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1.
PLoS One ; 17(4): e0263990, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35390004

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Facial expression recognition has been studied extensively, including in relation to social anxiety. Nonetheless, a limited number of studies examined recognition of disgust expressions. Results suggest that disgust is perceived as more threatening than anger, and thus may invite more extreme responses. However, few studies have examined responses to facial expressions. These studies have focused on approach-avoidance responses. Our primary aim was to examine to what extent anger and disgust expressions might invite interpersonal responses in terms of quarrelsomeness-agreeableness and dominance-submissiveness. As social anxiety has been previously associated with a heightened sensitivity to anger and disgust expressions, as well as with alterations in quarrelsomeness-agreeableness and dominance-submissiveness, our secondary aim was to examine whether social anxiety would moderate these responses. METHODS: Participants were 55 women and 43 men who completed social anxiety measures, including the Brief Fear of Negative Evaluation scale, and two tasks that involved "targets" expressing anger, disgust, or happiness at 0%, 50%, or 100%. Participants first indicated how quarrelsome or agreeable and how dominant or submissive they would be towards each target, and then how much they would avoid or approach each target. RESULTS: While 100% disgust and anger expressions invited similar levels of quarrelsomeness and avoidance, 50% disgust invited more quarrelsomeness and stronger avoidance than 50% anger. While these patterns were not meaningfully moderated by social anxiety, individuals with higher BFNE scores showed a relatively strong approach of happy faces. LIMITATIONS: Actual interpersonal behaviour in response to facial expressions was not assessed. CONCLUSIONS: Findings support the relevance of disgust as an interpersonal signal and suggest that, especially at mild intensity, disgust may have a stronger impact than anger on people's quarrelsomeness and avoidance responses. Findings provided no support for the view that people with social anxiety would be particularly responsive to disgust (or anger) expressions.


Assuntos
Asco , Expressão Facial , Ira/fisiologia , Ansiedade , Emoções/fisiologia , Medo , Feminino , Felicidade , Humanos , Masculino
2.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 6577, 2022 Apr 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35449194

RESUMO

A recent event-related potential (ERP) study found that an open-label placebo (OLP) reduced emotional distress during the viewing of unpleasant scenes and the amplitude of the late positive potential (LPP). The present ERP experiment aimed at a conceptual replication of this finding and investigated OLP effects during affective face processing. The participants (109 females) were presented with images depicting angry and neutral facial expressions after the administration of a saline nasal spray. The spray was either introduced as a placebo that could help reduce the emotional reactions to viewing angry faces (OLP group) or to improve the electrophysiological recordings (Control group). The OLP was associated with reduced LPP amplitudes (1000-6000 ms) to anger expressions across a frontal cluster. Additionally, the OLP reduced LPP amplitudes (400-1000 ms) to both anger and neutral faces across a centroparietal cluster. Compared to the Control group, the OLP group reported less arousal when confronted with angry faces, and rated the anger expressions as less intense. This study demonstrates that an OLP can alter both subjective and neural responses to anger cues. Future research should directly compare OLP treatment with other strategies for emotion regulation (e.g., cognitive reappraisal) to demonstrate the specificity of this approach.


Assuntos
Síndrome de DiGeorge , Reconhecimento Facial , Ira/fisiologia , Eletroencefalografia , Emoções/fisiologia , Potenciais Evocados/fisiologia , Expressão Facial , Reconhecimento Facial/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
3.
Biol Psychol ; 170: 108308, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35271956

RESUMO

Although the brain is known to process threatening emotional stimuli and looming motion rapidly, little is known about how the emotion and motion interact. To address this question, two experiments were carried out which presented angry and neutral emotional faces on a depth-cued background that induced the perception of distance, or a non-cued background. Furthermore, faces either expanded or contracted in size such that they appeared to approach or recede from the viewer. EEG/ERP measures were used to identify the time course of brain activity for these looming and receding, angry and neutral emotional faces. The results of both experiments revealed that the P1 was enhanced by looming angry faces on the depth-cued background, compared to neutral approaching faces, as well as all receding faces, indicating an early interaction of emotion and motion within 100 ms of presentation. Angry expressions were also found to enhance the N170 regardless of movement. These findings suggest that processing of threat and looming motion interact at the very early stages of visual processing. Furthermore, as the modulating effect of looming motion on angry expressions only arose on the depth-cued background, the findings highlight the importance of approaching movements rather than sole increases in the retinal size of the stimuli.


Assuntos
Potenciais Evocados , Expressão Facial , Ira/fisiologia , Eletroencefalografia , Emoções/fisiologia , Potenciais Evocados/fisiologia , Humanos
4.
Brain Cogn ; 159: 105860, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35339916

RESUMO

Sex has a significant impact on the perception of emotional expressions. However, it remains unclear whether sex influences the perception of emotions in artificial faces, which are becoming popular in emotion research. We used an emotion recognition task with FaceGen faces portraying six basic emotions aiming to investigate the effect of sex and emotion on behavioural and electrophysiological parameters. 71 participants performed the task while EEG was recorded. The recognition of sadness was the poorest, however, females recognized sadness better than males. ERP results indicated that fear, disgust, and anger evoked higher amplitudes of late positive potential over the left parietal region compared to neutral expression. Females demonstrated higher values of global field power as compared to males. The interaction between sex and emotion on ERPs was not significant. The results of our study may be valuable for future therapies and research, as it emphasizes possibly distinct processing of emotions and potential sex differences in the recognition of emotional expressions in FaceGen faces.


Assuntos
Síndrome de DiGeorge , Expressão Facial , Ira/fisiologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Potenciais Evocados/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Percepção
5.
J Affect Disord ; 302: 367-375, 2022 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35101522

RESUMO

Intermittent explosive disorder (IED), the sole diagnosis in the DSM-5 for which the cardinal symptom is recurrent affective aggressive outbursts, is a common and substantially impairing disorder. IED is also associated with several cognitive and affective impairments. However, little is known about the heterogeneity of the disorder and how this may correspond to aggression severity and related adverse outcomes. The current study employed a latent class analysis (LCA) among individuals diagnosed with lifetime DSM-5 IED to derive distinct subgroups that differed in the quality and/or frequency of cognitive-affective symptoms. These subgroups were then externally validated on a number of adverse outcomes. Statistical and clinical indicators supported a four-class model. Classes were distinguished mainly by the level of emotion dysregulation participants endorsed, with two moderate emotion dysregulation classes differing on their emotional information processing and impulsive tendencies. The external validation analysis revealed that classes differed in terms of various adverse outcomes (e.g., interpersonal problems, life satisfaction, suicide risk). Overall, the present study suggests distinct cognitiveaffective symptom profiles among those with IED that differ meaningfully with regard to risk for adverse outcomes. These findings provide evidence of the heterogeneity within IED and may suggest a more personalized therapeutic approach to patients with IED.


Assuntos
Ira , Transtornos Disruptivos, de Controle do Impulso e da Conduta , Agressão/psicologia , Ira/fisiologia , Transtornos Disruptivos, de Controle do Impulso e da Conduta/diagnóstico , Humanos , Comportamento Impulsivo , Análise de Classes Latentes
6.
Neurosci Biobehav Rev ; 135: 104558, 2022 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35122780

RESUMO

Chronic pain remains one of the most persistent healthcare challenges in the world. To advance pain treatment, experts have recently introduced research-driven subtypes of chronic pain based on proposed underlying mechanisms. Nociplastic pain (e.g., nonspecific chronic low back or fibromyalgia) is one such subtype which may involve a greater etiologic role for brain plasticity, painful emotions induced by life stress and trauma, and unhealthy emotion regulation. In particular, correlational and behavioral data link anger and the ways anger is regulated with the presence and severity of nociplastic pain. Functional neuroimaging studies also suggest nociplastic pain and healthy anger regulation demonstrate inverse patterns of activity in the medial prefrontal cortex and amygdala; thus, improving anger regulation could normalize activity in these regions. In this Mini-Review, we summarize these findings and propose a unified, biobehavioral model called the Anger, Brain, and Nociplastic Pain (AB-NP) Model, which can be tested in future research and may advance pain care by informing new treatments that address anger, anger regulation, and brain plasticity for nociplastic pain.


Assuntos
Dor Crônica , Tonsila do Cerebelo/fisiologia , Ira/fisiologia , Encéfalo , Emoções/fisiologia , Humanos
7.
Acta Psychol (Amst) ; 224: 103528, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35180584

RESUMO

Frustration tolerance is a skill related to emotional regulation processes and is important insofar as it affects people's social relationships and even health. Low levels of frustration tolerance in children have been associated with a greater number of externalizing symptoms such as aggression or anger. Despite its importance, there are a limited number of tasks that attempt to evaluate this construct objectively. Therefore, the aim of our work was the design of a computerized task, programmed as a videogame in order to assess frustration tolerance in children from 6 to 10 years old. The results obtained showed that the test had a good internal consistency and could be useful as an objective measure of frustration tolerance in children. In line with the literature, our data have shown no influence of gender or laterality of participants during the task and only 7% of the frustration measure could be explained by the influence of participants' age. On the other hand, the performance of the participants during the task has allowed us to classify them into six groups according to their performance, namely Low/High Frustration, Low/High Performance and Low/High Reaction Time. This test would permit to compare participants' performance with their reference group but also with their own results, facilitating the obtention of an objective assessment of frustration tolerance in young children.


Assuntos
Ira , Frustração , Ira/fisiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia
8.
Eur J Neurosci ; 55(2): 510-527, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34797003

RESUMO

The ability to experience, use and eventually control anger is crucial to maintain well-being and build healthy relationships. Despite its relevance, the neural mechanisms behind individual differences in experiencing and controlling anger are poorly understood. To elucidate these points, we employed an unsupervised machine learning approach based on independent component analysis to test the hypothesis that specific functional and structural networks are associated with individual differences in trait anger and anger control. Structural and functional resting state images of 71 subjects as well as their scores from the State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory entered the analyses. At a structural level, the concentration of grey matter in a network including ventromedial temporal areas, posterior cingulate, fusiform gyrus and cerebellum was associated with trait anger. The higher the concentration, the higher the proneness to experience anger in daily life due to the greater tendency to orient attention towards aversive events and interpret them with higher hostility. At a functional level, the activity of the default mode network (DMN) was associated with anger control. The higher the DMN temporal frequency, the stronger the exerted control over anger, thus extending previous evidence on the role of the DMN in regulating cognitive and emotional functions in the domain of anger. Taken together, these results show, for the first time, two specialized brain networks for encoding individual differences in trait anger and anger control.


Assuntos
Individualidade , Aprendizado de Máquina não Supervisionado , Ira/fisiologia , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Mapeamento Encefálico , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Vias Neurais/fisiologia
9.
Int J Psychol ; 57(2): 227-239, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34405403

RESUMO

Emotion perception of facial expressions involves two processes: quick approach-avoidance responses and subsequent sorting into emotional categories (i.e., happiness, anger), considering the context. Sorting of morphed ambiguous facial expressions is known to occur categorically, but the occurrence of approach-avoidance responses for morphed facial expressions is yet to be investigated. The present study used morphed angry and fearful facial expressions and measured approach-avoidance responses among Japanese university students (Experiment 1, n = 29). Similar experiments with linguistic load (Experiment 2, n = 28) and visual load (Experiment 3, n = 29) were conducted. The results indicated categorical perception in the sorting of facial expressions but no approach-avoidance response for morphed expressions. Furthermore, linguistic load affected the categorisation of facial expressions, but neither linguistic load nor visual load affected the approach-avoidance response. These results support the idea that the non-linguistic approach-avoidance response and the linguistic categorisation of facial expressions are two different processes. The nature of the emotional perception process is also discussed.


Assuntos
Emoções , Expressão Facial , Ira/fisiologia , Felicidade , Humanos , Percepção
10.
J Pain ; 23(2): 212-222, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34375744

RESUMO

Mechanisms explaining the relationship between pain-related injustice appraisals and functional outcomes in youth with chronic pain have yet to be examined. In studies of adults, greater pain-related injustice is associated with worse depressive symptoms and greater pain through greater anger. No study to date has examined anger expression as a mediator in the relationships between pain-related injustice appraisals and physical and psychosocial functioning in youth with chronic pain. The current sample consisted of 385 youth with varied pain conditions (75% female, 88% White, Mage=14.4 years) presenting to a university-affiliated pain clinic. Patients completed self-report measures assessing anger expression (anger-out and anger-in), pain-related injustice, pain intensity, functional disability, and emotional, social, and school functioning. Bootstrapped mediation analyses indicated that only anger-out (indirect effect= -.12, 95% CI: -.21, -.05) mediated the relationship between pain-related injustice and emotional functioning, whereas both anger-out (indirect effect= -.17, 95% CI: -.27, -.09) and anger-in (indirect effect= -.13, 95% CI: -.09, -.001) mediated the relationship between pain-related injustice and social functioning. Neither mode of anger expression mediated the relationship between pain-related injustice and pain intensity, functional disability, or school functioning. Collectively, these findings implicate anger as one mechanism by which pain-related injustice impacts psychosocial outcomes for youth with chronic pain. PERSPECTIVE: Anger expression plays a mediating role in the relationship between pain-related injustice appraisals and psychosocial outcomes for youth with chronic pain. Anger represents one target for clinical care to decrease the deleterious impact of pain-related injustice on emotional and social functioning.


Assuntos
Ira/fisiologia , Dor Crônica/fisiopatologia , Dor Crônica/psicologia , Funcionamento Psicossocial , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente/fisiologia , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
11.
J Exp Psychol Hum Percept Perform ; 48(2): 115-127, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34968109

RESUMO

The attention system that allocates resources across competing aspects of the environment is influenced by biases toward particular types of stimuli, such as cues of threat (e.g., angry-face image), self-reference (e.g., own-face image), and current goals (e.g., food image when hungry). Here, we used dot probe tasks to investigate which of these stimulus types are prioritized in the attentional hierarchy, measuring response latency to dot probes presented in the same location as different face types. In Experiment 1, participants (N = 42) were presented with self, angry, and neutral face images in the dot probe task, which revealed a clear attentional bias for self-images over both angry and neutral images. In Experiment 2, each participant (N = 69) was assigned a self, angry, or neutral goal image for a secondary monitoring task designed to induce a temporary goal, and this image was included in the stimuli presented in the dot probe task. Again, self-cues were found to produce a strong attentional bias, but images associated with temporary goals were found to be the most effective source of attentional bias. Results are discussed in relation to the relative importance of self, threat, and temporary goal cues in the attentional hierarchy. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Atenção , Viés de Atenção , Ira/fisiologia , Atenção/fisiologia , Viés de Atenção/fisiologia , Sinais (Psicologia) , Humanos , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia
12.
J Psychiatr Res ; 146: 21-27, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34942448

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Caffeine, alcohol, and nicotine are the three most commonly used psychoactive substances in the world. Given the known propensity of these substances to influence behavior, the relationship between these substances and aggressive and impulsive behaviors, in particular is of interest. METHODS: 1062 adult individuals participated in this study including those with Intermittent Explosive Disorder (IED) and non-aggressive healthy (HC) and psychiatric (PC) controls. Data regarding current and life use of caffeine, alcohol, and nicotine were recorded as were responses on measures of aggression, anger, and impulsivity. RESULTS: Dimensional measures of aggression, anger, and impulsiveness were variably but significantly related to the consumption of these commonly used psychoactive substances. These findings were generally mirrored when using the categorical construct of IED. Finally, these findings were not due to comorbidity with other psychiatric disorders. CONCLUSIONS: These data confirm a link between these externalizing behaviors and these three legal and commonly consumed psychoactive substances in clinically relevant individuals.


Assuntos
Cafeína , Transtornos Disruptivos, de Controle do Impulso e da Conduta , Adulto , Agressão/fisiologia , Ira/fisiologia , Humanos , Nicotina/farmacologia
13.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0260871, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34874965

RESUMO

The immediate detection and correct processing of affective facial expressions are one of the most important competences in social interaction and thus a main subject in emotion and affect research. Generally, studies in these research domains, use pictures of adults who display affective facial expressions as experimental stimuli. However, for studies investigating developmental psychology and attachment behaviour it is necessary to use age-matched stimuli, where it is children that display affective expressions. PSYCAFE represents a newly developed picture-set of children's faces. It includes reference portraits of girls and boys aged 4 to 6 years averaged digitally from different individual pictures, that were categorized to six basic affects (fear, disgust, happiness, sadness, anger and surprise) plus a neutral facial expression by cluster analysis. This procedure led to deindividualized and affect prototypical portraits. Individual affect expressive portraits of adults from an already validated picture-set (KDEF) were used in a similar way to create affect prototypical images also of adults. The stimulus set has been validated on human observers and entail emotion recognition accuracy rates and scores for intensity, authenticity and likeability ratings of the specific affect displayed. Moreover, the stimuli have also been characterized by the iMotions Facial Expression Analysis Module, providing additional data on probability values representing the likelihood that the stimuli depict the expected affect. Finally, the validation data from human observers and iMotions are compared to data on facial mimicry of healthy adults in response to these portraits, measured by facial EMG (m. zygomaticus major and m. corrugator supercilii).


Assuntos
Afeto/fisiologia , Ira/fisiologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Expressão Facial , Medo/fisiologia , Felicidade , Tristeza/fisiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reconhecimento Psicológico , Percepção Visual , Adulto Jovem
14.
Psychiatry Res Neuroimaging ; 318: 111388, 2021 12 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34706324

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Individuals with intermittent explosive disorder (IED) are reported to exhibit amygdala (AMYG) hyper-activation to anger faces during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI).  However, it remains unknown if emotional experience is different in study participants with IED compared with healthy controls (HC).  Thus, we examined the comparative effect of pleasant and unpleasant IAPS pictures in IED and HC individuals. METHOD: Eighty study participants (40 IED and 40 HC) underwent fMRI scanning while viewing blocks of angry and happy faces and while viewing blocks of pleasant and unpleasant pictures from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS). RESULTS: Compared with HC participants, IED participants exhibited greater AMYG responses to angry, but not happy, faces; IED and HC participants, however, did not differ in AMYG responses to pleasant or unpleasant IAPS pictures.  There were no group differences in Orbital-Frontal Cortical (OFC) responses to emotional faces or IAPS pictures other than a significantly higher OFC response pleasant, compared with unpleasant, IAPS pictures. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that, compared with healthy individuals, those with IED have a hypersensitive amygdala to social-emotional threat but that this characteristic does not extend to neural responses related to the experience of emotion in the context of the paradigms tested.


Assuntos
Transtornos Disruptivos, de Controle do Impulso e da Conduta , Emoções , Tonsila do Cerebelo/diagnóstico por imagem , Ira/fisiologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos
15.
Dis Markers ; 2021: 9116502, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34589159

RESUMO

Affective disorders are the leading causes of human disability worldwide; however, the diagnosis is still hard to define, because emotion is the least study subjects in psychology. Recent emotional studies suggest that human emotions are developed from basic emotions, which are evolved for fundamental human lives. Even though most psychologists agree upon the idea that there are some basic emotions, there is little agreement on how many emotions are basic, which emotions are basic, and why they are basic. In our previous papers, we suggested that there are three basic emotions: joy, fear, and disgust. These basic emotions depend on the peptides and monoamines: dopamine-joy (peptides-reward), norepinephrine-fear (anger), and serotonin-disgust (sadness). Further tests with event-related potentials (ERP) found that joy, fear, and disgust showed the fastest response compared with other emotions, suggesting that they are fast automatic responses, which confirmed that these three emotions are prototypical emotions. Other basic emotions, anger and sadness, are due to object induced behaviors instead of sensation of object, so they developed secondary to prototypical emotions. Thus, we concluded that only joy, fear, and disgust are prototypical emotions, which can mix into other emotions, like the primary colors. In all, the neural substrates for all emotions, including the affections, are possibly monoamine neuromodulators: joy-dopamine (peptides), fear (anger)-norepinephrine, and disgust-serotonin. We hope these basic emotional studies will offer some neural mechanisms for emotional processing and shed lights on the diagnosis of affective disorders.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Eletrofisiologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Potenciais Evocados , Transtornos do Humor/diagnóstico , Neurotransmissores/metabolismo , Adolescente , Adulto , Ira/fisiologia , Medo/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos do Humor/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
16.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(39)2021 09 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34544875

RESUMO

On May 25, 2020, George Floyd, an unarmed Black American male, was killed by a White police officer. Footage of the murder was widely shared. We examined the psychological impact of Floyd's death using two population surveys that collected data before and after his death; one from Gallup (117,568 responses from n = 47,355) and one from the US Census (409,652 responses from n = 319,471). According to the Gallup data, in the week following Floyd's death, anger and sadness increased to unprecedented levels in the US population. During this period, more than a third of the US population reported these emotions. These increases were more pronounced for Black Americans, nearly half of whom reported these emotions. According to the US Census Household Pulse data, in the week following Floyd's death, depression and anxiety severity increased among Black Americans at significantly higher rates than that of White Americans. Our estimates suggest that this increase corresponds to an additional 900,000 Black Americans who would have screened positive for depression, associated with a burden of roughly 2.7 million to 6.3 million mentally unhealthy days.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Depressão/epidemiologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Homicídio/psicologia , Saúde Mental/etnologia , Polícia/estatística & dados numéricos , Racismo/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Afro-Americanos/psicologia , Ira/fisiologia , Ansiedade/psicologia , Depressão/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
17.
Soc Neurosci ; 16(4): 439-447, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34098832

RESUMO

Humans tend to show congruent facial expressions automatically in reaction to their partners which is defined as emotional mimicry. Although occurring unconsciously, this tendency has been proven to be modulated by social contextual factors such as group membership. Ingroup bias in emotional mimicryhas been well-documented in previous research; however, few studies have investigated the underlying mechanism. Based on the mimicry-as-social-regulator model, this study explored whether the ingroup bias in emotional mimicry arises from the greater self-ingroup overlap. By recording participants' facial electromyographic responses while passively viewing dynamic emotional clips performed by either racial ingroup or outgroup actors, Study 1 validated the presence of ingroup bias in the mimicry of happiness, but not anger. Using asimilar procedure in Study 2, anew sample was employed (N = 37), and a measurement of self-other overlaps via the Inclusion of the Other in the Self Scale was added. The results of Study 2 reproduced the ingroup bias in happy mimicry, and further demonstrated that the effect of group membership on emotional mimicry was mediated by the self-other overlap. In summary, this study provides evidence that the level of interpersonal closeness predicts emotional mimicry.


Assuntos
Emoções , Expressão Facial , Ira/fisiologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Face , Felicidade , Humanos
18.
PLoS One ; 16(5): e0250928, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33945568

RESUMO

Taste stimuli can induce a variety of physiological reactions depending on the quality and/or hedonics (overall pleasure) of tastants, for which objective methods have long been desired. In this study, we used artificial intelligence (AI) technology to analyze facial expressions with the aim of assessing its utility as an objective method for the evaluation of food and beverage hedonics compared with conventional subjective (perceived) evaluation methods. The face of each participant (10 females; age range, 21-22 years) was photographed using a smartphone camera a few seconds after drinking 10 different solutions containing five basic tastes with different hedonic tones. Each image was then uploaded to an AI application to achieve outcomes for eight emotions (surprise, happiness, fear, neutral, disgust, sadness, anger, and embarrassment), with scores ranging from 0 to 100. For perceived evaluations, each participant also rated the hedonics of each solution from -10 (extremely unpleasant) to +10 (extremely pleasant). Based on these, we then conducted a multiple linear regression analysis to obtain a formula to predict perceived hedonic ratings. The applicability of the formula was examined by combining the emotion scores with another 11 taste solutions obtained from another 12 participants of both genders (age range, 22-59 years). The predicted hedonic ratings showed good correlation and concordance with the perceived ratings. To our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate a model that enables the prediction of hedonic ratings based on emotional facial expressions to food and beverage stimuli.


Assuntos
Emoções/fisiologia , Paladar/fisiologia , Adulto , Ira/fisiologia , Inteligência Artificial , Asco , Expressão Facial , Medo/fisiologia , Feminino , Felicidade , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prazer/fisiologia , Tristeza/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
19.
PLoS One ; 16(5): e0250998, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33945576

RESUMO

The current study examined how emotional faces impact on attentional control at both involuntary and voluntary levels in children with and without autism spectrum disorder (ASD). A non-face single target was either presented in isolation or synchronously with emotional face distractors namely angry, happy and neutral faces. ASD and typically developing children made more erroneous saccades towards emotional distractors relative to neutral distractors in parafoveal and peripheral conditions. Remote distractor effects were observed on saccade latency in both groups regardless of distractor type, whereby time taken to initiate an eye movement to the target was longest in central distractor conditions, followed by parafoveal and peripheral distractor conditions. The remote distractor effect was greater for angry faces compared to happy faces in the ASD group. Proportions of failed disengagement trials from central distractors, for the first saccade, were higher in the angry distractor condition compared with the other two distractor conditions in ASD, and this effect was absent for the typical group. Eye movement results suggest difficulties in disengaging from fixated angry faces in ASD. Atypical disengagement from angry faces at the voluntary level could have consequences for the development of higher-level socio-communicative skills in ASD.


Assuntos
/psicologia , Atenção/fisiologia , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/fisiopatologia , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/psicologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Ira/fisiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Movimentos Oculares/fisiologia , Expressão Facial , Feminino , Felicidade , Humanos , Masculino , Orientação Espacial/fisiologia , Movimentos Sacádicos/fisiologia , Percepção Social/psicologia
20.
Neuroimage ; 237: 118137, 2021 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33951512

RESUMO

The goal of our study was to use functional connectivity to map brain function to self-reports of negative emotion. In a large dataset of healthy individuals derived from the Human Connectome Project (N = 652), first we quantified functional connectivity during a negative face-matching task to isolate patterns induced by emotional stimuli. Then, we did the same in a complementary task-free resting state condition. To identify the relationship between functional connectivity in these two conditions and self-reports of negative emotion, we introduce group regularized canonical correlation analysis (GRCCA), a novel algorithm extending canonical correlations analysis to model the shared common properties of functional connectivity within established brain networks. To minimize overfitting, we optimized the regularization parameters of GRCCA using cross-validation and tested the significance of our results in a held-out portion of the data set using permutations. GRCCA consistently outperformed plain regularized canonical correlation analysis. The only canonical correlation that generalized to the held-out test set was based on resting state data (r = 0.175, permutation test p = 0.021). This canonical correlation loaded primarily on Anger-aggression. It showed high loadings in the cingulate, orbitofrontal, superior parietal, auditory and visual cortices, as well as in the insula. Subcortically, we observed high loadings in the globus pallidus. Regarding brain networks, it loaded primarily on the primary visual, orbito-affective and ventral multimodal networks. Here, we present the first neuroimaging application of GRCCA, a novel algorithm for regularized canonical correlation analyses that takes into account grouping of the variables during the regularization scheme. Using GRCCA, we demonstrate that functional connections involving the visual, orbito-affective and multimodal networks are promising targets for investigating functional correlates of subjective anger and aggression. Crucially, our approach and findings also highlight the need of cross-validation, regularization and testing on held out data for correlational neuroimaging studies to avoid inflated effects.


Assuntos
Ira/fisiologia , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Conectoma/métodos , Reconhecimento Facial/fisiologia , Medo/fisiologia , Rede Nervosa/fisiologia , Adulto , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Rede Nervosa/diagnóstico por imagem , Autorrelato , Percepção Social , Adulto Jovem
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