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1.
BMC Genomics ; 22(1): 748, 2021 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34656106

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In recent years, much attention has been given to AP2/ERF transcription factors because they play indispensable roles in many biological processes, such as plant development and biotic and abiotic stress responses. Although AP2/ERFs have been thoroughly characterised in many plant species, the knowledge about this family in the sweet potato, which is a vital edible and medicinal crop, is still limited. In this study, a comprehensive genome-wide investigation was conducted to characterise the AP2/ERF gene family in the sweet potato. RESULTS: Here, 198 IbAP2/ERF transcription factors were obtained. Phylogenetic analysis classified the members of the IbAP2/ERF family into three groups, namely, ERF (172 members), AP2 (21 members) and RAV (5 members), which was consistent with the analysis of gene structure and conserved protein domains. The evolutionary characteristics of these IbAP2/ERF genes were systematically investigated by analysing chromosome location, conserved protein motifs and gene duplication events, indicating that the expansion of the IbAP2/ERF gene family may have been caused by tandem duplication. Furthermore, the analysis of cis-acting elements in IbAP2/ERF gene promoters implied that these genes may play crucial roles in plant growth, development and stress responses. Additionally, the available RNA-seq data and quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) were used to investigate the expression patterns of IbAP2/ERF genes during sweet potato root development as well as under multiple forms of abiotic stress, and we identified several developmental stage-specific and stress-responsive IbAP2/ERF genes. Furthermore, g59127 was differentially expressed under various stress conditions and was identified as a nuclear protein, which was in line with predicted subcellular localization results. CONCLUSIONS: This study originally revealed the characteristics of the IbAP2/ERF superfamily and provides valuable resources for further evolutionary and functional investigations of IbAP2/ERF genes in the sweet potato.


Assuntos
Ipomoea batatas , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Ipomoea batatas/genética , Ipomoea batatas/metabolismo , Família Multigênica , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
2.
Molecules ; 26(19)2021 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34641353

RESUMO

Volatile compounds are the main chemical species determining the characteristic aroma of food. A procedure based on headspace solid-phase microextraction (HP-SPME) coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was developed to investigate the volatile compounds of sweet potato. The experimental conditions (fiber coating, incubation temperature and time, extraction time) were optimized for the extraction of volatile compounds from sweet potato. The samples incubated at 80 °C for 30 min and extracted at 80 °C by the fiber with a divinylbenzene/carboxen/polydimethylsiloxane (DVB/CAR/PDMS) coating for 30 min gave the most effective extraction of the analytes. The optimized method was applied to study the volatile profile of four sweet potato cultivars (Anna, Jieshu95-16, Ayamursaki, and Shuangzai) with different aroma. In total, 68 compounds were identified and the dominants were aldehydes, followed by alcohols, ketones, and terpenes. Significant differences were observed among the volatile profile of four cultivars. Furthermore, each cultivar was characterized by different compounds with typical flavor. The results substantiated that the optimized HS-SPME GC-MS method could provide an efficient and convenient approach to study the flavor characteristics of sweet potato. This is the basis for studying the key aroma-active compounds and selecting odor-rich accessions, which will help in the targeted improvement of sweet potato flavor in breeding.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Ipomoea batatas/metabolismo , Odorantes/análise , Microextração em Fase Sólida/normas , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/isolamento & purificação , Microextração em Fase Sólida/métodos , Paladar , Temperatura
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(17)2021 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34502298

RESUMO

Auxin response factors (ARFs) are a family of transcription factors that play an important role of auxin regulation through their binding with auxin response elements. ARF genes are represented by a large multigene family in plants; however, to our knowledge, the ARF gene family has not been well studied and characterized in sweet potatoes. In this study, a total of 25 ARF genes were identified in Ipomea trifida. The identified ItrARF genes' conserved motifs, chromosomal locations, phylogenetic relationships, and their protein characteristics were systemically investigated using different bioinformatics tools. The expression patterns of ItfARF genes were analyzed within the storage roots and normal roots at an early stage of development. ItfARF16b and ItfARF16c were both highly expressed in the storage root, with minimal to no expression in the normal root. ItfARF6a and ItfARF10a exhibited higher expression in the normal root but not in the storage root. Subsequently, ItfARF1a, ItfARF2b, ItfARF3a, ItfARF6b, ItfARF8a, ItfARF8b, and ItfARF10b were expressed in both root types with moderate to high expression for each. All ten of these ARF genes and their prominent expression signify their importance within the development of each respective root type. This study provides comprehensive information regarding the ARF family in sweet potatoes, which will be useful for future research to discover further functional verification of these ItfARF genes.


Assuntos
Fatores de Ribosilação do ADP/metabolismo , Cromossomos de Plantas/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genoma de Planta , Ipomoea batatas/metabolismo , Família Multigênica , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Fatores de Ribosilação do ADP/genética , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Ipomoea batatas/genética , Ipomoea batatas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas de Plantas/genética
4.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 167: 410-419, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34411780

RESUMO

Purple-fleshed sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas(L.)Lam.) is rich in anthocyanins. R2R3-type MYB transcription factors(TFs)with EAR motifs inhibiting anthocyanin biosynthesis have been reported, and there is still a lack of information on how mutations in the EAR motifs of MYBs affect anthocyanin accumulation. In this study, we obtained three IbMYB44 TFs by bioinformatics. Among these TFs, IbMYB44.1, IbMYB44.3 with a complete EAR motif and IbMYB44.2 with a single amino acid mutant in the EAR motif caused an amino acid substitution from leucine to valine. RT-qPCR analysis showed that IbMYB44s was expressed at lower levels in the purple-fleshed sweetpotato than in nonpurple-fleshed sweetpotato (P < 0.01). Transient expression assays showed that the inhibitory effect of IbMYB44.1/3 was stronger than IbMYB44.2 in tobacco leaves and red-skinned pears. RT-qPCR analysis further proved that IbMYB44.1/3 significantly inhibited the expression of anthocyanin biosynthesis-related genes compared with IbMYB44.2 in tobacco leaves and red-skinned pears. A dual luciferase reporter assay showed that IbMYB44s cannot directly activate the IbANS promoter, and the result was also verified by yeast one-hybrid (Y1H) experiments. Moreover, we identified the interaction of IbMYB340 with IbMYB44.1, IbMYB44.2 and IbMYB44.3 via yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) assays. Thus, IbMYB44.1/3 could interact with IbMYB340 to negatively regulate anthocyanin biosynthesis. This study enriched the regulatory network of anthocyanins and also provided a theoretical basis for a single amino acid mutant from leucine to valine in the EAR motif of IbMYB44.2 affecting anthocyanin biosynthesis in the purple-fleshed sweetpotato.


Assuntos
Ipomoea batatas , Aminoácidos , Antocianinas , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Ipomoea batatas/genética , Ipomoea batatas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/metabolismo
5.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 16408, 2021 08 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34385537

RESUMO

Anthocyanins are economically valuable phytochemicals of significant relevance to human health. Industrially extracted from multiple fruit and vegetable sources, anthocyanin yield and profiles can vary between sources and growing conditions. In this study, we focused on three purple-fleshed and one orange-fleshed cultivars of sweet potato-a warm-weather, nutritious crop of substantial interest to growers in northern, cooler latitudes-to determine the yield and diversity of anthocyanins and flavonoids. Acidified ethanol extraction of lyophilized roots yielded ~ 800 mg average anthocyanins/100 g dry weight from all three cultivars. UHPLC-DAD-Orbitrap analysis of sweet potato extracts identified 18 high-confidence, mostly acylated peonidin and cyanidin derivatives contributing to > 90% of the total anthocyanin signal. Further assessment of the untargeted Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry data using deep learning and molecular networking identified over 350 flavonoid peaks with variable distributions in different sweet potato cultivars. These results provide a novel insight into anthocyanin content of purple-fleshed sweet potatoes grown in the northern latitudes, and reveal the large structural diversity of anthocyanins and flavonoids in this popular crop.


Assuntos
Antocianinas/metabolismo , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Ipomoea batatas/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Cor , Metabolômica/métodos , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(13)2021 Jun 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34206151

RESUMO

The saccharification of sweetpotato storage roots is a common phenomenon in the cooking process, which determines the edible quality of table use sweetpotato. In the present study, two high saccharified sweetpotato cultivars (Y25, Z13) and one low saccharified cultivar (X27) in two growth periods (S1, S2) were selected as materials to reveal the molecular mechanism of sweetpotato saccharification treated at high temperature by transcriptome sequencing and non-targeted metabolome determination. The results showed that the comprehensive taste score, sweetness, maltose content and starch change of X27 after steaming were significantly lower than those of Y25 and Z13. Through transcriptome sequencing analysis, 1918 and 1520 differentially expressed genes were obtained in the two periods of S1 and S2, respectively. Some saccharification-related transcription factors including MYB families, WRKY families, bHLH families and inhibitors were screened. Metabolic analysis showed that 162 differentially abundant metabolites related to carbohydrate metabolism were significantly enriched in starch and sucrose capitalization pathways. The correlation analysis between transcriptome and metabolome confirmed that the starch and sucrose metabolic pathways were significantly co-annotated, indicating that it is a vitally important metabolic pathway in the process of sweetpotato saccharification. The data obtained in this study can provide valuable resources for follow-up research on sweetpotato saccharification and will provide new insights and theoretical basis for table use sweetpotato breeding in the future.


Assuntos
Metabolismo dos Carboidratos , Temperatura Alta , Ipomoea batatas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Transcriptoma , Manipulação de Alimentos , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Metabolômica , Amido/metabolismo , Sacarose/metabolismo
7.
Physiol Plant ; 173(3): 1090-1104, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34287931

RESUMO

In recent years, sweet potato has been cultivated not only in marginal lands but also in fertile plains in northern China. The fertile nitrogen (N)-rich soil may inhibit storage root formation. Cultivars with different N tolerances and split application of reduced N rates should be considered. To investigate the effects of N on the N utilization, root differentiation, and storage root formation of cultivars with different N tolerances, the cultivars Jishu26 (J26) and Xushu32 (X32) were treated with three N levels supplied by urea: 0 (N0), 200 (N1) and 400 mg kg-1 (N2). With increasing N rates, "X32" absorbed less N in plants and distributed more N to developing storage roots than "J26." The storage root development of "J26" was sensitive to both N1 and N2, while that of "X32" was only sensitive to N2. High N nutrition upregulated the expression of certain genes during storage root formation, such as PAL, CHI, F3H, C4 H, 4CL, CAD, α-amylase, and ß-amylase. Under N1 and N2, "X32" led to an increased sugar supply in sink organs and downregulated the expression of genes related to lignin and flavonoid synthesis, which promoted the C flux toward starch metabolism, thus reducing lignification and promoting starch accumulation during storage root formation. These results provide evidence for the effects of N on the C distribution in different metabolic pathways by regulating the expression of related key genes. N-tolerant cultivars are suitable in fertile plain areas because of the earlier formation of storage roots under high N conditions.


Assuntos
Ipomoea batatas , Metabolismo dos Carboidratos , Ipomoea batatas/metabolismo , Nitrogênio , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Amido/metabolismo
8.
Molecules ; 26(10)2021 May 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34067782

RESUMO

Increasing urbanization in developing countries has resulted in busier lifestyles, accompanied by consumption of fast foods. The consequence is an increased prevalence in noncommunicable diseases (NCDs). Food-based approaches would be cheaper and more sustainable in reducing these NCDs compared to drugs, which may have side effects. Studies have suggested that consuming functional foods could potentially lower NCD risks. Sweetpotato is regarded as a functional food because it contains bioactive compounds. Recently, sweetpotato has gained attention in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), but research has focused on its use in alleviating micronutrient deficiencies such as vitamin A deficiency, particularly the orange-fleshed variety of sweetpotato. Some studies conducted in other parts of the world have investigated sweetpotato as a functional food. There is a need to characterize the sweetpotato varieties in SSA and determine how processing affects their bioactive components. This review highlights some of the studies conducted in various parts of the world on the functionality of sweetpotato, its bioactive compounds, and how these are influenced by processing. In addition, the potential health benefits imparted by sweetpotato are expounded. The knowledge gaps that remain in these studies are also addressed, focusing on how they can direct sweetpotato research in SSA.


Assuntos
Alimento Funcional/economia , Ipomoea batatas/metabolismo , África ao Sul do Saara/epidemiologia , Agricultura/métodos , Alimento Funcional/provisão & distribuição , Humanos , Compostos Fitoquímicos/metabolismo , Deficiência de Vitamina A/metabolismo , Deficiência de Vitamina A/terapia
9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(9)2021 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34062942

RESUMO

A field experiment was established to study sweet potato growth, starch dynamic accumulation, key enzymes and gene transcription in the sucrose-to-starch conversion and their relationships under six K2O rates using Ningzishu 1 (sensitive to low-K) and Xushu 32 (tolerant to low-K). The results indicated that K application significantly improved the biomass accumulation of plant and storage root, although treatments at high levels of K, i.e., 300-375 kg K2O ha-1, significantly decreased plant biomass and storage root yield. Compared with the no-K treatment, K application enhanced the biomass accumulation of plant and storage root by 3-47% and 13-45%, respectively, through promoting the biomass accumulation rate. Additionally, K application also enhanced the photosynthetic capacity of sweet potato. In this study, low stomatal conductance and net photosynthetic rate (Pn) accompanied with decreased intercellular CO2 concentration were observed in the no-K treatment at 35 DAT, indicating that Pn was reduced mainly due to stomatal limitation; at 55 DAT, reduced Pn in the no-K treatment was caused by non-stomatal factors. Compared with the no-K treatment, the content of sucrose, amylose and amylopectin decreased by 9-34%, 9-23% and 6-19%, respectively, but starch accumulation increased by 11-21% under K supply. The activities of sucrose synthetase (SuSy), adenosine-diphosphate-glucose pyrophosphorylase (AGPase), starch synthase (SSS) and the transcription of Susy, AGP, SSS34 and SSS67 were enhanced by K application and had positive relationships with starch accumulation. Therefore, K application promoted starch accumulation and storage root yield through regulating the activities and genes transcription of SuSy, AGPase and SSS in the sucrose-to-starch conversion.


Assuntos
Glucose-1-Fosfato Adenililtransferase/genética , Glucosiltransferases/genética , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Potássio/farmacologia , Amilopectina/genética , Amilose/genética , Fertilização/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Ipomoea batatas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ipomoea batatas/metabolismo , Fotossíntese/efeitos dos fármacos , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Amido/metabolismo , Sacarose/metabolismo
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(9)2021 Apr 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33925312

RESUMO

Red cabbage (RC) and purple sweet potato (PSP) are naturally rich in acylated cyanidin glycosides that can bind metal ions and develop intramolecular π-stacking interactions between the cyanidin chromophore and the phenolic acyl residues. In this work, a large set of RC and PSP anthocyanins was investigated for its coloring properties in the presence of iron and aluminum ions. Although relatively modest, the structural differences between RC and PSP anthocyanins, i.e., the acylation site at the external glucose of the sophorosyl moiety (C2-OH for RC vs. C6-OH for PSP) and the presence of coordinating acyl groups (caffeoyl) in PSP anthocyanins only, made a large difference in the color expressed by their metal complexes. For instance, the Al3+-induced bathochromic shifts for RC anthocyanins reached ca. 50 nm at pH 6 and pH 7, vs. at best ca. 20 nm for PSP anthocyanins. With Fe2+ (quickly oxidized to Fe3+ in the complexes), the bathochromic shifts for RC anthocyanins were higher, i.e., up to ca. 90 nm at pH 7 and 110 nm at pH 5.7. A kinetic analysis at different metal/ligand molar ratios combined with an investigation by high-resolution mass spectrometry suggested the formation of metal-anthocyanin complexes of 1:1, 1:2, and 1:3 stoichiometries. Contrary to predictions based on steric hindrance, acylation by noncoordinating acyl residues favored metal binding and resulted in complexes having much higher molar absorption coefficients. Moreover, the competition between metal binding and water addition to the free ligands (leading to colorless forms) was less severe, although very dependent on the acylation site(s). Overall, anthocyanins from purple sweet potato, and even more from red cabbage, have a strong potential for development as food colorants expressing red to blue hues depending on pH and metal ion.


Assuntos
Antocianinas/química , Brassica/química , Ipomoea batatas/química , Pigmentos Biológicos/química , Acilação , Alumínio/química , Alumínio/metabolismo , Antocianinas/metabolismo , Brassica/metabolismo , Quelantes/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Cor , Corantes de Alimentos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Íons/metabolismo , Ipomoea batatas/metabolismo , Ferro/química , Ferro/metabolismo , Cinética , Metais/metabolismo , Fenóis/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/química
11.
Plant Sci ; 305: 110849, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33691955

RESUMO

IbACP, Ipomoea batatas anti-cancer peptide, a sixteen-amino-acid peptide isolated from sweet potato leaves, is capable of mediating a rapid alkalinization of growth media in plant suspension cells. However, the biological roles of IbACP as a defense peptide have not been studied. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of IbACP on the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the expression of the defense-related genes. IbACP treatment of sweet potato leaves resulted in marked accumulation of both superoxide ion (O2-) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). The activity of peroxidase (POD) was significantly enhanced by IbACP treatment, suggesting that high levels of POD antioxidant activity may be used to scavenge the excess H2O2 in sweet potato plants. The IbACP-related genes were identified by suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH), and were then classified and assigned to the following categories: defense, development, metabolism, signaling, gene expression, and abiotic stress. H2O2 acts as a second messenger for gene activation in some of the IbACP-triggered gene expressions. These results demonstrated that IbACP is part of an integrated strategy for genetic regulation in sweet potato. Our work highlights the function of IbACP and its potential use for enhancing stress tolerance in sweet potato, in an effort to improve our understanding of defense-response mechanisms.


Assuntos
Ipomoea batatas/genética , Ipomoea batatas/metabolismo , Peptídeos/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genes de Plantas , Variação Genética , Genótipo , Ipomoea batatas/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Proteínas de Plantas/genética
12.
Plant Sci ; 304: 110802, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33568301

RESUMO

Arabidopsis Toxicos en Levadura (ATL) proteins compose a subfamily of E3 ubiquitin ligases and play major roles in regulating plant growth, cold, drought, oxidative stresses response and pathogen defense in plants. However, the role in enhancing salt tolerance has not been reported to date. Here, we cloned a novel RING-H2 type E3 ubiquitin ligase gene, named IbATL38, from sweetpotato cultivar Lushu 3. This gene was highly expressed in the leaves of sweetpotato and strongly induced by NaCl and abscisic acid (ABA). This IbATL38 was localized to nucleus and plasm membrane and possessed E3 ubiquitin ligase activity. Overexpression of IbATL38 in Arabidopsis significantly enhanced salt tolerance, along with inducible expression of a series of stress-responsive genes and prominently decrease of H2O2 content. These results suggest that IbATL38 as a novel E3 ubiquitin ligase may play an important role in salt stress response.


Assuntos
Ipomoea batatas/enzimologia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/genética , Arabidopsis , Membrana Celular/enzimologia , Núcleo Celular/enzimologia , Clonagem Molecular , Ipomoea batatas/genética , Ipomoea batatas/metabolismo , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/fisiologia , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Tolerância ao Sal , Análise de Sequência , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/metabolismo , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/fisiologia
13.
Carbohydr Polym ; 257: 117605, 2021 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33541638

RESUMO

A novel glucan PSPP-1 (18.3 kDa) was purified from the foot tuber of purple sweet potato Ipomoea Batatas (L.) Lam. Its backbone was composed of →4)-α-d-Glcp(1→ glycosyl, and branching at the O-2, O-3, and O-6 positions with α-d-Glcp(1→ residues. X-ray diffraction experiment showed that PSPP-1 existed as an amorphous form. Its microstructure was detected via scanning electron microscopy. Its particle size was mainly concentrated at 230 nm in water. Congo red and circular dichroism experiments showed there was no triple-helix conformation. Atomic force microscopy data suggested that its height and width ranged from 1.0 to 6.1 nm and 65 to 210 nm, respectively; its maximum ring diameter and chain length was ∼800 nm and ∼7.0 µm, respectively. Furthermore, it exhibited inhibitory activities on HepG2, LOVO, and MCF-7 cells. Collectively, our data are useful for understanding the structural characteristics of sweet potato polysaccharides, and their application in foods and pharmaceutical areas.


Assuntos
Antocianinas/química , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Glucanos/química , Ipomoea batatas/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Varredura Diferencial de Calorimetria , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Dicroísmo Circular , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Técnicas In Vitro , Células MCF-7 , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Microscopia de Força Atômica , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Peso Molecular , Tamanho da Partícula , Polissacarídeos/química , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Termogravimetria , Água/química , Difração de Raios X
14.
PLoS One ; 16(1): e0245266, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33481815

RESUMO

Leafy sweet potato is rich in total phenolics (TP) which play key roles in health protection, the chlorogenic acid (CGA) constitutes the major components of phenolic compounds in leafy sweet potato. Unfortunately, the mechanism of CGA biosynthesis in leafy sweet potato is unclear. To dissect the mechanisms of CGA biosynthesis, we performed transcriptome, small RNA (sRNA) and degradome sequencing of one low-CGA content and one high-CGA content genotype at two stages. A total of 2,333 common differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified, and the enriched DEGs were related to photosynthesis, starch and sucrose metabolism and phenylpropanoid biosynthesis. The functional genes, such as CCR, CCoAOMT and HCT in the CGA biosynthetic pathway were down-regulated, indicating that the way to lignin was altered, and two possible CGA biosynthetic routes were hypothesized. A total of 38 DE miRNAs were identified, and 1,799 targets were predicated for 38 DE miRNAs by using in silico approaches. The target genes were enriched in lignin and phenylpropanoid catabolic processes. Transcription factors (TFs) such as apetala2/ethylene response factor (AP2/ERF) and Squamosa promoter binding protein-like (SPL) predicated in silico were validated by degradome sequencing. Association analysis of the DE miRNAs and transcriptome datasets identified that miR156 family negatively targeted AP2/ERF and SPL. Six mRNAs and six miRNAs were validated by qRT-PCR, and the results showed that the expression levels of the mRNAs and miRNAs were consistent with the sequencing data. This study established comprehensive functional genomic resources for the CGA biosynthesis, and provided insights into the molecular mechanisms involving in this process. The results also enabled the first perceptions of the regulatory roles of mRNAs and miRNAs, and offered candidate genes for leafy sweet potato improvements.


Assuntos
Ácido Clorogênico/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Ipomoea batatas/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Pequeno RNA não Traduzido/genética , Transcriptoma , Ipomoea batatas/genética , Ipomoea batatas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , MicroRNAs/genética , Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , RNA de Plantas/análise , RNA de Plantas/genética
15.
J Biosci Bioeng ; 131(4): 405-411, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33431342

RESUMO

Sweet potato shochu oil is one of the by-products of sweet potato shochu production. We investigated the functionality and industrial use of shochu oil as a food-derived raw material. Because of the increased incidence of self-consciousness in people owing to thinning hair, in this study, we examined the hair growth-inducing effects of shochu oil. Minoxidil, the only topical medication approved for hair growth treatment in Japan, was used as a control for the evaluation of hair growth-promoting activity of shochu oil. Human follicle dermal papilla cells treated with shochu oil showed upregulated expression of vascular endothelial growth factor in a concentration-dependent manner, indicating that shochu oil induced the activation of the hair growth cycle. In vivo, epidermal treatment with shochu oil also promoted hair growth in C3H mice. More than 35 components were detected in shochu oil via gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The main components, accounting for 98.5% of shochu oil, were as follows, in order of decreasing concentration: ethyl palmitate, ethyl linoleate, ethyl oleate, ethyl stearate, ethyl caprate, ethyl laurate, ethyl myristate, and ethyl α-linolenate. Among these, ethyl palmitate, ethyl linoleate, and ethyl α-linolenate promoted hair growth in C3H mice. These results indicate that shochu oil can be used as a hair restorer. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to demonstrate the hair growth-promoting activity of shochu oil.


Assuntos
Cabelo/efeitos dos fármacos , Cabelo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ipomoea batatas/química , Animais , Fermentação , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Humanos , Ipomoea batatas/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C3H , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo
16.
Plant Cell Rep ; 40(1): 157-169, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33084965

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: The transcription factor (TF) IbERF71 forms a novel complex, IbERF71-IbMYB340-IbbHLH2, to coregulate anthocyanin biosynthesis by binding to the IbANS1 promoter in purple-fleshed sweet potatoes. Purple-fleshed sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) is very popular because of its abundant anthocyanins, which are natural pigments with multiple physiological functions. TFs involved in regulating anthocyanin biosynthesis have been identified in many plants. However, the molecular mechanism of anthocyanin biosynthesis in purple-fleshed sweet potatoes has rarely been examined. In this study, TF IbERF71 and its partners were screened by bioinformatics and RT-qPCR analysis. The results showed that the expression levels of IbERF71 and partners IbMYB340 and IbbHLH2 were higher in purple-fleshed sweet potatoes than in other colors and that the expression levels positively correlated with anthocyanin contents. Moreover, transient expression assays showed that cotransformation of IbMYB340+IbbHLH2 resulted in anthocyanin accumulation in tobacco leaves and strawberry receptacles, and additional IbERF71 significantly increased visual aspects. Furthermore, the combination of the three TFs significantly increased the expression levels of FvANS and FvGST, which are involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis and transport of strawberry receptacles. The dual-luciferase reporter system verified that cotransformation of the three TFs enhanced the transcription activity of IbANS1. In addition, yeast two-hybrid and firefly luciferase complementation assays revealed that IbMYB340 interacted with IbbHLH2 and IbERF71 but IbERF71 could not interact with IbbHLH2 in vitro. In summary, our findings provide novel evidence that IbERF71 and IbMYB340-IbbHLH2 form the regulatory complex IbERF71-IbMYB340-IbbHLH2 that coregulates anthocyanin accumulation by binding to the IbANS1 promoter in purple-fleshed sweet potatoes. Thus, the present study provides a new regulatory network of anthocyanin biosynthesis and strong insight into the color development of purple-fleshed sweet potatoes.


Assuntos
Antocianinas/metabolismo , Ipomoea batatas/genética , Ipomoea batatas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Antocianinas/genética , Fragaria/genética , Fragaria/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Pigmentação , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Mapas de Interação de Proteínas , Tabaco/genética , Tabaco/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
17.
J Sci Food Agric ; 101(7): 2961-2973, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33170508

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There are many scientific studies on performance of different sweet potato varieties under water deficits, however, no study on Koganesengan and Beniazuma varieties has been found in the literature. This study was aimed to investigate the effects of water deficit levels (control-WD0 , low-WD25 , medium-WD50 and high-WD75 water deficit levels) on growth, yield and quality parameters, water use efficiency and water-yield response factor values of these sweet potato varieties under drip irrigation. RESULTS: The seasonal water consumptions of varieties were calculated as 808 and 826 mm, respectively, under no water deficit. All of the growth (except average tuber length for Koganesengan) and yield parameters of both varieties were significantly affected by water deficit treatments. However, most of the quality parameters including total dry mater, starch, ß-carotene, ascorbic acid, protein, saccharose and glucose contents for both varieties; total ash, crude fiber and phenolic matter content for Beniazuma; and fructose content and antioxidant activity for Koganesengan variety had no response to water deficits at any level. Under high deficit and control, fresh and dry vine, tuber and total yields ranged from 4.80 to 14.54, 0.85 to 2.35, 1.59 to 10.97 and 6.40 to 25.52 t ha-1 for Koganesengan and 6.05 to 27.88, 0.99 to 4.09, 2.17 to 22.91 and 8.22 to 50.79 t ha-1 for Beniazuma, respectively. CONCLUSION: The results showed that Beniazuma variety is proportionally more sensitive to water deficit than Koganesengan. It can be concluded that both varieties can be grown in Mediterranean conditions by providing optimum irrigation applications. © 2020 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Irrigação Agrícola/métodos , Ipomoea batatas/metabolismo , Tubérculos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Água/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/análise , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Ácido Ascórbico/análise , Ácido Ascórbico/metabolismo , Ipomoea batatas/química , Ipomoea batatas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fenóis/análise , Fenóis/metabolismo , Tubérculos/química , Tubérculos/metabolismo , Amido/análise , Amido/metabolismo
18.
Gene ; 768: 145311, 2021 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33220344

RESUMO

The Shaker K+ channel family plays a vital role in potassium absorption and stress resistance in plants. However little information on the genes family is available about sweetpotato. In the present study, eleven sweetpotato Shaker K+ channel genes were identified and classified into five groups based on phylogenetic relationships, conserved motifs, and gene structure analyses. Based on synteny analysis, four duplicated gene pairs were identified, derived from both ancient and recent duplication, whereas only one resulted from tandem duplication events. Different expression pattern of Shaker K+ channel genes in roots of Xu32 and NZ1 resulted in different K+ deficiency tolerances, suggesting there is different mechanism of K+ uptake in sweetpotato cultivars with different K+-tolerance levels. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis revealed that the shaker K+ channel genes responded to drought and high salt stresses. Higher K+ influx under normal condition and lower K+ efflux under K+ deficiency stress were observed in IbAKT1 overexpressing transgenic roots than in adventitious roots, which indicated that IbAKT1 may play an important role in the regulation of K+ deficiency tolerance in sweetpotato. This is the first genome-wide analysis of Shaker K+ channel genes and the first functional analysis of IbAKT1 in sweetpotato. Our results provide valuable information on the gene structure, evolution, expression and functions of the Shaker K+ channel gene family in sweetpotato.


Assuntos
Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Ipomoea batatas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Superfamília Shaker de Canais de Potássio/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma/métodos , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Secas , Evolução Molecular , Duplicação Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Ipomoea batatas/genética , Ipomoea batatas/metabolismo , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Estresse Salino , Superfamília Shaker de Canais de Potássio/metabolismo , Sintenia
19.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 21368, 2020 12 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33288851

RESUMO

The Fusarium wilt disease caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. batatas (Fob) is one of the devastating diseases of sweetpotato. However, the molecular mechanisms of sweetpotato response to Fob is poorly understood. In the present study, comparative quantitative proteomic analysis was conducted to investigate the defense mechanisms involved. Two sweetpotato cultivars with differential Fob infection responses were inoculated with Fob spore suspensions and quantitatively analyzed by Tandem Mass Tags (TMT). 2267 proteins were identified and 1897 of them were quantified. There were 817 proteins with quantitative ratios of 1.2-fold change between Fob-inoculated and mock-treated samples. Further, nine differentially expressed proteins were validated by Parallel Reaction Monitoring (PRM). According to Gene Ontology (GO) annotation information, the proteins functioned in molecular metabolism, cellular component formation, and biological processes. Interestingly, the results showed that sweetpotato resistant response to Fob infection included many proteins associated with signaling transduction, plant resistance, chitinase and subtilisin-like protease. The functions and possible roles of those proteins were discussed. The results provides first insight into molecular mechanisms involved in sweetpotato defense responses to Fob.


Assuntos
Fusarium/patogenicidade , Ipomoea batatas/metabolismo , Ipomoea batatas/microbiologia , Proteômica/métodos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/fisiologia , Ontologia Genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo
20.
Food Funct ; 11(11): 10182-10192, 2020 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33165485

RESUMO

A polyphenol-rich diet has been associated with various health benefits. This study assessed the effects of polyphenol/anthocyanin isolated from a purple sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas cv. Ayamurasaki) on colonic fermentation in cellulose- or inulin-fed rats. Male Fischer-344 rats were assigned to one of these experimental diets: 5% cellulose (CEL), 5% CEL + 1% purple sweet potato polyphenol extract (CELP), 5% inulin (INU), and 5% INU + 1% purple sweet potato polyphenol extract (INUP) in each diet. The purple sweet potato polyphenol extract (PSPP) increased the relative abundance of Dorea and reduced the relative abundances of Oscillospira and Bacteroides in cellulose- or inulin-fed rats, respectively. Besides, PSPP reduced the caecal iso-butyrate and pH in the cellulose-fed rats. Further, PSPP triggered an increase in the caecal mucin level when combined with cellulose and increased the caecal IgA level while reducing the indole production in both the cellulose- or inulin-fed rats. Finally, PSPP may have different effects on the intestinal fermentation properties depending on the fermentability of dietary fiber associated with it. Therefore, this study demonstrated that dietary inclusion of polyphenol/anthocyanin from purple sweet potato might confer positive health attributes to the host gut.


Assuntos
Celulose/metabolismo , Colo/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Inulina/metabolismo , Ipomoea batatas/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Polifenóis/metabolismo , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Bactérias/metabolismo , Colo/metabolismo , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Masculino , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Polifenóis/isolamento & purificação , Ratos , Ratos Endogâmicos F344
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