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1.
J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem ; 35(1): 506-510, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31928252

RESUMO

The hypothesis that sulfocoumarin acting as inhibitors of human carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC 4.2.1.1) cancer-associated isoforms hCA IX and - hCA XII is being able to also inhibit thioredoxin reductase was verified and confirmed. The dual targeting of two cancer cell defence mechanisms, i.e. hypoxia and oxidative stress, may both contribute to the observed antiproliferative profile of these compounds against many cancer cell lines. This unprecedented dual anticancer mechanism may lead to a new approach for designing innovative therapeutic agents.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Anidrase Carbônica IX/antagonistas & inibidores , Anidrases Carbônicas/metabolismo , Cumarínicos/farmacologia , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Tiorredoxina Dissulfeto Redutase/antagonistas & inibidores , Antígenos de Neoplasias/metabolismo , Antineoplásicos/síntese química , Antineoplásicos/química , Anidrase Carbônica IX/metabolismo , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Cumarínicos/síntese química , Cumarínicos/química , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Inibidores Enzimáticos/síntese química , Inibidores Enzimáticos/química , Humanos , Isoenzimas/antagonistas & inibidores , Isoenzimas/metabolismo , Células MCF-7 , Estrutura Molecular , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Tiorredoxina Dissulfeto Redutase/metabolismo , Células Tumorais Cultivadas
2.
J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem ; 35(1): 489-497, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31914827

RESUMO

A series of amino acid-sulphonamide conjugates was prepared through benzotriazole mediated coupling reactions and characterised by 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, MS, and FTIR spectroscopic techniques as well as elemental analysis. The carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC 4.2.1.1) inhibitory activity of the new compounds was determined against four human (h) isoforms, hCA I, hCA II, hCA VA, and hCA XII. Most of the synthesised compounds showed effective in vitro CA inhibitory properties. The new amino acid-sulphonamide conjugates showed potent inhibitory activity against hCA II, some of them at subnanomolar levels, exhibiting more effective inhibitory activity compared to the standard drug acetazolamide. Some of these sulphonamides were also found to be effective inhibitors of hCA I, hCA VA, and hCA XII, with activity from the low to high nanomolar range.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos/farmacologia , Inibidores da Anidrase Carbônica/farmacologia , Anidrases Carbônicas/metabolismo , Sulfonamidas/farmacologia , Aminoácidos/síntese química , Aminoácidos/química , Inibidores da Anidrase Carbônica/síntese química , Inibidores da Anidrase Carbônica/química , Humanos , Isoenzimas/antagonistas & inibidores , Isoenzimas/metabolismo , Estrutura Molecular , Sulfonamidas/síntese química , Sulfonamidas/química
3.
Eur J Med Chem ; 186: 111896, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31784185

RESUMO

We report here a thorough structure-activity relationship (SAR) with piperazinylureido sulfamates as inhibitors of human (h) carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC 4.2.1.1). A SAR investigation over the structure of reported anti-cancer zinc-binder CAIs such as SLC-0111 and S4 was carried out by including the urea outer nitrogen atom into a substituted piperazine ring reducing the linker flexibility. The derivatives were assessed for the inhibition of CA I, II and IV (off-target isoforms) and the tumor-associated CA IX (anticancer drug target). CA I and IV were not effectively inhibited, whereas many low nanomolar inhibitors were evidenced against CA II (KIs in the range of 1.0-705.5 nM), and IX (KIs in the range of 0.91-155.9 nM). Interestingly, a subset of CA II/IX selective inhibitors was detected which might represent interesting lead for the development of new anticancer strategies.


Assuntos
Inibidores da Anidrase Carbônica/farmacologia , Anidrases Carbônicas/metabolismo , Piperazinas/farmacologia , Sulfonamidas/farmacologia , Ácidos Sulfônicos/farmacologia , Ureia/farmacologia , Inibidores da Anidrase Carbônica/síntese química , Inibidores da Anidrase Carbônica/química , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Humanos , Isoenzimas/antagonistas & inibidores , Isoenzimas/metabolismo , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Estrutura Molecular , Piperazinas/química , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Sulfonamidas/química , Ácidos Sulfônicos/química , Ureia/análogos & derivados , Ureia/química
4.
Eur J Med Chem ; 186: 111906, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31787362

RESUMO

Protein disulfide isomerase (PDI, PDIA1) is an emerging therapeutic target in oncology. PDI inhibitors have demonstrated a unique propensity to selectively induce apoptosis in cancer cells and overcome resistance to existing therapies, although drug candidates have not yet progressed to the stage of clinical development. We recently reported the discovery of lead indene compound E64FC26 as a potent pan-PDI inhibitor that enhances the cytotoxic effects of proteasome inhibitors in panels of Multiple Myeloma (MM) cells and MM mouse models. An extensive medicinal chemistry program has led to the generation of a diverse library of indene-containing molecules with varying degrees of proteasome inhibitor potentiating activity. These compounds were generated by a novel nucleophilic aromatic ring cyclization and dehydration reaction from the precursor ketones. The results provide detailed structure activity relationships (SAR) around this indene pharmacophore and show a high degree of correlation between potency of PDI inhibition and bortezomib (Btz) potentiation in MM cells. Inhibition of PDI leads to ER and oxidative stress characterized by the accumulation of misfolded poly-ubiquitinated proteins and the induction of UPR biomarkers ATF4, CHOP, and Nrf2. This work characterizes the synthesis and SAR of a new chemical class and further validates PDI as a therapeutic target in MM as a single agent and in combination with proteasome inhibitors.


Assuntos
Bortezomib/farmacologia , Pró-Colágeno-Prolina Dioxigenase/antagonistas & inibidores , Inibidores de Proteassoma/farmacologia , Isomerases de Dissulfetos de Proteínas/antagonistas & inibidores , Bortezomib/síntese química , Bortezomib/química , Linhagem Celular , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Humanos , Isoenzimas/antagonistas & inibidores , Isoenzimas/metabolismo , Estrutura Molecular , Pró-Colágeno-Prolina Dioxigenase/metabolismo , Inibidores de Proteassoma/síntese química , Inibidores de Proteassoma/química , Isomerases de Dissulfetos de Proteínas/metabolismo , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
5.
Eur J Med Chem ; 185: 111843, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31718943

RESUMO

In the presented work, we report the design and synthesis of different new sets of triazolopyrimidine-based (9a-d) and triazole-based (11a-h, 13a-c, 15a,b, 17a,b and 21a-g) benzenesulfonamides. The newly synthesized sulfonamides were assessed for their inhibitory activities toward four human (h) metalloenzyme carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC 4.2.1.1) isoforms; hCA I, II, IX and XII. The four examined isoforms were inhibited by the prepared sulfonamides (9a-d, 11a-h, 13a-c, 15a,b, 17a,b and 21a-g) in variable degrees with KIs ranges: 94.4-4953.5 nM for hCA I, 6.9-837.6 nM for hCA II, 3.3-85.0 nM for hCA XI, and 4.4-105.0 nM for hCA XII. In particular, sulfonamides 11e, 21a and 21e emerged as single-digit nanomolar hCA IX and hCA XII inhibitors. Interestingly, triazolopyrimidine-based sulfonamide 9d and triazole-based sulfonamide 21e were found to be the most selective hCA IX inhibitors over hCA I (SI = 100.85 and 210.58, respectively) and hCA II (SI = 18.54 and 38.36, respectively). Thereafter, sulfonamides 9d and 21e were docked into the active site of CAs II, IX and XII, then poses showing the best scoring values and favorable binding interactions were subjected to a MM-GBSA based refinement and, limited to CA IX and XII, to a cycle of 100 ns molecular dynamics.


Assuntos
Inibidores da Anidrase Carbônica/farmacologia , Anidrases Carbônicas/metabolismo , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Pirimidinas/farmacologia , Sulfonamidas/farmacologia , Triazóis/farmacologia , Inibidores da Anidrase Carbônica/síntese química , Inibidores da Anidrase Carbônica/química , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Humanos , Isoenzimas/antagonistas & inibidores , Isoenzimas/metabolismo , Estrutura Molecular , Pirimidinas/química , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Sulfonamidas/síntese química , Sulfonamidas/química , Triazóis/química
6.
Eur J Med Chem ; 185: 111825, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31740053

RESUMO

By applying an approach of a "ring with two tails", a series of novel inhibitors possessing high-affinity and significant selectivity towards selected carbonic anhydrase (CA) isoforms has been designed. The "ring" consists of 2-chloro/bromo-benzenesulfonamide, where the sulfonamide group is as an anchor coordinating the Zn(II) in the active site of CAs, and halogen atom orients the ring affecting the affinity and selectivity. First "tail" is a substituent containing carbonyl, carboxyl, hydroxyl, ether groups or hydrophilic amide linkage. The second "tail" contains aryl- or alkyl-substituents attached through a sulfanyl or sulfonyl group. Both "tails" are connected to the benzene ring and play a crucial role in selectivity. Varying the substituents, we designed compounds selective for CA VII, CA IX, CA XII, or CA XIV. Since due to binding-linked protonation reactions the binding-ready fractions of the compound and protein are much lower than one, the "intrinsic" affinities were calculated that should be used to study correlations between crystal structures and the thermodynamics of binding for rational drug design. The "intrinsic" affinities together with the intrinsic enthalpies and entropies of binding together with co-crystal structures were used demonstrate structural factors determining major contributions for compound affinity and selectivity.


Assuntos
Inibidores da Anidrase Carbônica/farmacologia , Anidrases Carbônicas/metabolismo , Sulfonamidas/farmacologia , Inibidores da Anidrase Carbônica/síntese química , Inibidores da Anidrase Carbônica/química , Cristalografia por Raios X , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Halogenação , Humanos , Isoenzimas/antagonistas & inibidores , Isoenzimas/metabolismo , Modelos Moleculares , Estrutura Molecular , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Sulfonamidas/síntese química , Sulfonamidas/química
7.
Eur J Med Chem ; 187: 111952, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31846828

RESUMO

Cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) family members are promising molecular targets in discovering potent inhibitors in disease settings, they function differentially. CDK2, CDK4 and CDK6, directly regulate the cell cycle, while CDK9 primarily modulates the transcription regulation. In discovering inhibitors of these CDKs, toxicity associated with off-target effect on other CDK homologs often posts as a clinical issue and hinders their further therapeutic development. To improve efficacy and reduce toxicity, here, using the Proteolysis Targeted Chimeras (PROTACs) approach, we design and further optimize small molecule degraders targeting multiple CDKs. We showed that heterobifunctional compound A9 selectively degraded CDK2. We also identified a dual-degrader, compound F3, which potently induced degradation of both CDK2 (DC50: 62 nM) and CDK9 (DC50: 33 nM). In human prostate cancer PC-3 cells, compound F3 potently inhibits cell proliferation by effectively blocking the cell cycle in S and G2/M phases. Our preliminary data suggests that PROTAC-oriented CDK2/9 degradation is potentially an effective therapeutic approach.


Assuntos
Quinases Ciclina-Dependentes/antagonistas & inibidores , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Proteólise/efeitos dos fármacos , Pontos de Checagem do Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Quinases Ciclina-Dependentes/metabolismo , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Humanos , Isoenzimas/antagonistas & inibidores , Isoenzimas/metabolismo , Células MCF-7 , Modelos Moleculares , Estrutura Molecular , Células PC-3 , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/síntese química , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/química , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Células Tumorais Cultivadas
8.
Eur J Med Chem ; 187: 111962, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31887569

RESUMO

The aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDHs) are a family of detoxifying enzymes that are overexpressed in various cancers. Increased expression of ALDH is associated with poor prognosis, stemness, and drug resistance. Because of the critical role of ALDH in cancer stem cells, several ALDH inhibitors have been developed. Nonetheless, all these inhibitors either lack efficacy or are too toxic or have not been tested extensively. Thus, the continued development of ALDH inhibitors is warranted. In this study, we designed and synthesized potent multi-ALDH isoform inhibitors based on the isatin backbone. The early molecular docking studies and enzymatic tests revealed that 3(a-l) and 4(a-l) are the potent ALDH1A1, ALDHA2, and ALDH3A1 inhibitors. ALDH inhibitory IC50s of 3(a-l) and 4(a-l) were 230 nM to >10,000 nM for ALDH1A1, 939 nM to >10,000 nM for ALDH2 and 193 nM to >10,000 nM for ALDH3A1. The most potent compounds 3(h-l) had IC50s for killing melanoma cells ranged from 2.1 to 5.7 µM, while for colon cancer cells, it ranged from 2.5 to 5.8 µM and for multiple myeloma cells ranging from 0.3 to 4.7 µM. Toxicity studies of 3(h-l) revealed that 3h to be the least toxic multi-ALDH isoform inhibitor. Mechanistically, 3(h-l) caused increased ROS activity, lipid peroxidation, and toxic aldehyde accumulation, secondary to potent multi-ALDH isoform inhibition leading to increased apoptosis and G2/M cell cycle arrest. Together, the study details the design, synthesis, and evaluation of potent, multi-isoform ALDH inhibitors to treat cancers.


Assuntos
Aldeído Desidrogenase/antagonistas & inibidores , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Desenho de Drogas , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Aldeído Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Animais , Antineoplásicos/síntese química , Antineoplásicos/química , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Pontos de Checagem do Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Humanos , Isoenzimas/antagonistas & inibidores , Isoenzimas/metabolismo , Camundongos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Estrutura Molecular , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/síntese química , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/química , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
9.
J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem ; 35(1): 245-254, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31790605

RESUMO

A new series of homosulfocoumarins (3H-1,2-benzoxathiepine 2,2-dioxides) possessing various substitution patterns and moieties in the 7, 8 or 9 position of the heterocylic ring were prepared by original procedures and investigated for the inhibition of four physiologically relevant carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC 4.2.1.1) isoforms, the human (h) hCA I, II, IX and XII. The 8-substituted homosulfocoumarins were the most effective hCA IX/XII inhibitors followed by the 7-substituted derivatives, whereas the substitution pattern in position 9 led to less effective binders for the transmembrane, tumour-associated isoforms IX/XII. The cytosolic isoforms hCA I and II were not inhibited by these compounds, similar to the sulfocoumarins/coumarins investigated earlier. As hCA IX and XII are validated anti-tumour targets, with one sulphonamide (SLC-0111) in Phase Ib/II clinical trials, finding derivatives with better selectivity for inhibiting the tumour-associated isoforms over the cytosolic ones, as the homosulfocoumarins reported here, is of crucial importance.


Assuntos
Benzotiepinas/farmacologia , Inibidores da Anidrase Carbônica/farmacologia , Anidrases Carbônicas/metabolismo , Benzotiepinas/síntese química , Benzotiepinas/química , Inibidores da Anidrase Carbônica/síntese química , Inibidores da Anidrase Carbônica/química , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Humanos , Isoenzimas/antagonistas & inibidores , Isoenzimas/metabolismo , Estrutura Molecular , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
10.
J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem ; 35(1): 365-371, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31854205

RESUMO

The selectivity for a specific human Carbonic Anhydrase (hCA) isoform is an important property a hCA inhibitor (CAI) should be endowed with, in order to constitute a valuable therapeutic tool for the treatment of a desired pathology. In this context, we developed a chemoinformatic platform that allows the analysis of the structure and selectivity profile of known CAIs reported in literature, with the aim of identifying structural motifs connected to ligand selectivity, thus providing useful guidelines for the design of novel ligands selective for the desired hCA isoform. The platform is able to perform ultrafast structure and selectivity analyses through ligand fingerprint similarity, with no need of structural information about the target receptor and ligands' binding mode. It is easily accessible to the non-expert user through the implementation of a KNIME Analytic Platform workflow and could be extended to analyze the selectivity profile of known ligands of different target proteins.


Assuntos
Inibidores da Anidrase Carbônica/análise , Inibidores da Anidrase Carbônica/farmacologia , Anidrases Carbônicas/metabolismo , Análise por Conglomerados , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Humanos , Isoenzimas/antagonistas & inibidores , Isoenzimas/metabolismo , Ligantes , Estrutura Molecular , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
11.
J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem ; 34(1): 1652-1659, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31530034

RESUMO

Eight genetically distinct carbonic anhydrase (EC 4.2.1.1) enzyme families (α-, ß-, γ- δ-, ζ-, η-, θ- and ι-CAs) were described to date. On the other hand, 16 mammalian α-CA isoforms are known to be involved in many diseases such as glaucoma, edema, epilepsy, obesity, hypoxic tumors, neuropathic pain, arthritis, neurodegeneration, etc. Although CA inhibitors were investigated for the management of a variety of such disorders, the activators just started to be investigated in detail for their in vivo effects. This review summarizes the activation profiles of α-, ß, γ-, δ-, ζ- and η- CAs from various organisms (animals, fungi, protozoan, bacteria and archaea) with the most investigated classes of activators, the amines and the amino acids.


Assuntos
Aminas/farmacologia , Aminoácidos/farmacologia , Inibidores da Anidrase Carbônica/farmacologia , Anidrases Carbônicas/metabolismo , Aminas/síntese química , Aminas/química , Aminoácidos/síntese química , Aminoácidos/química , Bactérias/enzimologia , Inibidores da Anidrase Carbônica/síntese química , Inibidores da Anidrase Carbônica/química , Entamoeba histolytica/enzimologia , Fungos/enzimologia , Isoenzimas/antagonistas & inibidores , Isoenzimas/metabolismo , Estrutura Molecular
12.
Eur J Med Chem ; 182: 111638, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31472471

RESUMO

Four new series of aromatic sulfamates were synthesized and investigated for the inhibition of four human (h) isoforms of zinc enzyme carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC 4.2.1.1), hCA I, II, IX, and XII. The reported derivatives, obtained by a sulfamoylation reaction of the corresponding phenolic precursors, bear 3,5-diarylpyrazoline moieties as spacers between the benzenesulfamate fragment which binds the zinc ion from the active site, and the tail of the inhibitor. Pyrazolines are biologically privileged scaffolds, endowed with versatile biological activity, such as an anti-proliferative action. The derivatives were tested for the inhibition of the cytosolic, hCA I and II (off target isoforms) and the trans-membrane, tumor-associated hCA IX and XII enzymes (anticancer drug targets). Generally, hCA I was not effectively inhibited, whereas many low nanomolar inhibitors were evidenced against hCA II (KIs in the range of 0.42-90.1 nM), IX (KIs in the range of 0.72-63.6 nM), and XII (KIs in the range of 0.88-85.2 nM). The best substitution fragments at the pyrazoline ring included for CA II a 4-sulfamic group on the 3-aryl and halogens on the 5-aryl or a methoxy group on the 3-aryl and a 4-sulfamate group on the 5-aryl; for CA IX and CA XII they included the sulfamic group on the 3- or 4-position of the 5-aryl and an electronwithdrawing group on the 4-postion of the 3-aryl ring.


Assuntos
Inibidores da Anidrase Carbônica/farmacologia , Anidrases Carbônicas/metabolismo , Pirazóis/farmacologia , Ácidos Sulfônicos/farmacologia , Inibidores da Anidrase Carbônica/síntese química , Inibidores da Anidrase Carbônica/química , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Humanos , Isoenzimas/antagonistas & inibidores , Isoenzimas/metabolismo , Modelos Moleculares , Estrutura Molecular , Pirazóis/síntese química , Pirazóis/química , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Ácidos Sulfônicos/síntese química , Ácidos Sulfônicos/química
13.
Gene ; 715: 144005, 2019 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31376410

RESUMO

Members of the highly conserved pleiotropic CK1 family of serine/threonine-specific kinases are tightly regulated in the cell and play crucial regulatory roles in multiple cellular processes from protozoa to human. Since their dysregulation as well as mutations within their coding regions contribute to the development of various different pathologies, including cancer and neurodegenerative diseases, they have become interesting new drug targets within the last decade. However, to develop optimized CK1 isoform-specific therapeutics in personalized therapy concepts, a detailed knowledge of the regulation and functions of the different CK1 isoforms, their various splice variants and orthologs is mandatory. In this review we will focus on the stress-induced CK1 isoform delta (CK1δ), thereby addressing its regulation, physiological functions, the consequences of its deregulation for the development and progression of diseases, and its potential as therapeutic drug target.


Assuntos
Caseína Quinase Idelta/química , Caseína Quinase Idelta/metabolismo , Proteínas de Neoplasias/metabolismo , Neoplasias/enzimologia , Transdução de Sinais , Animais , Caseína Quinase Idelta/antagonistas & inibidores , Caseína Quinase Idelta/genética , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/métodos , Humanos , Isoenzimas/antagonistas & inibidores , Isoenzimas/química , Isoenzimas/genética , Isoenzimas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Neoplasias/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas de Neoplasias/genética , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/genética , Neoplasias/patologia , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
14.
J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem ; 34(1): 1526-1533, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31431095

RESUMO

A library of 4-[(3-methyl-4-aryl-2,3-dihydro-1,3-thiazol-2-ylidene)amino]benzene-1-sulphonamides (EMAC8002a-m) was designed and synthesised to evaluate the effect of substituents in the positions 3 and 4 of the dihydrothiazole ring on the inhibitory potency and selectivity toward human carbonic anhydrase isoforms I, II, IX, and XII. Most of the new compounds preferentially inhibit the isoforms II and XII. Both electronic and steric features on the aryl substituent in the position 4 of the dihydrothiazole ring concur to determine the overall biological activity of these new derivatives.


Assuntos
Inibidores da Anidrase Carbônica/farmacologia , Anidrases Carbônicas/metabolismo , Inibidores da Anidrase Carbônica/síntese química , Inibidores da Anidrase Carbônica/química , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Humanos , Isoenzimas/antagonistas & inibidores , Isoenzimas/metabolismo , Modelos Moleculares , Estrutura Molecular , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
15.
J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem ; 34(1): 1186-1192, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31282228

RESUMO

A series of sixteen benzenesulfonamide derivatives has been synthesised and tested as inhibitors of Vibrio cholerae carbonic anhydrase (CA) enzymes, belonging to α-CA, ß-CA, and γ-CA classes (VchCAα, VchCAß, and VchCAγ). The determined Ki values were compared to those of selected human CA isoforms (hCA I and hCA II). Structure-affinity relationship analysis highlighted that all tested compounds proved to be active inhibitors of VchCAα at nanomolar concentration. The VchCAß activity was lower to respect inhibitory efficacy toward VchCAα, whereas, these benzenesulfonamide derivatives failed to inhibit VchCAγ. Interestingly, compound 7e combined the best activity toward VchCAα and VchCAß. In order to obtain a model for binding mode of our inhibitors toward bacterial CAs, we carried out docking simulations by using the available crystal structures of VchCAß.


Assuntos
Inibidores da Anidrase Carbônica/uso terapêutico , Cólera/tratamento farmacológico , Isoenzimas/antagonistas & inibidores , Sulfonamidas/uso terapêutico , Inibidores da Anidrase Carbônica/química , Cólera/enzimologia , Humanos , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Sulfonamidas/química , Vibrio cholerae/enzimologia
16.
Cell Mol Life Sci ; 76(23): 4635-4662, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31342121

RESUMO

Citrullination is a post-translation modification of proteins, where the proteinaceous arginine residues are converted to non-coded citrulline residues. The immune tolerance to such citrullinated protein can be lost, leading to inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Citrullination is a chemical reaction mediated by peptidylarginine deiminase enzymes (PADs), which are a family of calcium-dependent cysteine hydrolase enzymes that includes five isotypes: PAD1, PAD2, PAD3, PAD4, and PAD6. Each PAD has specific substrates and tissue distribution, where it modifies the arginine to produce a citrullinated protein with altered structure and function. All mammalian PADs have a sequence similarity of about 70-95%, whereas in humans, they are 50-55% homologous in their structure and amino acid sequences. Being calcium-dependent hydrolases, PADs are inactive under the physiological level of calcium, but could be activated due to distortions in calcium homeostasis, or when the cellular calcium levels are increased. In this article, we analyze some of the currently available data on the structural properties of human PADs, the mechanisms of their calcium-induced activation, and show that these proteins contain functionally important regions of intrinsic disorder. Citrullination represents an important trigger of multiple physiological and pathological processes, and as a result, PADs are recognized to play a number of important roles in autoimmune diseases, cancer, and neurodegeneration. Therefore, we also review the current state of the art in the development of PAD inhibitors with good potency and selectivity.


Assuntos
Autoimunidade , Desiminases de Arginina em Proteínas/metabolismo , Animais , Cálcio/química , Cálcio/metabolismo , Morte Celular , Citrulina/metabolismo , Inibidores Enzimáticos/química , Inibidores Enzimáticos/metabolismo , Humanos , Isoenzimas/antagonistas & inibidores , Isoenzimas/química , Isoenzimas/metabolismo , Desiminases de Arginina em Proteínas/antagonistas & inibidores , Desiminases de Arginina em Proteínas/genética , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
17.
J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem ; 34(1): 1172-1177, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31218888

RESUMO

A series of novel 8-substituted-N-(4-sulfamoylphenyl)quinoline-2-carboxamides was synthesised by the reaction of 8-hydroxy-N-(4-sulfamoylphenyl) quinoline-2-carboxamide with alkyl and benzyl halides. The compounds were assayed for carbonic anhydrase (CA) inhibitory activity against four hCA isoforms, hCA I, hCA II, hCA IV, and hCA IX. Barring hCA IX, all the isoforms were inhibited from low to high nanomolar range. hCA I was inhibited in the range of 61.9-8126 nM, with compound 5h having an inhibition constant of KI = 61.9 nM. hCA II was inhibited in the range of 33.0-8759 nM, with compound 5h having an inhibition constant of 33.0 nM and compounds 5a and 5b having inhibition constants of 88.4 and 85.7 nM, respectively. hCA IV was inhibited in the range of 657.2-6757 nM. Hence, compound 5h, possessing low nanomolar hCA I and II inhibition, can be selected as a lead for the design of novel CA I and II inhibitors.


Assuntos
Inibidores da Anidrase Carbônica/farmacologia , Anidrases Carbônicas/metabolismo , Inibidores da Anidrase Carbônica/síntese química , Inibidores da Anidrase Carbônica/química , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Humanos , Isoenzimas/antagonistas & inibidores , Isoenzimas/metabolismo , Estrutura Molecular , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
18.
J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem ; 34(1): 1164-1171, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31219348

RESUMO

Chagas disease and leishmaniasis are neglected tropical disorders caused by the protozoans Trypanosoma cruzi and Leishmania spp. Carbonic anhydrases (CAs, EC 4.2.1.1) from these protozoans (α-TcCA and ß-LdcCA) have been validated as promising targets for chemotherapic interventions. Many anti-protozoan agents, such as nitroimidazoles, nifurtimox, and benznidazole possess a nitro aromatic group in their structure which is crucial for their activity. As a continuation of our previous work on N-nitrosulfonamides as anti-protozoan agents, we investigated benzenesulfonamides bearing a nitro aromatic moiety against TcCA and LdcCA, observing selective inhibitions over human off-target CAs. Selected derivatives were assessed in vitro in different developmental stages of T. cruzi and Leishmania spp. A lack of significant growth inhibition has been found, which has been connected to the low permeability of this class of derivatives through cell membranes. Further strategies necessarily need to be designed for targeting Chagas disease and leishmaniasis with nitro-containing CA inhibitors.


Assuntos
Antiprotozoários/farmacologia , Inibidores da Anidrase Carbônica/farmacologia , Anidrases Carbônicas/metabolismo , Leishmania donovani/efeitos dos fármacos , Trypanosoma cruzi/efeitos dos fármacos , Antiprotozoários/síntese química , Antiprotozoários/química , Inibidores da Anidrase Carbônica/síntese química , Inibidores da Anidrase Carbônica/química , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Humanos , Isoenzimas/antagonistas & inibidores , Isoenzimas/metabolismo , Leishmania donovani/enzimologia , Estrutura Molecular , Testes de Sensibilidade Parasitária , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Trypanosoma cruzi/enzimologia
19.
J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem ; 34(1): 1193-1198, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31237157

RESUMO

A series of histamine bis-Schiff bases and bis-spinaceamine derivatives were synthesised and investigated as activators of four human (h) carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC 4.2.1.1) isoforms, the cytosolic hCA I, II and VII, and the membrane-associated hCA IV. All isoforms were effectively activated by the new derivatives, with activation constants in the range of 4.73-10.2 µM for hCA I, 6.15-42.1 µM for hCA II, 2.37-32.7 µM for hCA IV and 32 nM-18.7 µM for hCA VII, respectively. The nature of the spacer between the two histamine/spinaceamine units of these molecules was the main contributor to the diverse activating efficacy, with a very different fine tuning for the diverse isoforms. As CA activators recently emerged as interesting agents for enhancing cognition, in the management of CA deficiencies, or for therapy memory and artificial tissues engineering, our compounds may be considered as candidates for such applications.


Assuntos
Aminas/metabolismo , Inibidores da Anidrase Carbônica/farmacologia , Histamina/metabolismo , Isoenzimas/antagonistas & inibidores , Bases de Schiff/metabolismo , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética Nuclear de Carbono-13 , Humanos , Espectroscopia de Prótons por Ressonância Magnética , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier
20.
J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem ; 34(1): 1199-1209, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31237458

RESUMO

The synthesis of a novel series of 3-functionalised benzenesulfonamides incorporating phenyl-1,2,3-triazole with an amide linker was achieved by using the "click-tail" approach. The new compounds, including the intermediates, were assayed as inhibitors of human carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC 4.2.1.1) isoforms hCA I and II (cytosolic isoforms) and also for hCA IV and IX (transmembrane isoforms) taking acetazolamide as standard drug. Most of these compounds exhibited excellent activity against all these isoforms. hCA I was inhibited with Kis in the range of 50.8-966.8 nM, while the glaucoma associated hCA II was inhibited with Kis in the range of 6.5-760.0 nM. Isoform hCA IV was inhibited with Kis in the range of 65.3-957.5 nM, whereas the tumor associated hypoxia induced hCA IX was inhibited with Kis in the range of 30.8-815.9 nM. The structure activity relationship study for the 3-functionalised-1-phenyl-1,2,3-triazole sulfamoylbenzamides against these isoforms was also inferred from the results.


Assuntos
Inibidores da Anidrase Carbônica/síntese química , Isoenzimas/antagonistas & inibidores , Sulfonamidas/farmacologia , Triazóis/química , Triazóis/farmacologia , Inibidores da Anidrase Carbônica/química , Humanos , Isoenzimas/química , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Sulfonamidas/química
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