; 254: 153274, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32961477

RESUMO

Vine cuttings with six to eight unfolded leaves are utilized as is conventional in sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.) seedling production. However, most vine cuttings wilt after transplanting into the field. Moreover, few researchers have examined the influence of photon flux density (PFD) provided by white or white plus red light-emitting diodes (LEDs) on sweetpotato plantlets. In this study, hydroponic sweetpotato (cv. Beniharuka) seedlings using single-node cutting were grown under 20 combinations of five levels of PFDs of 150, 200, 250, 300, and 350 µmol m-2 d-1 and four light qualities: white LEDs with a red light to blue light ratio (R:B ratio) of 0.9, white plus red LEDs with R:B ratios of 1.2 and 2.2, respectively, and fluorescent lamp with an R:B ratio of 1.8 as control, for 20 days under a controlled enviroment. Results showed that the number of newly developed leaves on hydroponic sweetpotato seedlings increased with time in a quadratic function, regardless of light quality. Fluorescent lamps led to greater numbers of new leaves on hydroponic sweetpotato seedlings compared with those grown under LEDs. Plant height, leaf area, and fresh and dry weights increased initially and then decreased with increasing daily light integral (DLI) in quadratic funcitons with a highest value under a PFD of 250 µmol m-2 d-1. However, no significant differences were observed in fresh and dry weights of hydroponic sweetpotato seedlings grown under PFDs of 200 and 250 µmol m-2 s-1. The quantum yield of photosystem II (ФPSII) decreased linearly as DLI increased from 8.6-20.2 mol m-2 d-1. Power consumptions based on fresh and dry weights were lowest in sweetpotato seedlings grown under a PFD of 200 µmol m-2 s-1 provided by white LEDs with an R:B ratio of 0.9. White LEDs also showed higher light energy use efficiency than white plus red LEDs. In summary, it is recommended that a PFD of 200 µmol m-2 s-1 with DLI at 11.5 mol m-2 d-1 provided by white LEDs with an R:B ratio of 0.9 is suitable for hydroponic sweetpotato (cv. Beniharuka) seedling production under a controlled environment.


Assuntos
Ipomoea batatas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Metabolismo Energético/efeitos da radiação , Hidroponia , Ipomoea batatas/metabolismo , Ipomoea batatas/efeitos da radiação , Luz , Fotossíntese , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/efeitos da radiação , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plântula/metabolismo , Plântula/efeitos da radiação
13.
Theor Appl Genet ; 133(12): 3345-3363, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32876753

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: Polypoid crop breeders can balance resources between density and sequencing depth, dosage information and fewer highly informative SNPs recommended, non-additive models and QTL advantages on prediction dependent on trait architecture. The autopolyploid nature of potato and sweetpotato ensures a wide range of meiotic configurations and linkage phases leading to complex gene-action and pose problems in genotype data quality and genomic selection analyses. We used a 315-progeny biparental F1 population of hexaploid sweetpotato and a diversity panel of 380 tetraploid potato, genotyped using different platforms to answer the following questions: (i) do polyploid crop breeders need to invest more for additional sequencing depth? (ii) how many markers are required to make selection decisions? (iii) does considering non-additive genetic effects improve predictive ability (PA)? (iv) does considering dosage or quantitative trait loci (QTL) offer significant improvement to PA? Our results show that only a small number of highly informative single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs; ≤ 1000) are adequate for prediction in the type of populations we analyzed. We also show that considering dosage information and models considering only additive effects had the best PA for most traits, while the comparative advantage of considering non-additive genetic effects and including known QTL in the predictive model depended on trait architecture. We conclude that genomic selection can help accelerate the rate of genetic gains in potato and sweetpotato. However, application of genomic selection should be considered as part of optimizing the entire breeding program. Additionally, since the predictions in the current study are based on single populations, further studies on the effects of haplotype structure and inheritance on PA should be studied in actual multi-generation breeding populations.


Assuntos
Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Genótipo , Ipomoea batatas/genética , Melhoramento Vegetal , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Poliploidia , Seleção Genética , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ipomoea batatas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fenótipo , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Análise de Sequência de DNA
14.
J Plant Physiol ; 252: 153239, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32763651

RESUMO

Leaf growth and photosynthetic characteristics of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas var. Biru Putih) grown under different light quantities were studied in a tropical greenhouse. The stem cuttings of I. batataswith adventitious roots were grown hydroponically under (1) only natural sunlight (SL); (2) SL with supplemental LED at a PPFD of 150 µmol m-2 s-1 (SL + L-LED); and (3) SL with supplemental LED at a PPFD of 300 µmol m-2 s-1 (SL + H-LED). One week after emergence, all leaves had similar area and water content. However, leaf fresh weight and dry weight were significantly higher in plants grown under SL+L-LED and SL + H-LED than under SL due to their thicker leaves reflected by the lower specific leaf area. Plants grown under SL had significantly lower concentrations of total chlorophyll (Chl) and total carotenoids (Car) but higher Chl a/b ratio than under SL + L-LED and SL + H-LED. However, all plants had similar Chl/Car ratios. Although midday Fv/Fm ratio was the lowest in leaves grown under SL+ H-LED followed by SL + L-LED and SL, predawn Fv/Fm ratios of all leaves were higher than 0.8. Increasing growth irradiance with supplemental LED resulted in higher electron transport rate and photochemical quenching but lower non-photochemical quenching compared to those of plants grown under SL. Measured under their respective growth irradiance in the greenhouse, attached leaves grown under SL + L-LED and SL+H-LED had significantly higher photosynthetic CO2 assimilation rate and stomatal conductance than under SL. However, measuring the detached leaves at 25 °C in the laboratory, there were no significant differences in PS II and Cyt b6f concentrations although light- and CO2-statured photosynthetic O2 evolution rates were slightly higher in leaves grown under SL+ H-LED than under SL. Impacts of supplemental LED on leaf growth and photosynthetic characteristics were discussed.


Assuntos
Ipomoea batatas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ipomoea batatas/metabolismo , Iluminação , Fotossíntese , Luz Solar , Ipomoea batatas/efeitos da radiação , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/efeitos da radiação
15.
Molecules ; 25(15)2020 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32751600

RESUMO

The aim of the study was the qualitative and quantitative analysis of the bioactive components present in the leaves of 9 sweet potato cultivars grown in the moderate climate in Poland, which were harvested at different growth stages according to the BBCH (Biologische Bundesanstalt, Bundessortenamt und Chemische Industrie) scale (14, 51, 89). It was found that sweet potato leaves contained 7 polyphenolic compounds, including 5 chlorogenic acids-neochlorogenic acid (5-CQA), chlorogenic acid (3-CQA), 4-cryptochlorogenic acid (4-CQA), 34-di-O-caffeoylqunic acid (3,4-CQA), 3,5-di-O-caffeoylqunic acid (3,5-CQA)-and 2 flavonoids, quercetin-3-O-galactoside (Q-3-GA) and quercetin-3-O-glucoside (Q-3-GL). Their content depended on the genotype of the examined cultivars and on the stage of leaf development. The mean content of the identified polyphenolic compounds in the examined cultivars ranged from 148.2 to 14.038.6 mg/100 g-1 DM for the leaves harvested at growth stage 14 according to the BBCH scale. In the case of leaves harvested at BBCH stage 51, the concentration of polyphenolic compounds ranged from 144.76 to 5026.8 mg/100 g-1 DM and at BBCH stage 89 from 4078.1 to 11.183.5 mg/100 g-1 DM. The leaves of the Carmen Rubin cultivar collected at stage 14 contained the highest amount of polyphenolic compounds, while Okinava leaves had the highest amount of these compounds at stage 51. The highest content of polyphenolic compounds in leaves at BBCH growth stage 89 was found in the Radiosa variety. The highest concentration levels were found for 3-CQA at all stages of leaf development. Significant correlations between polyphenol content and antioxidant activity measured by 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), and ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP) were found. The results of this experiment revealed that the growth stages and genetic properties of cultivars have a very significant influence on the content of phenolic acids and flavonols in sweet potato leaves. The results are innovative and can have a practical application, as the knowledge of the content of the substances under study makes it possible to determine the optimal management practice of sweet potato leaf harvest in order to obtain more top-quality raw material.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/análise , Flavonóis/metabolismo , Hidroxibenzoatos/metabolismo , Ipomoea batatas/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Europa (Continente) , Flavonóis/análise , Hidroxibenzoatos/análise , Ipomoea batatas/genética , Ipomoea batatas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo
16.
J Plant Physiol ; 253: 153267, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32858442

RESUMO

Leaf-vegetable sweetpotato is an important cash crop that is of high nutritional value. Cuttage is the most convenient method for large-scale propagation. However, the rate and number of adventitious roots (ARs) formation vary significantly among different cultivar cuttings. In this study, two varieties, NC1 and FC13-14, were used to compare the rate of ARs formation. The cumulative results of root morphology showed that in NC1 total root length, total root surface area, total root volume, and root tips were 3.7, 3.5, 3.2, and 2.4 times greater, respectively, than those of FC13-14 at 7 d, indicating that the ARs formation and growth were faster in NC1. In addition, the biomass of aboveground and underground parts in NC1 was 3.6 and 1.3 times more, respectively, than that of FC13-14 at 7 d after cutting, suggesting that the rapid ARs formation rate contributed to the growth and yield of stems and leaves. The analysis of plant water potential showed that NC1 exhibiting higher water potential prevented leaf wilting. Gene expression levels of 22 root-related genes revealed differential expression during different developmental periods. Interestingly, YUCCA family genes had elevated transcript abundance at 0, 12, 24, and 36 h. Moreover, analysis of hormones including indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), ethylene (ETH), abscisic acid (ABA), brassinolide (BR), jasmonic acid (JA), gibberellin (GA), and cytokinin (CTK) revealed varied contents during different developmental stages. Cumulative evidence demonstrated that gene expression profiles and hormone content of IAA, ETH, and BR were significantly higher in NC1 roots than in FC13-14 roots following all time periods, while the amount of JA increased and was higher in FC13-14 than in NC1 from 0 to 72 h. This indicates that IAA, BR, and ETH play positive roles and JA has a negative effect on ARs formation. Moreover, ETH takes effect earlier than BR, while IAA and JA have functions throughout the whole process. The findings above were validated by the application of exogenous hormones and hormone synthesis inhibitors. This study reveals the preliminary regulation of ARs formation in leaf-vegetable sweetpotato cuttings and thus contributes to further clarification of the molecular mechanism of multiple hormone interactions.


Assuntos
Ipomoea batatas/fisiologia , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/metabolismo , Ácido Abscísico/metabolismo , Ciclopentanos/metabolismo , Citocininas/metabolismo , Etilenos/metabolismo , Giberelinas/metabolismo , Ipomoea batatas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Oxilipinas/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Folhas de Planta/fisiologia , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raízes de Plantas/fisiologia , Verduras
17.
J Plant Physiol ; 251: 153224, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32634748

RESUMO

Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) is a food consumed worldwide, an industrial raw material and new energy crop. The storage root is the most economical part of the crop. However, the mechanism of storage root initiation and development is still unclear. In this study, conserved and novel miRNAs during storage root development were identified by high-throughput sequencing technology by constructing small RNA libraries from sweet potato fibrous roots (F) and storage roots at four different developmental stages (storage roots with different diameters: 1 cm, D1; 3 cm, D3; 5 cm, D5 and 10 cm, D10). A total of 61 known miRNAs and 471 novel miRNAs were identified. In addition, 145 differentially expressed miRNAs were identified in the F library compared with the four storage root libraries, with 30 known miRNAs and 115 novel miRNAs. Moreover, the targets of the differentially expressed miRNAs were predicted and their network was further investigated by GO analysis using our previous transcriptome data. The GO analysis revealed that antioxidant activity and binding process were the most enriched terms of the target genes. The secondary structure and expression of six candidate miRNAs including three conserved miRNAs and three novel miRNAs were investigated and their predicted targets were validated by qRT-PCR. The results showed that the expression levels of the miRNAs were all consistent with the sequencing data. Most of the miRNAs and their corresponding targets had obvious negative correlations. This study contributed to elucidating the potential miRNA mediated regulatory mechanism of storage root development in sweet potato. The specific differentially expressed miRNAs in sweet potato storage roots can be used to breed high-yield sweet potatoes and other tuberous root crops.


Assuntos
Ipomoea batatas/fisiologia , MicroRNAs/análise , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , RNA de Plantas/análise , Sequência de Bases , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Ipomoea batatas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo
18.
J Sci Food Agric ; 100(11): 4132-4138, 2020 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32356566

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The weakest link in the whole cycle of chemical quality testing of sweet potato tubers for both food and feed purposes, where the main determinant of their nutritional value is the level of protein and its nutritional value, is the effect of nitrogen fertilization. Therefore, the aim of the study was to determine the effect of differentiated nitrogen fertilization on protein content and its amino acid composition, biological value, and the possibility of modification of these features. RESULTS: Changes in total nitrogen content in sweet potato tubers were accompanied by changes in amino acid composition of protein. The consequence of intensified nitrogen fertilization was a decrease in the sum of exogenous amino acids and sum of endogenous amino acids. The amino acid limiting the biological value of sweet potato protein was mainly lysine, followed by arginine and methionine. The ratio of essential to total amino acids indicated high usefulness of sweet potato tubers in human nutrition and their high nutritional value. CONCLUSION: The consequence of nitrogen fertilization was a decrease in the sum of exogenous amino acids and the sum of endogenous amino acids. Fertilization of sweet potato with a nitrogen dose of 100 kg ha-1 , due to the content of crude and true protein, turned out to be beneficial and sufficient under the conditions in central-eastern Europe. © 2020 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos/análise , Fertilizantes/análise , Ipomoea batatas/metabolismo , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Tubérculos/química , Europa (Continente) , Ipomoea batatas/química , Ipomoea batatas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Nitrogênio/análise , Valor Nutritivo , Tubérculos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Tubérculos/metabolismo
19.
BMC Plant Biol ; 20(1): 157, 2020 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32293270

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To maintain sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam) growth and yield, sucrose must be transported from the leaves to the roots. Sucrose transporters or carriers (SUTs or SUCs) transport sucrose and are involved in plant growth and response to abiotic stress. However, the mechanisms of SUTs in sweetpotato abiotic stress resistance remains to be determined. RESULTS: In the present study, we cloned a novel IbSUT4 gene; the protein encoded by this gene is localized in the tonoplast and plasma membrane. The plant growth was promoted in the IbSUT4 transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana lines, with increased expression of AtFT, a regulator of flowering time in plants. Over-expression of IbSUT4 in Arabidopsis thaliana resulted in higher sucrose content in the roots and lower sucrose content in the leaves, as compared to the wild-type (WT) plants, leading to improved stress tolerance during seedling growth. Moreover, we systematically analyzed the mechanisms of IbSUT4 in response to abiotic stress. The results suggest that the ABRE-motif was localized in the IbSUT4 promoter region, and the expression of the ABA signaling pathway genes (i.e., ABF2, ABF4, SnRK2.2, SnRK2.3, and PYL8/RCAR3) were induced, and the expression of ABI1 was inhibited. CONCLUSIONS: Our dates provide evidence that IbSUT4 is not only involved in plant growth but also is an important positive regulator in plant stress tolerance through the ABF-dependent ABA signaling pathway.


Assuntos
Genes de Plantas/fisiologia , Ipomoea batatas , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/fisiologia , Proteínas de Plantas/fisiologia , Estresse Fisiológico , Sacarose/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Arabidopsis/fisiologia , Transporte Biológico , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Ipomoea batatas/genética , Ipomoea batatas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ipomoea batatas/fisiologia , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/classificação , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/genética , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/classificação , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/fisiologia , Transdução de Sinais/genética
20.
Genes Genomics ; 42(5): 581-596, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32240514

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sweet potato is easily propagated by cuttings. But the molecular biological mechanism of adventitious root formation are not yet clear. OBJECTIVE: To understand the molecular mechanisms of adventitious root formation from stem cuttings in sweet potato. METHODS: RNA-seq analysis was performed using un-rooted stem (0 day) and rooted stem (3 days). Gene Ontology (GO) enrichment analysis, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway, comparison with Arabidopsis transcription factors (TFs) of DEGs were conducted to investigate the characteristics of genes and TFs involved in root formation. In addition, qRT-PCR analysis using roots at 0, 3, 6, 9, and 12 days after planting was performed to confirm RNA-seq reliability and related genes expression. RESULTS: 42,459 representative transcripts and 2092 DEGs were obtained through the RNA-seq analysis. The DEGs indicated the GO terms related to the single-organism metabolic process and cell periphery, and involved in the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, and phenylpropanoid biosynthesis in KEGG pathways. The comparison with Arabidopsis thaliana TF database showed that 3 TFs (WRKY, NAC, bHLH) involved in root formation of sweet potato. qRT-PCR analysis, which was conducted to confirm the reliability of RNA-seq analysis, indicated that some metabolisms including oxidative stress and wounding, transport, hormone may be involved in adventitious root formation. CONCLUSIONS: The detected genes related to secondary metabolism, some hormone (auxin, gibberellin), transports, etc. and 3 TFs (WRKY, NAC, bHLH) may have functions in adventitious roots formation. This results provide valuable resources for future research on the adventitious root formation of sweet potato.


Assuntos
Ipomoea batatas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Transcriptoma , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Giberelinas/metabolismo , Ácidos Indolacéticos/metabolismo , Ipomoea batatas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Estresse Oxidativo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
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