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1.
Mol Cell ; 81(2): 398-407.e4, 2021 01 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33340489

RESUMO

Mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) controls cell growth and proliferation by sensing fluctuations in environmental cues such as nutrients, growth factors, and energy levels. The Rag GTPases (Rags) serve as a critical module that signals amino acid (AA) availability to modulate mTORC1 localization and activity. Recent studies have demonstrated how AAs regulate mTORC1 activity through Rags. Here, we uncover an unconventional pathway that activates mTORC1 in response to variations in threonine (Thr) levels via mitochondrial threonyl-tRNA synthetase TARS2. TARS2 interacts with inactive Rags, particularly GTP-RagC, leading to increased GTP loading of RagA. mTORC1 activity in cells lacking TARS2 is resistant to Thr repletion, showing that TARS2 is necessary for Thr-dependent mTORC1 activation. The requirement of TARS2, but not cytoplasmic threonyl-tRNA synthetase TARS, for this effect demonstrates an additional layer of complexity in the regulation of mTORC1 activity.


Assuntos
Alvo Mecanístico do Complexo 1 de Rapamicina/genética , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Proteínas Monoméricas de Ligação ao GTP/genética , Treonina-tRNA Ligase/genética , Treonina/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Guanosina Difosfato/metabolismo , Guanosina Trifosfato/metabolismo , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Isoenzimas/antagonistas & inibidores , Isoenzimas/genética , Isoenzimas/metabolismo , Lisossomos/metabolismo , Alvo Mecanístico do Complexo 1 de Rapamicina/metabolismo , Proteínas Monoméricas de Ligação ao GTP/metabolismo , Ligação Proteica , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética , RNA Interferente Pequeno/metabolismo , Proteína Regulatória Associada a mTOR/genética , Proteína Regulatória Associada a mTOR/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Treonina-tRNA Ligase/antagonistas & inibidores , Treonina-tRNA Ligase/metabolismo
2.
J Med Chem ; 64(1): 527-542, 2021 01 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33371679

RESUMO

We report the synthesis and evaluation of a series of cell-permeable and N- versus O-selective sialyltransferase inhibitors. Inhibitor design entailed the functionalization of lithocholic acid at C(3) and at the cyclopentane ring side chain. Among the series, FCW34 and FCW66 were shown to inhibit MDA-MB-231 cell migration as effectively as ST3GALIII-gene knockdown did. FCW34 was shown to inhibit tumor growth, reduce angiogenesis, and delay cancer cell metastasis in animal models. Furthermore, FCW34 inhibited vessel development and suppressed angiogenic activity in transgenic zebrafish models. Our results provide clear evidence that FCW34-induced sialyltransferase inhibition reduces cancer cell metastasis by decreasing N-glycan sialylation, thus altering the regulation of talin/integrin/FAK/paxillin and integrin/NFκB signaling pathways.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Isoenzimas/antagonistas & inibidores , Metástase Neoplásica/prevenção & controle , Sialiltransferases/antagonistas & inibidores , Animais , Animais Geneticamente Modificados , Catálise , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Feminino , Proteína-Tirosina Quinases de Adesão Focal/metabolismo , Glicoproteínas/metabolismo , Humanos , Integrinas/metabolismo , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Paxilina/metabolismo , Fosforilação , Sialiltransferases/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Talina/metabolismo , Peixe-Zebra
3.
Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol ; 319(1): H144-H158, 2020 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32442021

RESUMO

Pyridine nucleotides, such as NADPH and NADH, are emerging as critical players in the regulation of heart and vascular function. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), the rate-limiting enzyme in the pentose phosphate pathway, is the primary source and regulator of cellular NADPH. In the current study, we have identified two isoforms of G6PD (slow and fast migrating) and functionally characterized the slow migrating isoform of G6PD (G6PD545) in bovine and human arteries. We found that G6PD545 is eluted in the caveolae fraction of vascular smooth muscle (VSM) and has a higher maximum rate of reaction (Vmax: 1.65-fold) than its fast migrating isoform (G6PD515). Interestingly, caveolae G6PD forms a complex with the pore-forming α1C-subunit of the L-type Ca2+ channel, Cav1.2, as demonstrated by a proximity ligation assay in fixed VSMCs. Additionally, Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) analysis of HEK293-17T cells cotransfected with red fluorescent protein (RFP)-tagged G6PD545 (C-G6PD545) and green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged Cav1.2-(Cav1.2-GFP) demonstrated strong FRET signals as compared with cells cotransfected with Cav1.2-GFP and C-G6PD515. Furthermore, L-type Ca2+ channel conductance was larger and the voltage-independent component of availability (c1) was augmented in C-G6PD545 and Cav1.2-GFP cotransfectants compared with those expressing Cav1.2-GFP alone. Surprisingly, epiandrosterone, a G6PD inhibitor, disrupted the G6PD-Cav1.2 complex, also decreasing the amplitude of L-type Ca2+ currents and window currents, thereby reducing the availability of the c1 component. Moreover, overexpression of adeno-G6PD545-GFP augmented the KCl-induced contraction in coronary arteries compared with control. To determine whether overexpression of G6PD had any clinical implication, we investigated its activity in arteries from patients and rats with metabolic syndrome and found that G6PD activity was high in this disease condition. Interestingly, epiandrosterone treatment reduced elevated mean arterial blood pressure and peripheral vascular resistance in metabolic syndrome rats, suggesting that the increased activity of G6PD augmented vascular contraction and blood pressure in the metabolic syndrome. These data suggest that the novel G6PD-Cav1.2 interaction, in the caveolae fraction, reduces intrinsic voltage-dependent inactivation of the channel and contributes to regulate VSM L-type Ca2+ channel function and Ca2+ signaling, thereby playing a significant role in modulating vascular function in physiological/pathophysiological conditions.NEW & NOTEWORTHY In this study we have identified a novel isozyme of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), a metabolic enzyme, that interacts with and contributes to regulate smooth muscle cell l-type Ca2+ ion channel function, which plays a crucial role in vascular function in physiology and pathophysiology. Furthermore, we demonstrate that expression and activity of this novel G6PD isoform are increased in arteries of individuals with metabolic syndrome and in inhibition of G6PD activity in rats of metabolic syndrome reduced blood pressure.


Assuntos
Artérias/metabolismo , Canais de Cálcio Tipo L/metabolismo , Glucosefosfato Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Potenciais de Ação , Androsterona/farmacologia , Animais , Artérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Artérias/fisiologia , Pressão Sanguínea , Bovinos , Cavéolas/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Glucosefosfato Desidrogenase/antagonistas & inibidores , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Isoenzimas/antagonistas & inibidores , Isoenzimas/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Músculo Liso Vascular/metabolismo , Músculo Liso Vascular/fisiologia , Ligação Proteica , Transporte Proteico , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Vasoconstrição
4.
J Med Chem ; 63(11): 5956-5971, 2020 06 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32383881

RESUMO

AR-42 is an orally active inhibitor of histone deacetylases (HDACs) in clinical trials for multiple myeloma, leukemia, and lymphoma. It has few hydrogen bond donors and acceptors but is a chiral 2-arylbutyrate and potentially prone to racemization. We report achiral AR-42 analogues incorporating a cycloalkyl group linked via a quaternary carbon atom, with up to 40-fold increased potency against human class I HDACs (e.g., JT86, IC50 0.7 nM, HDAC1), 25-fold increased cytotoxicity against five human cancer cell lines, and up to 70-fold less toxicity in normal human cells. JT86 was ninefold more potent than racAR-42 in promoting accumulation of acetylated histone H4 in MM96L melanoma cells. Molecular modeling and structure-activity relationships support binding to HDAC1 with tetrahydropyran acting as a hydrophobic shield from water at the enzyme surface. Such potent inhibitors of class I HDACs may show benefits in diseases (cancers, parasitic infections, inflammatory conditions) where AR-42 is active.


Assuntos
Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores de Histona Desacetilases/farmacologia , Histona Desacetilases/metabolismo , Ácidos Hidroxâmicos/química , Sítios de Ligação , Domínio Catalítico , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Desenho de Fármacos , Inibidores de Histona Desacetilases/química , Inibidores de Histona Desacetilases/metabolismo , Histona Desacetilases/química , Humanos , Ácidos Hidroxâmicos/metabolismo , Ácidos Hidroxâmicos/farmacologia , Isoenzimas/antagonistas & inibidores , Isoenzimas/metabolismo , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Fenilbutiratos , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
5.
J Med Chem ; 63(11): 5865-5878, 2020 06 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32390424

RESUMO

Despite the availability of more than 25 antiseizure drugs on the market, approximately 30% of patients with epilepsy still suffer from seizures. Thus, the epilepsy therapy market has a great need for a breakthrough drug that will aid pharmacoresistant patients. In our previous study, we discovered a vitamin K analogue, 2h, which displayed modest antiseizure activity in zebrafish and mouse seizure models. However, there are limitations to this compound due to its pharmacokinetic profile. In this study, we develop a new series of vitamin K analogues by modifying the structure of 2h. Among these, compound 3d shows full protection in a rodent pharmacoresistant seizure model with limited rotarod motor toxicity and favorable pharmacokinetic properties. Furthermore, the brain/plasma concentration ratio of 3d indicates its excellent permeability into the brain. The resulting data shows that 3d can be further developed as a potential antiseizure drug in the clinic.


Assuntos
Anticonvulsivantes/uso terapêutico , Convulsões/tratamento farmacológico , Vitamina K/análogos & derivados , Administração Oral , Animais , Anticonvulsivantes/química , Anticonvulsivantes/farmacocinética , Anticonvulsivantes/farmacologia , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/química , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Meia-Vida , Humanos , Isoenzimas/antagonistas & inibidores , Isoenzimas/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Convulsões/patologia , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Vitamina K/farmacocinética , Vitamina K/farmacologia , Vitamina K/uso terapêutico , Peixe-Zebra
6.
J Med Chem ; 63(11): 6225-6237, 2020 06 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32379447

RESUMO

Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are involved in a spectrum of physiological processes, rendering them attractive targets for small-molecule drug discovery. Strategies to achieve selective inhibition continue to be intensively pursued, facilitated by advances in structural biology. Herein, we harness MMPs 2, 8, 9, and 13 to validate the vicinal difluoro motif as a hybrid bioisostere of CF3 and Et (BITE) in a series of modified barbiturate inhibitors. Crystallographic analyses of representative structures reveal conformations of the vicinal difluoro motif that manifest stabilizing hyperconjugative interactions consistent with the stereoelectronic gauche effect. Detailed docking studies of a potent difluorinated probe with MMP-9 are also disclosed and indicate that the structural basis of inhibition is a consequence of the anisotropic nature of the motif. Significant selectivity of MMP 13 versus MMP-2 can be achieved by subtle chain contraction in a BITE-modified inhibitor.


Assuntos
Flúor/química , Inibidores de Metaloproteinases de Matriz/química , Metaloproteinases da Matriz/metabolismo , Barbitúricos/química , Barbitúricos/metabolismo , Sítios de Ligação , Domínio Catalítico , Cristalografia por Raios X , Isoenzimas/antagonistas & inibidores , Isoenzimas/metabolismo , Inibidores de Metaloproteinases de Matriz/metabolismo , Metaloproteinases da Matriz/química , Conformação Molecular , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
7.
J Med Chem ; 63(9): 4528-4554, 2020 05 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32302123

RESUMO

Inhibition of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), an enzyme implicated in neurodegenerative disorders, is an attractive strategy for treating or preventing these diseases. We previously developed several classes of 2-aminoquinoline-based nNOS inhibitors, but these compounds had drawbacks including off-target promiscuity, low activity against human nNOS, and only modest selectivity for nNOS over related enzymes. In this study, we synthesized new nNOS inhibitors based on 7-phenyl-2-aminoquinoline and assayed them against rat and human nNOS, human eNOS, and murine and (in some cases) human iNOS. Compounds with a meta-relationship between the aminoquinoline and a positively charged tail moiety were potent and had up to nearly 900-fold selectivity for human nNOS over human eNOS. X-ray crystallography indicates that the amino groups of some compounds occupy a water-filled pocket surrounding an nNOS-specific aspartate residue (absent in eNOS). This interaction was confirmed by mutagenesis studies, making 7-phenyl-2-aminoquinolines the first aminoquinolines to interact with this residue.


Assuntos
Aminoquinolinas/farmacologia , Ácido Aspártico/química , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo I/antagonistas & inibidores , Aminoquinolinas/síntese química , Aminoquinolinas/metabolismo , Aminoquinolinas/farmacocinética , Animais , Barreira Hematoencefálica/metabolismo , Domínio Catalítico , Cristalografia por Raios X , Ensaios Enzimáticos , Inibidores Enzimáticos/síntese química , Inibidores Enzimáticos/metabolismo , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacocinética , Humanos , Isoenzimas/antagonistas & inibidores , Isoenzimas/química , Isoenzimas/genética , Isoenzimas/metabolismo , Microssomos Hepáticos/metabolismo , Estrutura Molecular , Mutagênese Sítio-Dirigida , Mutação , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo I/química , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo I/genética , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo I/metabolismo , Permeabilidade , Ligação Proteica , Ratos , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
8.
Nat Cell Biol ; 22(4): 389-400, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32231305

RESUMO

In mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs), chemical blockade of Gsk3α/ß and Mek1/2 (2i) instructs a self-renewing ground state whose endogenous inducers are unknown. Here we show that the axon guidance cue Netrin-1 promotes naive pluripotency by triggering profound signalling, transcriptomic and epigenetic changes in mESCs. Furthermore, we demonstrate that Netrin-1 can substitute for blockade of Gsk3α/ß and Mek1/2 to sustain self-renewal of mESCs in combination with leukaemia inhibitory factor and regulates the formation of the mouse pluripotent blastocyst. Mechanistically, we reveal how Netrin-1 and the balance of its receptors Neo1 and Unc5B co-regulate Wnt and MAPK pathways in both mouse and human ESCs. Netrin-1 induces Fak kinase to inactivate Gsk3α/ß and stabilize ß-catenin while increasing the phosphatase activity of a Ppp2r2c-containing Pp2a complex to reduce Erk1/2 activity. Collectively, this work identifies Netrin-1 as a regulator of pluripotency and reveals that it mediates different effects in mESCs depending on its receptor dosage, opening perspectives for balancing self-renewal and lineage commitment.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Receptores de Netrina/genética , Netrina-1/genética , Receptores de Superfície Celular/genética , Via de Sinalização Wnt/genética , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Embrião de Mamíferos , MAP Quinases Reguladas por Sinal Extracelular/genética , MAP Quinases Reguladas por Sinal Extracelular/metabolismo , Quinase 1 de Adesão Focal/genética , Quinase 1 de Adesão Focal/metabolismo , Glicogênio Sintase Quinase 3 beta/antagonistas & inibidores , Glicogênio Sintase Quinase 3 beta/genética , Glicogênio Sintase Quinase 3 beta/metabolismo , Humanos , Isoenzimas/antagonistas & inibidores , Isoenzimas/genética , Isoenzimas/metabolismo , Fator Inibidor de Leucemia/genética , Fator Inibidor de Leucemia/metabolismo , MAP Quinase Quinase 1/antagonistas & inibidores , MAP Quinase Quinase 1/genética , MAP Quinase Quinase 1/metabolismo , MAP Quinase Quinase 2/antagonistas & inibidores , MAP Quinase Quinase 2/genética , MAP Quinase Quinase 2/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Camundongos SCID , Células-Tronco Embrionárias Murinas/citologia , Células-Tronco Embrionárias Murinas/metabolismo , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , Receptores de Netrina/metabolismo , Netrina-1/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes/citologia , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes/metabolismo , Proteína Fosfatase 2/genética , Proteína Fosfatase 2/metabolismo , Receptores de Superfície Celular/metabolismo , beta Catenina/genética , beta Catenina/metabolismo
9.
Eur J Med Chem ; 193: 112219, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32203788

RESUMO

Two new series of 1,3,4-oxadiazole benzenesulfonamide hybrids 3 and 4, having twenty novel compounds, have been designed and synthesized in order to assess their inhibition potential as CAIs against hCA I, II, IX, and XII. 'Tail approach' strategy has been used to design the aromatic sulfonamide scaffolds with carbonyl and amide linker. Excellent inhibitory activity against hCA I has been exhibited by compounds 3g and 4j, 3.5 magnitude of order better than reference drug AAZ (KI = 250 nM). Moreover, compound 4j (KI = 7.9 nM) effectively inhibited glaucoma-associated hCA II isoform as well as tumor-associated hCA IX isoform with KI = 16.3 nM. Further hCA XII was weakly inhibited by all the compounds with KI values ranging from 0.23 µM to 3.62 µM. Interestingly structure-activity relationship (SAR) study indicates that N-(3-nitrophenyl)-2-((5-(4-sulfamoylphenyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-yl)thio)acetamide (4j) is a potent compound to be investigated further for antiglaucoma and antitumor activity. The chemistry of the nature of different substitutions on the 1,3,4-oxadiazole bearing benzenesulfonamide substituted aromatic ring for potency and selectivity over one hCA isoform versus others is deliberated in the present study. In this context, the 1,3,4-oxadiazole motif can be a valuable tool worth developing for the procurement of novel and potent selective CAIs potentially useful for the management of a variety of diseases as chemotherapeutic agents.


Assuntos
Inibidores da Anidrase Carbônica/farmacologia , Anidrases Carbônicas/metabolismo , Oxidiazóis/farmacologia , Sulfonamidas/farmacologia , Inibidores da Anidrase Carbônica/síntese química , Inibidores da Anidrase Carbônica/química , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Humanos , Isoenzimas/antagonistas & inibidores , Isoenzimas/metabolismo , Estrutura Molecular , Oxidiazóis/química , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Sulfonamidas/síntese química , Sulfonamidas/química
10.
Eur J Med Chem ; 192: 112157, 2020 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32145643

RESUMO

The l-cysteine is crucial for growth, survival, defense against oxidative stress, and pathogenesis of Entamoeba histolytica. The de novo biosynthesis of l-cysteine in E. histolytica, has a two-step pathway, where O-acetylserine sulfhydrylase (OASS) catalyses the last step by converting OAS to l-cysteine. This pathway is absent in humans and hence represents a promising target for novel therapeutics. E. histolytica expresses three isoforms of OASS and knockdown studies showed the importance of these enzymes for the survival of the pathogen. Here, we report the crystal structure of OASS isoform 3 from E. histolytica to 1.54 Å resolution. The active site geometries and kinetics of EhOASS3 and EhOASS1 structures were found to be very similar. Small-molecule libraries were screened against EhOASS3 and compounds were shortlisted based on the docking scores. F3226-1387 showed best inhibition with IC50 of 38 µM against EhOASS3 and was able to inhibit the growth of the organism to 72%.


Assuntos
Cisteína Sintase/antagonistas & inibidores , Entamoeba histolytica/citologia , Entamoeba histolytica/enzimologia , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Cristalografia por Raios X , Cisteína Sintase/química , Cisteína Sintase/metabolismo , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Entamoeba histolytica/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Inibidores Enzimáticos/química , Isoenzimas/antagonistas & inibidores , Isoenzimas/química , Isoenzimas/metabolismo , Modelos Moleculares , Estrutura Molecular , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
11.
Mutat Res ; 819-820: 111690, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32120136

RESUMO

The serine/threonine kinase AKT, also known as protein kinase B (PKB), is the major substrate to phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) and consists of three paralogs: AKT1 (PKBα), AKT2 (PKBß) and AKT3 (PKBγ). The PI3K/AKT pathway is normally activated by binding of ligands to membrane-bound receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) as well as downstream to G-protein coupled receptors and integrin-linked kinase. Through multiple downstream substrates, activated AKT controls a wide variety of cellular functions including cell proliferation, survival, metabolism, and angiogenesis in both normal and malignant cells. In human cancers, the PI3K/AKT pathway is most frequently hyperactivated due to mutations and/or overexpression of upstream components. Aberrant expression of RTKs, gain of function mutations in PIK3CA, RAS, PDPK1, and AKT itself, as well as loss of function mutation in AKT phosphatases are genetic lesions that confer hyperactivation of AKT. Activated AKT stimulates DNA repair, e.g. double strand break repair after radiotherapy. Likewise, AKT attenuates chemotherapy-induced apoptosis. These observations suggest that a crucial link exists between AKT and DNA damage. Thus, AKT could be a major predictive marker of conventional cancer therapy, molecularly targeted therapy, and immunotherapy for solid tumors. In this review, we summarize the current understanding by which activated AKT mediates resistance to cancer treatment modalities, i.e. radiotherapy, chemotherapy, and RTK targeted therapy. Next, the effect of AKT on response of tumor cells to RTK targeted strategies will be discussed. Finally, we will provide a brief summary on the clinical trials of AKT inhibitors in combination with radiochemotherapy, RTK targeted therapy, and immunotherapy.


Assuntos
DNA de Neoplasias/genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Terapia de Alvo Molecular/métodos , Neoplasias/terapia , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/genética , Proteínas Quinases Dependentes de 3-Fosfoinositídeo/genética , Proteínas Quinases Dependentes de 3-Fosfoinositídeo/metabolismo , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Dano ao DNA , Reparo do DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , DNA de Neoplasias/metabolismo , Raios gama/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Isoenzimas/antagonistas & inibidores , Isoenzimas/genética , Isoenzimas/metabolismo , Neoplasias/enzimologia , Neoplasias/genética , Neoplasias/patologia , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/genética , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Resultado do Tratamento , Proteínas ras/genética , Proteínas ras/metabolismo
12.
J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem ; 35(1): 733-743, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32189526

RESUMO

We evaluated the hCA (CA, EC 4.2.1.1) inhibitory activity of novel 4-(2-(2-substituted-thio-4-oxoquinazolin-3(4H)-yl)ethyl)benzenesulfonamides (compounds 2-20) towards the isoforms I, II, IX, and XII. hCA Isoforms were effectively inhibited by most of new compounds comparable to those of AAZ. Compounds 2 and 4 showed interestingly efficient and selective antitumor (hCA IX and hCA XII) inhibitor activities (KIs; 40.7, 13.0, and 8.0, 10.8 nM, respectively). Compounds 4 and 5 showed selective hCA IX inhibitory activity over hCA I (SI; 95 and 24), hCA IX/hCA II (SI; 23 and 5.8) and selective hCA XII inhibitory activity over hCA I (SI; 70 and 44), hCA XII/hCA II, (SI; 17 and 10) respectively compared to AAZ. Compounds 12-17, and 19-20 showed selective inhibitory activity towards hCA IX over hCA I and hCA II, with selectivity ranges of 27-195 and 3.2-19, respectively, while compounds 12, 14-17, and 19 exhibited selective inhibition towards hCA XII over hCA I and hCA II, with selectivity ratios of 48-158 and 5.4-31 respectively, compared to AAZ. Molecular docking analysis was carried out to investigate the selective interactions among the most active derivatives, 17 and 20 and hCAs isoenzymes. Compounds 17 and 20, which are highly selective CA IX and XII inhibitors, exhibited excellent interaction within the putative binding site of both enzymes, comparable to the co-crystallized inhibitors.HighlightsQuinazoline-linked ethylbenzenesulfonamides inhibiting CA were synthesised.The new molecules potently inhibited the hCA isoforms I, II, IV, and IX.Compounds 4 and 5 were found to be selective hCA IX/hCA I and hCA IX/hCA II inhibitors.Compounds 4 and 5 were found to be selective hCA XII/hCA I and hCA XII/hCA II inhibitors.Compounds 12-17, 19, and 20 were found to be selective hCA IX/hCA I and hCA IX/hCA II inhibitors.Compounds 12, 14-17, 19 were found to be selective hCA XII/hCA I and hCA XII/hCA II inhibitors.Compounds 4 and 5 are selective hCA IX and XII inhibitors over hCA I (selectivity ratios of 95, 23, and 24, 5.8, respectively) and hCA II (selectivity ratios of 70, 17, and 44, 10 respectively). Compounds 12-17, and 19-20 are selective hCA IX inhibitors over hCA I (selectivity ratios of 27-195) and hCA II (selectivity ratios of 3.2-19). Compounds 12, 14-17 and 19 are also selective hCA XII inhibitors over hCA I (selectivity ratios of 48-158) and hCA II (selectivity ratios of 5.4-31).


Assuntos
Anidrase Carbônica IX/antagonistas & inibidores , Inibidores da Anidrase Carbônica/farmacologia , Anidrases Carbônicas/metabolismo , Quinazolinonas/farmacologia , Sulfonamidas/farmacologia , Antígenos de Neoplasias/metabolismo , Anidrase Carbônica IX/metabolismo , Inibidores da Anidrase Carbônica/síntese química , Inibidores da Anidrase Carbônica/química , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Humanos , Isoenzimas/antagonistas & inibidores , Isoenzimas/metabolismo , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Estrutura Molecular , Quinazolinonas/química , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Sulfonamidas/química
13.
Eur J Med Chem ; 192: 112158, 2020 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32171161

RESUMO

Microtubule-targeting agents (MTA) have enjoyed significant clinical success for decades. However, several mechanisms may cause inactivation of such drugs, leading to acquired resistance in patients treated with them. Therefore, drugs containing a stilbene-like skeleton and possessing dual inhibitory activity may provide a new and differentiated treatment for patients to overcome challenging acquired resistance. A new compound (16c) displays promising anticancer activity with GI50 of 22 ± 2 and 12 ± 0.1 nM in vincristine-resistant nasopharyngeal (KB-Vin) cancer cells and etoposide-resistant nasopharyngeal (KB-7D) cancer cells and is better than vincristine, etoposide, ABT-751, and MS-275. A mechanistic study revealed that 16c interferes with the cell cycle distribution and induces cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase and severe mitotic spindle defects followed by apoptosis. In addition, it produces much more significant cytotoxicity than vincristine and etoposide in the corresponding resistant cells, indicating that it may be a promising candidate to overcome drug resistance in cancer cells. Compound 16c also displays inhibitory activity against HDAC 1 and HDAC 2 with IC50 values of 1.07 µM, and 1.47 µM, respectively. These findings may lead to a new type of structural motif for future development of drugs that could overcome acquired resistance to MTAs.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Benzamidas/farmacologia , Desenho de Fármacos , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores de Histona Desacetilases/farmacologia , Histona Desacetilases/metabolismo , Microtúbulos/efeitos dos fármacos , Antineoplásicos/síntese química , Antineoplásicos/química , Benzamidas/síntese química , Benzamidas/química , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Inibidores de Histona Desacetilases/síntese química , Inibidores de Histona Desacetilases/química , Humanos , Isoenzimas/antagonistas & inibidores , Isoenzimas/metabolismo , Estrutura Molecular , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Vincristina/farmacologia
14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(4)2020 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32074957

RESUMO

Doxorubicin (DOX) is an effective chemotherapeutic agent used to treat a wide variety of malignancies. In addition to its multi-organ toxicity, DOX treatment has been shown to induce systemic inflammation in patients and experimental animals. Inflammation alters the expression of hepatic cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes, which play important roles in drug metabolism and DOX-induced toxicity. Significant sex differences have been reported in DOX-induced toxicity; however, sex differences in DOX-induced systemic inflammation and the potential effects on hepatic CYP expression have not been determined. In the current work, male and female C57Bl/6 mice were administered DOX (20 mg/kg by intraperitoneal injection), and groups of mice were sacrificed 24 and 72 h after DOX administration. DOX elicited a systemic inflammatory response in both male and female mice, but the inflammatory response was stronger in male mice. DOX altered the expression of hepatic CYP isoforms in a sex-dependent manner. Most notably, inhibition of Cyp2c29 and Cyp2e1 was stronger in male than in female mice, which paralleled the sex differences in systemic inflammation. Therefore, sex differences in DOX-induced systemic inflammation may lead to sexually dimorphic drug interactions, in addition to contributing to the previously reported sexual dimorphism in specific DOX-induced organ toxicity.


Assuntos
Antibióticos Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/metabolismo , Doxorrubicina/farmacologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/enzimologia , Animais , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/química , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/genética , Feminino , Inflamação/induzido quimicamente , Inflamação/metabolismo , Inflamação/patologia , Injeções Intraperitoneais , Interleucina-6/sangue , Isoenzimas/antagonistas & inibidores , Isoenzimas/genética , Isoenzimas/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Caracteres Sexuais , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/sangue
15.
J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem ; 35(1): 650-656, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32079427

RESUMO

A series of 3H-1,2-benzoxathiepine 2,2-dioxides incorporating 7-acylamino moieties were obtained by an original procedure starting from 5-nitrosalicylaldehyde, which was treated with propenylsulfonyl chloride followed by Wittig reaction of the bis-olefin intermediate. The new derivatives, belonging to the homosulfocoumarin chemotype, were assayed as inhibitors of the zinc metalloenzyme carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC 4.2.1.1). Four pharmacologically relevant human (h) isoforms were investigated, the cytosolic hCA I and II and the transmembrane, tumour-associated hCA IX and XII. No relevant inhibition of hCA I and II was observed, whereas some of the new derivatives were effective, low nanomolar hCA IX/XII inhibitors, making them of interest for investigations in situations in which the activity of these isoforms is overexpressed, such as hypoxic tumours, arthritis or cerebral ischaemia.


Assuntos
Anidrase Carbônica IX/antagonistas & inibidores , Inibidores da Anidrase Carbônica/farmacologia , Anidrases Carbônicas/metabolismo , Tiepinas/farmacologia , Antígenos de Neoplasias/metabolismo , Anidrase Carbônica IX/metabolismo , Inibidores da Anidrase Carbônica/síntese química , Inibidores da Anidrase Carbônica/química , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Humanos , Isoenzimas/antagonistas & inibidores , Isoenzimas/metabolismo , Estrutura Molecular , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Tiepinas/síntese química , Tiepinas/química
16.
J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem ; 35(1): 622-628, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32037900

RESUMO

A series of bio-organometallic-hydrazones of the general formula [{(η5-C5H4)-C(R)=N-N(H)-C6H4-4-SO2NH2}]MLn(MLn = Re(CO)3, Mn(CO)3, FeCp; R=H, CH3) were prepared by reaction of formyl/acetyl organometallic precursors with 4-hydrazino-benzenesulphonamide. All compounds were characterized by conventional spectroscopic techniques (infra-red, 1H and 13C NMR, mass spectrometry and elemental analysis). Biological evaluation as carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC 4.2.1.1) inhibitors agents was carried out using four human/h) isoforms, hCA I, II, IX and XII. The cytosolic isoforms hCA I and II were effectively inhibited by almost all derivatives with inhibition constants of 1.7-22.4 nM. Similar effects were observed for the tumour-associated transmembrane isoform hCA XII (KIs of 1.9-24.4 nM). hCA IX was less sensitive to inhibition with these compounds. The presence of bio-organometallic or metallo-carbonyl moieties in the molecules of these CAIs makes them amenable for interesting pharmacologic applications, for example for compounds with CO donating properties.


Assuntos
Inibidores da Anidrase Carbônica/farmacologia , Anidrases Carbônicas/metabolismo , Hidrazinas/farmacologia , Compostos Organometálicos/farmacologia , Sulfonamidas/farmacologia , Dióxido de Carbono/antagonistas & inibidores , Dióxido de Carbono/química , Dióxido de Carbono/metabolismo , Inibidores da Anidrase Carbônica/síntese química , Inibidores da Anidrase Carbônica/química , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Humanos , Hidrazinas/química , Isoenzimas/antagonistas & inibidores , Isoenzimas/metabolismo , Estrutura Molecular , Compostos Organometálicos/síntese química , Compostos Organometálicos/química , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Sulfonamidas/química
17.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 2585, 2020 02 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32066817

RESUMO

Polypharmacology plays an important role in defining response and adverse effects of drugs. For some mechanisms, experimentally mapping polypharmacology is commonplace, although this is typically done within the same protein class. Four PARP inhibitors have been approved by the FDA as cancer therapeutics, yet a precise mechanistic rationale to guide clinicians on which to choose for a particular patient is lacking. The four drugs have largely similar PARP family inhibition profiles, but several differences at the molecular and clinical level have been reported that remain poorly understood. Here, we report the first comprehensive characterization of the off-target kinase landscape of four FDA-approved PARP drugs. We demonstrate that all four PARP inhibitors have a unique polypharmacological profile across the kinome. Niraparib and rucaparib inhibit DYRK1s, CDK16 and PIM3 at clinically achievable, submicromolar concentrations. These kinases represent the most potently inhibited off-targets of PARP inhibitors identified to date and should be investigated further to clarify their potential implications for efficacy and safety in the clinic. Moreover, broad kinome profiling is recommended for the development of PARP inhibitors as PARP-kinase polypharmacology could potentially be exploited to modulate efficacy and side-effect profiles.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/química , Indazóis/química , Indóis/química , Ftalazinas/química , Piperazinas/química , Piperidinas/química , Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerase-1/antagonistas & inibidores , Inibidores de Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerases/química , Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Sítios de Ligação , Quinases Ciclina-Dependentes/antagonistas & inibidores , Quinases Ciclina-Dependentes/genética , Quinases Ciclina-Dependentes/metabolismo , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Indazóis/administração & dosagem , Indazóis/efeitos adversos , Indóis/administração & dosagem , Indóis/efeitos adversos , Isoenzimas/antagonistas & inibidores , Isoenzimas/genética , Isoenzimas/metabolismo , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/enzimologia , Neoplasias/patologia , Ftalazinas/administração & dosagem , Ftalazinas/efeitos adversos , Piperazinas/administração & dosagem , Piperazinas/efeitos adversos , Piperidinas/administração & dosagem , Piperidinas/efeitos adversos , Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerase-1/genética , Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerase-1/metabolismo , Inibidores de Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerases/administração & dosagem , Inibidores de Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerases/efeitos adversos , Polifarmacologia , Ligação Proteica , Domínios e Motivos de Interação entre Proteínas , Estrutura Secundária de Proteína , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/genética , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/metabolismo , Proteínas Tirosina Quinases/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Tirosina Quinases/genética , Proteínas Tirosina Quinases/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas/metabolismo , Especificidade por Substrato
18.
J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem ; 35(1): 598-609, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32009479

RESUMO

Inhibitory action of newly synthesised 4-(2-(2-substituted-thio-4-oxoquinazolin-3(4H)-yl)ethyl)benzenesulfonamides compounds 2-13 against human carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC 4.2.1.1) (hCA) isoforms I, II, IX, and XII, was evaluated. hCA I was efficiently inhibited by compounds 2-13 with inhibition constants (KIs) ranging from 57.8-740.2 nM. Compounds 2, 3, 4, and 12 showed inhibitory action against hCA II with KIs between 6.4 and 14.2 nM. CA IX exhibited significant sensitivity to inhibition by derivatives 2-13 with KI values ranging from 7.1 to 93.6 nM. Compounds 2, 3, 4, 8, 9, and 12 also exerted potent inhibitory action against hCA XII (KIs ranging from 3.1 to 20.2 nM). Molecular docking studies for the most potent compounds 2 and 3 were conducted to exhibit the binding mode towards hCA isoforms as a promising step for SAR analyses which showed similar interaction with co-crystallized ligands. As such, a subset of these mercaptoquinazolin-4(3H)-one compounds represented interesting leads for developing new efficient and selective carbonic anhydrase inhibitors (CAIs) for the management of a variety of diseases including glaucoma, epilepsy, arthritis and cancer.


Assuntos
Inibidores da Anidrase Carbônica/farmacologia , Anidrases Carbônicas/metabolismo , Quinazolinas/farmacologia , Inibidores da Anidrase Carbônica/síntese química , Inibidores da Anidrase Carbônica/química , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Humanos , Isoenzimas/antagonistas & inibidores , Isoenzimas/metabolismo , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Estrutura Molecular , Quinazolinas/síntese química , Quinazolinas/química , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
19.
J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem ; 35(1): 489-497, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31914827

RESUMO

A series of amino acid-sulphonamide conjugates was prepared through benzotriazole mediated coupling reactions and characterised by 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, MS, and FTIR spectroscopic techniques as well as elemental analysis. The carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC 4.2.1.1) inhibitory activity of the new compounds was determined against four human (h) isoforms, hCA I, hCA II, hCA VA, and hCA XII. Most of the synthesised compounds showed effective in vitro CA inhibitory properties. The new amino acid-sulphonamide conjugates showed potent inhibitory activity against hCA II, some of them at subnanomolar levels, exhibiting more effective inhibitory activity compared to the standard drug acetazolamide. Some of these sulphonamides were also found to be effective inhibitors of hCA I, hCA VA, and hCA XII, with activity from the low to high nanomolar range.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos/farmacologia , Inibidores da Anidrase Carbônica/farmacologia , Anidrases Carbônicas/metabolismo , Sulfonamidas/farmacologia , Aminoácidos/síntese química , Aminoácidos/química , Inibidores da Anidrase Carbônica/síntese química , Inibidores da Anidrase Carbônica/química , Humanos , Isoenzimas/antagonistas & inibidores , Isoenzimas/metabolismo , Estrutura Molecular , Sulfonamidas/síntese química , Sulfonamidas/química
20.
J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem ; 35(1): 506-510, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31928252

RESUMO

The hypothesis that sulfocoumarin acting as inhibitors of human carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC 4.2.1.1) cancer-associated isoforms hCA IX and - hCA XII is being able to also inhibit thioredoxin reductase was verified and confirmed. The dual targeting of two cancer cell defence mechanisms, i.e. hypoxia and oxidative stress, may both contribute to the observed antiproliferative profile of these compounds against many cancer cell lines. This unprecedented dual anticancer mechanism may lead to a new approach for designing innovative therapeutic agents.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Anidrase Carbônica IX/antagonistas & inibidores , Anidrases Carbônicas/metabolismo , Cumarínicos/farmacologia , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Tiorredoxina Dissulfeto Redutase/antagonistas & inibidores , Antígenos de Neoplasias/metabolismo , Antineoplásicos/síntese química , Antineoplásicos/química , Anidrase Carbônica IX/metabolismo , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Cumarínicos/síntese química , Cumarínicos/química , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Inibidores Enzimáticos/síntese química , Inibidores Enzimáticos/química , Humanos , Isoenzimas/antagonistas & inibidores , Isoenzimas/metabolismo , Células MCF-7 , Estrutura Molecular , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Tiorredoxina Dissulfeto Redutase/metabolismo , Células Tumorais Cultivadas
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