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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 750: 141667, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32871370

RESUMO

Stable isotopes are increasingly used to detect and understand the impacts of environmental changes on riverine ecological properties. The δ13C and δ15N signatures of fish with different feeding habits were measured in a large subtropical river to evaluate how fish isotopic niches respond to environmental gradients and human disturbance. From basal resources to fish consumers, the high values of epilithic periphyton (biofilm) δ13C and suspended particulate organic matter δ15N concurrently determined the niche ranges and space (e.g., convex hull area) of fish communities. Along a longitudinal gradient (except in the industrial zone), the number of fish trophic guilds identified by Bayesian ellipses continuously increased; meanwhile, higher trophic diversity and less redundancy were observed near the lower reaches and estuary. Variance inflation factors were estimated to detect the multicollinearity of 40 environmental variables, 14 of which were selected as indicators. Relative importance (RI) analysis was used to evaluate the explanatory power of these indicators for the spatial variation in isotopic niche metrics; the results showed that riffle habitat area, water nitrate concentration, gravel-cobble substrate, and riparian buffer width were the 4 key environmental indicators (average RI > 12%) that determined the longitudinal pattern of fish isotopic niches. These findings suggested that community-level δ13C signatures are more responsive to changes in habitats (e.g., riffle) and substrates (e.g., gravel-cobble) supporting the productivity of autochthonous diatoms while δ15N signatures respond to water quality altered by nitrogen pollution from manure-fertilized farming and poultry livestock effluent. Furthermore, δ15N may be more robust and interpretable than δ13C as an isotopic indicator of ecosystem change in rivers exposed to multiple or complex anthropogenic stressors.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Rios , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , Isótopos de Carbono/análise , China , Indicadores Ambientais , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Isótopos de Nitrogênio/análise
2.
Food Chem ; 334: 127603, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32712492

RESUMO

Present work comprises the use of different solid-state Nuclear Magnetic Resonance strategies for characterizing structural and motional aspects of the peptide matrix that compose a set of four lyophilized Mexican cheese aqueous soluble extracts, each with a controlled ripening. Heteronuclear dipolar coupling modulation schemes allowed to characterize local mobility and structural homogeneity of cheeses' peptide segments in the solid-state as a function of ripening. Results suggest that ripened samples with certain local flexibility but important structural homogeneity present efficient microbial inhibition against tested bacterial strains, whilst high local rigidity of peptides within ripened cheese soluble fractions could partially explain the observed lack of antimicrobial activity. The present study attempts to propose novel observables for lyophilized cheese water soluble extracts that could be partially associated to their ripening-dependent antimicrobial activities, whereas said observables shall contribute to the better targeting, design and optimization of solid-state natural food bio-preservatives.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/química , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Queijo , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Anti-Infecciosos/análise , Isótopos de Carbono , Queijo/análise , Liofilização , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Peptídeos/análise , Peptídeos/química , Peptídeos/farmacologia , Solubilidade , Água
3.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 160: 111622, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33181920

RESUMO

Sedimentary nitrogen (SN) provenience and fate in surface and subsurface sediments collected from the Baltic Sea were assessed. SN and sedimentary organic carbon (SOC) concentrations, stable isotopic signatures (δ15NSN and δ13CSOC) and SOC/SN molar ratios, were determined in subsequent layers of twenty-four sediment cores dated with 210Pb/137Cs and fifty-seven surface sediments. Sedimentation rates in the range 66-736 g/m2yr-1 (0.05-0.34 cm/year) were measured. Prolonged incubation of sediments in the laboratory led to a 17-37% decrease of SN in surface sediments, and no SN loss in sediments deposited before 1940. Decrease of δ15NSN on incubation (1‰ on average), and gradients of δ15NSN, between recent - surface (3.5‰) vs. 100 years old - subsurface (2.1‰) sediments were attributed to varying contributions of labile nitrogen to the SN pool. Annual deposition of SN to sediment surface and burial in subsurface sediments amounted, respectively, to 5 ± 2 g/m2 and 3.5 ± 1 g/m2.


Assuntos
Sedimentos Geológicos , Nitrogênio , Carbono/análise , Isótopos de Carbono/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Nitrogênio/análise , Isótopos de Nitrogênio/análise
4.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 160: 111672, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33181945

RESUMO

The spatial and seasonal variations in resource use of the lacustrine shrimp Palaemon paucidens were investigated in three different Korean lagoon systems in June and October 2018 by measuring their carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios. P. paucidens had much higher δ13C values at the permanently open lagoon (PL) as compared to the intermittently open lagoons (ILs), revealing a disparity in resource utilization. Isotopic niches of the shrimp were relatively wider at the PL than at the ILs, suggesting a greater diversity of carbon pathways in the PL system. These results indicate that the degree of water exchange with the sea, associated with lagoon geomorphology, may be a major factor influencing resource availability for P. paucidens. Our findings suggest that the duration and degree of inlet opening may affect dietary variation at the population level, and may be one of the key components of sustainable management for coastal lagoon ecosystems.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Palaemonidae , Animais , Isótopos de Carbono/análise , Isótopos de Nitrogênio/análise , República da Coreia , Estações do Ano
5.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 41(11): 4905-4913, 2020 Nov 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33124234

RESUMO

This study aims to complement existing research on the carbon cycle of water in reservoirs, for the effective control of nutrient input in drinking water. The content and isotopic compositions of water dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) from the Miyun Reservoir watershed in Beijing were studied, and water from the Jingmi diversion canal was also studied as a baseline reference. The results showed that the content of DOC in the Miyun Reservoir watershed in summer varied from 1.07 to 5.19 mg·L-1, with an average value of 2.61 mg·L-1. DOC in tributaries was lower than that of most rivers in China and globally, while DOC in reservoirs, particularly in Miyun Reservoir, was high. The high water level might be the main reason for the high DOC in the Miyun Reservoir. In summer, the δ13CDOC in the Miyun Reservoir watershed ranged from -27.4‰ to -24.3‰, with an average value of -25.8‰. Results from the isotopic analysis showed that the water in the Miyun Reservoir watershed was less affected by human sources, with the exception of some points. In summer, DOC in tributaries and in the Miyun Reservoir was mainly derived from soil organic matter and terrestrial C3 plants. In addition, endogenous substances also contributed to DOC in the watershed. DOC concentration increased along the Chao and Bai Rivers, and DOC from soil erosion and human sources was higher in the Chao River. The δ13CDIC in the study area varied from -12.6‰ to 5.75‰, with a mean value of -9.44‰. The weathering of carbonate rocks accounted for the major river DIC, and DIC had been clearly assimilated by the phytoplankton by photosynthesis. DOC and DIC in the Miyun Reservoir were significantly higher than in the Jingmi diversion canal (P<0.01), and the δ13CDIC in the Miyun Reservoir showed a clear positive deviation. This indicated that there were differences in carbon concentration and components in the two kinds of water, which might affect the denitrification capacity of the water in the Miyun Reservoir after mixing. In general, the dissolved carbon in the water of the Miyun Reservoir watershed is less affected by human sources. The conversion of DIC to DOC may also be a potential source of DOC in the study area.


Assuntos
Carbono , Monitoramento Ambiental , Pequim , Carbono/análise , Isótopos de Carbono/análise , China , Humanos , Rios
6.
J Environ Manage ; 276: 111333, 2020 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32919168

RESUMO

This study examined a mountainous area with two hydrochemically distinct CO2-rich springs to understand the origin, flow, and leakage of CO2, which may provide implications for precise monitoring of CO2 leakage in geological carbon storage (GCS) sites. The carbon isotopic compositions of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) in CO2-rich water (δ13CDIC) and those of soil CO2 (δ13CCO2) indicated a deep-seated CO2 supply to the near-surface environment in the study area. The hydrochemical difference (e.g. pH, total dissolved solids) for the two CO2-rich springs separated by 7 m, despite similar δ13CDIC and partial pressure of CO2, was considered as the result of different evolution of shallow groundwater affected by deep-seated CO2 preferentially rising along fracture zones. Electrical resistivity tomography also suggested flow through fracture zones beneath the CO2-rich springs, showing low resistivity compared to other surveyed zones. However, soil CO2 efflux was low compared to that in other natural CO2 emission sites, and in particular it was noticeably low near the CO2-rich springs, whereas δ13CCO2 was high close the CO2-rich springs. The dissolution of CO2 in the near-surface water body seemed to decrease the deep-seated CO2 leakage through the soil layer, while δ13CCO2 imprinted the source. End-member mixing analysis was performed to assess the contribution of deep-seated CO2 to the low soil CO2 efflux by assuming that atmospheric CO2 and soil CO2 (by respiration) as well as deep-seated CO2 contribute to the soil CO2 efflux. For each end-member, characteristic δ13CCO2 and CO2 concentrations were defined, and then their apportionment to soil CO2 efflux was estimated. The resultant proportion of deep-seated CO2 was up to 8.8%. Unlike the spatial distribution of high soil CO2 efflux, high proportions exceeding 3% were found around the CO2-rich springs along the east-west valley. The study results indicate that soil CO2 efflux measurement should be combined with carbon isotopic analysis in GCS sites for CO2 leakage detection because CO2 dissolution in the underground water body may blur leakage detection on the surface. The implication of this study is the need to quantitatively assess the contribution of deep-seated CO2 using the soil CO2 concentration, soil CO2 efflux, and δ13CCO2 at each measurement site.


Assuntos
Água Subterrânea , Solo , Carbono , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Isótopos de Carbono/análise
7.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 154: 636-645, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32912493

RESUMO

In order to define translocation characteristics of 13C-photoassimilates to fruit during the fruit development stage in 'Fuji' apple, the 13C labeled tracer method was used in whole five-year-old 'Fuji'3/M26/Malus hupehensis (Pamp.) Rehder apple trees at different days after flowering (DAF). The changes in 13C translocation to the fruit, source strength of the leaves, and sink strength of the fruits were assessed. The results indicated that the δ13C value and 13C distribution rate of the fruit increased first and then decreased with the increase in the fruit development period, being higher from 120 to 135 DAF. The leaves appeared to moderately senesce in an attempt to maintain high photosynthesis during 120-135 DAF, which promoted the outward transport of photoassimilates. The single fruit weight and longitudinal and transverse diameter of the fruit increased rapidly during 120-150 DAF, which increased the sink zone for the unloading of photoassimilates in the fruit. The activity of sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH) and amylase (AM), the content of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), the gibberellin (GA3) and abscisic acid (ABA) in the fruit flesh, and the gene expression levels of MdSOT1, MdSOT2, MdSOT3, MdSUT1, and MdSUT4 in the fruit stalk tissue were higher during 120-135 DAF. At this point, the difference in the sorbitol content between the fruit stalk and fruit flesh was also at the highest level of the entire year. These factors together increased the sink activity of the fruit, thus improving the photoassimilate transport efficiency to the fruit.


Assuntos
Isótopos de Carbono/metabolismo , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Malus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Folhas de Planta
8.
Mar Environ Res ; 160: 104982, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32907720

RESUMO

Isotopic studies of archived fish scales have tremendous potential to develop long-term retrospectives that provide important insights into how humans have altered aquatic ecosystems. However, fish specimens in museum archives and other repositories typically date to time periods when the impacts of industrial societies may have already caused profound environmental changes. Archaeological fish bones offer an opportunity to bridge this key temporal gap by providing samples spanning from the recent past to as far back as the Pleistocene. Collagen is the primary protein component of both fish scale and bone, but the comparability of isotopic compositions from these tissues has not been established experimentally. To lay the framework for integrating isotopic datasets from these tissues, we compare δ13C and δ15N of bone and scale collagen, as well as other tissues, from fish with life-time controlled diets. Results show that while there is no difference in δ13C between scale and bone collagen, there may be a very slight but meaningful inter-tissue offset in δ15N (<0.3‰). We discuss potential sources of δ15N variation in scale and bone collagen measurements. Because there is no difference in scale and bone δ13C, and the observed offset in δ15N is very small (less than analytical uncertainty in many studies), our findings demonstrate that collagen isotopic compositions from these tissues should be directly comparable when integrating datasets from modern and ancient samples to build more powerful, millennium-scale isotopic times series. In linking isotopic compositions of collagen from modern, historical (scales), and archaeological (bones) fish, our findings open the way for more nuanced contextualization of how ecosystems functioned prior to large-scale exploitation and how they have responded to mounting anthropogenic pressures in the intervening centuries.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Peixes , Animais , Osso e Ossos , Isótopos de Carbono , Atividades Humanas , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos
9.
Chemosphere ; 258: 127357, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32947670

RESUMO

Diffusive isotope fractionation of non- and perdeuterated benzenes and toluenes in aqueous solution was investigated. The experimental method was based on a Stokes diaphragm cell. The isotope composition of diffusate and retentate was found to be identical within a range of uncertainty of ±5‰ for benzene and ±10‰ for toluene. These data are consistent with a previous fractionation study using phase-transition kinetics as the potentially fractionating step. The present study contributes to strengthening the data base for diffusive isotope fractionation of organic compounds in aqueous solution. According to the presented data, diffusion of naturally occurring, monodeuterated organic compounds does not significantly affect their hydrogen isotope pattern.


Assuntos
Hidrocarbonetos/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química , Benzeno , Isótopos de Carbono , Fracionamento Químico/métodos , Difusão , Hidrogênio , Isótopos , Cinética , Tolueno , Água
11.
Water Res ; 184: 116128, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32777634

RESUMO

Hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) are widespread and persistent environmental pollutants, which cause heavy contamination in soil, sediment and groundwater. An anaerobic consortium, which was enriched on ß-HCH using a soil sample from a contaminated area of a former pesticide factory, was capable to transform α, ß, γ, and δ-HCH via tetrachlorocyclohexene isomers stoichiometrically to benzene and chlorobenzene. The carbon and chlorine isotope enrichment factors (εC and εCl) of the dehalogenation of the four isomers ranged from -1.9 ± 0.3 to -6.4 ± 0.7‰ and from -1.6 ± 0.2 to -3.2 ± 0.6‰, respectively, and the correlation of δ37Cl and δ13C (Λ values) of the four isomers ranged from 1.1 ± 0.1 to 2.4 ± 0.2. The evaluation of Λ and the apparent kinetic isotope effects (AKIE) for carbon and chlorine may lead to the hypothesis that the two eliminated chlorine atoms of α- and γ-HCH were in axial positions, the same as for the ß-HCH conformer which has six chlorine atoms in axial positions after ring flip. The dichloroelimination of δ-HCH resulted in distinct AKIE and Λ values as one chlorine atom is in axial whereas the other chlorine atoms are in the equatorial positions. Significant chlorine and carbon isotope fractionations of HCH isomers were observed in the samples from a contaminated aquifer (Bitterfeld, Germany). The 37Cl/35Cl and 13C/12C isotope fractionation patterns of HCH isomers from laboratory experiments were used diagnostically in a model to characterize microbial dichloroelimination in the field study. The comparison of isotope fractionation patterns indicates that the transformation of HCH isomers at the field was mainly governed by microbial dichloroelimination transformation.


Assuntos
Cloro , Água Subterrânea , Anaerobiose , Biodegradação Ambiental , Isótopos de Carbono/análise , Alemanha , Hexaclorocicloexano
12.
Sci Total Environ ; 743: 140798, 2020 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32758845

RESUMO

The impacts of climate change on precipitation and the growing demand for water have increased the water risks worldwide. Water scarcity is one of the main challenges of the 21st century, and the assessment of water risks is only possible from spatially distributed records of historical climate and levels of water reservoirs. One potential method to assess water supply is the reconstruction of oxygen isotopes in rainfall. We here investigated the use of tree-ring stable isotopes in urban trees to assess spatial/temporal variation in precipitation and level of water reservoirs. We analyzed the intra-annual variation of δ13C and δ18O in the tree rings of Tipuana tipu trees from northern and southern Metropolitan Area of São Paulo (MASP), Brazil. While variation in δ13C indicates low leaf-level enrichments from evapotranspiration, δ18O variation clearly reflects precipitation extremes. Tree-ring δ18O was highest during the 2014 drought, associated with the lowest historical reservoir levels in the city. The δ18O values from the middle of the tree rings have a strong association with the mid-summer precipitation (r = -0.71), similar to the association between the volume of precipitation and its δ18O signature (r = -0.76). These consistent results allowed us to test the association between tree-ring δ18O and water-level of the main reservoirs that supply the MASP. We observed a strong association between intra-annual tree-ring δ18O and the water-level of reservoirs in the northern and southern MASP (r = -0.94, r = -0.90, respectively). These results point to the potential use of high-resolution tree-ring stable isotopes to put precipitation extremes, and water supply, in a historical perspective assisting public policies related to water risks and climate change. The ability to record precipitation extremes, and previously reported capacity to record air pollution, place Tipuana tipu in a prominent position as a reliable environmental monitor for urban locations.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Água/análise , Brasil , Isótopos de Carbono/análise , Cidades , Isótopos de Oxigênio/análise
13.
Sci Total Environ ; 744: 140907, 2020 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32763135

RESUMO

The so-called sea spray effect influences animals and humans living in coastal regions. As a consequence, δ13Ccarbonate, δ18Ocarbonate, δ18Ophosphate, and δ34Scollagen isotope values of affected individuals are more positive than otherwise expected. However, the effect is hidden in the case of humans who actually might have consumed marine food what would (partly) explain their isotopic signature. In order to correct for the sea spray effect in humans the dietary proportions were calculated based on the δ13Ccollagen and δ15Ncollagen isotope values using stable isotope mixing models. Four different programs (SISUS, simmr, IsotopeR, MixSIAR) were applied which resulted in quite different calculated diets. Each individual human can be corrected for the sea spray effect using the calculated proportion of terrestrial food (e.g. domesticated mammals, plants) and the approximated sea spray effect for each isotopic system. The differences in the calculated food proportions detected for the different mixing model programs, however, lead to differences in the correction procedure. We suggest using the dietary proportions as obtained by probabilistic SISUS rather than those of the Bayesian programs (simmr, IsotopeR, MixSIAR). The correction against the sea spray effect using the dietary proportions calculated by SISUS was supported by Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM) clustering which also enables the identification of probably non-local individuals in the dataset.


Assuntos
Colágeno , Fosfatos , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , Isótopos de Carbono , Carbonatos , Dieta , Humanos , Isótopos de Nitrogênio
14.
Oecologia ; 193(4): 827-842, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32857190

RESUMO

Hydrogen isotope (δ2H) analysis has been routinely used as an ecological tracer for animal movement and migration, yet a biochemical understanding of how animals incorporate this element in the synthesis of tissues is poorly resolved. Here, we apply a new analytical tool, amino acid (AA) δ2H analysis, in a controlled setting to trace the influence of drinking water and dietary macromolecules on the hydrogen in muscle tissue. We varied the δ2H of drinking water and the proportions of dietary protein and carbohydrates with distinct hydrogen and carbon isotope compositions fed to house mice among nine treatments. Our results show that hydrogen in the non-essential (AANESS) and essential (AAESS) AAs of mouse muscle is not readily exchanged with body water, but rather patterns among these compounds can be described through consideration of the major biochemical pathway(s) used by organisms to synthesize or route them from available sources. Dietary carbohydrates contributed more hydrogen than drinking water to the synthesis of AANESS in muscle. While neither drinking water nor dietary carbohydrates directly contributed to muscle AAESS, we did find that a minor but measurable proportion (10-30%) of the AAESS in muscle was synthesized by the gut microbiome using hydrogen and carbon from dietary carbohydrates. δ2H patterns among individual AAs in mice muscle are similar to those we previously reported for bacteria, which provides additional support that this approach may allow for the simultaneous analysis of different AAs that are more influenced by drinking water (AANESS) versus dietary (AAESS) sources of hydrogen.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos , Água , Animais , Isótopos de Carbono , Proteínas na Dieta , Hidrogênio , Camundongos , Isótopos de Nitrogênio
15.
Proc Biol Sci ; 287(1933): 20201544, 2020 08 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32811318

RESUMO

Changes in the foraging environment and at-sea distribution of southern elephant seals from Kerguelen Islands were investigated over a decade (2004-2018) using tracking, weaning mass, and blood δ13C values. Females showed either a sub-Antarctic or an Antarctic foraging strategy, and no significant shift in their at-sea distribution was detected between 2004 and 2017. The proportion of females foraging in sub-Antarctic versus Antarctic habitats did not change over the 2006-2018 period. Pup weaning mass varied according to the foraging habitat of their mothers. The weaning mass of sub-Antarctic foraging mothers' pups decreased by 11.7 kg over the study period, but they were on average 5.8 kg heavier than pups from Antarctic foraging mothers. Pup blood δ13C values decreased by 1.1‰ over the study period regardless of their sex and the presumed foraging habitat of their mothers. Together, these results suggest an ecological change is occurring within the Indian sector of the Southern Ocean with possible consequences on the foraging performance of southern elephant seals. We hypothesize that this shift in δ13C is related to a change in primary production and/or in the composition of phytoplankton communities, but this requires further multidisciplinary investigations.


Assuntos
Focas Verdadeiras/sangue , Desmame , Animais , Regiões Antárticas , Isótopos de Carbono/sangue , Feminino , Masculino
16.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237105, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32776947

RESUMO

Studying the isotope variability in fast-growing human tissues (e.g., hair, nails) is a powerful tool to investigate human nutrition. However, interpreting the controls of this isotopic variability at the population scale is often challenging as multiple factors can superimpose on the isotopic signals of a current population. Here, we analyse carbon, nitrogen, and sulphur isotopes in hair from 590 Canadian resident volunteers along with demographics, dietary and geographic information about each participant. We use a series of machine-learning regressions to demonstrate that the isotopic values in Canadian residents' hair are not only influenced by dietary choices but by geographic controls. First, we show that isotopic values in Canadian residents' hair have a limited range of variability consistent with the homogenization of Canadian dietary habits (as in other industrialized countries). As expected, some of the isotopic variability within the population correlates with recorded individual dietary choices. More interestingly, some regional spatial patterns emerge from carbon and sulphur isotope variations. The high carbon isotope composition of the hair of eastern Canadians relative to that of western Canadians correlates with the dominance of corn in the eastern Canadian food-industry. The gradient of sulphur isotope composition in Canadian hair from coast to inland regions correlates with the increasing soil pH and decreasing deposition of marine-derived sulphate aerosols in local food systems. We conclude that part of the isotopic variability found in the hair of Canadian residents reflects the isotopic signature associated with specific environmental conditions and agricultural practices of regional food systems transmitted to humans through the high consumption rate of intra-provincial food in Canada. Our study also underscores the strong potential of sulphur isotopes as tracers of human and food provenance.


Assuntos
Variação Biológica da População , Isótopos de Carbono/análise , Cabelo/química , Isótopos de Nitrogênio/análise , Isótopos de Enxofre/análise , Adulto , Canadá , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
17.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(36): 22378-22389, 2020 09 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32839325

RESUMO

Hyperpolarized [1-13C]pyruvate magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) is a noninvasive metabolic-imaging modality that probes carbon flux in tissues and infers the state of metabolic reprograming in tumors. Prevailing models attribute elevated hyperpolarized [1-13C]pyruvate-to-[1-13C]lactate conversion rates in aggressive tumors to enhanced glycolytic flux and lactate dehydrogenase A (LDHA) activity (Warburg effect). By contrast, we find by cross-sectional analysis using genetic and pharmacological tools in mechanistic studies applied to well-defined genetically engineered cell lines and tumors that initial hyperpolarized [1-13C]pyruvate-to-[1-13C]lactate conversion rates as well as global conversion were highly dependent on and critically rate-limited by the transmembrane influx of [1-13C]pyruvate mediated predominately by monocarboxylate transporter-1 (MCT1). Specifically, in a cell-encapsulated alginate bead model, induced short hairpin (shRNA) knockdown or overexpression of MCT1 quantitatively inhibited or enhanced, respectively, unidirectional pyruvate influxes and [1-13C]pyruvate-to-[1-13C]lactate conversion rates, independent of glycolysis or LDHA activity. Similarly, in tumor models in vivo, hyperpolarized [1-13C]pyruvate-to-[1-13C]lactate conversion was highly dependent on and critically rate-limited by the induced transmembrane influx of [1-13C]pyruvate mediated by MCT1. Thus, hyperpolarized [1-13C]pyruvate MRSI measures primarily MCT1-mediated [1-13C]pyruvate transmembrane influx in vivo, not glycolytic flux or LDHA activity, driving a reinterpretation of this maturing new technology during clinical translation. Indeed, Kaplan-Meier survival analysis for patients with pancreatic, renal, lung, and cervical cancers showed that high-level expression of MCT1 correlated with poor overall survival, and only in selected tumors, coincident with LDHA expression. Thus, hyperpolarized [1-13C]pyruvate MRSI provides a noninvasive functional assessment primarily of MCT1 as a clinical biomarker in relevant patient populations.


Assuntos
Isótopos de Carbono/metabolismo , Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Ácido Láctico/metabolismo , Transportadores de Ácidos Monocarboxílicos/metabolismo , Ácido Pirúvico/metabolismo , Simportadores/metabolismo , Animais , Isótopos de Carbono/análise , Isótopos de Carbono/química , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Membrana Celular/química , Feminino , Humanos , Ácido Láctico/análise , Ácido Láctico/química , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Nus , Ácido Pirúvico/análise , Ácido Pirúvico/química
18.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(36): 21978-21984, 2020 09 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32839330

RESUMO

New approaches to the study of early hominin diets have refreshed interest in how and when our diets diverged from those of other African apes. A trend toward significant consumption of C4 foods in hominins after this divergence has emerged as a landmark event in human evolution, with direct evidence provided by stable carbon isotope studies. In this study, we report on detailed carbon isotopic evidence from the hominin fossil record of the Shungura and Usno Formations, Lower Omo Valley, Ethiopia, which elucidates the patterns of C4 dietary utilization in the robust hominin Paranthropus The results show that the most important shift toward C4 foods occurred at ∼2.37 Ma, within the temporal range of the earliest known member of the genus, Paranthropus aethiopicus, and that this shift was not unique to Paranthropus but occurred in all hominins from this fossil sequence. This uptake of C4 foods by hominins occurred during a period marked by an overall trend toward increased C4 grazing by cooccurring mammalian taxa from the same sequence. However, the timing and geographic patterns of hominin diets in this region differ from those observed elsewhere in the same basin, where environmental controls on the underlying availability of various food sources were likely quite different. These results highlight the complexities of dietary responses by hominins to changes in the availability of food resources.


Assuntos
Isótopos de Carbono/análise , Dieta/história , Hominidae/metabolismo , Plantas/metabolismo , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Fósseis/história , História Antiga , Plantas/química
19.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(33): 20044-20051, 2020 08 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32747534

RESUMO

Carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios in hair sampled from 65 communities across the central and intermountain regions of the United States and more intensively throughout 29 ZIP codes in the Salt Lake Valley, Utah, revealed a dietary divergence related to socioeconomic status as measured by cost of living, household income, and adjusted gross income. Corn-fed, animal-derived proteins were more common in the diets of lower socioeconomic status populations than were plant-derived proteins, with individual estimates of animal-derived protein diets as high as 75%; United States towns and cities averaged 57%. Similar patterns were seen across the socioeconomic status spectrum in the Salt Lake Valley. It is likely that corn-fed animal proteins were associated with concentrated animal-feeding operations, a common practice for industrial animal production in the United States today. Given recent studies highlighting the negative impacts of animal-derived proteins in our diets, hair carbon isotope ratios could provide an approach for scaling assessments of animal-sourced foods and health risks in communities across the United States.


Assuntos
Isótopos de Carbono/análise , Dieta/economia , Proteínas na Dieta/análise , Cabelo/química , Isótopos de Nitrogênio/análise , Animais , Proteínas na Dieta/economia , Proteínas na Dieta/metabolismo , Cabelo/metabolismo , Humanos , Isótopos de Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Classe Social , Estados Unidos , Utah
20.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237730, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32857799

RESUMO

Freshwater ecosystems play a key role in shaping the global carbon cycle and maintaining the ecological balance that sustains biodiversity worldwide. Surficial water bodies are often interconnected with groundwater, forming a physical continuum, and their interaction has been reported as a crucial driver for organic matter (OM) inputs in groundwater systems. However, despite the growing concerns related to increasing anthropogenic pressure and effects of global change to groundwater environments, our understanding of the dynamics regulating subterranean carbon flows is still sparse. We traced carbon composition and transformations in an arid zone calcrete aquifer using a novel multidisciplinary approach that combined isotopic analyses of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and inorganic carbon (DIC) (δ13CDOC, δ13CDIC, 14CDOC and 14CDIC) with fluorescence spectroscopy (Chromophoric Dissolved OM (CDOM) characterisation) and metabarcoding analyses (taxonomic and functional genomics on bacterial 16S rRNA). To compare dynamics linked to potential aquifer recharge processes, water samples were collected from two boreholes under contrasting rainfall: low rainfall ((LR), dry season) and high rainfall ((HR), wet season). Our isotopic results indicate limited changes and dominance of modern terrestrial carbon in the upper part (northeast) of the bore field, but correlation between HR and increased old and 13C-enriched DOC in the lower area (southwest). CDOM results show a shift from terrestrially to microbially derived compounds after rainfall in the same lower field bore, which was also sampled for microbial genetics. Functional genomic results showed increased genes coding for degradative pathways-dominated by those related to aromatic compound metabolisms-during HR. Our results indicate that rainfall leads to different responses in different parts of the bore field, with an increase in old carbon sources and microbial processing in the lower part of the field. We hypothesise that this may be due to increasing salinity, either due to mobilisation of Cl- from the soil, or infiltration from the downstream salt lake during HR. This study is the first to use a multi-technique assessment using stable and radioactive isotopes together with functional genomics to probe the principal organic biogeochemical pathways regulating an arid zone calcrete system. Further investigations involving extensive sampling from diverse groundwater ecosystems will allow better understanding of the microbiological pathways sustaining the ecological functioning of subterranean biota.


Assuntos
Ciclo do Carbono , Isótopos de Carbono/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Água Subterrânea/química , Microbiota/fisiologia , Solo/química , Austrália , Isótopos de Carbono/metabolismo , Código de Barras de DNA Taxonômico , DNA Bacteriano/genética , DNA Bacteriano/isolamento & purificação , Água Subterrânea/microbiologia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Chuva , Salinidade , Microbiologia do Solo , Espectrometria de Fluorescência
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