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1.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 25(6): 895-902, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35708431

RESUMO

Background: The whole root canal disinfection is crucial in terms of long-term endodontic success. In this context, applying medicaments following effective irrigation activation procedures becomes an important point. Aims: The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the efficacy of various irrigation activation techniques on non-infected dentinal tubule penetration of calcium hydroxide (CH), double (DAP), and triple (TAP) antibiotic pastes. Materials and Methods: A total of 180 extracted human permanent mandibular premolar single-rooted teeth were selected and randomly divided into a control group and four main groups according to the irrigation activation procedures (n = 36) as KTP laser irradiation, conventional needle, NaviTip FX, sonic (SI) and ultrasonic activation (UI) procedures. Each group was randomly subdivided into three subgroups according to the medicament type (n = 12); CH, DAP, and TAP. After the activation procedures, the root canals were filled with CH, TAP, and DAP mixed with 0.1% fluorescent rhodamine B isothiocyanate. Specimens were sectioned at 2, 5, and 8 mm from the apex, and all the sections were examined under a confocal laser scanning microscope to calculate the dentinal tubule penetration. Data were analyzed using a three-way analysis of variance and Tukey's post hoc tests (P = 0.05). Results: TAP provided a statistically significant greater penetration than the other groups (P < 0.05). UI provided a statistically significant higher dentinal tubules penetration area than other activation procedures (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Medicament penetration depends on the type of medicament, activation procedures, and root canal level. The TAP may be preferred following the ultrasonic activation in terms of long term root canal treatment success.


Assuntos
Dentina , Irrigantes do Canal Radicular , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Hidróxido de Cálcio/farmacologia , Cavidade Pulpar , Humanos , Irrigantes do Canal Radicular/farmacologia , Preparo de Canal Radicular/métodos , Raiz Dentária
2.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 25(5): 670-676, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35593611

RESUMO

Background: Irrigant activation techniques, which are more effective in anatomically complex areas, can be used to maximize irrigant efficacy. Aim: This in vitro study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of different agitation techniques on the dislocation resistance of Biodentine to the root canal dentin. Materials and Methods: Seventy single-rooted teeth divided into seven experimental groups (n = 10); Group I-Irritrol/Photon-induced-photoacoustic-streaming (PIPS), Group II-Irritrol/EDDY®, Group III- Irritrol/Syringe-needle-irrigation (SNI), Group IV-Chlorhexidine-gluconate (CHX)/PIPS, Group V-CHX/EDDY®, Group VI-CHX/SNI, Group VII-Saline. The midroot dentin slice was obtained from each tooth, and Biodentine was condensed with hand pluggers into the root canal lumen. The push-out bond strength values were measured using a universal testing machine. Each sample was categorized into one of the three failure modes: adhesive/cohesive/mixed. Scanning-Electron-Microscopy (SEM) was used to conduct the analyses, and the composition of Biodentine was analyzed using Energy-Dispersive Spectroscopy. The One-way ANOVA, post-hoc Tukey's test, and the Chi-square test were used for statistical analysis. Results: The push-out bond strength values of Biodentine showed that Group VII-Saline had a statistically significant difference (P = 0.002), however, the differences between the other groups were not statistically significant (P = 0.922). The percentages of the failure modes of the samples showed that there was a higher rate of mixed failure except for Group VII-Saline. SEM examination showed that Group VII-Saline had no open dentinal tubules, whereas the other groups, particularly the Irritrol groups, had open dentinal tubule areas. Conclusions: Within the scope of the study, using Irritrol or CHX as the final irrigation in the root canal treatment did not result in differences in the dislocation resistance of Biodentine to root canal dentin when PIPS and EDDY® were used.


Assuntos
Clorexidina , Colagem Dentária , Compostos de Cálcio , Clorexidina/química , Clorexidina/farmacologia , Cavidade Pulpar , Dentina , Humanos , Irrigantes do Canal Radicular/química , Irrigantes do Canal Radicular/farmacologia , Preparo de Canal Radicular , Silicatos , Análise Espectral
3.
BMC Oral Health ; 22(1): 201, 2022 May 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35606751

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To investigate the effect of a rotary agitation method or ultrasonically activated irrigation on the antibiofilm effect of a mixture of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and etidronate (1-hydroxyethylidene-1,1-bisphosphonate, HEBP) using a dual-species biofilm model in root canal system. METHODS: Mature dual-species biofilms of Enterococcus faecalis and Streptococcus gordonii were formed in root canals of mandibular premolars. Teeth were randomly allotted (n = 12) to group 1, XP-endo Finisher (XPF); group 2, ultrasonically activated irrigation (UAI); group 3, syringe-and-needle irrigation (SNI). In all groups, canals were instrumented with a rotary instrument (XP-endo Shaper) prior to irrigant agitation/activation. A mixture containing 2.5% NaOCl and 9% HEBP was used throughout the experiment. Bacterial counts from the canal were determined using qPCR before preparation (S1), after preparation (S2), and after final irrigation agitation/activation (S3). Bacterial viability within the dentinal tubules in the coronal, middle and apical root-thirds was quantified using confocal microscopy after Live/Dead staining. The bacterial counts and viability were compared between groups using one-way ANOVA and post-hoc Tukey's tests. Paired t-test was used to compare the bacterial counts within groups. RESULTS: Instrumentation alone could significantly reduce the microbial counts in all the groups (P < 0.0001). Subsequent agitation/activation resulted in significant microbial reduction only in XPF and UAI (P < 0.05), both of which reduced significantly more microbial counts than SNI (P < 0.05). Live/Dead staining revealed that XPF and UAI showed significantly greater percentage of dead bacteria within the dentinal tubules than SNI in the coronal third (P < 0.05); UAI resulted in the significantly highest percentage of dead bacteria in the middle third (P < 0.05); while there was no significant difference between the groups in the apical third (P > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: When using the sodium hypochlorite/etidronate mixture for irrigation, final irrigant agitation/activation with XP-endo Finisher or ultrasonic can improve disinfection of the main root canal space and the dentinal tubules in the coronal third, while ultrasonically activated irrigation appears to exhibit better disinfection within dentinal tubules in the middle third.


Assuntos
Ácido Etidrônico , Hipoclorito de Sódio , Biofilmes , Cavidade Pulpar/microbiologia , Ácido Etidrônico/farmacologia , Ácido Etidrônico/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Ácido Hipocloroso , Irrigantes do Canal Radicular/farmacologia , Irrigantes do Canal Radicular/uso terapêutico , Preparo de Canal Radicular/métodos , Hipoclorito de Sódio/farmacologia , Irrigação Terapêutica
4.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 7595, 2022 05 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35534609

RESUMO

Calcium hydroxide Ca(OH)2 has been used as an intracanal medicament to targets microbial biofilms and avert secondary infection in the root canal system. This study evaluated the effects of this material on the morphology and physicochemical properties of an established in-vitro biofilm of Enterococcus faecalis. A biofilm of E. faecalis was grown in multichannel plates. The chemicals including Ca2+, OH-, and saturated Ca(OH)2 (ie 21.6 mM) were prepared in order to evaluate which component eradicated or amplified biofilm structure. Various biochemical and microscopic methods were used to investigate the properties of the biofilm. Biofilms treated with Ca(OH)2 absorbed more Ca2+ because of the alkaline pH of the environment and the ions affected the physicochemical properties of the E. faecalis biofilm. A denser biofilm with more cavities and a granular surface was observed in the presence of Ca2+ ions. This resulted in a decrease in the surface-to-biofilm ratio with increases in its biomass, thickness, colony size, and volume. Calcium hydroxide did not destroy E. faecalis biofilms but rather contributed to the biofilm structure. This in-vitro study sheds light on a missing link in the formation of E. faecalis biofilm in which the Ca2+ in Ca(OH)2.


Assuntos
Hidróxido de Cálcio , Enterococcus faecalis , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Biofilmes , Hidróxido de Cálcio/farmacologia , Irrigantes do Canal Radicular/farmacologia , Tratamento do Canal Radicular
5.
BMC Oral Health ; 22(1): 119, 2022 04 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35397605

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The main goal of an endodontic treatment is a complete debridement of the root canal system; however, currently mechanical shaping and chemical cleaning procedures for this purpose have deemed non-satisfactory. METHODS: The efficacy of peracetic acid (PAA; 0.5, 1.0, 2.0%), as a root canal irrigation solution, against Enterococcus faecalis (DSM 20478) and Parvimonas micra (DSM 20468) when compared with the one of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCI; 1.0, 3.0, 5.0%), chlorhexidine digluconate (CHX; 0.12, 0.2, 2.0%) and 0.9% NaCI (as a control solution) was in vitro investigated with the agar diffusion and direct contact methods. The inhibition zone diameters observed with the agar diffusion test were determined. The viable bacterial counts (CFU/ml) were calculated with the direct method. RESULTS: The agar diffusion test showed that all three root canal irrigation solutions had an efficacy against E. faecalis at all concentrations. The largest inhibition zone diameters against E. faecalis were observed with 5.0% NaOCI. At all three concentrations of PAA, NaOCI, and CHX, the inhibition zone diameter increased with increase in concentration. For P. micra, PAA had a similar inhibition zone diameter despite a concentration increase. In contrast, for NaOCI and CHX, the inhibition zone diameter increased with increasing concentration. 2.0% CHX produced the largest inhibition zone diameter against P. micra. For E. faecalis, only the comparison between 2.0% PAA and 5.0% NaOCI showed statistical significance (p = 0.004). For P. micra the efficacy comparison between the lowest, middle, and highest concentrations of each solution, a statistical significance (p < 0.05) was found for all three solutions. After direct contact with PAA, NaOCI and CHX, no viable bacteria could be determined for either P. micra or E. faecalis. CONCLUSIONS: PAA had a similar antibacterial efficacy as the one of NaOCl and CHX when in direct contact with E. faecalis and P. micra. In the agar diffusion test, PAA showed a similar antibacterial efficacy as the one of CHX and a lower one as the one of NaOCl for E. faecalis.


Assuntos
Enterococcus faecalis , Hipoclorito de Sódio , Ágar , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Clorexidina/farmacologia , Clorexidina/uso terapêutico , Cavidade Pulpar , Firmicutes , Humanos , Ácido Peracético/farmacologia , Irrigantes do Canal Radicular/farmacologia , Irrigantes do Canal Radicular/uso terapêutico , Hipoclorito de Sódio/farmacologia , Hipoclorito de Sódio/uso terapêutico
6.
Int Endod J ; 55(7): 758-771, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35470434

RESUMO

AIM: The addition of etidronic acid (HEDP) to sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) could increase the antibiofilm potency of the irrigant, whilst maintaining the benefits of continuous chelation. Studies conducted so far have shown that mixing HEDP with NaOCl solutions of relatively low concentration does not compromise the antibiofilm efficacy of the irrigant. However, the working lifespan of NaOCl may decrease resulting in a reduction of its antibiofilm efficacy over time (efficiency). In this regard, continuous irrigant replenishment needs to be examined. This study investigated the response of a dual-species biofilm when challenged with 2% and 5% NaOCl mixed with HEDP for a prolonged timespan and under steady laminar flow. METHODOLOGY: Dual-species biofilms comprised of Streptococcus oralis J22 and Actinomyces naeslundii T14V-J1 were grown on human dentine discs in a constant depth film fermenter (CDFF) for 96 h. Biofilms were treated with 2% and 5% NaOCl, alone or mixed with HEDP. Irrigants were applied under steady laminar flow for 8 min. Biofilm response was evaluated by means of optical coherence tomography (OCT). Biofilm removal, biofilm disruption, rate of biofilm loss and disruption as well as bubble formation were assessed. One-way anova, Wilcoxon's signed-rank test and Kruskal-Wallis H test were performed for statistical analysis of the data. The level of significance was set at a ≤.05. RESULTS: Increasing NaOCl concentration resulted in increased biofilm removal and disruption, higher rate of biofilm loss and disruption and increased bubble formation. Mixing HEDP with NaOCl caused a delay in the antibiofilm action of the latter, without compromising its antibiofilm efficacy. CONCLUSIONS: NaOCl concentration dictates the biofilm response irrespective of the presence of HEDP. The addition of HEDP resulted in a delay in the antibiofilm action of NaOCl. This delay affects the efficiency, but not the efficacy of the irrigant over time.


Assuntos
Ácido Etidrônico , Irrigantes do Canal Radicular , Biofilmes , Humanos , Irrigantes do Canal Radicular/farmacologia , Hipoclorito de Sódio/farmacologia , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica
7.
ACS Appl Bio Mater ; 5(5): 2135-2142, 2022 05 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35476392

RESUMO

Conventional methods used to control bacterial biofilm infection in root canals have poor efficacy, causing repeated and chronic infections, which pose a great challenge to clinical treatment. Microbubbles, due to their small size and ultrasound (US)-enhanced cavitation effects, have attracted considerable clinical attention. They possess the potential for therapeutic application in restricted spaces. We address the above problem with a strategy for the restricted space of root canals. Herein, phase-change nanodroplets (P-NDs) exposed to US are combined with common antibacterial drugs to disrupt a 7 day Enterococcus faecalis biofilm in an in vitro human tooth model. Specifically, the preparation of P-NDs is based on secondary cavitation. Their average particle size is ∼144 nm, and the stability is favorable. The clearance effect for the biofilm is notable (the disruption rate of P-NDs + US is 63.1%, P < 0.01), while the effect of an antibacterial in conjunction with 2% chlorhexidine (Chx) is significant (the antibiofilm rate of P-NDs@2% Chx + US is 96.2%, P < 0.001). Furthermore, biocompatibility testing on human periodontal ligament fibroblasts demonstrated that P-NDs are safe. In summary, the strategy that we have proposed is suitable for the removal of biofilms in root canals. Notably, it also has great potential for application in the treatment of bacterial infections in restricted spaces.


Assuntos
Enterococcus faecalis , Irrigantes do Canal Radicular , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Biofilmes , Clorexidina/farmacologia , Cavidade Pulpar , Humanos , Irrigantes do Canal Radicular/farmacologia
8.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 6354, 2022 04 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35428859

RESUMO

Silane-based/fully hydrolyzed, endodontic irrigant exhibiting antimicrobial properties, is prepared, and is hypothesized to control macrophage polarization for tissue repair. Albino wistar rats were injected with 0.1 ml root canal irrigant, and bone marrow cells procured. Cellular mitochondria were stained with MitoTracker green along with Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) performed for macrophage extracellular vesicle. Bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) were induced for M1 and M2 polarization and Raman spectroscopy with scratch assay performed. Cell counting was used to measure cytotoxicity, and fluorescence microscopy performed for CD163. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) was used to investigate interaction of irrigants with Enterococcus faecalis. K21 specimens exhibited reduction in epithelium thickness and more mitochondrial mass. EVs showed differences between all groups with decrease and increase in IL-6 and IL-10 respectively. 0.5%k21 enhanced wound healing with more fibroblastic growth inside scratch analysis along with increased inflammation-related genes (ICAM-1, CXCL10, CXCL11, VCAM-1, CCL2, and CXCL8; tissue remodelling-related genes, collagen 1, EGFR and TIMP-2 in q-PCR analysis. Sharp bands at 1643 cm-1 existed in all with variable intensities. 0.5%k21 had a survival rate of BMSCs comparable to control group. Bacteria treated with 0.5%k21/1%k21, displayed damage. Antimicrobial and reparative efficacy of k21 disinfectant is a proof of concept for enhanced killing of bacteria across root dentin acquiring functional type M2 polarization for ethnopharmacological effects.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Silanos , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Biofilmes , Dentina , Enterococcus faecalis , Macrófagos , Modelos Animais , Irrigantes do Canal Radicular/farmacologia , Silanos/farmacologia , Hipoclorito de Sódio/farmacologia
9.
J Endod ; 48(6): 775-780, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35314292

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Lateral canals are particularly challenging to clean and disinfect. The aim of this study was to compare the removal efficacy of a dual-species biofilm from a lateral canal model by different ultrasonic irrigant activation protocols in vitro. METHODS: Artificial root canal models with 270 simulated lateral canals were made of polydimethylsiloxane. A dual-species biofilm (Streptococcus oralis and Actinomyces naeslundi) was grown in vitro in the lateral canals using a constant depth film fermenter. Two percent NaOCl or demineralized water was delivered by a syringe and an open-ended needle for 30 seconds and subsequently activated by an ultrasonic file for a total activation time of 30, 60, or 90 seconds divided in 1 or 3 consecutive activation cycles. In the control groups, the irrigant was allowed to rest for 30, 60, or 90 seconds. The volume of the biofilm in the lateral canal was evaluated before and after the final irrigation protocol by optical coherence tomography. The results were analyzed by 3-way factorial analysis of variance (α = 0.05). RESULTS: Irrigation with NaOCl rather than demineralized water resulted in more effective biofilm removal from the lateral canal (P < .001). Three cycles of intermittent ultrasonic activation were significantly more effective than no activation (P = .029). The total irrigant contact time did not affect biofilm removal (P = .403). CONCLUSIONS: The type of the irrigant and the ultrasonic activation protocol affected biofilm removal from artificial lateral canals. None of the compared protocols was able to eradicate the biofilm.


Assuntos
Cavidade Pulpar , Irrigantes do Canal Radicular , Biofilmes , Irrigantes do Canal Radicular/farmacologia , Preparo de Canal Radicular/métodos , Hipoclorito de Sódio/farmacologia , Irrigação Terapêutica/métodos , Ultrassom , Água
10.
J Appl Oral Sci ; 30: e20210575, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35352771

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the effects of different peracetic acid (PAA) formulations on smear layer (SL) removal, dentine erosion, cytotoxicity, and antibiofilm activity. METHODOLOGY: SL removal and dentine erosion were assessed using 90 premolars, distributed into six groups, according to final irrigation: PAA formulations (1% Sigma, 1% Bacterend OX, 1% Arposept, and 0.09-0.15% Anioxyde), 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), and water (control). Cytotoxicity was assessed by methyl-thiazol-tetrazolium (MTT) and neutral red assays. Antibacterial and antibiofilm effectiveness was evaluated against Enterococcus faecalis. For cytotoxicity and antibiofilm activity assessment, the 2.5% NaOCl was also included. RESULTS: EDTA, Sigma, and Bacterend OX removed more SL than Arposept, Anioxyde, and water (p<0.05). EDTA caused more severe dentine erosion than Sigma and Bacterend OX (p<0.05). Sigma and Bacterend OX had higher cytotoxicity than the other solutions (p<0.05). NaOCl, Bacterend OX, Sigma, and Anioxyde significantly reduced E. faecalis colony-forming units (CFU) (p<0.05). The 2.5% NaOCl solution promoted greater biofilm biomass reduction (p<0.05) than the other solutions. All PAA formulations promoted greater biomass reduction than 17% EDTA (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Although Sigma and Bacterend OX had higher cytotoxicity, they had a SL removal capability similar to that of EDTA, were as effective as NaOCl against E. faecalis biofilm, and promoted less dentine erosion than EDTA. Arposept and Anioxyde failed to remove the SL, had lower cytotoxicity, and showed less bacterial activity than NaOCl.


Assuntos
Camada de Esfregaço , Biofilmes , Dentina , Humanos , Ácido Peracético/farmacologia , Irrigantes do Canal Radicular/farmacologia , Hipoclorito de Sódio/farmacologia
11.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 25(3): 261-266, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35295046

RESUMO

Background: Endodontic irrigants could alter the mechanical properties of root canal dentin, such as its roughness. Aim: To compare the effect of various irrigation protocols on root canal dentin roughness with respect to their application time, concentration, and additional ultrasonic activation. Materials and Methods: Forty single-rooted, non-endodontically treated upper incisors were decoronated and further sectioned longitudinally in a buccolingual direction. The surfaces of all eighty samples were polished and randomly segregated to eight equal groups (n = 10): Group A: 2% NaOCl/2 min followed by 17% EDTA/2 min; Group B: 2% NaOCl/5 min followed by 17% EDTA/5 min; Group C: 5.25% NaOCl/2 min followed by 17% EDTA/2 min; Group D: 5.25% NaOCl/5 min followed by 17% EDTA/5 min; Group E: 2% NaOCl solution, ultrasonically activated for 2 min; Group F: 5.25% NaOCl, ultrasonically activated for 2 min; Group G: 2% NaOCl/2 min followed by 17% EDTA/2 min, both ultrasonically activated; Group H: Control group (distilled water). Results: All irrigation regimens increased root dentin surface roughness in comparison with the control group. The analysis of the values revealed significant differences between the arithmetical average roughness values (Ra) in the groups (p < 0.001). A statistically significant increase in the Ra parameter was observed in groups E, F, G, and D. The irrigation protocol in Group A showed a significantly smoother dentin surface than those with the ultrasonic activation. Conclusion: All tested irrigants increased root canal dentin roughness and the effect was time and concentration-dependent. The ultrasonic activation of the disinfection solutions roughened the root dentin surface significantly.


Assuntos
Cavidade Pulpar , Irrigantes do Canal Radicular , Dentina , Ácido Edético/farmacologia , Humanos , Microscopia de Força Atômica , Irrigantes do Canal Radicular/farmacologia , Hipoclorito de Sódio/farmacologia
12.
Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther ; 38: 102795, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35263668

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has shown satisfactory antibacterial effects. However, little information regarding the cytotoxicity potential of PDT using curcumin as a photosensitizer (PS) on fibroblasts are found. The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the cytotoxicity of root canal irrigating solutions and photodynamic therapy with curcumin PS on the L-929 cell line. METHODS: Healthy mouse skin fibroblast cells were distributed into the following 7 experimental groups: G1 - culture medium DMEM (control group); G2 - 0.9% sodium chloride; G3 - 2.5% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl); G4 - 5% NaOCl; G5 - PDT with curcumin PS at 500 mg/L + blue LED; G6 - PDT with curcumin PS at 750 mg/L + blue LED; and G7 - PDT with curcumin PS at 1000 mg/L + blue LED. All experimental groups which underwent PDT action were submitted to blue LED for 4 min, with a wavelength of 480 nm and energy fluency of 75 J/cm². The cultures were maintained under standard cell culture conditions (37°C, 100% humidity, 5% CO2). Cell viability analysis was performed using the colorimetric method to evaluate the periods of 6, 24, and 48 h. Data were subjected to the Kruskal-Wallis test, followed by the Dunn test to compare groups and Friedman test to compare periods (α = 0.05). RESULTS: When comparing the periods, no significant differences were observed for any of the experimental groups analyzed (p > 0.05), except for the NaOCl2.5 group that exhibited higher cell viability at 6 h compared to the period of 48 h (p = 0.0489). In the comparisons of the experimental groups, there were no statistically significant differences between the control group compared to all disinfection protocols, regardless of the period evaluated (p > 0.05), except for the PDT + C1000 group that showed lower cell viability (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: PDT with curcumin at 1000 mg/L was cytotoxic on L-929 fibroblast cell culture. However, laser-activated curcumin at a concentration of 500 mg/L presented no influence on L-929 fibroblast cell viability in in vitro conditions.


Assuntos
Curcumina , Fotoquimioterapia , Animais , Curcumina/farmacologia , Cavidade Pulpar , Camundongos , Fotoquimioterapia/métodos , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/farmacologia , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/uso terapêutico , Irrigantes do Canal Radicular/farmacologia , Irrigantes do Canal Radicular/uso terapêutico , Hipoclorito de Sódio/farmacologia
13.
Int Endod J ; 55 Suppl 2: 295-329, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35171506

RESUMO

Irrigation plays an essential role in root canal treatment. The purpose of this narrative review was to critically appraise the experimental methods and models used to study irrigants and irrigation systems and to provide directions for future research. Studies on the antimicrobial effect of irrigants should use mature multispecies biofilms grown on dentine or inside root canals and should combine at least two complementary evaluation methods. Dissolution of pulp tissue remnants should be examined in the presence of dentine and, preferably, inside human root canals. Micro-computed tomography is currently the method of choice for the assessment of accumulated dentine debris and their removal. A combination of experiments in transparent root canals and numerical modeling is needed to address irrigant penetration. Finally, models to evaluate irrigant extrusion through the apical foramen should simulate the periapical tissues and provide quantitative data on the amount of extruded irrigant. Mimicking the in vivo conditions as close as possible and standardization of the specimens and experimental protocols are universal requirements irrespective of the surrogate endpoint studied. Obsolete and unrealistic models must be abandoned in favour of more appropriate and valid ones that have more direct application and translation to clinical Endodontics.


Assuntos
Irrigantes do Canal Radicular , Preparo de Canal Radicular , Cavidade Pulpar , Humanos , Modelos Teóricos , Irrigantes do Canal Radicular/farmacologia , Irrigantes do Canal Radicular/uso terapêutico , Preparo de Canal Radicular/métodos , Hipoclorito de Sódio/uso terapêutico , Irrigação Terapêutica/métodos , Microtomografia por Raio-X
14.
J Endod ; 48(5): 620-624, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35217129

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Chemically released growth factors play a vital role in regenerative endodontics. Transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-ß1) is 1 of the most extensively studied bioactive molecules that promotes cell proliferation, differentiation, and chemotaxis. The goal of the current research was to analyze the effect of 7% maleic acid (MA) root conditioning of an infected root canal on the release of TGF-ß1. METHODS: Single-rooted human teeth were decoronated, and the canals were enlarged with a Peeso reamer. The samples were divided into biofilm and nonbiofilm groups. Subsequently, all the samples of both groups were flushed with 10 mL of each irrigant, namely, 1.5% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), 7% MA, 17% EDTA, and a combination of 1.5% NaOCl with 17% EDTA or 7% MA, for 10 minutes each. TGF-ß1 was estimated quantitatively using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit. RESULTS: TGF-ß1 release was lowest among the biofilm samples compared with nonbiofilm among all the groups. MA 7% with 1.5% NaOCl rendered higher amounts of growth factor release in contrast to the combination of 17% EDTA and 1.5% NaOCl in both the biofilm and nonbiofilm groups (P < .048). The nonbiofilm samples treated with 7% MA alone illustrated higher growth factor release compared with 17% EDTA only (P < .006), but there was no significant difference in growth factor release among the biofilm samples treated with 7% MA and 17% EDTA. CONCLUSIONS: Bacterial biofilms modified the release of TGF-ß1. MA 7% was observed to be significantly more efficacious than 17% EDTA in TGF-ß1 growth factor release from radicular dentin.


Assuntos
Cavidade Pulpar , Irrigantes do Canal Radicular , Dentina/metabolismo , Ácido Edético/farmacologia , Humanos , Maleatos , Irrigantes do Canal Radicular/farmacologia , Preparo de Canal Radicular , Hipoclorito de Sódio/farmacologia , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/metabolismo
15.
Int Endod J ; 55 Suppl 2: 330-345, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35100452

RESUMO

In order to ensure predictable decontamination of the root canal system, chemo-mechanical preparation of the root canal space is sometimes supplemented with the use of intracanal medication. As microbial control of the root canal space is fundamental to the resolution of apical periodontitis, root canal disinfection strategies haven been researched intensively. The use of intracanal medication as a supplementary step to the chemo-mechanical preparation of the root canal space is one of them. Because of the costs and limitations of clinical research it is relevant and common practice to first evaluate alternative or new root canal disinfection modalities in laboratory studies. This involves the simulation of a root canal infection in a laboratory model, on which different disinfection strategies can be tested. When modelling the infected root canal, different levels of infection can be discriminated: suspended bacteria, microbial biofilms and infected dentine. This review describes the experimental models associated with these infection levels and critically appraises their value and methodological details. Suggestions for relevant research methods and experimental models are given, as well as some good practices for laboratory-based microbiological studies.


Assuntos
Periodontite Periapical , Irrigantes do Canal Radicular , Hidróxido de Cálcio/uso terapêutico , Cavidade Pulpar/microbiologia , Humanos , Modelos Teóricos , Periodontite Periapical/tratamento farmacológico , Irrigantes do Canal Radicular/farmacologia , Irrigantes do Canal Radicular/uso terapêutico , Preparo de Canal Radicular/métodos , Tratamento do Canal Radicular/métodos
16.
Int Endod J ; 55(5): 544-560, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35080277

RESUMO

AIM: Assess whether sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) or chlorhexidine (CHX) and two irrigation protocols may alter the antibacterial properties of dentine and three endodontic sealers using a novel ex vivo tooth model. METHODOLOGY: Prior to antibacterial testing, the tooth model was validated by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to evaluate the separation between dentine and sealer surfaces. Root blocks prepared from extracted human roots were pre-treated with 17% EDTA + 0.9% saline and subsequently treated with 1% NaOCl (G1), 2% CHX (G2) or no irrigant (G3). Two irrigation protocols were further investigated, "1% NaOCl + 17% EDTA" (P1) and "1% NaOCl + 17% EDTA + 2% CHX" (P2). Following irrigation, the root blocks were either filled with AH Plus, BioRoot RCS and Pulp Canal Sealer (PCS), or left empty. All groups were incubated for 1, 7 and 28 days. Direct contact tests for planktonic E. faecalis and 48 h E. faecalis biofilms were performed at the level of dentine and sealer surfaces. Statistical analysis was performed on the bacterial survival between irrigants (G1, G2 and G3) and between irrigation protocols (P1 and P2); p < .05. RESULTS: The model was considered reproducible as SEM examination of dentine samples indicated consistent separation between dentine and sealer surfaces. Irrigation with CHX (G2) and irrigation protocol P2 enhanced the antibacterial properties of dentine without sealer application as well as dentine in contact with all three sealers tested, especially against planktonic E. faecalis. G2 and P2 also improved the antibacterial effect of AH Plus surfaces for all three incubation times. No irrigation groups (G1, G2) or irrigation protocols (P1, P2) altered the antibacterial properties of BioRoot RCS surfaces against planktonic bacteria or biofilms. Only BioRoot RCS surfaces eliminated the planktonic E. faecalis in all irrigation groups (G1, G2, G3) and protocols (P1, P2) investigated whilst PCS surfaces eliminate E. faecalis in biofilms in all groups up to 7 days. CONCLUSIONS: The tooth model was reproducible. CHX improved the antibacterial activity upon both sealer and dentine surfaces. Amongst sealers, BioRoot RCS was less affected by NaOCl and CHX, and exhibited high antibacterial properties regardless the irrigation applied.


Assuntos
Clorexidina , Hipoclorito de Sódio , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Clorexidina/farmacologia , Cavidade Pulpar , Dentina/microbiologia , Ácido Edético/farmacologia , Enterococcus faecalis , Humanos , Irrigantes do Canal Radicular/farmacologia , Hipoclorito de Sódio/farmacologia
17.
J Endod ; 48(4): 535-541, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35026229

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Regenerative endodontic treatment was introduced with the aim of reinforcing the root and enabling further root development. In the process of dentin mineralization, bioactive molecules are entrapped in the dentin matrix, which can be released later by rinsing the dentin with chelating agents. This study aimed to compare the effects of citric acid and EDTA on radiographic root development in regenerative endodontic treatment in an animal model. METHODS: Premolars of 3 beagle dogs were used in this study. The teeth at 1 side of the jaw were irrigated with EDTA according to the regeneration protocol of the American Association of Endodontists. The teeth in the other quadrant were irrigated with citric acid in the second treatment session. Follow-up radiographs were obtained at 6 months, and the primary and final data were analyzed in SPSS Version 23 (IBM Corp, Armonk, NY) using the analysis of covariance. RESULTS: There was no significant difference between the 2 irrigating solutions regarding the increase in root length (P = .668); however, EDTA showed significantly superior efficacy in increasing the root dentin thickness compared with citric acid (P = .022). CONCLUSIONS: Within the limitations of this study, the use of citric acid versus EDTA was not superior on radiographic root development in regenerative endodontic treatment.


Assuntos
Endodontia Regenerativa , Animais , Ácido Cítrico/farmacologia , Dentina/diagnóstico por imagem , Cães , Ácido Edético/farmacologia , Ácido Edético/uso terapêutico , Irrigantes do Canal Radicular/farmacologia
18.
Aust Endod J ; 48(1): 82-90, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34775668

RESUMO

The study evaluated sealer penetration after calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2 ) removal from the root canals. Sixty single-rooted mandibular premolars were divided into six groups. Ca(OH)2 paste placed into the root canals except for the control group (CG) was removed using the following irrigation techniques: conventional needle irrigation (CNI), EndoActivator (EA), EndoVac (EV), passive ultrasonic irrigation (PUI) and photon-induced photoacoustic streaming (PIPS) technique. After canal filling, the penetration depth, penetration area and penetration percentage of the sealer were determined using confocal microscopy. The CG and EA had a greater penetration depth than CNI in the middle section. The CG exhibited a higher dentinal tubule penetration area than CNI, EV and PUI in the middle section. EA was significantly more effective than PUI in the coronal section for the percentage of sealer penetration. EA and PIPS removed Ca(OH)2 from root canals effectively because they presented similar penetration to the CG in all sections.


Assuntos
Hidróxido de Cálcio , Materiais Restauradores do Canal Radicular , Dente Pré-Molar , Hidróxido de Cálcio/farmacologia , Cavidade Pulpar , Microscopia Confocal , Materiais Restauradores do Canal Radicular/farmacologia , Irrigantes do Canal Radicular/farmacologia , Preparo de Canal Radicular/métodos , Ultrassom
19.
Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther ; 37: 102625, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34781034

RESUMO

AIM: To assess the influence of different photosensitizers activated by PDT as a disinfectant in comparison to conventional sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) on the EBS (extrusion bond strength) of FRCP with radicular dentin. METHODS: A total of fifty single-rooted human maxillary central incisors with fully developed apices were selected. Endodontic treatment of samples was performed using 10 K file to obtain patency than sequentially with a 25 K file followed by rotary pro tapers till F2 with constant irrigation. The canal was dried and obturated with corresponding gutta-percha and sealer. A Peso reamer was employed to prepare post space. Based on canal disinfection regimes, samples were divided into five groups. Group 1 Riboflavin (RF)+17%EDTA, group 2 Rose bengal (RB) +17%EDTA, group 3 Curcumin CP +17%EDTA, group 4 Porfimer sodium, Photofrin (PS) +17%EDTA and group 5 2.25% NaOCl +17% EDTA (control). Following disinfection, the canal space of all specimens was dried followed by FRCP cementation. Specimens were placed on a Universal testing machine (UTM) for EBS. The type of bond failure was evaluated using a stereomicroscope. ANOVA and Tukey multiple comparison tests were used to compare means. RESULTS: The highest EBS was shown by group 1 canal disinfected with riboflavin (RF) and 17% EDTA at all three levels. The lowest EBS was displayed in group 5 canal cleaned with 2.25% NaOCl and 17% EDTA. Intragroup assessment disclosed a decrease in EBS from cervical one-third to apical one-third in all experimental groups. Intergroup comparison revealed group 4 using PS and 17% EDTA and group 5 canal disinfected with 2.25% NaOCl and 17% EDTA at all three levels of root structure coronal, middle, and apical exhibited comparable EBS (p>0.05). CONCLUSION: Root canal dentin treated with different PS (RF, RB, CP) has the potential to be used as canal disinfection as it demonstrates better EBS than the conventional disinfecting regime (2.25% NaOCl +17% EDTA). PS and 17% EDTA as a canal disinfectant need further investigation.


Assuntos
Curcumina , Fotoquimioterapia , Cavidade Pulpar , Dentina , Éter de Diematoporfirina , Desinfecção , Ácido Edético/farmacologia , Humanos , Teste de Materiais , Fotoquimioterapia/métodos , Riboflavina/farmacologia , Irrigantes do Canal Radicular/farmacologia , Preparo de Canal Radicular , Rosa Bengala/farmacologia , Hipoclorito de Sódio/farmacologia
20.
Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther ; 37: 102651, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34838696

RESUMO

This study examined the effect of various root canal irrigants and medicaments on dentin fluorescence elicited by 655 nm visible red laser light. To replicate clinical use, irrigants were applied onto dentin samples for 2 min, while medicaments were applied for 2 weeks. Fluorescence values tracked from baseline across the following to 24 h, starting 5 min after exposure. Sodium hypochlorite, hydrogen peroxide, and articaine local anaesthetic (4% articaine with 1:1000,000 adrenaline) all significantly quenched fluorescence (p < 0.0001), which then returned to baseline levels after 20 min. Conversely, elevated fluorescence readings were recorded after 3% mepivacaine (p < 0.05), 0.2% chlorhexidine (p < 0.01) and chloroform (p <0.05). A 2 week application of Ledermix™ paste containing 3% demeclocycline caused an irreversible increase in fluorescence (p < 0.0001). Other tested endodontic materials (15% EDTA, eucalyptus oil, calcium hydroxide, Odontopaste™ clindamycin paste, and distilled water) had no impact on dentine fluorescence. The influences of endodontic materials on dentin fluorescence need to considered when using fluorescence endpoints to guide the progress of root canal treatment.


Assuntos
Dentina , Fotoquimioterapia , Hidróxido de Cálcio/farmacologia , Cavidade Pulpar , Fluorescência , Fotoquimioterapia/métodos , Irrigantes do Canal Radicular/farmacologia , Hipoclorito de Sódio/farmacologia
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