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1.
BMC Oral Health ; 21(1): 116, 2021 03 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33711992

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Compare antimicrobial efficacy of a quarternary ammonium silane (QAS)/k21 as an intracanal medicament against E. faecalis and C. albicans biofilms formed on root dentin. METHODOLOGY: Dentin blocks were sterilized and E. faecalis and C. albicans microbial colonies were counted for colony-forming-units against 2%k21, 2%CHX and Ca(OH)2 medicaments. Biofilm colonies after 7 days on dentin were analysed using confocal laser scanning microscopy with live/dead bacterial viability staining. TEM was done to study dentin collagen matrix. Dentin discs from 3rd day and 7th day well plate was used for Raman spectra and observed under fluorescent-microscope. Docking studies were carried out on MMP-2 S1 binding-domain with k21. RESULTS: There was reduction of E. faecalis/C. albicans when k21, chlorhexidine and calcium hydroxide were used with highest percentage in 2%k21 treated specimens. 2%k21 showed dense and regular collagen network with intact cross-banding and decreased Raman intensity for 2%k21 on 3rd day. NaOCl + k21 showed least adherence, whereas saline groups showed highest adherence of E. faecalis and C. albicans to root-canal dentin. Alizarin red staining of hDPSCs revealed calcium deposition in all groups with significant difference seen amongst 2%k21 groups. MMP-2 ligand binding was seen accurately indicating possible target sites for k21 intervention. CONCLUSION: 2%k21 can be considered as alternative intracanal medicament.


Assuntos
Compostos de Amônio , Silanos , Biofilmes , Hidróxido de Cálcio , Clorexidina/farmacologia , Cavidade Pulpar , Dentina , Enterococcus faecalis , Humanos , Irrigantes do Canal Radicular/farmacologia
2.
Indian J Dent Res ; 31(4): 550-556, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33107455

RESUMO

Background: The complex structure and irregularities of root canal walls are liable for infection by several bacterial species. Thus, the use of irrigants and auxiliary chemical solutions associated with instrumentation is necessary for effective eradication of the biofilm as well as complete removal of the smear layer. Aim: To evaluate the effects of calcium hypochlorite and chitosan oligosaccharide (COS) in disinfecting Enterococcus faecalis root canal biofilm and smear layer removal with minimal erosion. Materials And Methods: A total of 70 mandibular premolars were decoronated at the cementoenamel junction. The samples were biomechanically prepared, sterilized in an autoclave, and incubated with E. faecalis (ATCC-29212) bacteria for 21 days. Cleaning and shaping were done till maximum apical file size of #45 K. Specimens were randomly divided into 4 groups: GROUP I: Control Group, GROUP II: 5% Sodium Hypochlorite (NaOCl) solution followed by 17% EDTA solution, GROUP III: 5% Calcium Hypochlorite [Ca(OCl)2] solution followed by 17% EDTA solution and GROUP IV: 5% Ca(OCl)2 solution followed by 1% COS. The samples were subjected to microbial count followed by smear layer removal under scanning electron microscope (SEM) at coronal, middle and apical third. Statistical Analysis Used: Kruskal-Wallis Test and post-hoc Scheffe's test. Results: It was observed that Group IV showed the lowest amount of CFU count/mL and the highest amount of smear layer removal with a statistically significant difference (P < 0.05) when compared with the other three Groups. Conclusion: 5% Ca(OCl)2 solution with 1% COS solution effectively removed the Enterococcus faecalis biofilm and smear layer from the root canals with minimal erosion.


Assuntos
Quitosana , Camada de Esfregaço , Biofilmes , Compostos de Cálcio , Quitosana/farmacologia , Ácido Edético , Humanos , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Oligossacarídeos , Irrigantes do Canal Radicular/farmacologia , Preparo de Canal Radicular
3.
Acta Odontol Latinoam ; 33(2): 117-124, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32920614

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of different irrigation protocols to remove from the walls of the root canal and entrance to dentinal tubules the smear layer produced during preparation for a fiber post. Fifty decoronated human lower premolars were treated endodontically and the apical third of the canal was filled with a single gutta-percha point using warm vertical compaction. Ten millimeters were left free for post preparation, which was done by sequential use of a Largo #1 drill and Exacto #3 pilot drill (Angelus, Brazil), with irrigation with distilled water upon each instrument change. Samples were distributed randomly into 5 groups (n=10). G 1: No irrigation after post preparation. G 2: Distilled water activated for 60 s + distilled water. G 3: 5.25% NaOCl 15 s+ distilled water. G 4: 17% EDTA (Farmadental, Argentina) 60 s + 5.25% NaOCl 15 s + distilled water. G 5: 10% polyacrylic acid (Densell) 15 s + distilled water. Irrigant was activated mechanically with a low-speed conical brush. Roots were then split longitudinally in vestibular-lingual direction. Each surface was observed under SEM in its different thirds. Microphotographs were taken at 150X and 600X magnification and results analyzed statistically using Kruskall Wallis and Friedman tests (p<0.05). The results [mean (standard deviation)] were: for 150X: G1 11.00 (1.33), G2 7.50 (3.13), G3 6.30 (2.58), G4 2.20 (2.80), G5 4.30 (1.50), and for 600X G1 11.40 (0.84), G2 10.00 (1.94), G3 7.70 (3.33), G4 5.80 (3.70), G5 7.20 (2.65). The statistical analysis showed significant differences between irrigants (p<0.05) but not between root thirds (p>0.05). The EDTA+NaOCl combination and polyacrylic acid showed greater capacity to remove the smear layer created during post preparation.


Assuntos
Cavidade Pulpar/efeitos dos fármacos , Irrigantes do Canal Radicular/farmacologia , Preparo de Canal Radicular/métodos , Cavidade Pulpar/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Irrigantes do Canal Radicular/administração & dosagem , Camada de Esfregaço
4.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 23(9): 1188-1193, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32913155

RESUMO

Aims: The aim of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial effect of Erbium, chromium-doped yttrium, scandium, gallium, and garnet (Er,Cr:YSGG) laser with and without NaOCl solution. A total of 81 extracted human mandibular premolar teeth were used. Materials and Methods: After root canal preparation and sterilization, the samples were inoculated with E. faecalis for 24 hours. The specimens were divided into 4 experimental groups. Group 1 (n = 25) was irradiated with 2 W laser, group 2 (n = 25) was irradiated with 0.75 W laser in combination with 2.5% NaOCl, group 3 (n = 25) was irrigated with 5% NaOCl and group 4 (n = 6) was not treated. Statistical analysis was performed by using Wilcoxon Signed Ranks, Mann-Whitney U and Kruskal-Wallis H tests. Results: The combination of 0.75 W laser with 2.5% NaOCl regime was found to be just as effective at inhibiting the growth of E. faecalis and sterilization of all root canals as 5% NaOCl irrigation (P > 0.001). The 2 W laser had significant bactericidal effect in infected root canals however it did not eradicate all bacteria. The SEM observations were in accordance with the microbiologic findings. Conclusions: Within the limitations of this laboratory study, NaOCl irrigation improved the antimicrobial effect of Er,Cr:YSGG laser irradiation. When the toxic effects of high percentage of NaOCl was considered, the combination of low-powered laser and low concentration of NaOCl can be used as an effective disinfection method in root canal treatment.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Cavidade Pulpar/microbiologia , Enterococcus faecalis/efeitos dos fármacos , Lasers de Estado Sólido/uso terapêutico , Irrigantes do Canal Radicular/farmacologia , Hipoclorito de Sódio/farmacologia , Cromo , Érbio , Gálio , Humanos , Preparo de Canal Radicular , Tratamento do Canal Radicular/métodos , Escândio , Ítrio
5.
Acta Odontol Latinoam ; 33(1): 45-49, 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32621599

RESUMO

The gutta-percha cones used in endodontic treatment are produced in aseptic conditions and their composition includes zinc oxide, which is responsible for antibacterial activity. However, there is the possibility of microbial contamination by manipulation, aerosol or during storage. Although several chemical agents have been tested for their decontamination, there is no consensus on the best disinfection protocol to be used. The aim of this study was to evaluate the decontamination of gutta-percha cones contaminated with the bacteria Enterococcus faecalis, by using chlorhexidine digluconate (CHX) and sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) at different concentrations for short exposure times. For this purpose, gutta-percha cones (size 40) were selected at random from a sealed box and immersed for 1 min in a microbial suspension. Then they were immersed in specific Petri dishes for different groups containing: CHX 2%, NaClO 1% or NaClO 2.5% for 30 s or 1 min, and subsequently placed in tubes containing BHI broth. After incubating the tubes for 48 h, it was observed that 1% and 2.5% NaClO and 2% CHX were effective for decontaminating the cones at those exposure time intervals. Microbial growth was detected in one of the replicates of the group with CHX applied for 30 s. To prevent the possibility of failures at this stage, the exposure time of gutta-percha cones to the decontaminating agent should not be reduced.


Assuntos
Clorexidina/análogos & derivados , Descontaminação/métodos , Desinfetantes de Equipamento Odontológico/farmacologia , Enterococcus faecalis/efeitos dos fármacos , Guta-Percha , Irrigantes do Canal Radicular/farmacologia , Hipoclorito de Sódio/farmacologia , Esterilização/métodos , Anti-Infecciosos Locais , Clorexidina/farmacologia , Desinfetantes de Equipamento Odontológico/administração & dosagem , Enterococcus faecalis/isolamento & purificação , Contaminação de Equipamentos/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Materiais Restauradores do Canal Radicular , Irrigantes do Canal Radicular/administração & dosagem , Hipoclorito de Sódio/administração & dosagem
6.
Arch Oral Biol ; 117: 104842, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32707220

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The objective was to determine the antibiofilm efficacy of Cymbopogon martinii and Thymus zygis essential oils and to estimate the disruption potential of oil-based endodontic irrigants on the multispecies biofilm formed in the root canals of extracted teeth. DESIGN: The essential oils were characterized (GC-MS), while their antibacterial and cytotoxic properties were detected by microdilution and MTT assays. Particles sizes and polydispersity indices were determined for the irrigants. The isolates from root canals of pediatric patients were identified (MALDI-TOF). The multispecies biofilms were formed from Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus sanguinis and Enterococcus faecalis. Antibiofilm properties of the essential oils and irrigants were determined by crystal violet and plate counting assay. Statistical analysis was performed by one-way ANOVA. RESULTS: The screening of biofilm biomass revealed a disruption potential of C. martinii essential oil. The plate counting assay showed the efficacy of both oils in diminishing cell viability: high in biofilms (reduction of log10CFU was 2.75-2.87) and moderate in the planktons formed above. The essential oil-based irrigants showed the same antibiofilm activity as in the control (1.5 % sodium hypochlorite) for C. martini and almost 2-fold higher for T. zygis. Successive irrigations with 1.5 % sodium hypochlorite, saline and an oil-based irrigant was more efficient for C. martini than for the control (reductions of log10CFU was 1.69 and 1.14, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Notable activities achieved by essential oils and oil-based irrigants, particularly regarding C. martini, against the biofilm consisting of S. mitis, S. sanguinis, and E. faecalis, are expected to encourage further research in endodontics.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Cymbopogon/química , Óleos Voláteis , Irrigantes do Canal Radicular/farmacologia , Thymus (Planta)/química , Criança , Cavidade Pulpar , Enterococcus faecalis , Humanos , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Hipoclorito de Sódio
7.
Arch Oral Biol ; 117: 104764, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32485262

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of two radiopaque agents, barium sulfate (BaSO4) or zirconium oxide (ZrO2) in double antibiotic paste (DAP), on the proliferation and mineral deposition of human dental pulp stem cells (DPSC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Radiopaque antimicrobial medicaments composed of methylcellulose (MC) thickening polymer with BaSO4 or ZrO2 and either 1 or 5 mg/mL DAP (equal portions of metronidazole and ciprofloxacin) were used to investigate DPSC proliferation after 3 days, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and mineral deposition after 7 and 14 days. Radiopaque agents without DAP and Ca(OH)2 were used as controls. RESULTS: MC-BaSO4 DAP and MC-ZrO2 DAP at 1 or 5 mg/mL had no adverse effect on DPSC proliferation, compared to the media and MC controls. MC-ZrO2 (DAP-free) greatly increased ALP activity after 7 days. DPSC mineral deposition was modestly reduced at 7 days by MC-BaSO4 DAP and MC-ZrO2 DAP, but not by DAP-free radiopaque agents, and was most reduced by 5 mg/mL DAP in the 14-day cultures. CONCLUSIONS: MC-BaSO4 or MC-ZrO2 medicaments containing up to 5 mg/mL of DAP supported the proliferation and early osteogenic differentiation of DPSC. Low DAP concentrations and short culture times led to more favorable effects on ALP activity and mineral deposition by DPSC. The findings suggest that radiopaque agents added for the purpose of detecting whether medicaments occupy the full extent of the root canal may have clinical applications. Radiopaque antibiotic medicaments containing low DAP concentrations may be an alternative to Ca(OH)2 for regenerative endodontic procedures.


Assuntos
Fosfatase Alcalina/metabolismo , Antibacterianos , Polpa Dentária/citologia , Células-Tronco/citologia , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Humanos , Minerais , Osteogênese , Irrigantes do Canal Radicular/farmacologia , Células-Tronco/efeitos dos fármacos
8.
J Appl Oral Sci ; 28: e20190516, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32236357

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: This study investigated the effect of a calcium hydroxide (CH) paste (CleaniCal®) containing N-2-methyl pyrrolidone (NMP) as a vehicle on Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis) biofilms compared with other products containing saline (Calasept Plus™) or propylene glycol (PG) (Calcipex II®). METHODOLOGY: Standardized bovine root canal specimens were used. The antibacterial effects were measured by colony-forming unit counting. The thickness of bacterial microcolonies and exopolysaccharides was assessed using confocal laser scanning microscopy. Morphological features of the biofilms were observed using field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). Bovine tooth blocks covered with nail polish were immersed into the vehicles and dispelling was observed. The data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance and Tukey tests (p<0.05). RESULTS: CleaniCal® showed the highest antibacterial activity, followed by Calcipex II® (p<0.05). Moreover, NMP showed a higher antibacterial effect compared with PG (p<0.05). The thickness of bacteria and EPS in the CleaniCal® group was significantly lower than that of other materials tested (p<0.05). FE-SEM images showed the specimens treated with Calasept Plus™ were covered with biofilms, whereas the specimens treated with other medicaments were not. Notably, the specimen treated with CleaniCal® was cleaner than the one treated with Calcipex II®. Furthermore, the nail polish on the bovine tooth block immersed in NMP was completely dispelled. CONCLUSIONS: CleaniCal® performed better than Calasept Plus™ and Calcipex II® in the removal efficacy of E. faecalis biofilms. The results suggest the effect might be due to the potent dissolving effect of NMP on organic substances.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Hidróxido de Cálcio/farmacologia , Enterococcus faecalis/efeitos dos fármacos , Pirrolidinonas/farmacologia , Irrigantes do Canal Radicular/farmacologia , Análise de Variância , Animais , Cloreto de Cálcio/química , Cloreto de Cálcio/farmacologia , Hidróxido de Cálcio/química , Bovinos , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Combinação de Medicamentos , Teste de Materiais , Microscopia Confocal , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Cloreto de Potássio/química , Cloreto de Potássio/farmacologia , Pirrolidinonas/química , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Irrigantes do Canal Radicular/química , Bicarbonato de Sódio/química , Bicarbonato de Sódio/farmacologia , Cloreto de Sódio/química , Cloreto de Sódio/farmacologia , Estatísticas não Paramétricas
9.
Acta Odontol Scand ; 78(5): 321-326, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31909679

RESUMO

Objective: The objective of this study is to evaluate the wall adaptation and apical microleakage values following the application of various irrigation protocols in primary teeth.Material and methods: For the two parts of the study, extracted upper incisor primary teeth were randomly included to the 1% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), 10% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA)+1% NaOCl, 6% citric acid (CA)+1% NaOCl and 0.9% physiological saline (PS) groups. Canal wall adaptation and apical microleakage were assessed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and stereomicroscope, respectively.Results: 6% CA + 1% NaOCl group was found to be the most successful irrigation protocol in providing strong canal wall adaptation and less apical microleakage, followed by 10% EDTA +1% NaOCl. 6% CA +1% NaOCl was significantly superior regarding apical microleakage (p < .05).Conclusions: Due to the ability to provide appropriate changes in the root canal walls to make a well-adapted and leak-proof canal filling, 6% CA + 1% NaOCl can be recommended as an irrigation protocol in primary teeth.


Assuntos
Infiltração Dentária , Ácido Edético/administração & dosagem , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura/métodos , Irrigantes do Canal Radicular/farmacologia , Preparo de Canal Radicular , Camada de Esfregaço , Hipoclorito de Sódio/administração & dosagem , Dente Decíduo/diagnóstico por imagem , Cavidade Pulpar/efeitos dos fármacos , Cavidade Pulpar/ultraestrutura , Humanos , Irrigantes do Canal Radicular/administração & dosagem , Fatores de Tempo
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31936519

RESUMO

Propolis is a potent anti-microbial and natural anti-inflammatory by-product obtained from the beehive. Studies have demonstrated the superior biocompatibility and anti-microbial properties of propolis as compared to calcium hydroxide. However, its effect on postoperative endodontic pain is unknown. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the impact of Chinese propolis paste as an intracanal medicament on postoperative endodontic pain intensities compared with calcium hydroxide (control) at different time intervals in necrotic teeth with periapical radiolucency. Eighty patients with single-rooted necrotic teeth with visible periapical radiolucency were recruited and randomly allocated to either the calcium hydroxide or propolis groups. After chemo-mechanical preparation and intracanal medicament insertion, patients were given the VAS (visual analogue scale) to record pain scores. Inter-group data were compared and analyzed using two-way repeated measure ANOVA (Bonferroni test). A p-value of < 0.025 was considered significant. In total, >78% of the patients experienced no or only mild post-operative pain in both the groups at all time intervals, without any significant difference in pain scores between the two groups (p > 0.025). An overall flare-up rate of 14.8% was found. The results suggest that either of these medicaments can be used as an inter-appointment medication for the prevention of postoperative pain in necrotic cases.


Assuntos
Analgésicos/farmacologia , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Dor Pós-Operatória/prevenção & controle , Própole/farmacologia , Irrigantes do Canal Radicular/farmacologia , Analgésicos/administração & dosagem , Anti-Infecciosos/administração & dosagem , Hidróxido de Cálcio , Método Duplo-Cego , Humanos , Própole/administração & dosagem , Irrigantes do Canal Radicular/administração & dosagem
11.
Microsc Res Tech ; 83(4): 354-361, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31789473

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of different combinations of irrigating solutions and intracanal dressings in the pretreatment of bovine radicular dentin, using an experimental immature tooth model. Eighty healthy bovine teeth, simulated with incomplete rhizogenesis, were randomly distributed according to the protocols of root canal dentin pretreatment for a regenerative endodontic procedure (n = 10): Control (irrigation with distilled water); SH (irrigation with 1.5% Sodium Hypochlorite); EDTA (irrigation with 17% EDTA); SH/EDTA (irrigation with 1.5% SH + 17% EDTA); SH/CH/EDTA (irrigation with 1.5% SH + calcium hydroxide paste +17% EDTA); SH/MTAP/EDTA (irrigation with 1.5% SH + modified triple antibiotic paste + EDTA 17%); SH/TAP/EDTA (irrigation with 1.5% SH + triple antibiotic paste +17% EDTA) and SH/DAP/EDTA (irrigation with 1.5% SH + double antibiotic paste + EDTA 17%). After the completion of the protocol, the demineralization, the exposure of collagen fibers, and the dentin erosion was evaluated under scanning electron microscopy (SEM), by applying a score system (1-3) to classify the observed features. Statistical analysis was performed (Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn Multiple Comparison tests-p < .05). SH/TAP/EDTA and SH/DAP/EDTA groups presented the highest rates of demineralization in both the coronal and middle thirds of the root (p < .05). In the SH/MTAP/EDTA group, the samples presented moderate demineralization. The samples from the SH/CH/EDTA group presented similar findings to the control group (p < .05). Conventional triple antibiotic (TAP) and double antibiotic (DAP) pastes promoted more pronounced morphological changes on the dentin surface.


Assuntos
Cavidade Pulpar/efeitos dos fármacos , Dentina/efeitos dos fármacos , Endodontia Regenerativa , Irrigantes do Canal Radicular/farmacologia , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Hidróxido de Cálcio/farmacologia , Bovinos , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Preparo de Canal Radicular , Hipoclorito de Sódio/farmacologia , Propriedades de Superfície
12.
Lasers Med Sci ; 35(3): 719-728, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31782022

RESUMO

The aim was to validate an artificial resin 'root canal wall groove model' (RCWGM) mimicking the situation of natural roots with a groove of identical dimensions on debris removal out of these grooves, and to evaluate Erbium 'laser-activated irrigation' (LAI) with two conical tips at PIPS (photon-induced photoacoustic streaming) settings, with different activation times and different root canal positions on debris removal out of the grooves. A split RCWGM was used (resin blocks and roots of maxillary canines) with a canal size 40/0.06. The grooves in the apical third were filled with stained dentinal debris. Seventeen irrigation protocols (n = 20) were used: syringe-needle irrigation (3× 20 s), manual dynamic activation (1× 60 s), ultrasonically activated irrigation (UAI) with 25/25 Irrisafe (3× 20 s) and LAI (2940 nm Er:YAG) with X-Pulse or PIPS tips at PIPS settings (20 mJ, 50 µs, 20 Hz) and with the fibre (IN) or (OUT) the canal: IN during 1× 20 s, and OUT during 1× 20 s, 2× 20 s, 3× 20 s, 30 s, 2× 30 s and 1× 60 s. The quantity of remaining dentine debris in the groove was evaluated on a numerical scale. Statistical analysis was performed by means of proportional odds logistic regression, equivalence testing and Wald tests. The level of significance was set at 0.05. Resin models and the RCWGM with natural teeth can be called equivalent (log odds ratio 0.185). There were mostly no statistically significant differences for debris removal between UAI and LAI (p > 0.05) and between LAI with PIPS and X-Pulse (p > 0.05). Although not statistically different, the numbers of completely cleaned grooves were higher with LAI than with UAI for a 1-min activation, confirming findings from other studies. There is no difference in cleaning efficacy between X-Pulse and PIPS tips at PIPS settings.


Assuntos
Acústica , Dentina/patologia , Fótons , Irrigantes do Canal Radicular/farmacologia , Tratamento do Canal Radicular , Ultrassom , Humanos , Lasers , Razão de Chances , Preparo de Canal Radicular/métodos
13.
Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl ; 106: 110283, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31753393

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to characterize glycolic acid (GA) and examine its effects on powder and flexural strength of dentin. Particle size and energy-dispersive EDS in GA powder was performed for chemical analysis. Surface tension and pH levels of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), citric acid (CA), and GA solutions were evaluated at different times and temperatures. Dentin powder and mineralized dentin beams were immersed for 1 min in EDTA, CA, or GA solutions and subjected to Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy for apatite/collagen ratio analysis and 3-point flexure test, respectively. GA showed the largest particle size (µm), and its surface tension was similar to that of EDTA and CA. Surface tension decreased in solutions of higher concentrations. GA showed pH stability at all times and temperatures evaluated. The apatite/collagen ratio reduced with increased GA concentrations, while flexural strength was not significantly affected by GA concentration. GA seems a good choice as a final irrigation solution after root canal preparation.


Assuntos
Dentina/química , Glicolatos/química , Ácido Cítrico/química , Colágeno/química , Colágeno/metabolismo , Cavidade Pulpar/efeitos dos fármacos , Dentina/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácido Edético/química , Resistência à Flexão , Glicolatos/farmacologia , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Tamanho da Partícula , Desnaturação Proteica , Irrigantes do Canal Radicular/química , Irrigantes do Canal Radicular/farmacologia , Tensão Superficial , Temperatura
14.
Microsc Res Tech ; 83(4): 375-380, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31833180

RESUMO

The aim was to assess the effects of 1% peracetic acid (PAA) as a single endodontic irrigant on microhardness, roughness, and erosion of root canal dentin, compared with 2.5% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and with 2.5% NaOCl combined with 17% EDTA. Forty human, single-rooted tooth hemisections were submitted to Knoop microhardness test, before and after the following irrigation protocols: PAA = 1% PAA; NaOCl = 2.5% NaOCl; NaOCl-EDTA-NaOCl = 2.5% NaOCl +17% EDTA +2.5% NaOCl; and SS = saline. Another 40 roots were instrumented, irrigated with the same protocols, and sectioned longitudinally. The roughness analysis was performed on the mesial section using a confocal laser scanning microscope, whereas erosion was analyzed on each third of the distal section, using a scanning electron microscope. The data were analyzed using ANOVA and Tukey post-tests, and Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn post-tests (α = .05). The PAA and NaOCl-EDTA-NaOCl groups showed no significant differences (p > .05); both promoted reduction in microhardness and increase in roughness, compared with the NaOCl and SS groups (p < .05). NaOCl-EDTA-NaOCl promoted higher erosion in the cervical and middle thirds than the other groups (p < .05); there was no difference among PAA, NaOCl, and SS (p > .05). There was also no difference among the groups regarding the apical third (p > .05). PAA used as a single endodontic irrigant caused reduction in root canal dentin microhardness and increase in roughness in a similar way to NaOCl-EDTA-NaOCl; however, PAA caused less erosion than NaOCl-EDTA-NaOCl.


Assuntos
Cavidade Pulpar/efeitos dos fármacos , Dentina/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácido Peracético/farmacologia , Irrigantes do Canal Radicular/farmacologia , Dentina/patologia , Humanos , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Preparo de Canal Radicular , Hipoclorito de Sódio/farmacologia , Propriedades de Superfície , Erosão Dentária , Raiz Dentária/efeitos dos fármacos
15.
J Contemp Dent Pract ; 21(12): 1325-1330, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33893253

RESUMO

AIM AND OBJECTIVE: To assess the application of clotrimazole (1%) as a complementary antifungal agent along with sodium hypochlorite (5.25%), chlorhexidine gluconate (2%), and doxycycline hydrochloride (5%) against Candida albicans. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seventy freshly extracted single-rooted premolars with matured apices were collected, stored, and handled according to the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) and the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) guidelines and recommendations. These were divided into three groups (two tests and one control group) depending on irrigants used. The efficacy of each irrigant group was compared. The observations were statistically analyzed by the multiple intergroup comparisons using ANOVA and Scheffe multiple comparisons (p < 0.001). RESULTS: The sodium hypochlorite (group IA-mean 129.6) has shown a statistically significant decrease in colony-forming units (CFUs) (p < 0.01) on comparison with chlorhexidine [(IB) mean 190.2]. A similar result was obtained in comparison with the sodium hypochlorite group (IA) and doxycycline HCl group [(IC) mean 318.4] and also between the sodium hypochlorite group (IA) and the control group [(III) mean 554.2]. The intragroup comparison of group II, group IIA (mean 63.3), and group IIB (mean 73.8) showed no statistically significant difference. Group III (mean 554.2) was the least effective of all the subgroups. CONCLUSION: Sodium hypochlorite showed better antifungal efficacy than chlorhexidine and doxycycline when used alone. The addition of clotrimazole increased the efficiency of doxycycline also, but it was less compared to sodium hypochlorite and chlorhexidine. Within the limitations of this study, the inclusion of 1% clotrimazole increased the antifungal efficacy of all the three irrigants. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: Our study compared the efficacy of the various endodontic irrigants and also determined their efficiency with the addition of the antifungal agent. Clotrimazole (1%) addition in irrigating solutions showed better results and promoted faster healing.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos , Candida albicans , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Clorexidina/farmacologia , Clotrimazol/farmacologia , Enterococcus faecalis , Irrigantes do Canal Radicular/farmacologia , Hipoclorito de Sódio/farmacologia
16.
Indian J Dent Res ; 31(6): 846-851, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33753652

RESUMO

Introduction: Bacterial elimination from the root canal system is considered as an essential factor for a successful endodontic treatment. Aims: To investigate both in vitro and in vivo efficacy of calcium hydroxide paste (CH) combined with 2% chlorhexidine gel (CHX) at various time intervals on Enterococcus faecalis (E.f) when used as an intracanal medicament (ICM). Materials and Methods: For the in vitro study, 45 single-rooted teeth were used. After instrumentation, roots were infected with E.f and then divided into three groups (gps) (15 n/gp) according to the time interval for the medicament to be left inside the canal (1 week, 2 weeks and 3 weeks). ICM used was 2% CHX combined with CH (CH + CHX). At the end of each time interval, the antibacterial effect was evaluated using the agar diffusion test. For the in vivo study, 45 single-rooted teeth were selected. After sterilisation and access opening, the first pre-treatment sample was taken, then after instrumentation second post-instrumentation sample was obtained. Later, teeth were divided into 3 gps (15 n/gp) (1 week, 2 weeks and 3 weeks) according to the time interval for the medicament to be left inside the canal. ICM used was 2% CH + CHX. After each period, the third post-medication sample was taken. ANOVA and Tukey post hoc tests were used for statistical analysis. Results: Both in vitro and in vivo studies have found that 2% of CH + CHX had a significant antibacterial effect for 1 week and 2 weeks. However, the antibacterial effect was significantly decreased after 3 weeks. Conclusions: CH + CHX can be used successfully for the reduction of E.f for 14 days when used as ICM.


Assuntos
Hidróxido de Cálcio , Clorexidina , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Hidróxido de Cálcio/farmacologia , Clorexidina/farmacologia , Cavidade Pulpar , Enterococcus faecalis , Irrigantes do Canal Radicular/farmacologia
17.
J. appl. oral sci ; 28: e20190516, 2020. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, BBO - Odontologia | ID: biblio-1090775

RESUMO

Abstract This study investigated the effect of a calcium hydroxide (CH) paste (CleaniCal®) containing N-2-methyl pyrrolidone (NMP) as a vehicle on Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis) biofilms compared with other products containing saline (Calasept Plus™) or propylene glycol (PG) (Calcipex II®). Methodology Standardized bovine root canal specimens were used. The antibacterial effects were measured by colony-forming unit counting. The thickness of bacterial microcolonies and exopolysaccharides was assessed using confocal laser scanning microscopy. Morphological features of the biofilms were observed using field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). Bovine tooth blocks covered with nail polish were immersed into the vehicles and dispelling was observed. The data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance and Tukey tests (p<0.05). Results CleaniCal® showed the highest antibacterial activity, followed by Calcipex II® (p<0.05). Moreover, NMP showed a higher antibacterial effect compared with PG (p<0.05). The thickness of bacteria and EPS in the CleaniCal® group was significantly lower than that of other materials tested (p<0.05). FE-SEM images showed the specimens treated with Calasept Plus™ were covered with biofilms, whereas the specimens treated with other medicaments were not. Notably, the specimen treated with CleaniCal® was cleaner than the one treated with Calcipex II®. Furthermore, the nail polish on the bovine tooth block immersed in NMP was completely dispelled. Conclusions CleaniCal® performed better than Calasept Plus™ and Calcipex II® in the removal efficacy of E. faecalis biofilms. The results suggest the effect might be due to the potent dissolving effect of NMP on organic substances.


Assuntos
Animais , Bovinos , Pirrolidinonas/farmacologia , Irrigantes do Canal Radicular/farmacologia , Hidróxido de Cálcio/farmacologia , Enterococcus faecalis/efeitos dos fármacos , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Cloreto de Potássio/farmacologia , Cloreto de Potássio/química , Pirrolidinonas/química , Irrigantes do Canal Radicular/química , Teste de Materiais , Cloreto de Cálcio/farmacologia , Cloreto de Cálcio/química , Hidróxido de Cálcio/química , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Cloreto de Sódio/farmacologia , Cloreto de Sódio/química , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Análise de Variância , Bicarbonato de Sódio/farmacologia , Bicarbonato de Sódio/química , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Microscopia Confocal , Combinação de Medicamentos
18.
J Contemp Dent Pract ; 21(9): 1042-1047, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33568593

RESUMO

AIM AND OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the antifungal efficiency of various intracanal medicaments against Candida albicans. MATERIALS AND METHODS: One-hundred and forty extracted human mandibular premolar teeth were decoronated, and the biomechanical preparation was done in crown-down technique. 10 µL culture suspension of C. albicans was placed into the prepared root canal space of all the teeth. After 21 days of incubation, all the teeth were randomly divided into 7 groups with 20 teeth per each group. Group I: triple antibiotic powder (TAP) mixed with 3% chitosan solution; group II: TAP mixed with macrogol-propylene (MP) glycol; group III: chlorhexidine-guttapercha (CHX-GP); group IV: Vitapex; group V: 2% chlorhexidine gel; group VI: calcium hydroxide paste; group VII: normal saline with cotton (positive control) were used as intracanal medicaments, and the samples were incubated for 14 days. Intracanal medicaments were then completely removed using the canal brush. Dentinal chips were harvested from the walls of the root canal space in all samples using Gates-Glidden drills, were transferred into test tubes containing saline, and were serially diluted and placed in 140 Sabouraud dextrose agar plates, incubated at 37°C for 48 hours. Colony forming units (CFUs) of C. albicans were then counted using the digital colony counter. RESULTS: One-way ANOVA test showed statistically significant difference among the seven groups, as the p value was < 0.001. Tukey's post hoc test showed intergroup comparison between group I and group V; group II and group III were statistically nonsignificant as p value was >0.05. CONCLUSION: 2% chlorhexidine gel and TAP mixed with 3% chitosan solution showed superior antifungal efficiency against C. albicans. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: Chitosan solution's inherent antifungal efficiency and slow and controlled drug release make it as an effective alternate carrier in mixing it with TAP instead of mixing TAP with MP.


Assuntos
Candida albicans , Irrigantes do Canal Radicular , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Hidróxido de Cálcio/farmacologia , Clorexidina/farmacologia , Cavidade Pulpar , Enterococcus faecalis , Humanos , Irrigantes do Canal Radicular/farmacologia
19.
J Contemp Dent Pract ; 21(8): 905-909, 2020 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33568613

RESUMO

AIM: The aim of this study was to evaluate the antifungal efficacy of a novel endodontic irrigant octenidine against conventional irrigants sodium hypochlorite and EDTA on Candida albicans growth in the young and old population by calculating the number of colonies formed and by qualitative identification of dead/viable fungi by Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) method. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The total number of samples used in the study was eighty samples after decoronation of the crown portion the middle third of root canal. Each group was subdivided into four subgroups with various irrigation protocols: (A) 17% EDTA + 5.25% NaOCl, (B) 100% Octenisept, (C) 17% EDTA + 5.25% NaOCl + 1% clotrimazole, and (D) phosphate buffer saline. After completion of irrigation ATCC samples (90028) of C. albicans were inoculated with 5 mL of peptone water each and incubated at 37°C for 72 hours to attain the turbidity corresponding to 0.5 McFarland standards CFU. Eight samples were analyzed for the formation of candidal colonies, and two samples for the assessment of viability of Candida by confocal laser scanning microscope in each subgroup. RESULTS: Comparison of antifungal efficacy of endodontic irrigants employed in the young and old populations revealed a significant reduction in the mean values of CFU and the mean values of percentage of non-viable microorganism by CLSM method. A positive relationship was revealed in the younger population which had a better antifungal efficacy than the older population in all the irrigant subgroups evaluated in the study. CONCLUSION: All the endodontic irrigants employed in our study had a good antifungal efficacy against Candida albicans. Octenisept had a maximum antifungal efficacy, while phosphate saline showed the least efficacy in both age groups, which was quantitatively evaluated by CFU method, and the same was confirmed through qualitative evaluation by CLSM method. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: Candida albicans plays a major role in the establishment and pathogenesis of failed root canal treatment. Age-related changes alter the adhesion potential of dentin, in turn influence the outcome of endodontic therapy. Octenidine, a novel antifungal agent, can be substituted over the conventionally used EDTA and NaOCl with less adverse effects.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos , Irrigantes do Canal Radicular , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Cavidade Pulpar , Ácido Edético , Enterococcus faecalis , Lasers , Piridinas , Irrigantes do Canal Radicular/farmacologia , Hipoclorito de Sódio/farmacologia
20.
Clin Exp Dent Res ; 5(5): 551-556, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31687190

RESUMO

Objectives: Conventional disinfectants and medicaments have not been able to achieve and maintain sterilization of root canals. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the antibacterial efficacy of 3.8% silver diamine fluoride (SDF) in comparison with 2% chlorhexidine (CHX) against Enterococcus faecalis biofilm. Materials and methods: Extracted human teeth were used to make 70 dentin discs that were then inoculated with E. faecalis to generate a 3-week-old biofilm model. The discs were subjected to treatment with 3.8% SDF, 2% CHX, sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), or saline for 10 min. After exposure, the dentin discs were examined with a confocal laser scanning microscope to verify the percentage of live versus dead cells within the biofilm. Univariate one-way analysis of variance and Tukey-honestly significant difference post hoc analysis (p < .05) were performed to detect significant differences. Results and conclusion: The NaOCl group showed the greatest percentage of dead cells (62.26%) among all groups (p < .05). The SDF group showed a significantly higher percentage of dead cells (57.39%) than the 2% CHX and saline groups (p < .05). SDF possessed higher antimicrobial activity than 2% CHX against E. faecalis biofilms.


Assuntos
Biofilmes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Clorexidina/farmacologia , Desinfetantes/farmacologia , Enterococcus faecalis/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas/tratamento farmacológico , Compostos de Amônio Quaternário/farmacologia , Irrigantes do Canal Radicular/farmacologia , Compostos de Prata/farmacologia , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Fluoretos Tópicos/farmacologia , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas/microbiologia , Humanos
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