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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33799676

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Occupational exposure limits for hydrogen sulphide (H2S) vary considerably; three expert group reports, published from 2006 to 2010, each recommend different limits. Some jurisdictions are considering substantial reductions. METHODS: This review assesses the scientific evidence used in these recommendations and presents a new systematic review of human studies from 2006-20, identifying 33 studies. RESULTS: The three major reports all give most weight to two sets of studies: of physiological effects in human volunteers, and of effects in the nasal passages of rats and mice. The human studies were done in one laboratory over 20 years ago and give inconsistent results. The breathing style and nasal anatomy of rats and mice would make them more sensitive than humans to inhaled agents. Each expert group applied different uncertainly factors. From these reports and the further literature review, no clear evidence of detrimental health effects from chronic occupational exposures specific to H2S was found. Detailed studies of individuals in communities with natural sources in New Zealand have shown no detrimental effects. Studies in Iceland and Italy show some associations; these and various other small studies need verification. CONCLUSIONS: The scientific justification for lowering occupational exposure limits is very limited. There is no clear evidence, based on currently available studies, that lower limits will protect the health of workers further than will the current exposure limits used in most countries. Further review and assessment of relevant evidence is justified before exposure limits are set.


Assuntos
Sulfeto de Hidrogênio , Exposição Ocupacional , Animais , Sulfeto de Hidrogênio/toxicidade , Islândia , Itália , Camundongos , Nova Zelândia , Ratos
2.
Curr Biol ; 31(4): R161-R163, 2021 Feb 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33795064

RESUMO

Air pollution kills many more people every year than COVID-19 has in its first year but is receiving less attention. India is facing a pollution crisis from multiple sources, while European cities have mainly their motor vehicles to blame. Mounting evidence suggests that particle pollution may harm every organ of the body. Michael Gross reports.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/análise , Bélgica , Cidades , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Europa (Continente) , Energia Geotérmica , Humanos , Islândia , Índia , Veículos Automotores , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/efeitos adversos
3.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 2161, 2021 04 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33846312

RESUMO

The 2014-15 Holuhraun eruption in Iceland was the largest fissure eruption in over 200 years, emitting prodigious amounts of gas and particulate matter into the troposphere. Reykjavík, the capital area of Iceland (250 km from eruption site) was exposed to air pollution events from advection of (i) a relatively young and chemically primitive volcanic plume with a high sulphur dioxide gas (SO2) to sulphate PM (SO42-) ratio, and (ii) an older and chemically mature volcanic plume with a low SO2/SO42- ratio. Whereas the advection and air pollution caused by the primitive plume were successfully forecast and forewarned in public advisories, the mature plume was not. Here, we show that exposure to the mature plume is associated with an increase in register-measured health care utilisation for respiratory disease by 23% (95% CI 19.7-27.4%) and for asthma medication dispensing by 19.3% (95% CI 9.6-29.1%). Absence of public advisories is associated with increases in visits to primary care medical doctors and to the hospital emergency department. We recommend that operational response to volcanic air pollution considers both primitive and mature types of plumes.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Doenças Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Erupções Vulcânicas/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Asma/tratamento farmacológico , Assistência à Saúde , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Humanos , Islândia/epidemiologia , Morbidade , Médicos de Atenção Primária , Saúde Pública , Análise de Regressão , Risco , Autorrelato , Dióxido de Enxofre/análise , Inquéritos e Questionários
4.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0248176, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33667280

RESUMO

Testing and case identification are key strategies in controlling the COVID-19 pandemic. Contact tracing and isolation are only possible if cases have been identified. The effectiveness of testing should be assessed, but a single comprehensive metric is not available to assess testing effectiveness, and no timely estimates of case detection rate are available globally, making inter-country comparisons difficult. The purpose of this paper was to propose a single, comprehensive metric, called the COVID-19 Testing Index (CovTI) scaled from 0 to 100, derived from epidemiological indicators of testing, and to identify factors associated with this outcome. The index was based on case-fatality rate, test positivity rate, active cases, and an estimate of the detection rate. It used parsimonious modeling to estimate the true total number of COVID-19 cases based on deaths, testing, health system capacity, and government transparency. Publicly reported data from 165 countries and territories that had reported at least 100 confirmed cases by June 3, 2020 were included in the index. Estimates of detection rates aligned satisfactorily with previous estimates in literature (R2 = 0.44). As of June 3, 2020, the states with the highest CovTI included Hong Kong (93.7), Australia (93.5), Iceland (91.8), Cambodia (91.3), New Zealand (90.6), Vietnam (90.2), and Taiwan (89.9). Bivariate analyses showed the mean CovTI in countries with open public testing policies (66.9, 95% CI 61.0-72.8) was significantly higher than in countries with no testing policy (29.7, 95% CI 17.6-41.9) (p<0.0001). A multiple linear regression model assessed the association of independent grouping variables with CovTI. Open public testing and extensive contact tracing were shown to significantly increase CovTI, after adjusting for extrinsic factors, including geographic isolation and centralized forms of government. The correlation of testing and contact tracing policies with improved outcomes demonstrates the validity of this model to assess testing effectiveness and also suggests these policies were effective at improving health outcomes. This tool can be combined with other databases to identify other factors or may be useful as a standalone tool to help inform policymakers.


Assuntos
/diagnóstico , /epidemiologia , Austrália/epidemiologia , Camboja/epidemiologia , Busca de Comunicante , Política de Saúde , Hong Kong/epidemiologia , Humanos , Islândia/epidemiologia , Modelos Lineares , Nova Zelândia/epidemiologia , Taiwan/epidemiologia , Vietnã/epidemiologia
5.
Environ Sci Technol ; 55(8): 4923-4931, 2021 04 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33760582

RESUMO

Interindividual variation in prey specialization is an essential yet overlooked aspect of wildlife feeding ecology, especially as it relates to intrapopulation variation in exposure to toxic contaminants. Here, we assessed blubber concentrations of an extensive suite of persistent organic pollutants in Icelandic killer whales (Orcinus orca). Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations in blubber were >300-fold higher in the most contaminated individual relative to the least contaminated, ranging from 1.3 to 428.6 mg·kg-1 lw. Mean PCB concentrations were 6-to-9-fold greater in individuals with a mixed diet including marine mammals than in fish specialist individuals, whereas males showed PCB concentrations 4-fold higher than females. Given PCBs have been identified as potentially impacting killer whale population growth, and levels in mixed feeders specifically exceeded known thresholds, the ecology of individuals must be recognized to accurately forecast how contaminants may threaten the long-term persistence of the world's ultimate marine predator.


Assuntos
Bifenilos Policlorados , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Orca , Animais , Monitoramento Ambiental , Feminino , Islândia , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
6.
Zootaxa ; 4927(2): zootaxa.4927.2.4, 2021 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33756709

RESUMO

No species of freshwater Nematomorpha have been described from Iceland, but they have been identified anecdotally. Recent surveys in Iceland using freshwater gastropods as biodiversity indicators resulted in the collection of adult free-living hairworms and their non-adult stages including cysts in snail paratenic hosts and juvenile worms in ground beetle definitive hosts. Additionally, specimens acquired from the Icelandic Institute of Natural History indicate nematomorphs are common in Iceland. A single specimen from the Faroe Islands National Museum represents a new species record. Our morphological and molecular characterization indicated all the samples belong to the species Gordionus wolterstorffii, a common nematomorph found throughout Europe. Also, we provide the first descriptions of the cyst stage for the genus Gordionus. Molecular phylogenetic analysis based on 10 species of Gordionus and one species of the closely related genus Parachordodes indicates that Gordionus is not monophyletic. Combining our morphological and phylogenetic investigations, we discuss the lack of clarity in diagnostic morphological characters and the need for additional global collections to clarify the taxonomy of Gordionus.


Assuntos
Helmintos , Animais , Dinamarca , Documentação , Helmintos/genética , Islândia , Filogenia
7.
Geobiology ; 19(3): 292-306, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33569915

RESUMO

Modern cryptogamic ground covers (CGCs), comprising assemblages of bryophytes (hornworts, liverworts, mosses), fungi, bacteria, lichens and algae, are thought to resemble early divergent terrestrial communities. However, limited in situ plant and other fossils in the rock record, and a lack of CGC-like soils reported in the pre-Silurian sedimentological record, have hindered understanding of the structure, composition and interactions within the earliest CGCs. A key question is how the earliest CGC-like organisms drove weathering on primordial terrestrial surfaces (regolith), leading to the early stages of soil development as proto-soils, and subsequently contributing to large-scale biogeochemical shifts in the Earth System. Here, we employed a novel qualitative, quantitative and multi-dimensional imaging approach through X-ray micro-computed tomography, scanning electron, and optical microscopy to investigate whether different combinations of modern CGC organisms from primordial-like settings in Iceland develop organism-specific soil forming features at the macro- and micro-scales. Additionally, we analysed CGCs growing on hard rocky substrates to investigate the initiation of weathering processes non-destructively in 3D. We show that thalloid CGC organisms (liverworts, hornworts) develop thin organic layers at the surface (<1 cm) with limited subsurface structural development, whereas leafy mosses and communities of mixed organisms form profiles that are thicker (up to ~ 7 cm), structurally more complex, and more organic-rich. We term these thin layers and profiles proto-soils. Component analyses from X-ray micro-computed tomography data show that thickness and structure of these proto-soils are determined by the type of colonising organism(s), suggesting that the evolution of more complex soils through the Palaeozoic may have been driven by a shift in body plan of CGC-like organisms from flattened and appressed to upright and leafy. Our results provide a framework for identifying CGC-like proto-soils in the rock record and a new proxy for understanding organism-soil interactions in ancient terrestrial biospheres and their contribution to the early stages of soil formation.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Solo , Islândia , Microbiologia do Solo , Microtomografia por Raio-X
8.
Sci Total Environ ; 774: 145103, 2021 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33607439

RESUMO

Biotic groups usually have nonrandom cross-taxon relationships in their biodiversity or compositions across sites, but it is poorly known how such congruence varies across long-term ecosystem development, and what are the ecological processes underlying biodiversity patterns. Here, we examined the cross-taxon congruence in diversity and compositions of bacteria, fungi and diatoms in streams from four regions with different geological ages in Iceland, and further studied their community assembly processes. Bacteria and fungi showed contrasting trends in alpha and gamma diversities across geological ages, while their beta diversity patterns were consistent, being the lowest in the oldest region. The three taxonomic groups had the strongest cross-taxon congruence of beta diversity in the oldest region, while the weakest for intermediate-aged regions. Although environmental variables played important roles in shaping their congruence, biotic interaction had nonnegligible influences. Deterministic processes, being dominant for bacteria and fungi, had the highest relative influence in intermediate-aged regions, whereas diatoms showed higher stochasticity. We proposed a four-phase conceptual model to show how the balance of deterministic and stochastic processes changes across geological ages. Taken together, our results provide an advanced understanding of cross-taxon congruence and community assembly processes for aquatic communities over long-term periods of geological age.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Microbiota , Bactérias , Biodiversidade , Fungos , Islândia , Processos Estocásticos
9.
Sci Total Environ ; 774: 145549, 2021 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33611010

RESUMO

Ash, gases and particles emitted from volcanic eruptions cause disruption to air transport, but also have negative impacts on respiratory and cardiovascular health. Exposure to sulphur dioxide (SO2) and sulphate (SO4) aerosols increases the risk of mortality, and respiratory and cardiovascular hospital admissions. Ash and gases can be transported over large distances and are a potential public health risk. In 2014-15, the Bárðarbunga fissure eruption at Holuhraun, Iceland was associated with high emissions of SO2 and SO4, detected at UK monitoring stations. We estimated the potential impacts on the UK population from SO2 and SO4 associated with a hypothetical large fissure eruption in Iceland for mortality and emergency hospital admissions. To simulate the effects of different weather conditions, we used an ensemble of 80 runs from an atmospheric dispersion model to simulate SO2 and SO4 concentrations on a background of varying meteorology. We weighted the simulated exposure data by population, and quantified the potential health impacts that may result in the UK over a 6-week period following the start of an eruption. We found in the majority of cases, the expected number of deaths resulting from SO2 over a 6-week period total fewer than ~100 for each model run, and for SO4, in the majority of cases, the number totals fewer than ~200. However, the 6-week simulated period with the highest SO2 was associated with 313 deaths, and the period with the highest SO4 was associated with 826 deaths. The single 6-week period relating to the highest combined SO2 and SO4 was associated with 925 deaths. Over a 5-month extended exposure period, upper estimates are for 3350 deaths, 4030 emergency cardiovascular and 6493 emergency respiratory hospitalizations. These figures represent a worst-case scenario and can inform health protection planning for effusive volcanic eruptions which may affect the UK in the future.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Dióxido de Enxofre , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Islândia , Sulfatos , Dióxido de Enxofre/análise , Dióxido de Enxofre/toxicidade , Reino Unido , Erupções Vulcânicas/efeitos adversos
10.
Sci Total Environ ; 776: 145190, 2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33639459

RESUMO

Nature visitation is important, both culturally and economically. Given the contribution of nature recreation to multiple societal goals, comprehending determinants of nature visitation is essential to understand the drivers associated with the popularity of nature areas, for example, to inform land-use planning or site management strategies to maximise benefits. Understanding the factors related to nature, tourism and recreation can support the management of nature areas and thereby, also conservation efforts and biodiversity protection. This study applied a Multiscale Geographically Weighted Regression (MGWR) to quantify the spatially varying influence of different factors associated with nature visitation in Europe and North America. Results indicated that some explanatory variables were stationary for all sites (age 15 to 65, population density (within 25 km), GDP, area, built-up areas, plateaus, and mountains). In contrast, others exhibited significant spatial non-stationarity (locally variable): needle-leaf trees (conifers), trails, travel time, roads, and Red List birds and amphibians. Needle-leaf trees and travel time were found to be negatively significant in Europe. Roads were found to have a significant positive effect in North America. Trails and Red List bird species were found to have a positive effect in both North America and North Europe, with a greater effect in Europe. Red List amphibians was the only spatially variable predictor to have both a positive and negative impact, with selected sites in North America and northern Europe being positive, whereas Iceland and central and southern Europe were negative. The scale of the response-predictor relationship (bandwidth) of these locally variable predictors was smallest for Red List amphibians at 1033 km, with all other spatially variable predictors between 9558 and 12,285 km. The study demonstrates the contribution that MGWR, a spatially explicit model, can make to support a deeper understanding of processes associated with nature visitation in different geographic contexts.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Recreação , Animais , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Ecossistema , Europa (Continente) , Islândia , América do Norte
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33572991

RESUMO

In the Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden), the Urban Green Infrastructure (UGI) has been traditionally targeted at reducing flood risk. However, other Ecosystem Services (ES) became increasingly relevant in response to the challenges of urbanization and climate change. In total, 90 scientific articles addressing ES considered crucial contributions to the quality of life in cities are reviewed. These are classified as (1) regulating ES that minimize hazards such as heat, floods, air pollution and noise, and (2) cultural ES that promote well-being and health. We conclude that the planning and design of UGI should balance both the provision of ES and their side effects and disservices, aspects that seem to have been only marginally investigated. Climate-sensitive planning practices are critical to guarantee that seasonal climate variability is accounted for at high-latitude regions. Nevertheless, diverging and seemingly inconsistent findings, together with gaps in the understanding of long-term effects, create obstacles for practitioners. Additionally, the limited involvement of end users points to a need of better engagement and communication, which in overall call for more collaborative research. Close relationships and interactions among different ES provided by urban greenery were found, yet few studies attempted an integrated evaluation. We argue that promoting interdisciplinary studies is fundamental to attain a holistic understanding of how plant traits affect the resulting ES; of the synergies between biophysical, physiological and psychological processes; and of the potential disservices of UGI, specifically in Nordic cities.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Qualidade de Vida , Cidades , Finlândia , Islândia , Noruega , Países Escandinavos e Nórdicos , Suécia
12.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 164: 111976, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33517089

RESUMO

The global distribution of microplastic debris on the sea floor poses an increasing risk to marine organisms and ecosystems. Here, we present a distribution analysis of microplastics collected from eight marine multicores recovered from the Iceland continental shelf and surrounding areas at water depth between 241 and 1628 m. We report a total of 306 microplastics from the size range > 250 µm -5 mm, of which all were fibers. Microplastic numbers range between 0.119 and 0.768 per gram of dry sediments. In the analysis we assess the potential role of oceanic surface and bottom water currents, organic content, and sediment type on the distribution, deposition, and burial of microplastics in marine sediments. Our results provide the first record of microplastic pollution of marine sediments from the Iceland continental shelf and identify Atlantic Cod feeding and breeding grounds as potential hot spot for the accumulation of marine debris.


Assuntos
Microplásticos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental , Sedimentos Geológicos , Islândia , Oceanos e Mares , Plásticos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
13.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(2)2021 01 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33419920

RESUMO

Life in environments devoid of photosynthesis, such as on early Earth or in contemporary dark subsurface ecosystems, is supported by chemical energy. How, when, and where chemical nutrients released from the geosphere fuel chemosynthetic biospheres is fundamental to understanding the distribution and diversity of life, both today and in the geologic past. Hydrogen (H2) is a potent reductant that can be generated when water interacts with reactive components of mineral surfaces such as silicate radicals and ferrous iron. Such reactive mineral surfaces are continually generated by physical comminution of bedrock by glaciers. Here, we show that dissolved H2 concentrations in meltwaters from an iron and silicate mineral-rich basaltic glacial catchment were an order of magnitude higher than those from a carbonate-dominated catchment. Consistent with higher H2 abundance, sediment microbial communities from the basaltic catchment exhibited significantly shorter lag times and faster rates of net H2 oxidation and dark carbon dioxide (CO2) fixation than those from the carbonate catchment, indicating adaptation to use H2 as a reductant in basaltic catchments. An enrichment culture of basaltic sediments provided with H2, CO2, and ferric iron produced a chemolithoautotrophic population related to Rhodoferax ferrireducens with a metabolism previously thought to be restricted to (hyper)thermophiles and acidophiles. These findings point to the importance of physical and chemical weathering processes in generating nutrients that support chemosynthetic primary production. Furthermore, they show that differences in bedrock mineral composition can influence the supplies of nutrients like H2 and, in turn, the diversity, abundance, and activity of microbial inhabitants.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Fenômenos Geológicos , Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Camada de Gelo/microbiologia , Ciclo do Carbono , Dióxido de Carbono/metabolismo , Islândia , Metagenoma , Oxirredução
14.
FEMS Microbiol Ecol ; 97(3)2021 03 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33507241

RESUMO

Groundwater is a key resource for safe drinking water supply. Yet unconfined aquifers can be vulnerable to microbial contamination during extreme weather events that lead to surface runoff. The current study characterises the groundwater microbiome of a porous basaltic rock aquifer in South-West Iceland used for drinking water extraction and analyses the microbial community dynamics during surface runoff. The groundwater microbial community sampled from 12 wells across the extraction area contained over 745 prokaryotic genera and was phylogenetically similar between wells and most seasons, representing a diverse but homogenous ecosystem. The largest seasonal variation in the microbial community composition was detected during a period of concurrent snow melt and high precipitation leading to surface runoff. This period was characterised by an increased abundance of soil-associated taxa in the groundwater microbiome and specifically of taxa assigned to Aeromonas and Bacillus. A field experiment simulating high surface runoff around a groundwater well confirmed the increased abundance of surface soil microorganisms in the well water, indicating vulnerability of groundwater towards surface microbial intrusion during extreme weather events. As such events are likely to increase due to climate change, novel water management tools such as microbial community analysis could help ensure drinking water safety.


Assuntos
Água Subterrânea , Microbiota , Bactérias/genética , Islândia , Porosidade , Estações do Ano , Água , Abastecimento de Água
15.
J Parasitol ; 107(1): 16-22, 2021 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33498083

RESUMO

Horses in Iceland have been isolated for more than 1,000 yr but still harbor a similar range of gastrointestinal parasites as do horses across the world. The long isolation of the horses and their parasites presumably means that no resistance genes have been introduced into the Parascaris spp. population. It is therefore of particular interest to investigate the efficacy of ivermectin on Parascaris spp. infecting Icelandic foals. Potential treatment failure of ivermectin in Iceland will add substantial new information on how resistance can arise independently. This study aimed to determine the efficacy of subcutaneous injection of ivermectin for the treatment of Parascaris spp. infection in foals and to identify the Parascaris species present in the west and north of Iceland. A fecal egg count reduction (FECR) test (FECRT) was performed on 50 foals from 8 farms, including an untreated control group of 6 foals, from September to November 2019. The foals were between 3 and 5 mo of age at the start of the study and had not previously been treated with anthelmintic drugs. Each foal was treated subcutaneously with off-label use of Ivomec® injection 10 mg/ml or Noromectin® 1% at a dose of 0.2 mg/kg. The FECR for each farm was calculated in 2 ways, by the eggCounts package in R and by the Presidente formula (FECRT). Both calculation methods resulted in efficacy levels between 0% and 80.78%, indicating ivermectin resistance on all farms. We also confirmed, by karyotyping, that the species of equine ascarid present in the west and north of Iceland is Parascaris univalens. This study provides evidence for treatment failure of ivermectin against P. univalens infection in foals. Since Icelandic horses have been isolated on the island for more than 1,000 yr, this implies that resistance alleles have developed independently in the Icelandic Parascaris population. The actual clinical impact of ivermectin resistance is unknown but another drug of choice should be considered to treat Parascaris infection in foals in Iceland.


Assuntos
Antiparasitários/farmacologia , Infecções por Ascaridida/veterinária , Ascaridoidea/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças dos Cavalos/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças dos Cavalos/parasitologia , Ivermectina/farmacologia , Animais , Antiparasitários/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Ascaridida/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Ascaridida/parasitologia , Ascaridoidea/classificação , Teorema de Bayes , Resistência a Medicamentos , Fezes/parasitologia , Cavalos , Islândia , Ivermectina/uso terapêutico , Cariotipagem/veterinária , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas/veterinária , Inquéritos e Questionários
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33379294

RESUMO

This contribution is a collective re-analysis of three research projects in Iceland focused on parenting with a disability which draws upon data spanning a twenty-year period. The core purpose of these projects is to understand why parents with primarily intellectual disabilities encounter such difficulties with the child protection system. Our aim with this contribution is to identify, through a longitudinal and comparative framework, why these difficulties persist despite a changing disability rights environment. A case study methodology has been employed highlighting three cases, one from each research project, which focus narrowly on disabled parents' struggles with the child protection system in the context of the maternity ward. The findings, framed in the concept of structural violence, indicate poor working practices on the part of healthcare and child protection, a lack of trust, and that context is still ignored in favour of disability as the explanatory framework for the perceived inadequacies of the parents. We contend that child protection authorities continue to remain out of step with developments in disability and human rights. The contribution concludes to make a case as to why the concept of obstetric violence is a useful framework for criticism and advocacy work in this area.


Assuntos
Serviços de Proteção Infantil/ética , Serviços de Proteção Infantil/tendências , Pessoas com Deficiência , Deficiência Intelectual , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Islândia , Poder Familiar , Gravidez
17.
Ann Agric Environ Med ; 27(4): 579-584, 2020 Dec 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33356064

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The safety of poultry meat products and contamination with microorganisms is based on appropriate reduction of the presence of pathogens during poultry rearing and is closely related to the level of rearing hygiene, including the type of housing, stocking density, microclimate, sanitation and ventilation. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study is to evaluate the prevalence of Campylobacter-positive samples in Iceland during 2016-2018, and to compare the potential influence of individual parameters of welfare on the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Positivity of excrement and caecum samples for Campylobacter spp. was determined according to ISO 10272-1: 2006 and 2017. Data of welfare indicators were collected during the rearing period and in the slaughterhouse. RESULTS: Considerable seasonality was observed in the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. The prevalence of campylobacteriosis on the investigated broiler farms was significantly higher (p ˂0.05) during the summer. Comparison of welfare parameters on Campylobacter-positive and Campylobacter-negative farms failed to indicate a significantly higher level of observed welfare indicators in birds from Campylobacter-positive farms (p˃0.05). In comparing small, medium and big farms, a significantly higher occurrence was observed (p<0.05) of the FPD score over 40, stocking density, and the average slaughter weight, and percentage of mortality over 2% in small farms. CONCLUSIONS: Intensive management and the environment affect the welfare of poultry and its resistance to infections (Campylobacteriosis) and thus increase the health risk. Checking the welfare parameters in a slaughter house provides delayed improvement of the environment on farms, but it can also lead to changes in the following production cycles (decreasing of stocking density).


Assuntos
Infecções por Campylobacter/veterinária , Campylobacter/isolamento & purificação , Galinhas , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/epidemiologia , Matadouros , Bem-Estar do Animal , Animais , Infecções por Campylobacter/epidemiologia , Infecções por Campylobacter/microbiologia , Abrigo para Animais , Islândia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Prevalência
18.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4093, 2020 10 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33097703

RESUMO

A major challenge in genetic association studies is that most associated variants fall in the non-coding part of the human genome. We searched for variants associated with bone mineral density (BMD) after enriching the discovery cohort for loss-of-function (LoF) mutations by sequencing a subset of the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study, followed by imputation in the remaining sample (N = 19,705), and identified ten known BMD loci. However, one previously unreported variant, LoF mutation in MEPE, p.(Lys70IlefsTer26, minor allele frequency [MAF] = 0.8%), was associated with decreased ultradistal forearm BMD (P-value = 2.1 × 10-18), and increased osteoporosis (P-value = 4.2 × 10-5) and fracture risk (P-value = 1.6 × 10-5). The MEPE LoF association with BMD and fractures was further evaluated in 279,435 UK (MAF = 0.05%, heel bone estimated BMD P-value = 1.2 × 10-16, any fracture P-value = 0.05) and 375,984 Icelandic samples (MAF = 0.03%, arm BMD P-value = 0.12, forearm fracture P-value = 0.005). Screening for the MEPE LoF mutations before adulthood could potentially prevent osteoporosis and fractures due to the lifelong effect on BMD observed in the study. A key implication for precision medicine is that high-impact functional variants missing from the publicly available cosmopolitan panels could be clinically more relevant than polygenic risk scores.


Assuntos
Densidade Óssea/genética , Proteínas da Matriz Extracelular/genética , Fraturas Ósseas/genética , Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Glicoproteínas/genética , Fosfoproteínas/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Biologia Computacional , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Testes Genéticos , Genoma Humano , Humanos , Islândia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Osteoporose/genética
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33008097

RESUMO

Research shows that bullying is a significant workplace issue. A previous study showed increased sickness-related absences among municipality employees during the Icelandic economic crisis in 2008. This led to the following research questions: has bullying and/or harassment increased between the time points of the study up to seven years after the crisis? Did bullying and/or harassment change depending on downsizing? Are quantitative job demands, role conflicts and social support connected to bullying and/or harassment at work and if so, how? The study is based on a four-wave longitudinal balanced panel dataset consisting of those who work within the education and care services operated by Icelandic municipalities. It was seen that bullying and harassment had increased between the time points of the study. Furthermore, employees in downsized workplaces, workplaces with higher quantitative job demands, more role conflicts and less support were more likely to experience bullying and/or harassment than employees in other workplaces. Since the effects may prevail for several years, the study demonstrates that the consequences of downsizing need to be carefully considered and that managers must be supported in that role. As economic crises tend to occur periodically, presently due to COVID-19, the knowledge is both of theoretical and practical importance.


Assuntos
Bullying , Recessão Econômica , Downsizing Organizacional , Local de Trabalho/psicologia , Humanos , Islândia
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33017921

RESUMO

The potential of using the information of uterine contractions (UCs) derived from electrohysterogram (EHG) has been recognized in early detection of preterm delivery. A better understanding of the conduction property of EHG is clinically useful for developing advanced methods to achieve a reliable prediction of preterm delivery. In this paper, a method to analyze the destination of EHG propagation has been proposed via the estimation of directed information (DI) between each pair of neighboring channels with a novel propagation terminal zone (PTZ) identification algorithm. The proposed method was applied to experimental data from the Icelandic 16-electrode EHG database. The results demonstrated that for more than 81.8% participants, the PTZ was identified along the medial axis of uterus, among which more than half have their PTZ determined in the center between the uterine fundus and public symphysis, which indicated a great probability of propagation of EHG signals towards the center of uterus plane.Clinical relevance- This study makes a fundamental contribution for predicting preterm delivery, which can provide improvement in obstetric care towards pregnancy monitoring.


Assuntos
Processamento de Sinais Assistido por Computador , Contração Uterina , Eletromiografia , Feminino , Humanos , Islândia , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Útero
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