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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 757: 143985, 2021 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33321341

RESUMO

Biological time series datasets provide an unparalleled opportunity to investigate regional and global changes in the marine environment. Baleen whales are long-lived sentinel species and an integral part of the marine ecosystem. Increasing anthropogenic terrestrial and marine activities alter ocean systems, and such alterations could change foraging and feeding behavior of baleen whales. In this study, we analyzed δ13C and δ15N of baleen whale earplugs from three different species (N = 6 earplugs, n = 337 laminae) to reconstruct the first continuous stable isotope profiles with a six-month resolution. Results of our study provide an unprecedented opportunity to assess behavioral as well as ecological changes. Abrupt shifts and temporal variability observed in δ13C and δ15N profiles could be indicative of behavior change such as shift in foraging location and/or trophic level in response to natural or anthropogenic disturbances. Additionally, five out of six individuals demonstrated long-term declining trends in δ13C profiles, which could suggest influence of emission of depleted 13CO2 from fossil fuel combustion referred to as the Suess effect. After adjusting the δ13C values of earplugs for the estimated Suess effect and re-evaluating δ13C profiles, significant decline in δ13C values as well as different rate of depletion suggest contribution of other sources that could impact δ13C values at the base of the food web.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Baleias , Animais , Isótopos de Carbono/análise , Dispositivos de Proteção das Orelhas , Isótopos de Nitrogênio/análise
2.
Sci Total Environ ; 754: 142247, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33254952

RESUMO

Carbon and oxygen isotopes (δ13C and δ18O) in tree rings are widely used to reconstruct palaeoclimate variables such as temperature during the Holocene (12 thousand years ago - present), and are used increasingly in deeper time. However, their use is largely restricted to arboreal trees, which excludes potentially important data from prostrate trees and shrubs, which grow in high latitude and altitude end-member environments. Here, we calibrate the use of δ13C and δ18O as climatic archives in two modern species of southern beech (Nothofagus) from Tierra del Fuego, Chile, at the southern limit of their current range. We show that prostrate trees are potentially suitable archives for recording climatological means over longer periods (on the order of decades), which opens up these important environments for tree ring isotope analysis. We then apply our new understanding to a remarkable late Neogene (17-2.5 Ma) fossil Nothofagus assemblage from the Transantarctic Mountains, Antarctica, representative of a prostrate tundra shrub growing during a period of significant ice sheet retreat. The δ13C of the fossil cellulose was found to be ~4‰ enriched relative to that of the modern tress. This is likely to be due to a combination of a more positive δ13C of contemporaneous atmospheric CO2 and enhanced water use efficiency at the fossil site. Using the cellulose-δ18O in the fossil wood, we are able to reconstruct precipitation oxygen isotopes over the Antarctic interior for the first time for this time period. The results show that δ18Oprecip over Antarctica was -16.0 ± 4.2‰, around 12‰ enriched relative to today, suggesting changes in the hydrological cycle linked to warmer temperatures and a smaller ice sheet.


Assuntos
Celulose , Fósseis , Regiões Antárticas , Calibragem , Isótopos de Carbono/análise , Chile , Isótopos de Oxigênio/análise
3.
Food Chem ; 334: 127599, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32711278

RESUMO

The research towards the identification of new authenticity markers is crucial to fight against fraudulent activities on honey, one of the top ten most falsified food commodities. This work proposes an association of stable isotopes and elemental content as markers for honey authentication, with respect to its floral and geographical origin. Emerging markers like isotopic signature of honey water alongside with carbon and hydrogen isotopic ratios of ethanol obtained from honey fermentation and Rare Earth Elements, were used to develop new recognition models. Thus, the efficiency of the discrimination potential of these emerging markers was discussed individually and in association. This approach proved its effectiveness for geographical differentiation (>98%) and the role of the emerging markers in these classifications was an essential one, especially of: (D/H)I, δ2H, δ18O, La, Ce and Pr. Floral recognition was realized in a lower percentage revealing the suitability of these markers mainly for geographical classification.


Assuntos
Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Mel/análise , Isótopos/análise , Isótopos de Carbono/análise , Fermentação , França , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Metais Terras Raras/análise , Isótopos de Oxigênio/análise , Romênia , Água/análise , Água/química
4.
Sci Total Environ ; 756: 144068, 2021 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33288261

RESUMO

A tidal saltmarsh supporting marine ecosystem services becomes more recognized, but an understanding of its trophic dynamics is far limited. We investigated the benthic food-web dynamics in Ganghwa tidal flat, a representative tidal saltmarsh of South Korea. The stable carbon and nitrogen isotope ratio values were analyzed for the sixteen species of macrobenthos and their potential food sources such as microphytobenthos (MPB) and various organic matters. A year-round survey was conducted in the three sites at Ganghwa showing the different types of sediment bottom (sandy mud or mud) and/or vegetation (Phragmites or Suaeda). In general, the isotopic signature fairly well demonstrated that trophic structure is primarily influenced by sediment mud content and/or dominated vegetation. Among the four feeding types of consumers (filter feeder; deposit feeder; omnivore; carnivore), the deposit feeders such as mollusk, arthropod, and annelid showed increased dietary dependency on MPB at bare sites. Whilst they actively utilized 13C-depleted organic matters at vegetated sites. Meantime, significantly enriched stable nitrogen isotopic ratio of macrobenthos was evidenced in fall, which reflected the seasonal variation of food sources and physiological processes in survival strategy. Overall, the stable isotopic approach was useful to address the key factors (in)directly influencing the benthic food web structure and its functioning in a typical tidal saltmarsh of the Yellow Sea.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Cadeia Alimentar , Animais , Carbono/análise , Isótopos de Carbono/análise , Isótopos de Nitrogênio/análise , República da Coreia
5.
Sci Total Environ ; 750: 141667, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32871370

RESUMO

Stable isotopes are increasingly used to detect and understand the impacts of environmental changes on riverine ecological properties. The δ13C and δ15N signatures of fish with different feeding habits were measured in a large subtropical river to evaluate how fish isotopic niches respond to environmental gradients and human disturbance. From basal resources to fish consumers, the high values of epilithic periphyton (biofilm) δ13C and suspended particulate organic matter δ15N concurrently determined the niche ranges and space (e.g., convex hull area) of fish communities. Along a longitudinal gradient (except in the industrial zone), the number of fish trophic guilds identified by Bayesian ellipses continuously increased; meanwhile, higher trophic diversity and less redundancy were observed near the lower reaches and estuary. Variance inflation factors were estimated to detect the multicollinearity of 40 environmental variables, 14 of which were selected as indicators. Relative importance (RI) analysis was used to evaluate the explanatory power of these indicators for the spatial variation in isotopic niche metrics; the results showed that riffle habitat area, water nitrate concentration, gravel-cobble substrate, and riparian buffer width were the 4 key environmental indicators (average RI > 12%) that determined the longitudinal pattern of fish isotopic niches. These findings suggested that community-level δ13C signatures are more responsive to changes in habitats (e.g., riffle) and substrates (e.g., gravel-cobble) supporting the productivity of autochthonous diatoms while δ15N signatures respond to water quality altered by nitrogen pollution from manure-fertilized farming and poultry livestock effluent. Furthermore, δ15N may be more robust and interpretable than δ13C as an isotopic indicator of ecosystem change in rivers exposed to multiple or complex anthropogenic stressors.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Rios , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , Isótopos de Carbono/análise , China , Indicadores Ambientais , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Isótopos de Nitrogênio/análise
6.
Food Chem ; 339: 127760, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32860996

RESUMO

Origin verification of 240 French wines from four regions of France was undertaken using isotope and elemental analyses. Our aim was to identify and differentiate the geographical origin of these red wines, and more importantly, to build a classification tool that can be used to verify geographic origin of French red wines using machine learning models. Multivariate analyses of the isotopic and elemental data revealed that it is possible to determine the geographical origin of French wines with a high level of confidence for most regions analyzed in this study. The wine verification accuracy of four French wine producing regions of Bordeaux, Burgundy, Languedoc-Roussillon and Rhone using an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) method was 98.2%. The results also show that ANN is more suitable than Discriminant Analysis for this verification purpose. The most important variables for French wine regional traceability were Mg, Mn, Na, Sr, Ti and Rb.


Assuntos
Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Análise de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Metais/análise , Vinho/análise , Isótopos de Carbono/análise , Análise Discriminante , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , França , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Análise Multivariada , Redes Neurais de Computação , Oligoelementos/análise
7.
Sci Total Environ ; 755(Pt 2): 142550, 2021 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33049533

RESUMO

Using archived fish scale samples together with long-term monitoring data, this study investigates the potential of fish scales to record historical changes in the aquatic environment. We analysed stable carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) isotopes in the scales of two planktivorous cyprinid species collected from the meso-eutrophic Rímov Reservoir, Czechia, over its entire four-decade history (1979-2016). The δ13C of the fish scales varied greatly throughout the reservoir history. The lowest δ13C values were observed immediately after the reservoir was filled in 1979, indicating that fish production at that time was likely partially supported by 13C-depleted CO2 released from the inundated soil. During the 1980s, due to the high levels of phytoplankton production stimulated by high phosphorus inputs from the catchment, the δ13C values substantially increased. However, since 1990, the δ13C values have generally decreased, reflecting a gradual reduction in reservoir primary production caused by the decreasing input of phosphorus and increasing input of dissolved organic carbon from the catchment. The δ13C of fish scales was also used to reconstruct the CO2 concentration of the surface water. The reconstructed CO2 varied significantly during the four-decade history, but it was always below the air-equilibrium concentration, suggesting that the surface water of the reservoir has consistently absorbed atmospheric carbon. The fish-scale δ15N values remained relatively stable, while slightly increasing within three years after impoundment, likely because the nitrogen supply was high throughout the studied period. Our study contributes to the growing body of literature demonstrating that stable isotope analysis of archived biological samples is a promising approach for understanding historical trends in the biogeochemistry of aquatic environments. In particular, our results highlight the potential of δ13C in archived fish scales in reconstructing carbon cycle changes and evaluating human impacts on aquatic ecosystems.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental , Animais , Carbono , Ciclo do Carbono , Isótopos de Carbono/análise , República Tcheca , Humanos , Isótopos , Isótopos de Nitrogênio/análise
8.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 31(10): 3559-3567, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33314847

RESUMO

Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope analysis was carried out on pelagic fishery organisms caught in light traps and falling nets in the central and western South China Sea in the spring of 2018. The stable isotope values of the sampled individuals were used to elucidate the isotopic variations for the pelagic fishery organisms, to classify species into trophic functional groups, and to compare the differences of trophic structure among the classified trophic functional groups. The results showed that among 23 fishery species the mean δ13C value of Coryphaena hippurus was the lowest (-17.58‰±0.21‰), and that of Grammistes sexlineatus was the highest (-19.86‰±0.33‰). The mean δ15N values ranged from 8.31‰ in Psenes cyanophrys to (12.46±0.74)‰ in Chirocentrus dorab. The continuous trophic spectrum indicated that the trophic level (TL) for the sampled pela-gic fishery organisms ranged from 3.01 to 4.23, of which 19 species (83% of the total) fell between TL 3.0 and 4.0. The 23 species of fishery organisms were classified into three trophic functional groups, i.e., plankton feeding functional group (PFFG), nekton feeding functional group (NFFG), and mixed feeding functional group (MFFG). The analysis of standard ellipse area (SEA) showed that the PFFG occupied the largest trophic niche width (SEA=1.56‰2), followed by the MFFG (SEA=0.99‰2) and NFFG (SEA=0.31‰2). The MFFG overlapped with PFFG and NFFG in the trophic niche, with a relative percentage of 17% and 26%, respectively. There was no overlap between PFFG and NFFG.


Assuntos
Carbono , Nitrogênio , Animais , Isótopos de Carbono/análise , China , Pesqueiros , Cadeia Alimentar , Humanos , Isótopos de Nitrogênio/análise
9.
Sci Data ; 7(1): 380, 2020 11 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33177524

RESUMO

The Southern Ocean zooplankton community is diverse, yet most species are understudied, especially with respect to their overwinter feeding ecologies. Here we present body condition and trophic biomarker data (lipid content and stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen) from 19 zooplankton species collected over five consecutive winters (August and September 2012-2016) around the northern Antarctic Peninsula. We report environmental data (percent sea-ice cover, sea-ice type, water temperature, salinity, and integrated chl-a) as well as species abundance data at each sampling location to provide additional context for interpreting the lipid and stable isotope data. For most species, these are the first winter measurements or time series of body condition, trophic position, and abundance in relation to environmental variables. These data are critical for evaluating changes in ecosystem structure and predator-prey relationships in a region of Antarctica that is warming faster than most other areas on Earth as a result of climate change.


Assuntos
Isótopos de Carbono/análise , Lipídeos/análise , Isótopos de Nitrogênio/análise , Zooplâncton/química , Animais , Regiões Antárticas , Clorofila A/análise , Camada de Gelo , Salinidade , Estações do Ano , Temperatura
10.
Bull Environ Contam Toxicol ; 105(6): 860-867, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33200247

RESUMO

The carbon and nitrogen stable isotope compositions of the sediment organic matter, fish feed and fish feces were measured to assess the impact of the aquaculture waste from the cage fish farm in Poyang Lake. The results provide evidence of the non-negligible effect of aquaculture waste on the sediment organic matter. The δ13C and δ15N of sediments varied from - 27.62 to - 25.66‰ and 4.83 to 6.92‰, respectively. The sediment organic matter had a mixed source of waste feed, fish feces and plankton. The average contribution ratio of waste feed and fish feces was 53.1% and 24.6%, respectively. The aquaculture derived organic matter ratio was high with ranging from 57.6 to 95.6%. The aquaculture waste seemed to disperse widely enough to influence the study site about 2.5 km distance from the cage. The dispersion and resuspension were the main two factors which can explain the great effect area found in this study.


Assuntos
Aquicultura , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Animais , Carbono/análise , Isótopos de Carbono/análise , China , Pesqueiros , Peixes , Lagos , Nitrogênio/análise , Isótopos de Nitrogênio/análise
11.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 160: 111622, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33181920

RESUMO

Sedimentary nitrogen (SN) provenience and fate in surface and subsurface sediments collected from the Baltic Sea were assessed. SN and sedimentary organic carbon (SOC) concentrations, stable isotopic signatures (δ15NSN and δ13CSOC) and SOC/SN molar ratios, were determined in subsequent layers of twenty-four sediment cores dated with 210Pb/137Cs and fifty-seven surface sediments. Sedimentation rates in the range 66-736 g/m2yr-1 (0.05-0.34 cm/year) were measured. Prolonged incubation of sediments in the laboratory led to a 17-37% decrease of SN in surface sediments, and no SN loss in sediments deposited before 1940. Decrease of δ15NSN on incubation (1‰ on average), and gradients of δ15NSN, between recent - surface (3.5‰) vs. 100 years old - subsurface (2.1‰) sediments were attributed to varying contributions of labile nitrogen to the SN pool. Annual deposition of SN to sediment surface and burial in subsurface sediments amounted, respectively, to 5 ± 2 g/m2 and 3.5 ± 1 g/m2.


Assuntos
Sedimentos Geológicos , Nitrogênio , Carbono/análise , Isótopos de Carbono/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Nitrogênio/análise , Isótopos de Nitrogênio/análise
12.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 160: 111672, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33181945

RESUMO

The spatial and seasonal variations in resource use of the lacustrine shrimp Palaemon paucidens were investigated in three different Korean lagoon systems in June and October 2018 by measuring their carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios. P. paucidens had much higher δ13C values at the permanently open lagoon (PL) as compared to the intermittently open lagoons (ILs), revealing a disparity in resource utilization. Isotopic niches of the shrimp were relatively wider at the PL than at the ILs, suggesting a greater diversity of carbon pathways in the PL system. These results indicate that the degree of water exchange with the sea, associated with lagoon geomorphology, may be a major factor influencing resource availability for P. paucidens. Our findings suggest that the duration and degree of inlet opening may affect dietary variation at the population level, and may be one of the key components of sustainable management for coastal lagoon ecosystems.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Palaemonidae , Animais , Isótopos de Carbono/análise , Isótopos de Nitrogênio/análise , República da Coreia , Estações do Ano
13.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0240930, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33147297

RESUMO

We conducted a meta-analysis of published carbon and nitrogen isotope data from archaeological human skeletal remains (n = 2448) from 128 sites cross China in order to investigate broad spatial and temporal patterns in the formation of staple cuisines. Between 6000-5000 cal BC we found evidence for an already distinct north versus south divide in the use of main crop staples (namely millet vs. a broad spectrum of C3 plant based diet including rice) that became more pronounced between 5000-2000 cal BC. We infer that this pattern can be understood as a difference in the spectrum of subsistence activities employed in the Loess Plateau and the Yangtze-Huai regions, which can be partly explained by differences in environmental conditions. We argue that regional differentiation in dietary tradition are not driven by differences in the conventional "stages" of shifting modes of subsistence (hunting-foraging-pastoralism-farming), but rather by myriad subsistence choices that combined and discarded modes in a number of innovative ways over thousands of years. The introduction of wheat and barley from southwestern Asia after 2000 cal BC resulted in the development of an additional east to west gradient in the degree of incorporation of the different staple products into human diets. Wheat and barley were rapidly adopted as staple foods in the Continental Interior contra the very gradual pace of adoption of these western crops in the Loess Plateau. While environmental and social factors likely contributed to their slow adoption, we explored local cooking practice as a third explanation; wheat and barley may have been more readily folded into grinding-and-baking cooking traditions than into steaming-and-boiling traditions. Changes in these culinary practices may have begun in the female sector of society.


Assuntos
Arqueologia/estatística & dados numéricos , Culinária/história , Produtos Agrícolas/história , Alimentos/história , Restos Mortais/química , Isótopos de Carbono/análise , China , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , História Antiga , Humanos , Masculino , Isótopos de Nitrogênio/análise , Fatores Sexuais , Esqueleto/química , Análise Espaço-Temporal
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32998258

RESUMO

A 2.5 m long sediment core (XH-2) obtained from Xianghu area, near the Kuahuqiao site, were analyzed for grain size, diatom index, and geochemistry of organic carbon. The results of the total organic carbon (TOC) and stable organic carbon isotope (δ13C) in sediment samples from core XH-2 in the Xianghu area in Zhejiang Province have revealed the evolution history of sedimentary environmental and climatic changes during the breeding-prosperity-decline period of the Kuahuqiao culture. During 9300-8200 cal a BP, TOC contents were relatively high and stable, whereas δ13C values tended to be negative. This condition indicated that the climate was humid, and the sedimentary environment in the Xianghu area was stable. During 8200-7500 cal a BP, TOC contents presented a fluctuating declining trend, and δ13C values were significantly high, implying that the climate was arid, and the Xianghu area was gradually reduced to land. Thus, conducive conditions were provided for the development of the Kuohuqiao culture (7700-7400 cal a BP). From 7500 cal a BP, TOC contents obviously declined, and δ13C values were partially low, suggesting strengthened hydrodynamic force and wet conditions in the Xianghu area. This condition was related to the rise in sea level at approximately 7400 cal a BP, and the Kuahuqiao site became obsolete due to the transgression event. The TOC contents in core XH-2 were remarkably influenced by grain size, whereas no significant correlation existed between the δ13C variability and grain size. Sedimentary environment changes in the Xianghu area from 9300 to 6600 cal a BP, which was reflected by the TOC and δ13C records in core XH-2, accorded with the diatom results in this core and those in the Baima Lake area.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Sedimentos Geológicos , Carbono/análise , Isótopos de Carbono/análise , China , Lagos
15.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 15630, 2020 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33004834

RESUMO

Domestic dogs are frequently encountered in Indigenous archaeological sites on the Northwest Coast of North America. Although dogs depended on human communities for care and provisioning, archaeologists lack information about the specific foods dogs consumed. Previous research has used stable isotope analysis of dog diets for insight into human subsistence ('canine surrogacy' model) and identified considerable use of marine resources. Here, we use zooarchaeological data to develop and apply a Bayesian mixing model (MixSIAR) to estimate dietary composition from 14 domestic dogs and 13 potential prey taxa from four archaeological sites (2,900-300 BP) in Tseshaht First Nation territory on western Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada. Two candidate models that best match zooarchaeological data indicate dogs predominantly consumed salmon and forage fish (35-65%), followed by nearshore fish (4-40%), and marine mammals (2-30%). We compared these isotopic data to dogs across the Northwest Coast, which indicated a pronounced marine diet for Tseshaht dogs and, presumably, their human providers. These results are broadly consistent with the canine surrogacy model as well as help illuminate human participation in pre-industrial marine food webs and the long-term role of fisheries in Indigenous economies and lifeways.


Assuntos
Arqueologia , Isótopos de Carbono/análise , Dieta/métodos , Comportamento Alimentar , Peixes/fisiologia , Isótopos de Nitrogênio/análise , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , Canadá , Cães
16.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(42): 26263-26272, 2020 10 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33020307

RESUMO

Closed-canopy rainforests are important for climate (influencing atmospheric circulation, albedo, carbon storage, etc.) and ecology (harboring the highest biodiversity of continental regions). Of all rainforests, Amazonia is the world's most diverse, including the highest mammalian species richness. However, little is known about niche structure, ecological roles, and food resource partitioning of Amazonian mammalian communities over time. Through analyses of δ13Cbioapatite, δ13Chair, and δ15Nhair, we isotopically characterized aspects of feeding ecology in a modern western Amazonian mammalian community in Peru, serving as a baseline for understanding the evolution of Neotropical rainforest ecosystems. By comparing these results with data from equatorial Africa, we evaluated the potential influences of distinct phylogenetic and biogeographic histories on the isotopic niches occupied by mammals in analogous tropical ecosystems. Our results indicate that, despite their geographical and taxonomic differences, median δ13Cdiet values from closed-canopy rainforests in Amazonia (-27.4‰) and equatorial Africa (-26.9‰) are not significantly different, and that the median δ13Cdiet expected for mammalian herbivores in any closed-canopy rainforest is -27.2‰. Amazonian mammals seem to exploit a narrower spectrum of dietary resources than equatorial African mammals, however, as depicted by the absence of highly negative δ13Cdiet values previously proposed as indicative of rainforests (<-31‰). Finally, results of keratin and bioapatite δ13C indicate that the predictive power of trophic relationships, and traditional dietary ecological classifications in bioapatite-protein isotopic offset expectations, must be reconsidered.


Assuntos
Isótopos de Carbono/análise , Ecologia/métodos , Fósseis/diagnóstico por imagem , África , Animais , Biodiversidade , Isótopos de Carbono/metabolismo , Dieta , Ecossistema , Mamíferos , Isótopos de Nitrogênio/análise , Peru , Filogenia , Floresta Úmida
17.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0240464, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33085689

RESUMO

Schipluiden (3630-3380 cal BC), the earliest known year-round settlement in the Rhine-Meuse Delta in the Netherlands, is a key site for addressing the nature of Neolithic subsistence in the wetlands of northwestern Europe. A preliminary zooarchaeological study suggested that cattle husbandry was a major activity at Schipluiden. In contrast, stable carbon and nitrogen isotope analyses of human remains from the site indicated a marine-oriented diet, implying that the Mesolithic-Neolithic dietary transition continued well into the mid-4th Millennium BC in this region. Here, we re-investigate the role and nature of cattle husbandry at Neolithic Schipluiden using mortality profiles and stable isotope analysis (δ18O, δ13C, δ15N) of animal bone collagen and tooth enamel. The age-at-death analysis suggests that cattle were managed for both meat and milk production. The δ18O and δ13C analysis of tooth enamel provide evidence that calving spread over five-and-a-half-months, which would have led to a longer availability of milk throughout the year. Cattle were grazing in open, marshy environments near the site and winter foddering was practiced occasionally. The faunal isotopic data also reveal that the high 15N in human bone collagen is more likely to signal the consumption of products from cattle that grazed on 15N-enriched salt marsh plants around the site, rather than a marine-oriented diet. This undermines the previous interpretation of the dietary practices at Schipluiden by showing that human diet in mid-4th millennium BC Rhine-Meuse area was fully "Neolithic", based primarily on products from domesticates, especially cattle, with some input from wild terrestrial and aquatic resources available in their surroundings, contrary to what has been proposed before. Collating these results demonstrates a high level of investment in cattle husbandry, highlighting the social and economic importance of cattle at the lower Rhine-Meuse Delta during the 4th millennium BC.


Assuntos
Agricultura/história , Osso e Ossos/metabolismo , Colágeno/análise , Esmalte Dentário/química , Isótopos/análise , Criação de Animais Domésticos , Animais , Isótopos de Carbono/análise , Bovinos , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , História Antiga , Humanos , Marcação por Isótopo , Países Baixos , Isótopos de Nitrogênio/análise , Isótopos de Oxigênio/análise
18.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(43): 26681-26687, 2020 10 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33046637

RESUMO

Measurements of Δ14C and CO2 can cleanly separate biogenic and fossil contributions to CO2 enhancements above background. Our measurements of these tracers in air around Los Angeles in 2015 reveal high values of fossil CO2 and a significant and seasonally varying contribution of CO2 from the urban biosphere. The biogenic CO2 is composed of sources such as biofuel combustion and human metabolism and an urban biospheric component likely originating from urban vegetation, including turf and trees. The urban biospheric component is a source in winter and a sink in summer, with an estimated amplitude of 4.3 parts per million (ppm), equivalent to 33% of the observed annual mean fossil fuel contribution of 13 ppm. While the timing of the net carbon sink is out of phase with wintertime rainfall and the sink seasonality of Southern California Mediterranean ecosystems (which show maximum uptake in spring), it is in phase with the seasonal cycle of urban water usage, suggesting that irrigated urban vegetation drives the biospheric signal we observe. Although 2015 was very dry, the biospheric seasonality we observe is similar to the 2006-2015 mean derived from an independent Δ14C record in the Los Angeles area, indicating that 2015 biospheric exchange was not highly anomalous. The presence of a large and seasonally varying biospheric signal even in the relatively dry climate of Los Angeles implies that atmospheric estimates of fossil fuel-CO2 emissions in other, potentially wetter, urban areas will be biased in the absence of reliable methods to separate fossil and biogenic CO2.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Isótopos de Carbono/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Ciclo do Carbono , Combustíveis Fósseis , Humanos , Los Angeles , Estações do Ano , Emissões de Veículos
19.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 41(11): 4905-4913, 2020 Nov 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33124234

RESUMO

This study aims to complement existing research on the carbon cycle of water in reservoirs, for the effective control of nutrient input in drinking water. The content and isotopic compositions of water dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) from the Miyun Reservoir watershed in Beijing were studied, and water from the Jingmi diversion canal was also studied as a baseline reference. The results showed that the content of DOC in the Miyun Reservoir watershed in summer varied from 1.07 to 5.19 mg·L-1, with an average value of 2.61 mg·L-1. DOC in tributaries was lower than that of most rivers in China and globally, while DOC in reservoirs, particularly in Miyun Reservoir, was high. The high water level might be the main reason for the high DOC in the Miyun Reservoir. In summer, the δ13CDOC in the Miyun Reservoir watershed ranged from -27.4‰ to -24.3‰, with an average value of -25.8‰. Results from the isotopic analysis showed that the water in the Miyun Reservoir watershed was less affected by human sources, with the exception of some points. In summer, DOC in tributaries and in the Miyun Reservoir was mainly derived from soil organic matter and terrestrial C3 plants. In addition, endogenous substances also contributed to DOC in the watershed. DOC concentration increased along the Chao and Bai Rivers, and DOC from soil erosion and human sources was higher in the Chao River. The δ13CDIC in the study area varied from -12.6‰ to 5.75‰, with a mean value of -9.44‰. The weathering of carbonate rocks accounted for the major river DIC, and DIC had been clearly assimilated by the phytoplankton by photosynthesis. DOC and DIC in the Miyun Reservoir were significantly higher than in the Jingmi diversion canal (P<0.01), and the δ13CDIC in the Miyun Reservoir showed a clear positive deviation. This indicated that there were differences in carbon concentration and components in the two kinds of water, which might affect the denitrification capacity of the water in the Miyun Reservoir after mixing. In general, the dissolved carbon in the water of the Miyun Reservoir watershed is less affected by human sources. The conversion of DIC to DOC may also be a potential source of DOC in the study area.


Assuntos
Carbono , Monitoramento Ambiental , Pequim , Carbono/análise , Isótopos de Carbono/análise , China , Humanos , Rios
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