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1.
Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop ; 156(4): 453-463, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31582117

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Extraction of one mandibular incisor in adolescents and adults can simplify orthodontic treatment in 2 major circumstances: (1) severe crowding of the mandibular but not the maxillary incisors, and (2) mild anterior crossbite with good alignment in both arches. Despite its potential advantages, this method has had limited use in most practices. There have been 3 major objections: (1) the possibility of unsightly black triangles because of loss of interdental papilla height, (2) a possible tooth size discrepancy that would affect occlusal relationships, and (3) patient concerns about a visible extraction site. All 3 objections now can be overcome. METHODS: For 37 consecutively treated single-incisor-extraction patients, preparation of the extraction site for the tooth to be extracted was done by tipping it lingually while simultaneously closing the space in front of it. Treatment outcomes and the effect of age at the time of treatment were evaluated. RESULTS: In patients below age 20, this approach eliminated post-treatment black triangles and almost eliminated partial loss of the interdental papilla. It reduced the previously reported prevalence of these problems in patients aged 20-40 years and did not seem to be helpful in those aged over 40 years. This positive effect was achieved because of maintenance of alveolar crest height that supports the interdental papillae. Tooth size discrepancy caused by incisor extraction was largely compensated by the different labio-lingual orientation of maxillary and mandibular anterior teeth. The extraction space quickly disappeared during extraction site preparation. CONCLUSIONS: The new procedure of extraction site preparation described in this paper offers more favorable outcomes for post-treatment prevalence of black triangles in younger patients but shows limited efficacy in older patients. Camouflage of a mild skeletal Class III problem is the major indication for this extraction pattern. About 3% of Icelandic orthodontic patients appear to be good candidates for this treatment, and this finding should be reasonably generalizable to other populations of European descent.


Assuntos
Incisivo/cirurgia , Mandíbula/cirurgia , Extração Dentária/métodos , Técnicas de Movimentação Dentária/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Cefalometria/métodos , Criança , Estética Dentária , Feminino , Humanos , Islândia , Incisivo/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Má Oclusão de Angle Classe III/terapia , Mandíbula/diagnóstico por imagem , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fotografação , Resultado do Tratamento
2.
Science ; 365(6449)2019 07 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31296741

RESUMO

Mina et al (Reports, 8 May 2015, p. 694) used population-level statistical analysis to argue that measles infection results in a 2- to 3-year immunomodulation, implicating measles in substantially more child mortality than previously thought. We show, using both simulation and data from Iceland, that the statistical approach used may be confounded by the 2-year periodicity of measles incidence in the areas studied.


Assuntos
Sarampo , Criança , Mortalidade da Criança , Humanos , Islândia , Imunomodulação , Incidência
3.
Nat Neurosci ; 22(7): 1066-1074, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31209380

RESUMO

Cannabis is the most frequently used illicit psychoactive substance worldwide; around one in ten users become dependent. The risk for cannabis use disorder (CUD) has a strong genetic component, with twin heritability estimates ranging from 51 to 70%. Here we performed a genome-wide association study of CUD in 2,387 cases and 48,985 controls, followed by replication in 5,501 cases and 301,041 controls. We report a genome-wide significant risk locus for CUD (P = 9.31 × 10-12) that replicates in an independent population (Preplication = 3.27 × 10-3, Pmeta-analysis = 9.09 × 10-12). The index variant (rs56372821) is a strong expression quantitative trait locus for cholinergic receptor nicotinic α2 subunit (CHRNA2); analyses of the genetically regulated gene expression identified a significant association of CHRNA2 expression with CUD in brain tissue. At the polygenic level, analyses revealed a significant decrease in the risk of CUD with increased load of variants associated with cognitive performance. The results provide biological insights and inform on the genetic architecture of CUD.


Assuntos
Abuso de Maconha/genética , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/fisiologia , Receptores Nicotínicos/fisiologia , Idade de Início , Alelos , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/genética , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Cromossomos Humanos Par 8/genética , Cognição/fisiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Fatores de Confusão (Epidemiologia) , Dinamarca , Escolaridade , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Islândia , Masculino , Herança Multifatorial , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/biossíntese , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Receptores Nicotínicos/biossíntese , Receptores Nicotínicos/genética , Esquizofrenia/genética , Fumar/genética , Transcriptoma
4.
Chemosphere ; 232: 63-69, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31152904

RESUMO

PBDEs occur in a range of commonly consumed foods but there is very little current information on occurrence in dietary supplements such as cod liver oil or cod livers used as food. This study retrospectively investigated a number of these products, sourced from the Baltic Sea and North Atlantic, historically dating from 1972 to 2017. For the sum of 17 measured PBDEs (ΣPBDE), the concentrations ranged from 9.9 to 415 ng g-1 for the oils and from 10.5 to 13 ng g-1 for canned liver products. Concentrations in the oils were highest during the period from 1993 to 2001. For all samples, BDE-47 was the dominant congener with a maximum detected concentration of 308 ng g-1 in a Baltic cod liver oil from 1993. Human exposure to PBDEs from recommended doses were estimated for adults, teenagers and children. Depending on the age group, BDE-47 intakes ranged from 1.3 to 211.5 ng kg-1 bm day-1 (Baltic Sea), 2.9-12.7 ng kg-1 bm day-1 (Atlantic, Norway) and 1.1-4.8 ng kg-1 bm day-1 (Atlantic, Iceland). Intakes for the other dominant congeners, BDE-49, BDE-99 and BDE-100, were relatively low. The intake estimates of ΣPBDE were highest for Baltic cod liver oils ranging from 2.2 to 284.8 ng kg-1 bm day-1 for adults, 2.8-178 ng kg-1 bm day-1 for teenagers and 2.0-127.8 ng kg-1 bm day-1 for a child. Estimated weekly intake of ΣPBDE from canned cod liver was highest for adults, ranging from 17.6 to 25.1 ng kg-1 bm.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Gadus morhua/metabolismo , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo , Animais , Países Bálticos , Monitoramento Ambiental , Retardadores de Chama/metabolismo , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/análise , Humanos , Islândia , Fígado/química , Noruega , Bifenil Polibromatos , Estudos Retrospectivos
5.
Glob Health Action ; 12(1): 1597451, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31062663

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Ebola epidemic in West Africa caused global fear and stirred up worldwide preparedness activities in countries sharing borders with those affected, and in geographically far-away countries such as Iceland. OBJECTIVE: To describe and analyse Ebola preparedness activities within the Icelandic healthcare system, and to explore the perspectives and experiences of managers and frontline health workers. METHODS: A qualitative case study, based on semi-structured interviews with 21 staff members in the national Ebola Treatment Team, Emergency Room at Landspitali University Hospital, and managers of the response team. RESULTS: Contextual factors such as culture and demography influenced preparedness, and contributed to the positive state of mind of participants, and ingenuity in using available resources for preparedness. While participants believed they were ready to take on the task of Ebola, they also had doubts about the chances of Ebola ever reaching Iceland. Yet, factors such as fear of Ebola and the perceived stigma associated with caring for a potentially infected Ebola patient, influenced the preparation process and resulted in plans for specific precautions by staff to secure the safety of their families. There were also concerns about the teamwork and lack of commitment by some during training. Being a 'tiny' nation was seen as both an asset and a weakness in the preparation process. Honest information sharing and scenario-based training contributed to increased confidence amongst participants in the response plans. CONCLUSIONS: Communication and training were important for preparedness of health staff in Iceland, in order to receive, admit, and treat a patient suspected of having Ebola, while doubts prevailed on staff capacity to properly do so. For optimal preparedness, likely scenarios for future global security health threats need to be repeatedly enacted, and areas plagued by poverty and fragile healthcare systems require global support.


Assuntos
Planejamento em Desastres/organização & administração , Epidemias/prevenção & controle , Pessoal de Saúde/educação , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/epidemiologia , Hospitais Universitários/organização & administração , África Ocidental/epidemiologia , Comunicação , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/organização & administração , Saúde Global , Instalações de Saúde , Humanos , Islândia , Estudos de Casos Organizacionais , Pesquisa Qualitativa
6.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ; 69(7): 2129-2134, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31120827

RESUMO

A Gram-stain-negative, motile, mesophilic, aerobic, rod-shaped bacterium, designated Hp12T, was isolated from a marine sponge in the intertidal zone off the coast of Seltjarnarnes (64° 16' N 22° 00' W), Iceland. Strain Hp12T grew optimally at 20-22 °C, at pH 7-8 and in the presence of 1-2 % (w/v) NaCl. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences placed strain Hp12T in the class Gammaproteobacteria, related to members of the genus Alcanivorax in the order Oceanospirillales with 90.3-88.5 % sequence similarity. The strain had a draft genome size of 4.99 Mbp with a DNA G+C content of 43.0 mol%. Cellular fatty acids were dominated by C16 : 1 ω7c, C18 : 1 ω7c and C16 : 0. The predominant polar lipids were phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylethanolamine. The major respiratory lipoquinones were ubiquinone Q8 and menaquinone MK8. From the taxonomic information and phenotypic properties obtained in this study, it is proposed that strain Hp12T be placed into a novel genus and species named Pelagibaculum spongiae gen. nov., sp. nov. The type strain of Pelagibaculum spongiae is Hp12T (=DSM 104963T=CECT 9367T).


Assuntos
Gammaproteobacteria/classificação , Filogenia , Poríferos/microbiologia , Animais , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Graxos/química , Gammaproteobacteria/isolamento & purificação , Islândia , Fosfatidilgliceróis/química , Fosfolipídeos/química , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Ubiquinona/química
7.
Food Microbiol ; 82: 560-572, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31027819

RESUMO

Hákarl is produced by curing of the Greenland shark (Somniosus microcephalus) flesh, which before fermentation is toxic due to the high content of trimethylamine (TMA) or trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO). Despite its long history of consumption, little knowledge is available on the microbial consortia involved in the fermentation of this fish. In the present study, a polyphasic approach based on both culturing and DNA-based techniques was adopted to gain insight into the microbial species present in ready-to-eat hákarl. To this aim, samples of ready-to-eat hákarl were subjected to viable counting on different selective growth media. The DNA directly extracted from the samples was further subjected to Polymerase Chain Reaction-Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) and 16S amplicon-based sequencing. Moreover, the presence of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa was assessed via qualitative real-time PCR assays. pH values measured in the analyzed samples ranged from between 8.07 ±â€¯0.06 and 8.76 ±â€¯0.00. Viable counts revealed the presence of total mesophilic aerobes, lactic acid bacteria and Pseudomonadaceae. Regarding bacteria, PCR-DGGE analysis highlighted the dominance of close relatives of Tissierella creatinophila. For amplicon sequencing, the main operational taxonomic units (OTUs) shared among the data set were Tissierella, Pseudomonas, Oceanobacillus, Abyssivirga and Lactococcus. The presence of Pseudomonas in the analyzed samples supports the hypothesis of a possible role of this microorganism on the detoxification of shark meat from TMAO or TMA during fermentation. Several minor OTUs (<1%) were also detected, including Alkalibacterium, Staphylococcus, Proteiniclasticum, Acinetobacter, Erysipelothrix, Anaerobacillus, Ochrobactrum, Listeria and Photobacterium. Analysis of the yeast and filamentous fungi community composition by PCR-DGGE revealed the presence of close relatives of Candida tropicalis, Candida glabrata, Candida parapsilosis, Candida zeylanoides, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Debaryomyces, Torulaspora, Yamadazyma, Sporobolomyces, Alternaria, Cladosporium tenuissimum, Moristroma quercinum and Phoma/Epicoccum, and some of these species probably play key roles in the development of the sensory qualities of the end product. Finally, qualitative real-time PCR assays revealed the absence of STEC and Pseudomonas aeruginosa in all of the analyzed samples.


Assuntos
Alimentos Fermentados/microbiologia , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Microbiota , Alimentos Marinhos/microbiologia , Tubarões , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Fermentação , Fungos/classificação , Fungos/genética , Fungos/isolamento & purificação , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Islândia , Microbiota/genética , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
8.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 1777, 2019 04 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30992453

RESUMO

Nerve conduction (NC) studies generate measures of peripheral nerve function that can reveal underlying pathology due to axonal loss, demyelination or both. We perform a genome-wide association study of sural NC amplitude and velocity in 7045 Icelanders and find a low-frequency splice-donor variant in PRPH (c.996+1G>A; MAF = 1.32%) associating with decreased NC amplitude but not velocity. PRPH encodes peripherin, an intermediate filament (IF) protein involved in cytoskeletal development and maintenance of neurons. Through RNA and protein studies, we show that the variant leads to loss-of-function (LoF), as when over-expressed in a cell line devoid of other IFs, it does not allow formation of the normal filamentous structure of peripherin, yielding instead punctate protein inclusions. Recall of carriers for neurological assessment confirms that from an early age, homozygotes have significantly lower sural NC amplitude than non-carriers and are at risk of a mild, early-onset, sensory-negative, axonal polyneuropathy.


Assuntos
Condução Nervosa/genética , Periferinas/genética , Polineuropatias/genética , Sítios de Splice de RNA/genética , Nervo Sural/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Idade de Início , Idoso , Axônios/patologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Linhagem Celular , Feminino , Seguimentos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Homozigoto , Humanos , Islândia/epidemiologia , Mutação com Perda de Função , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polineuropatias/epidemiologia , Polineuropatias/fisiopatologia , Prevalência , Processamento de RNA/fisiologia
9.
Gastroenterology ; 157(1): 119-127.e1, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30940524

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Bariatric surgery might reduce overall mortality from obesity. We investigated whether the survival times of patients who have had bariatric surgery are similar to those of the general population and are longer than of obese individuals who did not receive surgery. METHODS: We performed a population-based cohort study of persons with a diagnosis of obesity listed in nationwide registries from Nordic countries from 1980 through 2012. Bariatric surgery was analyzed in relation to all-cause mortality and the obesity-related morbidities cardiovascular disease, diabetes, cancer, and suicide. Poisson models provided standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Multivariable Cox regression provided hazard ratios (HRs) for mortality in participants who did and did not have surgery. RESULTS: Among 505,258 participants, 49,977 had bariatric surgery. Overall all-cause SMR was increased after surgery (1.94; 95% CI, 1.83-2.05) and increased with longer follow-up, to 2.28 (95% CI, 2.07-2.51) at ≥15 years after surgery. SMRs were increased for cardiovascular disease (2.39; 95% CI, 2.17-2.63), diabetes (3.67; 95% CI, 2.85-4.72), and suicide (2.39; 95% CI, 1.96-2.92) but not for cancer (1.05; 95% CI, 0.95-1.17); SMRs increased with time. In obese participants who did not have surgery, all-cause SMR was 2.15 (95% CI, 2.11-2.20), which remained stable during follow-up. Compared with obese participants who did not have surgery, patients who had bariatric surgery had decreased overall mortality from all causes (HR, 0.63; 95% CI, 0.60-0.66), cardiovascular disease (HR, 0.57; 95% CI, 0.52-0.63), and diabetes (HR, 0.38; 95% CI, 0.29-0.49) but increased mortality from suicide (HR, 1.68; 95% CI, 1.32-2.14). Cancer mortality was decreased overall (HR, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.76-0.93) but increased at ≥15 years of follow-up (HR, 1.20; 95% CI, 1.02-1.42). CONCLUSIONS: In a study of persons with a diagnosis of obesity listed in nationwide registries of Nordic countries, we found that obese patients who have bariatric surgery have longer survival times than obese individuals who did not have bariatric surgery, but their mortality is higher than that of the general population and increases with time. Obesity-related morbidities could account for these findings.


Assuntos
Cirurgia Bariátrica , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Diabetes Mellitus/mortalidade , Mortalidade , Neoplasias/mortalidade , Obesidade/cirurgia , Suicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Taxa de Sobrevida , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Causas de Morte , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Feminino , Finlândia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Islândia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Noruega/epidemiologia , Obesidade/mortalidade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Suécia/epidemiologia
10.
Diabetes Res Clin Pract ; 151: 224-230, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31004670

RESUMO

AIMS: Type1 diabetes is generally regarded as an abruptly presenting disease in children without family history. The incidence and prevalence of insulin requiring diabetes in adults is unclear. The aim of this study was to clarify this issue by examining the epidemiology of type 1 diabetes diagnosed in adulthood in a countrýs whole population. METHODS: Complete clinical and prescription data were used to identify cases of insulin requiring diabetes in the Icelandic population 18 years and older during the decade preceding February 2013. Health care databases and the insulin reimbursement system allowed for near 100% ascertainment of cases. RESULTS: Mean age at diagnosis was 32.1 years. The WHO age-adjusted incidence rate was 4.29/100.000 individuals and the point prevalence 0.10%. One fourth of cases were diagnosed after the age of forty. The male-to-female incidence rate ratio was 1.59. Almost 30% of cases presented with diabetic ketoacidosis and 40% had a positive family history. CONCLUSION: Type 1 like diabetes commonly presents in adults and family history is not rare. One can expect one case of type 1 diabetes in adults for every two children diagnosed. These results emphasize the need to acknowledge the possibility of absolute insulin deficiency in any newly presenting adult with diabetes.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Islândia , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Adulto Jovem
11.
Vox Sang ; 114(5): 495-504, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30972770

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Revised Icelandic guidelines proposed a restrictive haemoglobin (Hb) threshold of 70 g/l for red blood cell (RBC) transfusions in general, but 100 g/l for malignancies/bone marrow suppression. Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) is frequently complicated by anaemia. The objective was to investigate RBC transfusion practices in CLL. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective nation-wide study utilized an Icelandic registry of CLL patients diagnosed between 2003 and 2016. Medical records were reviewed and haemoglobin transfusion triggers compared for two periods: Earlier (2003-2012) and latter (2013-2017). RESULTS: Two hundred and thirteen patients were diagnosed with CLL over the period whereof 77 (36·2%) received RBC transfusion(s). Median time from diagnosis to first transfusion was 2·2 years. Higher age, Rai stage 3/4 at diagnosis (P < 0·05) and chemotherapy (P < 0·001) were associated with increased odds of transfusions. Shorter time to first transfusion correlated with higher age (P < 0·001) and Rai stage (P = 0·02) at diagnosis. The mean Hb trigger was 90·4 and 81·2 in the earlier and latter period respectively (P = 0·01). This difference in Hb triggers was most pronounced in patients without documented bone marrow involvement, or 80·5 g/l compared to 93·5 g/l (P = 0·004). The median time from diagnosis to transfusion was longer in the latter period (2·9 years vs. 1·6 years, P = 0·01). After RBC transfusions the survival decreased significantly (P < 0·001). CONCLUSION: One-third of CLL patients received RBC transfusions but few were heavily transfused. Older age, Rai stage, and chemotherapy predicted RBC use. The Hb transfusion trigger decreased over time while time to first RBC transfusion increased. RBC transfusions predict poor survival.


Assuntos
Anemia/terapia , Transfusão de Eritrócitos/normas , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/complicações , Sistema de Registros , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anemia/complicações , Feminino , Hemoglobinas , Humanos , Islândia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos
12.
Scand J Gastroenterol ; 54(1): 87-94, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30700163

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To study the outcome of acute pancreatitis and risk factors for recurrent and chronic pancreatitis in a population based cohort of patients with first-time acute pancreatitis. METHODS: All patients with first-time acute pancreatitis from 2006-2015 in Iceland were retrospectively evaluated. Medical records were scrutinized and relevant data extracted. RESULTS: 1102 cases of first-time acute pancreatitis were identified: mean age 56yr, 46% female, 41% biliary, 21% alcohol, 26% idiopathic, 13% other causes, mean follow-up 4yr. 21% had ≥1 recurrent acute pancreatitis which was independently related to alcoholic (vs. biliary hazard ratio (HR) 2.29, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.51-3.46), male gender (HR 1.48, 95%CI 1.08-2.04), and smoking (HR 1.62, 95%CI 1.15-2.28). 3.7% developed chronic pancreatitis. Independent predictors were recurrent acute pancreatitis (HR 8.79, 95%CI 3.94-19.62), alcoholic (vs. biliary HR 9.16, 95%CI 2.71-30.9), local complications (HR 4.77, 95%CI 1.93-11.79), and organ-failure (HR 2.86, 95%CI 1.10-7.42). CONCLUSIONS: Recurrent acute pancreatitis occurred in one-fifth of patients. Development of chronic pancreatitis was infrequent. Both recurrent acute pancreatitis and chronic pancreatitis were related to alcoholic acute pancreatitis, while recurrent acute pancreatitis was associated with smoking and male gender, and chronic pancreatitis to recurrent acute pancreatitis, organ-failure, and local complications.


Assuntos
Progressão da Doença , Pancreatite/diagnóstico , Pancreatite/epidemiologia , Doença Aguda , Adulto , Idoso , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Colangiopancreatografia Retrógrada Endoscópica , Feminino , Humanos , Islândia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Pancreatite Crônica/epidemiologia , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Recidiva , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
13.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 69: 328-336, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30772700

RESUMO

Regular bathing in the Blue Lagoon has beneficial effects on psoriasis. Previously, we showed that exopolysaccharides (EPS-Ca) secreted by Cyanobacterium aponinum, a dominating organism in the Blue Lagoon, increased IL-10 secretion by human dendritic cells (DCs). In addition, co-culturing allogeneic CD4+ T cells with DCs matured in the presence of EPS-Ca increased differentiation of T cells into T regulatory cells at the cost of the disease inducing Th17 cells. In the present study, EPS-Ca increased the proportion of DCs expressing CD141, a surface molecule linked to regulatory DCs, and the CD141+ cells secreted more IL-10 than the CD141- cells. EPS-Ca decreased T cell secretion of IL-17, IL-13 and IL-10 and the proportion of T cells expressing the activation marker CD69 that has also been linked to lymphocyte retention. In addition, EPS-Ca reduced keratinocyte secretion of CCL20 and CXCL10, chemokines implicated in recruitment of inflammatory cells. EPS-Ca decreased DC expression of Dectin-1/CLEC7A and SYK, keratinocyte expression of CLEC7A, SYK and CAMP (the gene for LL37), and T cell expression of phosphorylated Zap70. These results indicate that EPS-Ca may induce a regulatory phenotype of DCs, T cells that are less active/inflammatory and less prone to being retained in the skin, and keratinocytes that induce less recruitment of inflammatory cells to the skin and that these effects may be mediated by the effects of EPS-Ca on CLEC7A and SYK. Overall the results indicate that EPS-Ca may be involved in the beneficial effects psoriasis patients experience when bathing in the Blue Lagoon.


Assuntos
Cianobactérias/fisiologia , Células Dendríticas/fisiologia , Fontes Termais/microbiologia , Imunomodulação , Queratinócitos/fisiologia , Polissacarídeos Bacterianos/imunologia , Psoríase/terapia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/fisiologia , Células Th17/fisiologia , Diferenciação Celular , Células Cultivadas , Quimiocina CCL20/metabolismo , Quimiocina CXCL10/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Estâncias para Tratamento de Saúde , Humanos , Islândia , Lectinas Tipo C/genética , Lectinas Tipo C/metabolismo , Ativação Linfocitária , Fenótipo , Quinase Syk/genética , Quinase Syk/metabolismo
14.
Geobiology ; 17(3): 272-280, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30720914

RESUMO

Members of the order Isochrysidales are unique among haptophyte lineages in being the exclusive producers of alkenones, long-chain ketones that are commonly used for paleotemperature reconstructions. Alkenone-producing haptophytes are divided into three major groups based largely on molecular ecological data: Group I is found in freshwater lakes, Group II commonly occurs in brackish and coastal marine environments, and Group III consists of open ocean species. Each group has distinct alkenone distributions; however, only Groups II and III Isochrysidales currently have cultured representatives. The uncultured Group I Isochrysidales are distinguished geochemically by the presence of tri-unsaturated alkenone isomers (C37:3b Me, C38:3b Et, C38:3b Me, C39:3b Et) present in water column and sediment samples, yet their genetic diversity, morphology, and environmental controls are largely unknown. Using small-subunit (SSU) ribosomal RNA (rRNA) marker gene amplicon high-throughput sequencing of environmental water column and sediment samples, we show that Group I is monophyletic with high phylogenetic diversity and contains a well-supported clade separating the previously described "EV" clade from the "Greenland" clade. We infer the first partial large-subunit (LSU) rRNA gene Group I sequence phylogeny, which uncovered additional well-supported clades embedded within Group I. Relative to Group II, Group I revealed higher levels of genetic diversity despite conservation of alkenone signatures and a closer evolutionary relationship with Group III. In Group I, the presence of the tri-unsaturated alkenone isomers appears to be conserved, which is not the case for Group II. This suggests differing environmental influences on Group I and II and perhaps uncovers evolutionary constraints on alkenone biosynthesis.


Assuntos
Haptófitas/classificação , Haptófitas/metabolismo , Cetonas/análise , Lagos/química , Alaska , Evolução Biológica , DNA Ribossômico/análise , Alemanha , Haptófitas/genética , Islândia , Lagos/microbiologia , Filogenia , Análise de Sequência de RNA
15.
PLoS One ; 14(1): e0210057, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30673737

RESUMO

Humpback whale songs associated with breeding behaviors are increasingly reported outside of traditional low latitude breeding grounds. Songs from a subarctic feeding ground during the winter were quantitatively characterized to investigate the structure and temporal changes of the songs at such an atypical location. Recordings were collected from 26. January to 12. March, 2011, using bottom mounted recorders. Humpback songs were detected on 91% of the recording days with peak singing activities during 9.-26. February. The majority of the recordings included multiple chorusing singers. The songs were characterized by a) common static themes which transitioned consistently to predictable themes, b) shifting themes which occurred less predictably and c) rare themes. A set median sequence was found for four different periods (sets) of recordings (approximately 1 week each). The set medians were highly similar and formed a single cluster indicating that the sequences of themes sung in this area belonged to a single cluster of songs despite of the variation caused by the shifting themes. These subarctic winter songs could, thus, represent a characteristic song type for this area which is comparable to extensively studied songs from traditional low latitude breeding grounds. An increase in the number of themes per sequence was observed throughout the recording period including minor changes in the application of themes in the songs; indicating a gradual song progression. The results confirm that continual singing of sophisticated songs occur during the breeding season in the subarctic. In addition to being a well-established summer feeding ground the study area appears to be an important overwintering site for humpback whales delaying or canceling their migration where males engage in active sexual displays, i.e. singing. Importantly, such singing activity on a shared feeding ground likely aids the cultural transmission of songs in the North Atlantic.


Assuntos
Jubarte/fisiologia , Estações do Ano , Canto/fisiologia , Vocalização Animal/fisiologia , Animais , Regiões Árticas , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Feminino , Islândia , Masculino , Comportamento Social , Espectrografia do Som/métodos
16.
Science ; 363(6425)2019 Jan 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30679340

RESUMO

Genetic diversity arises from recombination and de novo mutation (DNM). Using a combination of microarray genotype and whole-genome sequence data on parent-child pairs, we identified 4,531,535 crossover recombinations and 200,435 DNMs. The resulting genetic map has a resolution of 682 base pairs. Crossovers exhibit a mutagenic effect, with overrepresentation of DNMs within 1 kilobase of crossovers in males and females. In females, a higher mutation rate is observed up to 40 kilobases from crossovers, particularly for complex crossovers, which increase with maternal age. We identified 35 loci associated with the recombination rate or the location of crossovers, demonstrating extensive genetic control of meiotic recombination, and our results highlight genes linked to the formation of the synaptonemal complex as determinants of crossovers.


Assuntos
Troca Genética , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Taxa de Mutação , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Epigênese Genética , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Técnicas de Genotipagem , Humanos , Islândia , Masculino , Idade Materna , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Complexo Sinaptonêmico
17.
Int J Public Health ; 64(2): 253-263, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30617501

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: In this study, we aim to test whether changes in community income inequality influence adolescent emotional distress. We take advantage of the unique combination of data and history available in Iceland. This affluent welfare society has experienced extreme shifts in income inequality, allowing us to test whether changes in community income inequality are related to changes in adolescent emotional distress. METHODS: Combining adolescent survey data (n = 24,107) with tax registry data on 76 neighborhood communities, we used a multilevel approach to model the data as longitudinal in order to test whether changes in community income inequality are related to changes in symptoms of anxiety and depression among adolescents. RESULTS: The results showed that, after adjusting for relevant individual and community covariates, decreases in community income inequality were associated with decreases in symptoms of anxiety among adolescents (b = - 0.367, p ≤ 0.001), but not with decreases in symptoms of depression. CONCLUSIONS: While the results provide a partial support for the income inequality thesis, we call for replications from other cultures and studies exploring the mediating role of social psychological processes.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente , Renda/estatística & dados numéricos , Renda/tendências , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Previsões , Humanos , Islândia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Vigilância da População , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários
18.
Scand J Gastroenterol ; 54(1): 69-75, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30638086

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the incidence, distribution, and prognosis of gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (GEP-NETs) over the last 30 years and analyze changes over time. METHODS: All patients diagnosed with GEP-NETs in Iceland from 1985 to 2014 were identified through the Icelandic Cancer Registry and pathology laboratory records. Relevant clinical information was obtained from medical records. In order to assess trends, the study period was divided into two periods, 1985-1999 and 2000-2014. RESULTS: A total of 364 patients with GEP-NETs were identified. Overall, 18 patients diagnosed at autopsy or with primary tumors of an unknown site were excluded, leaving 346 patients with 351 primary tumors for final analysis. The overall mean annual incidence 1985-2014 was 3.65/100,000, 3.39/100,000 during 1985-1999 and 3.85/100,000 during 2000-2014 (p = NS). The most common primary tumor site was the appendix (32%), followed by the jejunum/ileum (24%) and stomach (17%). In all, 18% of patients presented with distant metastases at the time of diagnosis, most noticeably patients with primary tumors of the colon (47%), pancreas (46%) and jejunum/ileum (39%). The most favorable 5-year survival was observed for tumors of the appendix (94%) and rectum (88%) and the least favorable for tumors of the pancreas (31%), colon (47%) and jejunum/ileum (66%). There were no statistically significant changes in incidence, staging or survival between the two time periods. CONCLUSIONS: In this population-based study, the incidence of GEP-NETs has not changed significantly over the last decades. The incidence of metastatic disease has remained stable and overall prognosis has not improved in recent years.


Assuntos
Trato Gastrointestinal/patologia , Neoplasias Intestinais/mortalidade , Segunda Neoplasia Primária/epidemiologia , Tumores Neuroendócrinos/mortalidade , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/mortalidade , Sistema de Registros , Neoplasias Gástricas/mortalidade , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Islândia/epidemiologia , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , População , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Distribuição por Sexo
19.
Scand J Trauma Resusc Emerg Med ; 27(1): 7, 2019 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30674331

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Studies on penetrating injuries in Europe are scarce and often represent data from single institutions. The aim of this study was to describe the incidence and demographic features of patients hospitalized for stab injury in a whole nation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a retrospective nationwide population-based study on all consecutive adult patients who were hospitalized in Iceland following knife and machete-related injuries, 2000-2015. Age-standardized incidence was calculated and Injury Severity Score (ISS) was used to assess severity of injury. RESULTS: Altogether, 73 patients (mean age 32.6 years, 90.4% males) were admitted during the 16-year study period, giving an age-standardized incidence of 1.54/100,000 inhabitants. The incidence did not vary significantly during the study period (P = 0.826). Most cases were assaults (95.9%) occurring at home or in public streets, and involved the chest (n = 32), abdomen (n = 26), upper limbs (n = 26), head/neck/face (n = 21), lower limbs (n = 10), and the back (n = 6). Median ISS was 9, with 14 patients (19.2%) having severe injuries (defined as ISS > 15). The median length of hospital stay was 2 days (range 0-53). Forty-seven patients (64.4%) underwent surgery and 26 of them (35.6%) required admission to an intensive care unit (ICU), all with ISS scores above 15. Three patients did not survive for 30 days (4.1%); all of them had severe injuries (ISS 17, 25, and 75). CONCLUSION: Stab injuries that require hospital admission are rare in Iceland, and their incidence has remained relatively stable. One in every five patients sustained severe injuries, two-thirds of whom were treated with surgical interventions, and roughly one-third required ICU care. Although some patients were severely injured with high injury scores, their 30-day mortality was still low in comparison to other studies.


Assuntos
Ferimentos Perfurantes/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Cuidados Críticos , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Islândia/epidemiologia , Incidência , Escala de Gravidade do Ferimento , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Avaliação de Resultados (Cuidados de Saúde) , Estudos Retrospectivos , Ferimentos Perfurantes/diagnóstico , Ferimentos Perfurantes/cirurgia , Adulto Jovem
20.
Nat Genet ; 51(2): 267-276, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30643255

RESUMO

Nasal polyps (NP) are lesions on the nasal and paranasal sinus mucosa and are a risk factor for chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). We performed genome-wide association studies on NP and CRS in Iceland and the UK (using UK Biobank data) with 4,366 NP cases, 5,608 CRS cases, and >700,000 controls. We found 10 markers associated with NP and 2 with CRS. We also tested 210 markers reported to associate with eosinophil count, yielding 17 additional NP associations. Of the 27 NP signals, 7 associate with CRS and 13 with asthma. Most notably, a missense variant in ALOX15 that causes a p.Thr560Met alteration in arachidonate 15-lipoxygenase (15-LO) confers large genome-wide significant protection against NP (P = 8.0 × 10-27, odds ratio = 0.32; 95% confidence interval = 0.26, 0.39) and CRS (P = 1.1 × 10-8, odds ratio = 0.64; 95% confidence interval = 0.55, 0.75). p.Thr560Met, carried by around 1 in 20 Europeans, was previously shown to cause near total loss of 15-LO enzymatic activity. Our findings identify 15-LO as a potential target for therapeutic intervention in NP and CRS.


Assuntos
Araquidonato 15-Lipoxigenase/genética , Variação Genética/genética , Pólipos Nasais/genética , Sinusite/genética , Adulto , Asma/genética , Doença Crônica , Eosinófilos/patologia , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Humanos , Islândia , Contagem de Leucócitos/métodos , Masculino , Pólipos Nasais/patologia , Sinusite/patologia
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