Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 370
Filtrar
1.
Cancer Radiother ; 23(6-7): 503-509, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31471253

RESUMO

There are many treatment options for localized prostate cancers, including active surveillance, brachytherapy, external beam radiotherapy, and radical prostatectomy. Quality of life remains a primary objective in the absence of superiority of one strategy over another in terms of specific survival with similar long-term biochemical control rates. Despite a significant decrease in digestive and urinary toxicities thanks to IMRT and IGRT, external radiotherapy remains a treatment that lasts approximately 2 months or 1.5 months, when combined with a brachytherapy boost. Given the specific radiosensitivity of this tumor, several randomized studies have shown that a hypofractionated scheme is not inferior in terms of biochemical control and toxicities, allowing to divide the number of fractions by a factor 2 to 8. Given that SBRT becomes a validated therapeutic option for a selected population of patients with localized prostate cancer, extreme hypofractionation is becoming a strong challenger of conventional external radiotherapy or brachytherapy.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/radioterapia , Hipofracionamento da Dose de Radiação , Braquiterapia , Ensaios Clínicos Fase III como Assunto , Estudos de Equivalência como Asunto , Humanos , Irradiação Linfática/métodos , Masculino , Seleção de Pacientes , Cuidados Pós-Operatórios , Qualidade de Vida , Hipofracionamento da Dose de Radiação/normas , Tolerância a Radiação , Radioterapia Guiada por Imagem , Radioterapia de Intensidade Modulada , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
2.
Cancer Radiother ; 23(6-7): 773-777, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31471250

RESUMO

The conservative treatment of squamous cell carcinoma of anal canal by irradiation is recommended as first indication. Despite its rarity, significant improvements were obtained by retrospective or prospective clinical studies these 20 past years, evaluating concomitant chemotherapy and IMRT. Nevertheless, the individualisation of the treatment, over dose distribution, has poor data available. Fractionation remains classic (1.8-2.0Gy/Fr), but the optimal dose level remains under discussion. The strategy concerning the volumes and doses for the prophylactic volumes remains under discussion. This paper will describe the data published, and the recommendations of working Groups, and the main options under evaluation. To conclude, today only the absence of gap is recommended, the benefit of a one-step schedule reducing the treatment time, then increasing local control and survival, but personalised schedules remain under investigation.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Ânus/radioterapia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/radioterapia , Irradiação Linfática/métodos , Medicina de Precisão/métodos , Neoplasias do Ânus/patologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Tratamento Conservador/métodos , Humanos , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Estudos Prospectivos , Dosagem Radioterapêutica , Radioterapia de Intensidade Modulada/métodos , Estudos Retrospectivos
3.
Cancer Radiother ; 23(6-7): 682-687, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31492540

RESUMO

Despite representing a 1% of diagnosed cancer cases in the USA and up to 5% in eastern Asia and Africa, oesophageal cancer still holds numerous questions concerning the best therapeutic management. For squamous cell carcinoma, while radiochemotherapy has proven itself to be the gold standard as part of the trimodality or alone as a definitive treatment, radiotherapy modalities are still debated especially regarding lymph node irradiation. Involved nodes irradiation was developed with the aim of maintaining clinical outcomes and enhancing quality of life but lacks grade 1 evidence. In this article, we aim to summarize the state of art regarding lymph node irradiation, discuss the impact of target definition, delivery techniques, concomitant treatment and the perspectives. Being highly connected to the lymph vessels, lymphatic metastases are frequent and can locate from the neck to the coeliac area with each node having a different prognostic significance. Regarding the comparison between elective nodal irradiation and involved nodes irradiation, evidence-based medicine mostly relies on retrospective studies. Pooled, it suggests similar clinical outcomes with lower acute toxicities in favour of involved nodes irradiation. However, delivery techniques, doses and concomitant treatment were not consensual. Studies are ongoing evaluating the impact of radiation delivery techniques and the choice of concomitant treatment, i.e. immunotherapy. Modern techniques of imaging, radiation therapy progressing each day and alternative treatment modalities being tested, the need of randomized controlled trials has never been so high. Elective nodal irradiation should remain the standard of care while phase 3 trials explore the safety of involved nodal irradiation.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/terapia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/terapia , Quimiorradioterapia/métodos , Neoplasias Esofágicas/terapia , Linfonodos/efeitos da radiação , Irradiação Linfática/métodos , Adenocarcinoma/secundário , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/secundário , Neoplasias Esofágicas/patologia , Esôfago/anatomia & histologia , Humanos , Linfonodos/anatomia & histologia , Linfonodos/patologia , Metástase Linfática , Terapia Neoadjuvante/métodos , Radioterapia Conformacional/métodos
4.
Cancer Radiother ; 23(6-7): 701-707, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31501024

RESUMO

Lung cancer treatment is a heavy workload for radiation oncologist and that field showed many evolutions over the last two decades. The issue about target volume was raised when treatment delivery became more precise with the development of three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy. Initially based upon surgical series, numerous retrospective and prospective studies aimed to evaluate the risk of elective nodal failure of involved-field radiotherapy compared to standard large field elective nodal irradiation. In every setting, locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer, localized non-small cell lung cancer, localized small cell lung cancer, exclusive chemoradiation or postoperative radiotherapy, most of the studies showed no significant difference between involved-field radiotherapy or elective nodal irradiation with elective nodal failure rate under 5% at 2 years, provided staging had been done with modern imaging and diagnostic techniques (positron emission tomography scan, endoscopy, etc.). Moreover, if reducing irradiated volumes are safe regarding recurrences, involved-field radiotherapy allowed dose escalation while reducing acute and late oesophageal, cardiac and pulmonary toxicities. Consequently, major clinical trials involving radiotherapy initiated in the last two decades and international clinical guidelines recommended omission of elective nodal irradiation in favour of in-field radiotherapy.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/radioterapia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/radioterapia , Irradiação Linfática/métodos , Radioterapia Conformacional/métodos , Carcinoma de Pequenas Células do Pulmão/radioterapia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/diagnóstico por imagem , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Radioterapia/métodos , Radioterapia de Intensidade Modulada/métodos , Carcinoma de Pequenas Células do Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Carcinoma de Pequenas Células do Pulmão/patologia , Toracoscopia
5.
Cancer Radiother ; 23(5): 416-422, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31421998

RESUMO

This article provides a proposal for the selection and delineation of clinical target volumes for the treatment with radiation of submandibular glands tumours. This article does not deal with external radiotherapy indications but specifies the volumes to be treated if radiotherapy is chosen. High-risk and low-risk peritumoral clinical target volumes are described based on the probability of local tumoral spread. High-risk and low-risk clinical target volumes are illustrated on CT-scan slices. A proposal for the selection of nodal clinical target volumeis also proposed.


Assuntos
Planejamento da Radioterapia Assistida por Computador/métodos , Neoplasias da Glândula Submandibular/radioterapia , Humanos , Irradiação Linfática/métodos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Invasividade Neoplásica , Tamanho do Órgão , Dosagem Radioterapêutica , Risco , Neoplasias da Glândula Submandibular/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias da Glândula Submandibular/patologia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Carga Tumoral
6.
Cancer Radiother ; 23(6-7): 696-700, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31447343

RESUMO

The selection of target volumes for head and neck cancer radiation therapy, particularly prophylactic volumes that reflect infra-clinic spreads, is a complex process. It is based on the knowledge of the natural history of these tumors and must take into consideration the special challenges due to the diversity and complexity of head and neck anatomy. The dosimetric and ballistic precision provided by modern radiation techniques has required strong strategic deliberation to ensure the relevance and reproducibility of target volumes. Specifically, regarding cervical lymph node volumes, two issues emerged. What lymph node area to select depending on the location and the staging of the primary tumor? How to convey that choice in the process of treatment planning and delivery? This debate has been progressively enriched over time resulting in the publication of several international guidelines to standardize the terminology of head and neck lymph node areas and to lay solid science-based foundations to drive practices. This abundance of information makes these guidelines complex, but their accurate understanding is required for adequate usage. We provide an overview of the main published recommendations for the selection of lymph node target volumes when treating oral cavity and pharyngo-laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma with radiation therapy.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/radioterapia , Neoplasias Laríngeas/radioterapia , Linfonodos/efeitos da radiação , Irradiação Linfática/métodos , Neoplasias Bucais/radioterapia , Neoplasias Faríngeas/radioterapia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Humanos , Neoplasias Laríngeas/patologia , Linfonodos/patologia , Neoplasias Bucais/patologia , Pescoço , Neoplasias Faríngeas/patologia , Dosagem Radioterapêutica
7.
Cancer Radiother ; 23(6-7): 688-695, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31451356

RESUMO

The risk of lymph node invasion, in case of prostate cancer, increases with the clinical stage of the disease, the Gleason score of prostate biopsies and the value of PSA at diagnosis. Historically, beyond 15% risk of lymph node involvement, irradiation of the pelvic areas was performed with prostate radiotherapy (RT) to take into account the risk of occult lymph node metastasis in patients at risk, but the benefit of this therapeutic approach remains to be demonstrated. The data from surgical lymph node dissection seem to question the risk levels, the escalation of the dose on the prostate increases the survival without relapse, the contribution of image-guided radiotherapy, (IGRT) and modulation of intensity (IMRT), decreases the toxicity of pelvic RT. This article reviews the principles of prophylactic ganglion irradiation for prostate cancer and discusses its relevance, current uncertainties, and prospective trials.


Assuntos
Irradiação Linfática/métodos , Neoplasias da Próstata/radioterapia , Humanos , Excisão de Linfonodo , Irradiação Linfática/efeitos adversos , Metástase Linfática , Masculino , Gradação de Tumores , Pelve , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/cirurgia , Radioterapia Guiada por Imagem , Radioterapia de Intensidade Modulada/métodos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Estudos Retrospectivos
8.
Cancer Radiother ; 23(5): 426-431, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31255579

RESUMO

The purpose of this article was to report the treatment effect of image-guided high-dose-rate interstitial brachytherapy boost in the radical radiotherapy for a huge metastatic carcinoma of cervical lymph nodes from an unknown primary site. The patient was a 75-year-old male. A diagnostic biopsy showed metastatic squamous cell carcinoma and the tumour size was 7.5×6.5×11.5cm3 before treatment (N3; AJCC 7th). After external beam radiotherapy with a dose of 60Gy in 30 fractions, the residual tumour (6.2×4.7×6.0cm3) was treated with image-guided high-dose-rate interstitial brachytherapy boost under ultrasound guidance. The brachytherapy dose was 16Gy in four fractions of 4Gy each. Removal of the huge metastatic tumour was securely achieved by high dose rate interstitial brachytherapy guided with ultrasound scanning. The refractory tumour in the patients healed uneventfully after image-guided high-dose-rate interstitial brachytherapy without recurrence during the 24 months of follow-up. The image-guided high-dose-rate interstitial brachytherapy boost may be a proposed treatment strategy for metastatic carcinoma of cervical lymph nodes from an unknown primary site with radical radiotherapy, especially for huge residual tumour.


Assuntos
Braquiterapia/métodos , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/secundário , Irradiação Linfática/métodos , Metástase Linfática/radioterapia , Neoplasias Primárias Desconhecidas , Radioterapia Guiada por Imagem/métodos , Ultrassonografia de Intervenção/métodos , Idoso , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/radioterapia , Fracionamento da Dose de Radiação , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pescoço , Neoplasias Primárias Desconhecidas/diagnóstico por imagem , Órgãos em Risco , Tomografia Computadorizada com Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Radioterapia de Intensidade Modulada
9.
Semin Radiat Oncol ; 29(2): 158-165, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30827454

RESUMO

During the last decade the adoption of image-guided adaptive brachytherapy has dramatically improved local control in patients with locally advanced cervical cancer (LACC) treated with radiotherapy and concomitant chemotherapy; however, nodal failure remains an obstacle. Metastatic lymph nodes can be detected by surgical and imaging approaches with different sensitivities and specificities, that improve the definition of relevant targets for macroscopic and microscopic nodal disease, and that influence our understanding of dose levels of external beam radiotherapy. Systematic use of modern radiotherapy techniques including intensity modulated radiotherapy and simultaneously integrated nodal boosts in combination with daily position verification is emerging as increasingly important for obtaining nodal control in LACC. This review summarizes published and ongoing efforts for optimizing nodal disease treatment in LACC, elaborates the state of the art approach for nodal disease detection, radiotherapy planning and delivery, and discusses future investigational efforts needed for precise optimization.


Assuntos
Irradiação Linfática/métodos , Metástase Linfática/radioterapia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/patologia , Braquiterapia , Meios de Contraste , Feminino , Humanos , Metástase Linfática/diagnóstico por imagem , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Dosagem Radioterapêutica , Radioterapia Guiada por Imagem , Radioterapia de Intensidade Modulada
10.
Semin Radiat Oncol ; 29(2): 171-179, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30827456

RESUMO

The two types of nonmelanoma skin cancer most apt to metastasize to lymph nodes are cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma and Merkel cell carcinoma. The clinical impact of nodal metastases of these cancers is substantial, resulting in intensification of treatment and morbidity and worsened cancer outcomes. Exact best practices are challenging to define as many specific clinical scenarios remain incompletely catalogued, characterized, or studied. In general, the role of radiation therapy is indisputably established as part of the treatment of both of these diseases although its success depends on the best available assessment of extent of disease and appropriate integration into the multimodality care plan.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Célula de Merkel/patologia , Carcinoma de Célula de Merkel/terapia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/terapia , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/patologia , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/terapia , Metástase Linfática , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/terapia , Terapia Combinada , Humanos , Irradiação Linfática/métodos , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Fatores de Risco
11.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(3): e14080, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30653123

RESUMO

This retrospective study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of elective nodal irradiation (ENI) and involved-field irradiation (IFI) for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) patients treated with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT).From January 2006 to December 2012, 644 patients (ENI = 157, IFI = 487) with stage I to IVa ESCC (AJCC 2010) at our institution were analyzed. Propensity score matching (PSM) was used to identify 471 (ENI = 157, IFI = 314) well-balanced patients for comparison. Overall survival (OS) was the primary outcome of the study.After PSM, the median OS was 26.8 (95% confidence interval [CI], 17.9-35.7) for the ENI arm versus 21.5 (95% CI: 17.9-25.1) months in the IFI arm. The 1-, 3-, 5-year OS were 77.1%, 42.0%, and 26.1% for the ENI arm versus 73.2%, 32.2%, and 19.0% for the IFI arm (P = .020). ENI was a significant independent predictor of 5-year OS (1.301 [1.052-1.609]; P = .015). Furthermore, patients with stage I/II ESCC or lymph node (LN) positivity in the ENI arm had significantly better 5-year OS than their counterparts in the IFI arm. In addition, for LN positivity patients treated with definitive radiotherapy alone, ENI tended to prolong OS compared with IFI (P = .035). The 2 arms were comparable in toxicities.Using IMRT, ENI is superior to IFI in improving OS of ESCC patients, with acceptable toxicities that were comparable to those to IFI, especially for LN positivity ESCC patients treated with definitive irradiation alone. These results should be confirmed in a large randomized study comparing these 2 modalities.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/radioterapia , Neoplasias Esofágicas/radioterapia , Irradiação Linfática/métodos , Radioterapia de Intensidade Modulada/métodos , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Neoplasias Esofágicas/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Linfonodos/patologia , Linfonodos/efeitos da radiação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys ; 103(5): 1061-1067, 2019 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30557672

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Limited pelvic nodal relapse of prostatic cancer is a paramount challenge for locoregional salvage treatments. Salvage whole pelvis radiation therapy as considered in the BLINDED trial is an attractive option, but there are concerns about its toxicity. This article describes early toxicity with the technique. METHODS AND MATERIALS: BLINDED was a prospective multicenter phase 2 trial investigating high-dose salvage pelvic irradiation with an additional dose to the fluorocholine-based positron emission tomography-positive pelvic lymph nodes, combined with 6-month androgen blockade. The prescribed dose was 54 Gy in 1.8 Gy fractions with up to 66 Gy in 2.2 Gy fractions to the pathologic pelvic lymph nodes. Early toxicity was defined as toxicity until 1 year after radiation therapy. Patients quality of life was assessed using the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer questionnaires (QLQ-C30 and QLQ-PR25). RESULTS: Seventy-four patients were recruited in 15 French radiation oncology departments between August 2014 and July 2016. Seven were excluded before treatment because of violation of the inclusion criteria. The intention-to-treat analysis therefore included 67 patients. Half had received prior prostatic irradiation. Median age was 67.7 ± 6.5 years. Grade 2 acute urinary toxicity was observed in 9 of 67 patients (13.4%), and grade 2 1-year toxicity occurred in 4 of 67 patients (6%). Three patients (4.4%) had grade 3 urinary toxicity. Grade 2 acute digestive toxicity was observed in 10 of 67 patients (14.9%), and grade 2 1-year toxicity occurred in 4 of 67 patients (6%). Patients with prior prostate bed irradiation did not exhibit increased urinary or digestive toxicity. The European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer questionnaire scores at 1 year did not worsen significantly. CONCLUSIONS: The acute and 1-year toxicity of the BLINDED protocol was satisfactory, even in patients with a history of prostatic irradiation.


Assuntos
Antagonistas de Androgênios/efeitos adversos , Linfonodos/efeitos da radiação , Irradiação Linfática/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias da Próstata/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Próstata/radioterapia , Terapia de Salvação/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Antagonistas de Androgênios/uso terapêutico , Colina/análogos & derivados , Sistema Digestório/efeitos dos fármacos , Sistema Digestório/efeitos da radiação , Fracionamento da Dose de Radiação , Radioisótopos de Flúor , França , Humanos , Análise de Intenção de Tratamento , Linfonodos/diagnóstico por imagem , Linfonodos/patologia , Irradiação Linfática/métodos , Metástase Linfática , Masculino , Pelve , Estudos Prospectivos , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico por imagem , Qualidade de Vida , Reirradiação/efeitos adversos , Terapia de Salvação/métodos , Sistema Urogenital/efeitos dos fármacos , Sistema Urogenital/efeitos da radiação
13.
Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys ; 104(1): 137-143, 2019 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30593907

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This retrospective analysis aimed to address the efficacy of total nodal irradiation (TNI)-based reconditioning regimens in pediatric patients with graft failure/rejection after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Thirty-three pediatric patients with malignant (n = 25) and nonmalignant diseases (n = 8) were treated with a TNI-based reconditioning regimen. All patients received a 7-Gy single dose combined with anti-T lymphocyte antibody OKT3 (n = 16), anti-thymocyte globulin (n = 24), fludarabine (n = 31), and/or thiotepa (n = 28), followed by an infusion of peripheral blood stem cells (n = 31) or bone marrow transplant (n = 2). Twenty-eight of 33 patients had haploidentical family donors. RESULTS: After a median of 11 days, engraftment was seen in 32 of 33 children. Two children died 34 days after retransplantation because of either disease relapse or treatment-related multiple organ failure. Severe acute toxicity was reported in only 1 child (systemic inflammatory response syndrome-like reaction; recovery after cortisone treatment). The average follow-up was 60.2 months (range, 1.1-162.5 months). Event-free and overall survival rates at 2/5 years follow-up were 62.0%/58.6% and 65.1%/61.7%, respectively. Despite sustained engraftment, 12 patients died from disease relapse (n = 3), Moschkowitz syndrome (n = 1), or multiple organ failure (n = 8). Follow-up data were available for 18 of 21 survivors, with a median follow-up of 92.8 months (range, 3.6-162.5 months). Hypothyroidism was present in 78.6% of patients, and sex/growth hormonal insufficiencies were reported for 37.5%. Mean forced expiratory volume in 1 second after TNI was 84%; mean vital capacity was 79%. Severe growth failure (<3rd percentile) occurred in 28.6% (height) and 35.7% (weight) of patients. No secondary malignancies were reported. CONCLUSIONS: In the high-risk group of patients with graft failure/rejection after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation, the TNI-based reconditioning regimen seems to allow sustained engraftment combined with a favorable toxicity profile, leading to long-term event-free and overall survival. Late toxicity after a median follow-up of over 7.5 years includes growth failure, manageable hormonal deficiencies, and a low risk of decrease of lung function.


Assuntos
Rejeição de Enxerto , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Imunossupressão/métodos , Irradiação Linfática/métodos , Condicionamento Pré-Transplante/métodos , Adolescente , Aloenxertos , Soro Antilinfocitário/uso terapêutico , Transplante de Medula Óssea , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Seguimentos , Humanos , Fatores Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Imunossupressão/efeitos adversos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Irradiação Linfática/efeitos adversos , Muromonab-CD3/uso terapêutico , Agonistas Mieloablativos/uso terapêutico , Dosagem Radioterapêutica , Retratamento/efeitos adversos , Retratamento/métodos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tiotepa/uso terapêutico , Condicionamento Pré-Transplante/efeitos adversos , Vidarabina/análogos & derivados , Vidarabina/uso terapêutico , Adulto Jovem
14.
Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys ; 103(3): 605-617, 2019 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30528653

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To establish the toxicity profile of high-dose pelvic lymph node intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and to assess whether it is safely deliverable at multiple centers. METHODS AND MATERIALS: In this phase 2 noncomparative multicenter trial, 124 patients with locally advanced, high-risk prostate cancer were randomized between prostate-only IMRT (PO) (74 Gy/37 fractions) and prostate and pelvic lymph node IMRT (P&P; 74 Gy/37 fractions to prostate, 60 Gy/37 fractions to pelvis). The primary endpoint was acute lower gastrointestinal (GI) Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) toxicity at week 18, aiming to exclude a grade 2 or greater (G2+) toxicity-free rate of 80% in the P&P group. Key secondary endpoints included patient-reported outcomes and late toxicity. RESULTS: One hundred twenty-four participants were randomized (62 PO, 62 P&P) from May 2011 to March 2013. Median follow-up was 37.6 months (interquartile range [IQR], 35.4-38.9 months). Participants had a median age of 69 years (IQR, 64-74 years) and median diagnostic prostate-specific androgen level of 21.6 ng/mL (IQR, 11.8-35.1 ng/mL). At week 18, G2+ lower GI toxicity-free rates were 59 of 61 (96.7%; 90% confidence interval [CI], 90.0-99.4) for the PO group and 59 of 62 (95.2%; 90% CI, 88.0-98.7) for the P&P group. Patients in both groups reported similarly low Inflammatory Bowel Disease Questionnaire symptoms and Vaizey incontinence scores. The largest difference occurred at week 6 with 4 of 61 (7%) and 16 of 61 (26%) PO and P&P patients, respectively, experiencing G2+ toxicity. At 2 years, the cumulative proportion of RTOG G2+ GI toxicity was 16.9% (95% CI, 8.9%-30.9%) for the PO group and 24.0% (95% CI, 8.4%-57.9%) for the P&P group; in addition, RTOG G2+ bladder toxicity was 5.1% (95% CI, 1.7%-14.9%) for the PO group and 5.6% (95% CI, 1.8%-16.7%) for the P&P group. CONCLUSIONS: PIVOTAL demonstrated that high-dose pelvic lymph node IMRT can be delivered at multiple centers with a modest side effect profile. Although safety data from the present study are encouraging, the impact of P&P IMRT on disease control remains to be established.


Assuntos
Linfonodos/efeitos dos fármacos , Irradiação Linfática/métodos , Metástase Linfática , Próstata/efeitos da radiação , Neoplasias da Próstata/radioterapia , Dosagem Radioterapêutica , Radioterapia de Intensidade Modulada/métodos , Idoso , Biópsia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medidas de Resultados Relatados pelo Paciente , Pelve/efeitos da radiação , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
Cancer Radiother ; 22(5): 404-410, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30076071

RESUMO

The optimization of radiotherapy in these young and long-lived survivors raises the question about the interest of using modern techniques to allow a better distribution of the dose. The choice of the irradiation technique must take into account the incidence of side effects related to radiation. In this context, the definition of the target volumes as well as the verification and monitoring of the delivered processing are essential. International recommendations for treatment fields are based on the "involved node radiotherapy" concept. The best irradiation technique to use remains to be defined. The use of intensity-modulated radiotherapy improves the coverage and reduces the dose to the organs at risk with a variable gain depending on the topography of the lymph nodes: upper or lower mediastinum, right or left lateralization, the techniques used. The deep inspiration breath-hold technique allows an increase of the pulmonary volume, extension of the mediastinum with an up down of the heart which make possible to move the planning target volume away from the cardiac structures. The volumetric-modulated arctherapy technique with several arches can be particularly interesting to reduce the dose to the breasts, as well as tomotherapy when bulky disease. Proton therapy with the Bragg peak specificity can play a key role in limiting doses to organs at risk, when robust planning that will take into account geometric and physical uncertainties is available. The heterogeneity of Hodgkin lymphomas in terms of volume, shape and initial location are the key elements to take into account when choosing the preferred radiotherapy technique.


Assuntos
Doença de Hodgkin/radioterapia , Radioterapia Conformacional/métodos , Suspensão da Respiração , Doença de Hodgkin/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Irradiação Linfática/métodos , Órgãos em Risco , Lesões por Radiação/prevenção & controle , Dosagem Radioterapêutica , Radioterapia Guiada por Imagem
16.
Cancer Radiother ; 22(5): 384-392, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30055933

RESUMO

It is now well demonstrated that (18F)-fluorodeoxyglucose PET/CT is the most accurate imaging method for determining disease extent in Hodgkin lymphoma. Thus, up-front PET/CT is mandatory for involved node radiation therapy design. For a proper use of this new imaging modality for radiotherapy, some adaptations should be made to the PET/CT acquisition as well as to the report. Initial PET/CT should be performed in the radiotherapy treatment position. Nuclear medicine physicians should report to the radiation oncologist the precise location of each involved lymph node, for which the use of a common atlas of upper diaphragmatic nodal stations could be useful. All these new procedures have to be implemented in close collaboration among the different medical specialists providing care to Hodgkin lymphoma patients. We report here the usual procedures of PET/CT acquisition in the radiotherapy environment and propose a more sophisticated description of the different lymph nodes for a more efficient nuclear medicine report to the radiation oncologist.


Assuntos
Doença de Hodgkin/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença de Hodgkin/radioterapia , Linfonodos/diagnóstico por imagem , Irradiação Linfática/métodos , Tomografia Computadorizada com Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Radioterapia Guiada por Imagem , Documentação , Fluordesoxiglucose F18 , Humanos , Exposição Ocupacional , Posicionamento do Paciente , Doses de Radiação , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos
17.
Radiat Oncol ; 13(1): 127, 2018 Jul 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29996863

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Combined stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for lung lesions and conventional radiotherapy (CRT) for nodal areas may be more effective than CRT alone in patients with locally advanced lung cancer. METHODS: This study included 21 patients with small primary lung tumors distant from the regional nodal areas. The SBRT dose was 40-60 Gy in 4 fractions. CRT doses were 66 Gy in 30 fractions for non-small cell lung cancer and 52.5 Gy in 25 fractions for small cell lung cancer. RESULTS: The median follow-up duration was 12 months, and the median survival was 13 months. The 1 year overall survival, local recurrence-free survival, and distant metastasis-free survival rates were 60.5, 84.8, and 62.1%, respectively. Two patients experienced in-field local recurrence combined with out-field regional recurrence and/or distant failure. The major recurrence pattern was distant failure (crude incidence, 43%). Three patients aged ≥79 years experienced grade ≥ 3 acute radiation pneumonitis, and one also had idiopathic interstitial pneumonia. CONCLUSION: The combination of SBRT for the lung lesion and CRT for the nodal region seems to be effective and safe for lung malignancies. However, patients older in age and/or with underlying pulmonary disease require stricter lung dose constraints.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/radioterapia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/radioterapia , Irradiação Linfática/métodos , Radiocirurgia/métodos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/mortalidade , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Fracionamento da Dose de Radiação , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/mortalidade , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Tomografia Computadorizada com Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Estudos Retrospectivos
18.
Strahlenther Onkol ; 194(7): 607-618, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29383405

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To review the evidence regarding post-mastectomy radiotherapy (PMRT) and regional nodal irradiation (RNI) after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) for breast cancer, with a special focus on individualization of adjuvant radiotherapy based on treatment response. METHODS: A systematic literature search using the PubMed/Medline database was performed. We included prospective and retrospective reports with a minimum of 10 patients that had been published since 1st January 2000, and provided clinical outcome data analyzed by treatment response and radiotherapy. RESULTS: Out of 763 articles identified via PubMed/Medline and hand search, 68 full text-articles were assessed for eligibility after screening of title and abstract. 13 studies were included in the systematic review, 9 for PMRT and 5 for RNI. All included studies were retrospective reports. CONCLUSIONS: There is a considerable lack of evidence regarding the role of adjuvant radiotherapy and its individualization based on treatment response after NACT. Results of prospective randomized trials such as NSABP B­51/RTOG 1304 and Alliance A11202 are eagerly awaited.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/terapia , Quimioterapia Adjuvante , Irradiação Linfática/métodos , Mastectomia , Terapia Neoadjuvante , Medicina de Precisão , Radioterapia Adjuvante/métodos , Neoplasias da Mama/mortalidade , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Terapia Combinada , Feminino , Humanos
19.
Radiother Oncol ; 126(1): 155-162, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29153463

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Adjuvant lymphatic radiotherapy (LNRT) is recommended for selected axillary node positive women with early breast cancer. We investigated whether hypofractionated LNRT is safe combined with similarly-hypofractionated breast/chest wall radiotherapy (RT). MATERIAL AND METHODS: The Standardisation of Breast Radiotherapy (START) pilot, A and B trials randomised women with early breast cancer to schedules of 2.67-3.3 Gy versus 2.0 Gy fractions (control). RT adverse effects were assessed by patients using the EORTC QLQ-BR23 and protocol-specific questions, and by physicians. Rates of arm/shoulder effects were compared between schedules for patients given LNRT. RESULTS: 864/5861 (14.7%) patients received LNRT (385 START-pilot, 318 START-A, 161 START-B). Prevalences of moderate/marked arm/shoulder effects were low up to 10 years. There were no significant differences between the hypofractionated and control groups for patient- and physician-assessed symptoms in START-A or START-B. In START-pilot, adverse effect rates were higher after 13 fractions of 3.3 Gy, consistent with effects reported in the breast/chest wall (significant for shoulder stiffness, HR 3.07, 95%CI 1.62-5.83, p = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The START trial results suggest that appropriately-dosed hypofractionated LNRT is safe in the long-term, according to patient and physician-assessed arm and shoulder symptoms. These findings are consistent with those reported after the same schedules delivered to the breast/chest wall.


Assuntos
Braço/efeitos da radiação , Neoplasias da Mama/radioterapia , Irradiação Linfática/efeitos adversos , Lesões por Radiação/etiologia , Ombro/efeitos da radiação , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Irradiação Linfática/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Hipofracionamento da Dose de Radiação , Radioterapia Adjuvante , Reino Unido , Adulto Jovem
20.
Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys ; 100(1): 68-77, 2018 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29051038

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To quantify the relative motion of the pelvic lymph nodes (LNs), seminal vesicles (SV) and prostate and define indicative margins for image-guided radiotherapy based on bony anatomy or prostate correction strategies for a 3 or 6 degrees-of-freedom couch. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Nineteen patients had a planning computed tomography (CT) scan followed by a mean of 11 repeated CT scans during radiation therapy. The prostate, SV, and external and internal iliac LN regions on the left and right were outlined on each CT scan. Systematic and random uncertainties were determined along with correlations between the motions of these regions. The clinical target volume to planning target volume margins required to take only motion into account were calculated for each guidance method. RESULTS: For bone guidance, motion of the prostate and LNs was largely uncorrelated. Margins to compensate for motion (left-right, superior-inferior, anterior-posterior, in cm) based on a 3-DOF couch were as follows: prostate (0.2, 0.6, 0.8), SV (0.4, 0.9, 1.0), and LNs (0.3, 0.4, 0.6). For prostate guidance, margins were calculated for correlated motion: prostate (0, 0, 0), SV (0.3, 0.5, 0.4), and LNs (0.3, 0.5, 0.9). For a 6-DOF couch, these margins were as follows: prostate (0.2, 0.6, 0.8), SV (0.3, 0.9, 1.0), and LNs (0.3, 0.4, 0.3) for bone guidance. For prostate guidance, margins were as follows: prostate (0, 0, 0), SV (0.2, 0.5, 0.4), and LNs (0.3, 0.6, 0.6). CONCLUSIONS: Image guided radiation therapy based on bony anatomy requires larger prostate and SV margins, and guidance on prostate requires larger LN margins. Neither guidance strategy is optimal, and a combination of the 2 or treatment adaptation after a number of fractions might be preferable. Calculation of the total margin should also include delineation uncertainties.


Assuntos
Linfonodos/diagnóstico por imagem , Irradiação Linfática/métodos , Movimentos dos Órgãos , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias da Próstata/radioterapia , Radioterapia Guiada por Imagem/métodos , Pontos de Referência Anatômicos/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Masculino , Pelve , Próstata/diagnóstico por imagem , Planejamento da Radioterapia Assistida por Computador/métodos , Glândulas Seminais/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA